Supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations
Tian, K.; Liu, Q. P.
2010-03-08
This paper considers supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations. Within the framework of symmetry approach, we give a list containing six equations, which are (potentially) integrable systems. Among these equations, the most interesting ones include a supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation and a novel supersymmetric fifth order KdV equation. For the latter, we supply some properties such as a Hamiltonian structures and a possible recursion operator.
Logistic equation of arbitrary order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabowski, Franciszek
2010-08-01
The paper is concerned with the new logistic equation of arbitrary order which describes the performance of complex executive systems X vs. number of tasks N, operating at limited resources K, at non-extensive, heterogeneous self-organization processes characterized by parameter f. In contrast to the classical logistic equation which exclusively relates to the special case of sub-extensive homogeneous self-organization processes at f=1, the proposed model concerns both homogeneous and heterogeneous processes in sub-extensive and super-extensive areas. The parameter of arbitrary order f, where -∞
Discrete Fractional Diffusion Equation of Chaotic Order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guo-Cheng; Baleanu, Dumitru; Xie, He-Ping; Zeng, Sheng-Da
Discrete fractional calculus is suggested in diffusion modeling in porous media. A variable-order fractional diffusion equation is proposed on discrete time scales. A function of the variable order is constructed by a chaotic map. The model shows some new random behaviors in comparison with other variable-order cases.
First-order partial differential equations in classical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, B. R.
2009-12-01
Carathèodory's classic work on the calculus of variations explores in depth the connection between ordinary differential equations and first-order partial differential equations. The n second-order ordinary differential equations of a classical dynamical system reduce to a single first-order differential equation in 2n independent variables. The general solution of first-order partial differential equations touches on many concepts central to graduate-level courses in analytical dynamics including the Hamiltonian, Lagrange and Poisson brackets, and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. For all but the simplest dynamical systems the solution requires one or more of these techniques. Three elementary dynamical problems (uniform acceleration, harmonic motion, and cyclotron motion) can be solved directly from the appropriate first-order partial differential equation without the use of advanced methods. The process offers an unusual perspective on classical dynamics, which is readily accessible to intermediate students who are not yet fully conversant with advanced approaches.
From differential to difference equations for first order ODEs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Walker, Kevin P.
1991-01-01
When constructing an algorithm for the numerical integration of a differential equation, one should first convert the known ordinary differential equation (ODE) into an ordinary difference equation. Given this difference equation, one can develop an appropriate numerical algorithm. This technical note describes the derivation of two such ordinary difference equations applicable to a first order ODE. The implicit ordinary difference equation has the same asymptotic expansion as the ODE itself, whereas the explicit ordinary difference equation has an asymptotic that is similar in structure but different in value when compared with that of the ODE.
Numerical integration of second order differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shanks, E. B.
1971-01-01
Performance characteristics of higher order approximations of Runge-Kutta type are analyzed, and performance predictors for time required on machine and for error size are developed. Technique is useful in evaluating system performance, analyzing material characteristics, and designing inertial guidance and nuclear instrumentation and materials.
A New Factorisation of a General Second Order Differential Equation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clegg, Janet
2006-01-01
A factorisation of a general second order ordinary differential equation is introduced from which the full solution to the equation can be obtained by performing two integrations. The method is compared with traditional methods for solving these type of equations. It is shown how the Green's function can be derived directly from the factorisation…
High-order rogue waves for the Hirota equation
Li, Linjing; Wu, Zhiwei; Wang, Lihong; He, Jingsong
2013-07-15
The Hirota equation is better than the nonlinear Schrödinger equation when approximating deep ocean waves. In this paper, high-order rational solutions for the Hirota equation are constructed based on the parameterized Darboux transformation. Several types of this kind of solutions are classified by their structures. -- Highlights: •The determinant representation of the N-fold Darboux transformation of the Hirota equation. •Properties of the fundamental pattern of the higher order rogue wave. •Ring structure and triangular structure of the higher order rogue waves.
Drift kinetic equation exact through second order in gyroradius expansion
Simakov, Andrei N.; Catto, Peter J.
2005-01-01
The drift kinetic equation of Hazeltine [R. D. Hazeltine, Plasma Phys. 15, 77 (1973)] for a magnetized plasma of arbitrary collisionality is widely believed to be exact through the second order in the gyroradius expansion. It is demonstrated that this equation is only exact through the first order. The reason is that when evaluating the second-order gyrophase dependent distribution function, Hazeltine neglected contributions from the first-order gyrophase dependent distribution function, and then used this incomplete expression to derive the equation for the gyrophase independent distribution function. Consequently, the second-order distribution function and the stress tensor derived by this approach are incomplete. By relaxing slightly Hazeltine's orderings one is able to obtain a drift kinetic equation accurate through the second order in the gyroradius expansion. In addition, the gyroviscous stress tensor for plasmas of arbitrary collisionality is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, V. M.
2016-03-01
We discuss an extension of the theory of multidimensional second-order equations of the elliptic and hyperbolic types related to multidimensional quasilinear autonomous first-order partial differential equations. Calculating the general integrals of these equations allows constructing exact solutions in the form of implicit functions. We establish a connection with hydrodynamic equations. We calculate the number of free functional parameters of the constructed solutions. We especially construct and analyze implicit solutions of the Laplace and d'Alembert equations in a coordinate space of arbitrary finite dimension. In particular, we construct generalized Penrose-Rindler solutions of the d'Alembert equation in 3+1 dimensions.
Third order equations of motion and the Ostrogradsky instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki
2015-04-01
It is known that any nondegenerate Lagrangian containing time derivative terms higher than first order suffers from the Ostrogradsky instability, pathological excitation of positive and negative energy degrees of freedom. We show that, within the framework of analytical mechanics of point particles, any Lagrangian for third order equations of motion, which evades the nondegeneracy condition, still leads to the Ostrogradsky instability. Extension to the case of higher odd order equations of motion is also considered.
Vector order parameter in general relativity: Covariant equations
Meierovich, Boris E.
2010-07-15
Phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector order parameter are considered in multidimensional theory of general relativity. Covariant equations, describing the gravitational properties of topological defects, are derived. The topological defects are classified in accordance with the symmetry of the covariant derivative of the vector order parameter. The abilities of the derived equations are demonstrated in application to the braneworld concept. New solutions of the Einstein equations with a transverse vector order parameter are presented. In the vicinity of phase transition, the solutions are found analytically.
Oscillation theorems for second order nonlinear forced differential equations.
Salhin, Ambarka A; Din, Ummul Khair Salma; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md
2014-01-01
In this paper, a class of second order forced nonlinear differential equation is considered and several new oscillation theorems are obtained. Our results generalize and improve those known ones in the literature. PMID:25077054
Numerical integration of ordinary differential equations of various orders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gear, C. W.
1969-01-01
Report describes techniques for the numerical integration of differential equations of various orders. Modified multistep predictor-corrector methods for general initial-value problems are discussed and new methods are introduced.
The Poisson equation at second order in relativistic cosmology
Hidalgo, J.C.; Christopherson, Adam J.; Malik, Karim A. E-mail: Adam.Christopherson@nottingham.ac.uk
2013-08-01
We calculate the relativistic constraint equation which relates the curvature perturbation to the matter density contrast at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. This relativistic ''second order Poisson equation'' is presented in a gauge where the hydrodynamical inhomogeneities coincide with their Newtonian counterparts exactly for a perfect fluid with constant equation of state. We use this constraint to introduce primordial non-Gaussianity in the density contrast in the framework of General Relativity. We then derive expressions that can be used as the initial conditions of N-body codes for structure formation which probe the observable signature of primordial non-Gaussianity in the statistics of the evolved matter density field.
Transparent boundary conditions for iterative high-order parabolic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, P. S.; Ehrhardt, M.
2016-05-01
Recently a new approach to the construction of high-order parabolic approximations for the Helmholtz equation was developed. These approximations have the form of the system of iterative parabolic equations, where the solution of the n-th equation is used as an input term for the (n + 1)-th equation. In this study the transparent boundary conditions for such systems of coupled parabolic equations are derived. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the initial boundary value problem for the system of iterative parabolic equations with the derived boundary conditions are proved. The well-posedness of this problem is also established and an unconditionally stable finite difference scheme for its solution is proposed.
Second-order variational equations for N-body simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rein, Hanno; Tamayo, Daniel
2016-07-01
First-order variational equations are widely used in N-body simulations to study how nearby trajectories diverge from one another. These allow for efficient and reliable determinations of chaos indicators such as the Maximal Lyapunov characteristic Exponent (MLE) and the Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO). In this paper we lay out the theoretical framework to extend the idea of variational equations to higher order. We explicitly derive the differential equations that govern the evolution of second-order variations in the N-body problem. Going to second order opens the door to new applications, including optimization algorithms that require the first and second derivatives of the solution, like the classical Newton's method. Typically, these methods have faster convergence rates than derivative-free methods. Derivatives are also required for Riemann manifold Langevin and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods which provide significantly shorter correlation times than standard methods. Such improved optimization methods can be applied to anything from radial-velocity/transit-timing-variation fitting to spacecraft trajectory optimization to asteroid deflection. We provide an implementation of first- and second-order variational equations for the publicly available REBOUND integrator package. Our implementation allows the simultaneous integration of any number of first- and second-order variational equations with the high-accuracy IAS15 integrator. We also provide routines to generate consistent and accurate initial conditions without the need for finite differencing.
A New Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for MHD Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The goal of this talk is to extend our recently developed highly parallelizable nonlinear stable high order schemes for complex multiscale hydrodynamic applications to the viscous MHD equations. These schemes employed multiresolution wavelets as adaptive numerical dissipation controls to limit the amount and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of dissipation to be used. The new scheme is formulated for both the conservative and non-conservative form of the MHD equations in curvilinear grids.
Absorbing boundary conditions for second-order hyperbolic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Hong; Wong, Yau Shu
1989-01-01
A uniform approach to construct absorbing artificial boundary conditions for second-order linear hyperbolic equations is proposed. The nonlocal boundary condition is given by a pseudodifferential operator that annihilates travelling waves. It is obtained through the dispersion relation of the differential equation by requiring that the initial-boundary value problem admits the wave solutions travelling in one direction only. Local approximation of this global boundary condition yields an nth-order differential operator. It is shown that the best approximations must be in the canonical forms which can be factorized into first-order operators. These boundary conditions are perfectly absorbing for wave packets propagating at certain group velocities. A hierarchy of absorbing boundary conditions is derived for transonic small perturbation equations of unsteady flows. These examples illustrate that the absorbing boundary conditions are easy to derive, and the effectiveness is demonstrated by the numerical experiments.
Absorbing boundary conditions for second-order hyperbolic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Hong; Wong, Yau Shu
1990-01-01
A uniform approach to construct absorbing artificial boundary conditions for second-order linear hyperbolic equations is proposed. The nonlocal boundary condition is given by a pseudodifferential operator that annihilates travelling waves. It is obtained through the dispersion relation of the differential equation by requiring that the initial-boundary value problem admits the wave solutions travelling in one direction only. Local approximation of this global boundary condition yields an nth-order differential operator. It is shown that the best approximations must be in the canonical forms which can be factorized into first-order operators. These boundary conditions are perfectly absorbing for wave packets propagating at certain group velocities. A hierarchy of absorbing boundary conditions is derived for transonic small perturbation equations of unsteady flows. These examples illustrate that the absorbing boundary conditions are easy to derive, and the effectiveness is demonstrated by the numerical experiments.
Optimization of High-order Wave Equations for Multicore CPUs
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2011-11-01
This is a simple benchmark to guage the performance of a high-order isotropic wave equation grid. The code is optimized for both SSE and AVX and is parallelized using OpenMP (see Optimization section). Structurally, the benchmark begins, reads a few command-line parameters, allocates and pads the four arrays (current, last, next wave fields, and the spatially varying but isotropic velocity), initializes these arrays, then runs the benchmark proper. The code then benchmarks the naive, SSEmore » (if supported), and AVX (if supported implementations) by applying the wave equation stencil 100 times and taking the average performance. Boundary conditions are ignored and would noiminally be implemented by the user. THus, the benchmark measures only the performance of the wave equation stencil and not a full simulation. The naive implementation is a quadruply (z,y,x, radius) nested loop that can handle arbitrarily order wave equations. The optimized (SSE/AVX) implentations are somewhat more complex as they operate on slabs and include a case statement to select an optimized inner loop depending on wave equation order.« less
Optimization of High-order Wave Equations for Multicore CPUs
Williams, Samuel
2011-11-01
This is a simple benchmark to guage the performance of a high-order isotropic wave equation grid. The code is optimized for both SSE and AVX and is parallelized using OpenMP (see Optimization section). Structurally, the benchmark begins, reads a few command-line parameters, allocates and pads the four arrays (current, last, next wave fields, and the spatially varying but isotropic velocity), initializes these arrays, then runs the benchmark proper. The code then benchmarks the naive, SSE (if supported), and AVX (if supported implementations) by applying the wave equation stencil 100 times and taking the average performance. Boundary conditions are ignored and would noiminally be implemented by the user. THus, the benchmark measures only the performance of the wave equation stencil and not a full simulation. The naive implementation is a quadruply (z,y,x, radius) nested loop that can handle arbitrarily order wave equations. The optimized (SSE/AVX) implentations are somewhat more complex as they operate on slabs and include a case statement to select an optimized inner loop depending on wave equation order.
Spatial complexity of solutions of higher order partial differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukavica, Igor
2004-03-01
We address spatial oscillation properties of solutions of higher order parabolic partial differential equations. In the case of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation ut + uxxxx + uxx + u ux = 0, we prove that for solutions u on the global attractor, the quantity card {x epsi [0, L]:u(x, t) = lgr}, where L > 0 is the spatial period, can be bounded by a polynomial function of L for all \\lambda\\in{\\Bbb R} . A similar property is proven for a general higher order partial differential equation u_t+(-1)^{s}\\partial_x^{2s}u+ \\sum_{k=0}^{2s-1}v_k(x,t)\\partial_x^k u =0 .
Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices
Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.
2015-03-10
In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.
Second-order numerical solution of time-dependent, first-order hyperbolic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, Patricia L.; Hardin, Jay
1995-01-01
A finite difference scheme is developed to find an approximate solution of two similar hyperbolic equations, namely a first-order plane wave and spherical wave problem. Finite difference approximations are made for both the space and time derivatives. The result is a conditionally stable equation yielding an exact solution when the Courant number is set to one.
Solving Second-Order Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilmer, A., III; Costa, G. B.
2008-01-01
A method is developed in which an analytical solution is obtained for certain classes of second-order differential equations with variable coefficients. By the use of transformations and by repeated iterated integration, a desired solution is obtained. This alternative method represents a different way to acquire a solution from classic power…
Negative-order Korteweg-de Vries equations.
Qiao, Zhijun; Fan, Engui
2012-07-01
In this paper, based on the regular Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) system, we study negative-order KdV (NKdV) equations, particularly their Hamiltonian structures, Lax pairs, conservation laws, and explicit multisoliton and multikink wave solutions thorough bilinear Bäcklund transformations. The NKdV equations studied in our paper are differential and actually derived from the first member in the negative-order KdV hierarchy. The NKdV equations are not only gauge equivalent to the Camassa-Holm equation through reciprocal transformations but also closely related to the Ermakov-Pinney systems and the Kupershmidt deformation. The bi-Hamiltonian structures and a Darboux transformation of the NKdV equations are constructed with the aid of trace identity and their Lax pairs, respectively. The single and double kink wave and bell soliton solutions are given in an explicit formula through the Darboux transformation. The one-kink wave solution is expressed in the form of tanh while the one-bell soliton is in the form of sech, and both forms are very standard. The collisions of two-kink wave and two-bell soliton solutions are analyzed in detail, and this singular interaction differs from the regular KdV equation. Multidimensional binary Bell polynomials are employed to find bilinear formulation and Bäcklund transformations, which produce N-soliton solutions. A direct and unifying scheme is proposed for explicitly building up quasiperiodic wave solutions of the NKdV equations. Furthermore, the relations between quasiperiodic wave solutions and soliton solutions are clearly described. Finally, we show the quasiperiodic wave solution convergent to the soliton solution under some limit conditions. PMID:23005555
Classical equation of motion and anomalous dimensions at leading order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nii, Keita
2016-07-01
Motivated by a recent paper by Rychkov-Tan [1], we calculate the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators at the leading order in various models including a ϕ 3-theory in (6 - ɛ) dimensions. The method presented here relies only on the classical equation of motion and the conformal symmetry. In case that only the leading expressions of the critical exponents are of interest, it is sufficient to reduce the multiplet recombination discussed in [1] to the classical equation of motion. We claim that in many cases the use of the classical equations of motion and the CFT constraint on two- and three-point functions completely determine the leading behavior of the anomalous dimensions at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point without any input of the Feynman diagrammatic calculation. The method developed here is closely related to the one presented in [1] but based on a more perturbative point of view.
Stabilization with target oriented control for higher order difference equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braverman, Elena; Franco, Daniel
2015-06-01
For a physical or biological model whose dynamics is described by a higher order difference equation un+1 = f (un ,un-1 , … ,u n - k + 1), we propose a version of a target oriented control un+1 = cT + (1 - c) f (un ,un-1 , … ,u n - k + 1), with T ≥ 0, c ∈ [ 0 , 1). In ecological systems, the method incorporates harvesting and recruitment and for a wide class of f, allows to stabilize (locally or globally) a fixed point of f. If a point which is not a fixed point of f has to be stabilized, the target oriented control is an appropriate method for achieving this goal. As a particular case, we consider pest control applied to pest populations with delayed density-dependence. This corresponds to a proportional feedback method, which includes harvesting only, for higher order equations.
A Solution to the Fundamental Linear Fractional Order Differential Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.
1998-01-01
This paper provides a solution to the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation, namely, (sub c)d(sup q, sub t) + ax(t) = bu(t). The impulse response solution is shown to be a series, named the F-function, which generalizes the normal exponential function. The F-function provides the basis for a qth order "fractional pole". Complex plane behavior is elucidated and a simple example, the inductor terminated semi- infinite lossy line, is used to demonstrate the theory.
Second order upwind Lagrangian particle method for Euler equations
Samulyak, Roman; Chen, Hsin -Chiang; Yu, Kwangmin
2016-06-01
A new second order upwind Lagrangian particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with Lagrangian particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface / multiphase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) an upwind second-order particle-based algorithm with limiter, providing accuracy and longmore » term stability, and (c) accurate resolution of states at free interfaces. In conclusion, numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order for fixed domain and free surface problems are presented.« less
Point model equations for neutron correlation counting: Extension of Böhnel's equations to any order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favalli, Andrea; Croft, Stephen; Santi, Peter
2015-09-01
Various methods of autocorrelation neutron analysis may be used to extract information about a measurement item containing spontaneously fissioning material. The two predominant approaches being the time correlation analysis (that make use of a coincidence gate) methods of multiplicity shift register logic and Feynman sampling. The common feature is that the correlated nature of the pulse train can be described by a vector of reduced factorial multiplet rates. We call these singlets, doublets, triplets etc. Within the point reactor model the multiplet rates may be related to the properties of the item, the parameters of the detector, and basic nuclear data constants by a series of coupled algebraic equations - the so called point model equations. Solving, or inverting, the point model equations using experimental calibration model parameters is how assays of unknown items is performed. Currently only the first three multiplets are routinely used. In this work we develop the point model equations to higher order multiplets using the probability generating functions approach combined with the general derivative chain rule, the so called Faà di Bruno Formula. Explicit expression up to 5th order are provided, as well the general iterative formula to calculate any order. This work represents the first necessary step towards determining if higher order multiplets can add value to nondestructive measurement practice for nuclear materials control and accountancy.
Point model equations for neutron correlation counting: Extension of Böhnel's equations to any order
Favalli, Andrea; Croft, Stephen; Santi, Peter
2015-06-15
Various methods of autocorrelation neutron analysis may be used to extract information about a measurement item containing spontaneously fissioning material. The two predominant approaches being the time correlation analysis (that make use of a coincidence gate) methods of multiplicity shift register logic and Feynman sampling. The common feature is that the correlated nature of the pulse train can be described by a vector of reduced factorial multiplet rates. We call these singlets, doublets, triplets etc. Within the point reactor model the multiplet rates may be related to the properties of the item, the parameters of the detector, and basic nuclear data constants by a series of coupled algebraic equations – the so called point model equations. Solving, or inverting, the point model equations using experimental calibration model parameters is how assays of unknown items is performed. Currently only the first three multiplets are routinely used. In this work we develop the point model equations to higher order multiplets using the probability generating functions approach combined with the general derivative chain rule, the so called Faà di Bruno Formula. Explicit expression up to 5th order are provided, as well the general iterative formula to calculate any order. This study represents the first necessary step towards determining if higher order multiplets can add value to nondestructive measurement practice for nuclear materials control and accountancy.
Point model equations for neutron correlation counting: Extension of Böhnel's equations to any order
Favalli, Andrea; Croft, Stephen; Santi, Peter
2015-06-15
Various methods of autocorrelation neutron analysis may be used to extract information about a measurement item containing spontaneously fissioning material. The two predominant approaches being the time correlation analysis (that make use of a coincidence gate) methods of multiplicity shift register logic and Feynman sampling. The common feature is that the correlated nature of the pulse train can be described by a vector of reduced factorial multiplet rates. We call these singlets, doublets, triplets etc. Within the point reactor model the multiplet rates may be related to the properties of the item, the parameters of the detector, and basic nuclearmore » data constants by a series of coupled algebraic equations – the so called point model equations. Solving, or inverting, the point model equations using experimental calibration model parameters is how assays of unknown items is performed. Currently only the first three multiplets are routinely used. In this work we develop the point model equations to higher order multiplets using the probability generating functions approach combined with the general derivative chain rule, the so called Faà di Bruno Formula. Explicit expression up to 5th order are provided, as well the general iterative formula to calculate any order. This study represents the first necessary step towards determining if higher order multiplets can add value to nondestructive measurement practice for nuclear materials control and accountancy.« less
Pseudospectral collocation methods for fourth order differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malek, Alaeddin; Phillips, Timothy N.
1994-01-01
Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear fourth order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model fourth order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite difference approximation to the same differential operator is presented. The corresponding multidomain problem is also considered and interface conditions are derived. Pseudospectral approximations which are C1 continuous at the interfaces are used in each subdomain to approximate the solution. The approximations are also shown to be C3 continuous at the interfaces asymptotically. A complete analysis of the collocation scheme for the multidomain problem is provided. The extension of the method to the biharmonic equation in two dimensions is discussed and results are presented for a problem defined in a nonrectangular domain.
Ninth order block hybrid collocation method for second order ordinary differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yap, Lee Ken; Ismail, Fudziah
2016-02-01
A ninth order block hybrid collocation method is proposed for solving general second order ordinary differential equations directly. The derivation involves interpolation and collocation of basic polynomial that generates the main and additional methods. These methods are applied simultaneously to provide approximate solutions at five main points and three off-step points. The stability properties of the block method are discussed. Some illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the method.
Higher order Peregrine breathers solutions to the NLS equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaillard, Pierre
2015-09-01
The solutions to the one dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) can be written as a product of an exponential depending on t by a quotient of two polynomials of degree N(N + 1) in x and t. These solutions depend on 2N - 2 parameters : when all these parameters are equal to 0, we obtain the famous Peregrine breathers which we call PN breathers. Between all quasi-rational solutions of rank N fixed by the condition that its absolute value tends to 1 at infinity and its highest maximum is located at point (x = 0,t = 0), the PN breather is distinguished by the fact that PN (0, 0) = 2N + 1. We construct Peregrine breathers of the rank N explicitly for N ≤ 11. We give figures of these PN breathers in the (x; t) plane; plots of the solutions PN (0; t), PN (x;0), never given for 6 < N < 11 are constructed in this work. It is the first time that the Peregrine breather of order 11 is explicitly constructed.
Generation and application of the equations of condition for high order Runge-Kutta methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haley, D. C.
1972-01-01
This thesis develops the equations of condition necessary for determining the coefficients for Runge-Kutta methods used in the solution of ordinary differential equations. The equations of condition are developed for Runge-Kutta methods of order four through order nine. Once developed, these equations are used in a comparison of the local truncation errors for several sets of Runge-Kutta coefficients for methods of order three up through methods of order eight.
Higher-order Hamiltonian fluid reduction of Vlasov equation
Perin, M.; Chandre, C.; Morrison, P.J.; Tassi, E.
2014-09-15
From the Hamiltonian structure of the Vlasov equation, we build a Hamiltonian model for the first three moments of the Vlasov distribution function, namely, the density, the momentum density and the specific internal energy. We derive the Poisson bracket of this model from the Poisson bracket of the Vlasov equation, and we discuss the associated Casimir invariants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rodríguez, M. A.; Winternitz, P.
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and ordinary difference systems (OΔSs) invariant under the actions of the Lie groups {{SL}}x(2),{{SL}}y(2) and {{SL}}x(2)× {{SL}}y(2) of projective transformations of the independent variables x and dependent variables y are constructed. The ODEs are continuous limits of the OΔSs, or conversely, the OΔSs are invariant discretizations of the ODEs. The invariant OΔSs are used to calculate numerical solutions of the invariant ODEs of order up to five. The solutions of the invariant numerical schemes are compared to numerical solutions obtained by standard Runge-Kutta methods and to exact solutions, when available. The invariant method performs at least as well as standard ones and much better in the vicinity of singularities of solutions.
Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing
2015-12-01
The complex frequency shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) can improve the absorbing performance of PML for nearly grazing incident waves. However, traditional PML and CFS-PML are based on first-order wave equations; thus, they are not suitable for second-order wave equation. In this paper, an implementation of CFS-PML for second-order wave equation is presented using auxiliary differential equations. This method is free of both convolution calculations and third-order temporal derivatives. As an unsplit CFS-PML, it can reduce the nearly grazing incidence. Numerical experiments show that it has better absorption than typical PML implementations based on second-order wave equation. PMID:26723366
A fourth-order box method for solving the boundary layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wornom, S. F.
1977-01-01
A fourth order box method for calculating high accuracy numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations is presented. The method is the natural extension of the second order Keller Box scheme to fourth order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations. Numerical results for high accuracy test cases show the method to be significantly faster than other higher order and second order methods.
Higher-order Schrödinger and Hartree–Fock equations
Carles, Rémi; Lucha, Wolfgang; Moulay, Emmanuel
2015-12-15
The domain of validity of the higher-order Schrödinger equations is analyzed for harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials as typical examples. Then, the Cauchy theory for higher-order Hartree–Fock equations with bounded and Coulomb potentials is developed. Finally, the existence of associated ground states for the odd-order equations is proved. This renders these quantum equations relevant for physics.
Variations in the Solution of Linear First-Order Differential Equations. Classroom Notes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seaman, Brian; Osler, Thomas J.
2004-01-01
A special project which can be given to students of ordinary differential equations is described in detail. Students create new differential equations by changing the dependent variable in the familiar linear first-order equation (dv/dx)+p(x)v=q(x) by means of a substitution v=f(y). The student then creates a table of the new equations and…
Singular parabolic equations of second order on manifolds with singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Yuanzhen
2016-01-01
The main aim of this article is to establish an Lp-theory for elliptic operators on manifolds with singularities. The particular class of differential operators discussed herein may exhibit degenerate or singular behavior near the singular ends of the manifolds. Such a theory is of importance for the study of elliptic and parabolic equations on non-compact, or even incomplete manifolds, with or without boundary.
Polynomial Solutions of Nth Order Non-Homogeneous Differential Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Lawrence E.; Maleh, Ray
2002-01-01
It was shown by Costa and Levine that the homogeneous differential equation (1-x[superscript N])y([superscript N]) + A[subscript N-1]x[superscript N-1)y([superscript N-1]) + A[subscript N-2]x[superscript N-2])y([superscript N-2]) + ... + A[subscript 1]xy[prime] + A[subscript 0]y = 0 has a finite polynomial solution if and only if [for…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Belvin, W. Keith
1990-01-01
A general form for the first-order representation of the continuous second-order linear structural-dynamics equations is introduced to derive a corresponding form of first-order continuous Kalman filtering equations. Time integration of the resulting equations is carried out via a set of linear multistep integration formulas. It is shown that a judicious combined selection of computational paths and the undetermined matrices introduced in the general form of the first-order linear structural systems leads to a class of second-order discrete Kalman filtering equations involving only symmetric sparse N x N solution matrices.
On the System of High Order Rational Difference Equations
Zhang, Qianhong; Zhang, Wenzhuan; Shao, Yuanfu; Liu, Jingzhong
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the boundedness, persistence, and global asymptotic behavior of positive solution for a system of two rational difference equations x n+1 = A + (x n/∑i=1 k y n−i), y n+1 = B + (y n/∑i=1 k x n−i), n = 0,1,…, k ∈ {1,2,…}, where A, B ∈ (0, ∞), x −i ∈ (0, ∞), and y −i ∈ (0, ∞), i = 0,1, 2,…, k.
A Quasi-Lie Schemes Approach to Second-Order Gambier Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cariñena, José F.; Guha, Partha; de Lucas, Javier
2013-03-01
A quasi-Lie scheme is a geometric structure that provides t-dependent changes of variables transforming members of an associated family of systems of first-order differential equations into members of the same family. In this note we introduce two quasi-Lie schemes for studying second-order Gambier equations in a geometric way. This allows us to study the transformation of these equations into simpler canonical forms, which solves a gap in the previous literature, and other relevant differential equations, which leads to derive new constants of motion for families of second-order Gambier equations. Additionally, we describe general solutions of certain second-order Gambier equations in terms of particular solutions of Riccati equations, linear systems, and t-dependent frequency harmonic oscillators.
Stability and periodicity of high-order Lorenz–Stenflo equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Junho; Han, Beom-Soon; Lee, Hyunho; Jeon, Ye-Lim; Baik, Jong-Jin
2016-06-01
In this paper, we derive high-order Lorenz–Stenflo equations with 6 variables and investigate periodic behaviors as well as stability of the equations. The stability of the high-order Lorenz–Stenflo equations is investigated by the linear stability analysis for various parameters. A periodicity diagram is also computed and it shows that the high-order Lorenz–Stenflo equations exhibit very different behaviors from the original Lorenz–Stenflo equations for both periodic and chaotic solutions. For example, period 3 regime for large parameters and scattered periodic regime are newly observed, and chaotic regimes exist for smaller values of r but for larger values of s than the original equations. In contrast, similarities such as the enclosure of the chaotic regime by the periodic regime or complex periodic regimes inside the chaotic regime are also observed for both the original and high-order Lorenz–Stenflo equations.
Equations of condition for high order Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bettis, D. G.
1974-01-01
Derivation of the equations of condition of order eight for a general system of second-order differential equations approximated by the basic Runge-Kutta-Nystrom algorithm. For this general case, the number of equations of condition is considerably larger than for the special case where the first derivative is not present. Specifically, it is shown that, for orders two through eight, the number of equations for each order is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 9 for the special case and is 1, 1, 2, 5, 13, 34, and 95 for the general case.
Soliton solutions of the KdV equation with higher-order corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2010-10-01
In this work, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with higher-order corrections is examined. We studied the KdV equation with first-order correction and that with second-order correction that include the terms of the fifth-order Lax, Sawada-Kotera and Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon equations. The simplified form of the bilinear method was used to show the integrability of the first-order models and therefore to obtain multiple soliton solutions for each one. The obstacles to integrability of some of the models with second-order corrections are examined as well.
Compact high-order schemes for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abarbanel, Saul; Kumar, Ajay
1988-01-01
An implicit approximate factorization (AF) algorithm is constructed which has the following characteristics. In 2-D: the scheme is unconditionally stable, has a 3 x 3 stencil and at steady state has a fourth order spatial accuracy. The temporal evolution is time accurate either to first or second order through choice of parameter. In 3-D: the scheme has almost the same properties as in 2-D except that it is now only conditionally stable, with the stability condition (the CFL number) being dependent on the cell aspect ratios, delta y/delta x and delta z/delta x. The stencil is still compact and fourth order accuracy at steady state is maintained.
On the asymptotic solutions of the KdV equation with higher-order corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burde, Georgy I.
2005-07-01
A method for construction of new integrable PDEs, whose properties are related to an asymptotic perturbation expansion with the leading-order term given by an integrable equation, is developed. A new integrable equation is constructed by applying the properly defined Lie-Bäcklund group of transformations to the leading-order equation. The integrable equations related to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with higher-order corrections are used to investigate the limits of applicability of the so-called asymptotic integrability concept. It is found that the solutions of the higher-order KdV equations obtained by a near identity transform from the normal form solitary waves cannot, in principle, describe some intrinsic features of the high-order KdV solitons.
Compact high order schemes for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abarbanel, Saul; Kumar, Ajay
1988-01-01
An implicit approximate factorization (AF) algorithm is constructed which has the following characteistics. In 2-D: The scheme is unconditionally stable, has a 3 x 3 stencil and at steady state has a fourth order spatial accuracy. The temporal evolution is time accurate either to first or second order through choice of parameter. In 3-D: The scheme has almost the same properties as in 2-D except that it is now only conditionally stable, with the stability condition (the CFL number) being dependent on the cell aspect ratios, delta y/delta x and delta z/delta x. The stencil is still compact and fourth order accuracy at steady state is maintained. Numerical experiments on a 2-D shock-reflection problem show the expected improvement over lower order schemes, not only in accuracy (measured by the L sub 2 error) but also in the dispersion. It is also shown how the same technique is immediately extendable to Runge-Kutta type schemes resulting in improved stability in addition to the enhanced accuracy.
Weak order for the discretization of the stochastic heat equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debussche, Arnaud; Printems, Jacques
2009-06-01
In this paper we study the approximation of the distribution of X_t Hilbert-valued stochastic process solution of a linear parabolic stochastic partial differential equation written in an abstract form as mathrm{d} X_t+AX_t mathrm{d} t = Q^{1/2} mathrm{d} W(t), quad X_0=x in H, quad tin[0,T], driven by a Gaussian space time noise whose covariance operator Q is given. We assume that A^{-alpha} is a finite trace operator for some alpha>0 and that Q is bounded from H into D(A^beta) for some betageq 0 . It is not required to be nuclear or to commute with A . The discretization is achieved thanks to finite element methods in space (parameter h>0 ) and a theta -method in time (parameter Delta t=T/N ). We define a discrete solution X^n_h and for suitable functions \\varphi defined on H , we show that \\vertmathbb{E} \\varphi(X^N_h) - mathbb{E} \\varphi(X_T) \\vert = O(h^{2gamma} + Delta t^gamma) where gamma<1- alpha + beta . Let us note that as in the finite dimensional case the rate of convergence is twice the one for pathwise approximations.
Convergence order vs. parallelism in the numerical simulation of the bidomain equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharomi, Oluwaseun; Spiteri, Raymond J.
2012-10-01
The propagation of electrical activity in the human heart can be modelled mathematically by the bidomain equations. The bidomain equations represent a multi-scale reaction-diffusion model that consists of a set of ordinary differential equations governing the dynamics at the cellular level coupled with a set of partial differential equations governing the dynamics at the tissue level. Significant computation is generally required to generate clinically useful data from the bidomain equations. Contemporary developments in computer architecture, in particular multi- and many-core computers and graphics processing units, have made such computations feasible. However, the zeal to take advantage to parallel architectures has typically caused another important aspect of numerical methods for the solution of differential equations to be overlooked, namely the convergence order. It is well known that higher-order methods are generally more efficient than lower-order ones when solutions are smooth and relatively high accuracy is desired. In these situations, serial implementations of high-order methods may remain surprisingly competitive with parallel implementations of low-order methods. In this paper, we examine the effect of order on the numerical solution of the bidomain equations in parallel. We find that high-order methods, in particular high-order time-integration methods with relatively better stability properties, tend to outperform their low-order counterparts, even when the latter are run in parallel. In other words, increasing integration order often trumps increasing available computational resources, especially when relatively high accuracy is desired.
Operator Factorization and the Solution of Second-Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robin, W.
2007-01-01
The theory and application of second-order linear ordinary differential equations is reviewed from the standpoint of the operator factorization approach to the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Using the operator factorization approach, the general second-order linear ODE is solved, exactly, in quadratures and the resulting…
Local well-posedness for the fifth-order KdV equations on T
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Chulkwang
2016-05-01
This paper is a continuation of the paper Low regularity Cauchy problem for the fifth-order modified KdV equations on T[7]. In this paper, we consider the fifth-order equation in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy as following:
A Lagrangian description of the higher-order Painlevé equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghose Choudhury, A.; Guha, Partha; Kudryashov, N. A.
2012-05-01
We derive the Lagrangians of the higher-order Painlevé equations using Jacobi's last multiplier technique. Some of these higher-order differential equations display certain remarkable properties like passing the Painlevé test and satisfy the conditions stated by Juráš, thus allowing for a Lagrangian description.
On group classification of normal systems of linear second-order ordinary differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meleshko, S. V.; Moyo, S.
2015-05-01
In this paper we study the general group classification of systems of linear second-order ordinary differential equations inspired from earlier works and recent results on the group classification of such systems. Some interesting results and subsequent theorem arising from this particular study are discussed here. This paper considers the study of irreducible systems of second-order ordinary differential equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pflaum, Christoph
1996-01-01
A multilevel algorithm is presented that solves general second order elliptic partial differential equations on adaptive sparse grids. The multilevel algorithm consists of several V-cycles. Suitable discretizations provide that the discrete equation system can be solved in an efficient way. Numerical experiments show a convergence rate of order Omicron(1) for the multilevel algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamizhmani, K. M.; Krishnakumar, K.; Leach, P. G. L.
2015-11-01
We examine the reductions of the order of certain third- and second-order nonlinear equations with arbitrary nonlinearity through their symmetries and some appropriate transformations. We use the folding transformation which enables one to change from a nonlinearity with an arbitrary exponent to a nonlinearity with a specific numerical exponent.
Second-order discrete Kalman filtering equations for control-structure interaction simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Belvin, W. Keith; Alvin, Kenneth F.
1991-01-01
A general form for the first-order representation of the continuous, second-order linear structural dynamics equations is introduced in order to derive a corresponding form of first-order Kalman filtering equations (KFE). Time integration of the resulting first-order KFE is carried out via a set of linear multistep integration formulas. It is shown that a judicious combined selection of computational paths and the undetermined matrices introduced in the general form of the first-order linear structural systems leads to a class of second-order discrete KFE involving only symmetric, N x N solution matrix.
Consistency of Equations in the Second-Order Gauge-Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, K.
2009-06-01
Along the general framework of the gauge-invariant perturbation theory developed in the papers [K.~Nakamura, Prog.~Theor.~Phys. 110 (2003), 723; Prog.~Theor.~Phys. 113 (2005), 481], we rederive the second-order Einstein equation on four-dimensional homogeneous isotropic background universe in a gauge-invariant manner without ignoring any mode of perturbations. We consider the perturbations both in the universe dominated by the single perfect fluid and in that dominated by the single scalar field. We also confirmed the consistency of all the equations of the second-order Einstein equation and the equations of motion for matter fields, which are derived in the paper [K.~Nakamura, arXiv:0804.3840]. This confirmation implies that all the derived equations of the second order are self-consistent and these equations are correct in this sense.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yuan Gong; Wong, James S. W.
2007-10-01
We present new oscillation criteria for the second order forced ordinary differential equation with mixed nonlinearities: where , p(t) is positive and differentiable, [alpha]1>...>[alpha]m>1>[alpha]m+1>...>[alpha]n. No restriction is imposed on the forcing term e(t) to be the second derivative of an oscillatory function. When n=1, our results reduce to those of El-Sayed [M.A. El-Sayed, An oscillation criterion for a forced second order linear differential equation, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 118 (1993) 813-817], Wong [J.S.W. Wong, Oscillation criteria for a forced second linear differential equations, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 231 (1999) 235-240], Sun, Ou and Wong [Y.G. Sun, C.H. Ou, J.S.W. Wong, Interval oscillation theorems for a linear second order differential equation, Comput. Math. Appl. 48 (2004) 1693-1699] for the linear equation, Nazr [A.H. Nazr, Sufficient conditions for the oscillation of forced super-linear second order differential equations with oscillatory potential, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 126 (1998) 123-125] for the superlinear equation, and Sun and Wong [Y.G. Sun, J.S.W. Wong, Note on forced oscillation of nth-order sublinear differential equations, JE Math. Anal. Appl. 298 (2004) 114-119] for the sublinear equation.
Fractional-order difference equations for physical lattices and some applications
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2015-10-15
Fractional-order operators for physical lattice models based on the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional differences are suggested. We use an approach based on the models of lattices with long-range particle interactions. The fractional-order operators of differentiation and integration on physical lattices are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions. In continuum limit, these discrete operators of non-integer orders give the fractional-order derivatives and integrals with respect to coordinates of the Grünwald-Letnikov types. As examples of the fractional-order difference equations for physical lattices, we give difference analogs of the fractional nonlocal Navier-Stokes equations and the fractional nonlocal Maxwell equations for lattices with long-range interactions. Continuum limits of these fractional-order difference equations are also suggested.
A novel unsplit perfectly matched layer for the second-order acoustic wave equation.
Ma, Youneng; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan
2014-08-01
When solving acoustic field equations by using numerical approximation technique, absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) are widely used to truncate the simulation to a finite space. The perfectly matched layer (PML) technique has exhibited excellent absorbing efficiency as an ABC for the acoustic wave equation formulated as a first-order system. However, as the PML was originally designed for the first-order equation system, it cannot be applied to the second-order equation system directly. In this article, we aim to extend the unsplit PML to the second-order equation system. We developed an efficient unsplit implementation of PML for the second-order acoustic wave equation based on an auxiliary-differential-equation (ADE) scheme. The proposed method can benefit to the use of PML in simulations based on second-order equations. Compared with the existing PMLs, it has simpler implementation and requires less extra storage. Numerical results from finite-difference time-domain models are provided to illustrate the validity of the approach. PMID:24794509
Initial-value problem for a linear ordinary differential equation of noninteger order
Pskhu, Arsen V
2011-04-30
An initial-value problem for a linear ordinary differential equation of noninteger order with Riemann-Liouville derivatives is stated and solved. The initial conditions of the problem ensure that (by contrast with the Cauchy problem) it is uniquely solvable for an arbitrary set of parameters specifying the orders of the derivatives involved in the equation; these conditions are necessary for the equation under consideration. The problem is reduced to an integral equation; an explicit representation of the solution in terms of the Wright function is constructed. As a consequence of these results, necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the Cauchy problem are obtained. Bibliography: 7 titles.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.
A second order accurate embedded boundary method for the wave equation with Dirichlet data
Kreiss, H O; Petersson, N A
2004-03-02
The accuracy of Cartesian embedded boundary methods for the second order wave equation in general two-dimensional domains subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions is analyzed. Based on the analysis, we develop a numerical method where both the solution and its gradient are second order accurate. We avoid the small-cell stiffness problem without sacrificing the second order accuracy by adding a small artificial term to the Dirichlet boundary condition. Long-time stability of the method is obtained by adding a small fourth order dissipative term. Several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the method. The method is also used to solve the two-dimensional TM{sub z} problem for Maxwell's equations posed as a second order wave equation for the electric field coupled to ordinary differential equations for the magnetic field.
The lattice Boltzmann model for the second-order Benjamin-Ono equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng
2010-04-01
In this paper, in order to extend the lattice Boltzmann method to deal with more complicated nonlinear equations, we propose a 1D lattice Boltzmann scheme with an amending function for the second-order (1 + 1)-dimensional Benjamin-Ono equation. With the Taylor expansion and the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the governing evolution equation is recovered correctly from the continuous Boltzmann equation. The equilibrium distribution function and the amending function are obtained. Numerical simulations are carried out for the 'good' Boussinesq equation and the 'bad' one to validate the proposed model. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions. The present model can be used to solve more kinds of nonlinear partial differential equations.
Un-collided-flux preconditioning for the first order transport equation
Rigley, M.; Koebbe, J.; Drumm, C.
2013-07-01
Two codes were tested for the first order neutron transport equation using finite element methods. The un-collided-flux solution is used as a preconditioner for each of these methods. These codes include a least squares finite element method and a discontinuous finite element method. The performance of each code is shown on problems in one and two dimensions. The un-collided-flux preconditioner shows good speedup on each of the given methods. The un-collided-flux preconditioner has been used on the second-order equation, and here we extend those results to the first order equation. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarhini, Rana
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study a nonlocal degenerate parabolic equation of order α + 2 for α ∈ (0, 2). The equation is a generalization of the one arising in the modeling of hydraulic fractures studied by Imbert and Mellet in 2011. Using the same approach, we prove the existence of solutions for this equation for 0 < α < 2 and for nonnegative initial data satisfying appropriate assumptions. The main difference is the compactness results due to different Sobolev embeddings. Furthermore, for α > 1, we construct a nonnegative solution for nonnegative initial data under weaker assumptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gariel, J.; Marcilhacy, G.; Santos, N. O.
2008-02-01
We extend the method of separation of variables, studied by Léauté and Marcilhacy [Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A 331, 363 (1979)], to obtain transcendent solutions of the field equations for stationary axisymmetric systems. These solutions depend on transcendent functions satisfying a third order differential equation. For some solutions this equation satisfies the necessary conditions, but not sufficient, to have fixed critical points.
Thandapani, Ethiraju; Kannan, Manju; Pinelas, Sandra
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present some sufficient conditions for the oscillation of all solutions of a second order forced impulsive delay differential equation with damping term. Three factors-impulse, delay and damping that affect the interval qualitative properties of solutions of equations are taken into account together. The results obtained in this paper extend and generalize some of the the known results for forced impulsive differential equations. An example is provided to illustrate the main result. PMID:27218008
New multiple-soliton (kink) solutions for the high-order Boussinesq-Burgers equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Peng; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Liangbi
2016-07-01
The homogeneous balance method is extended to find more new solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. As illustrative examples, many new multiple-soliton (kink) solutions of the high-order Boussinesq-Burgers equation are constructed. It is shown that the homogeneous balance method may provide us with a straightforward and effective mathematic tool for generating new multiple-soliton (kink) solutions of nonlinear evolution equations.
Special polynomials associated with the fourth order analogue to the Painlevé equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryashov, Nikolai A.; Demina, Maria V.
2007-04-01
Rational solutions of the fourth order analogue to the Painlevé equations are classified. Special polynomials associated with the rational solutions are introduced. The structure of the polynomials is found. Formulae for their coefficients and degrees are derived. It is shown that special solutions of the Fordy Gibbons, the Caudrey Dodd Gibbon and the Kaup Kupershmidt equations can be expressed through solutions of the equation studied.
On the basic equations for the second-order modeling of compressible turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, W. W.; Shih, T.-H.
1991-01-01
Equations for the mean and turbulent quantities for compressible turbulent flows are derived. Both the conventional Reynolds average and the mass-weighted, Favre average were employed to decompose the flow variable into a mean and a turbulent quality. These equations are to be used later in developing second order Reynolds stress models for high speed compressible flows. A few recent advances in modeling some of the terms in the equations due to compressibility effects are also summarized.
Laplace homotopy perturbation method for Burgers equation with space- and time-fractional order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, S. J.; Jafari, H.; Moshokoa, S. P.; Ariyan, V. M.; Baleanu, D.
2016-07-01
The fractional Burgers equation describes the physical processes of unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear acoustic waves through a gas-filled pipe. The Laplace homotopy perturbation method is discussed to obtain the approximate analytical solution of space-fractional and time-fractional Burgers equations. The method used combines the Laplace transform and the homotopy perturbation method. Numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to partial differential equations of fractional orders.
Research on high-order approximation of radiative transfer equation for image reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wenjuan; Gao, Feng; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhu, Pingping; Zhao, Huijuan
2011-03-01
In this article, we derive the two-dimensional spherical harmonics equations to three-order (P3) of Radiative Transfer Equation for anisotropic scattering. We also solved this equations using Galerkin finite element method and compared the solutions with the first-order diffusion equation and Monte Carlo simulation. the benchmark problems are tested, and we found that the developed three-order model with high absorb coefficient is able to significantly improve the diffusion solution in circle geometry, and the radiance distribution close to light source is more accurate. It is significant for accurate modeling of light propagation in small tissue geometries in small animal imaging. Then, the inverse model for the simultaneous reconstruction of the absorption images is proposed based on P3 equations, and the feasibility and effectiveness of this method are proved by the simulation.
New solutions for two integrable cases of a generalized fifth-order nonlinear equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2015-05-01
Multiple-complexiton solutions for a new generalized fifth-order nonlinear integrable equation are constructed with the help of the Hirota's method and the simplified Hirota's method. By extending the real parameters into complex parameters, nonsingular complexiton solutions are obtained for two specific coefficients of the new generalized equation.
New explicit global asymptotic stability criteria for higher order difference equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Morshedy, Hassan A.
2007-12-01
New explicit sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of the zero solution of higher order difference equations are obtained. These criteria can be applied to autonomous and nonautonomous equations. The celebrated Clark asymptotic stability criterion is improved. Also, applications to models from mathematical biology and macroeconomics are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagderina, Yulia Yu
2016-04-01
Scalar second-order ordinary differential equations with cubic nonlinearity in the first-order derivative are considered. Lie symmetries admitted by an arbitrary equation are described in terms of the invariants of this family of equations. Constructing the first integrals is discussed. We study also the equations which have the first integral rational in the first-order derivative.
Completeness of first and second order ODE flows and of Euler-Lagrange equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minguzzi, Ettore
2015-11-01
Two results on the completeness of maximal solutions to first and second order ordinary differential equations (or inclusions) over complete Riemannian manifolds, with possibly time-dependent metrics, are obtained. Applications to Lagrangian mechanics and gravitational waves are given.
The stability of numerical methods for second order ordinary differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gear, C. W.
1978-01-01
An important characterization of a numerical method for first order ODE's is the region of absolute stability. If all eigenvalues of the linear problem dy/dt = Ay are inside this region, the numerical method is stable. If the second order system d/dt(dy/dt) = 2Ady/dt - By is solved as a first order system, the same result applies to the eigenvalues of the generalized eigenvalue problem (lambda-squared)I 2(lambda)A + B. No such region exists for general methods for second order equations, but in some cases a region of absolute stability can be defined for methods for the single second order equation d/dt(dy/dt) = 2ady/dt - by. The absence of a region of absolute stability can occur when different members of a system of first order equations are solved by different methods.
Conservation laws and a new expansion method for sixth order Boussinesq equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokuş, Asıf; Kaya, Doǧan
2015-09-01
In this study, we analyze the conservation laws of a sixth order Boussinesq equation by using variational derivative. We get sixth order Boussinesq equation's traveling wave solutions with (1/G) -expansion method which we constitute newly by being inspired with (G/G) -expansion method which is suggested in [1]. We investigate conservation laws of the analytical solutions which we obtained by the new constructed method. The analytical solution's conductions which we get according to new expansion method are given graphically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesci, Adriana I.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Uys, Hermann
2005-05-01
In previous work we have shown that the quantum potential can be derived from the classical kinetic equations both for particles with and without spin. Here, we extend these mappings to the relativistic case. The essence of the analysis consists of Fourier transforming the momentum coordinate of the distribution function. This procedure introduces a natural parameter η with units of angular momentum. In the non-relativistic case the ansatz of either separability, or separability and additivity, imposed on the probability distribution function produces mappings onto the Schrödinger equation and the Pauli equation, respectively. The former corresponds to an irrotational flow, the latter to a fluid with non-zero vorticity. In this work we show that the relativistic mappings lead to the Klein-Gordon equation in the irrotational case and to the second-order Dirac equation in the rotational case. These mappings are irreversible; an approximate inverse is the Wigner function. Taken together, these results provide a statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics.
A second order operator splitting method for Allen-Cahn type equations with nonlinear source terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun Geun; Lee, June-Yub
2015-08-01
Allen-Cahn (AC) type equations with nonlinear source terms have been applied to a wide range of problems, for example, the vector-valued AC equation for phase separation and the phase-field equation for dendritic crystal growth. In contrast to the well developed first and second order methods for the AC equation, not many second order methods are suggested for the AC type equations with nonlinear source terms due to the difficulties in dealing with the nonlinear source term numerically. In this paper, we propose a simple and stable second order operator splitting method. A core idea of the method is to decompose the original equation into three subequations with the free-energy evolution term, the heat evolution term, and a nonlinear source term, respectively. It is important to combine these three subequations in proper order to achieve the second order accuracy and stability. We propose a method with a half-time free-energy evolution solver, a half-time heat evolution solver, a full-time midpoint solver for the nonlinear source term, and a half-time heat evolution solver followed by a final half-time free-energy evolution solver. We numerically demonstrate the second order accuracy of the new numerical method through the simulations of the phase separation and the dendritic crystal growth.
Novel asymmetric representation method for solving the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Pring; Pang, Lihui; Wu, Ye; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wenjun
2016-04-01
In ultrafast optics, optical pulses are generated to be of shorter pulse duration, which has enormous significance to industrial applications and scientific research. The ultrashort pulse evolution in fiber lasers can be described by the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. However, analytic soliton solutions for this equation have not been obtained by use of existing methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to deal with this equation. The analytic soliton solution is obtained for the first time, and is proved to be stable against amplitude perturbations. Through the split-step Fourier method, the bright soliton solution is studied numerically. The analytic results here may extend the integrable methods, and could be used to study soliton dynamics for some equations in other disciplines. It may also provide the other way to obtain two-soliton solutions for higher-order GL equations.
Novel asymmetric representation method for solving the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau equation
Wong, Pring; Pang, Lihui; Wu, Ye; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In ultrafast optics, optical pulses are generated to be of shorter pulse duration, which has enormous significance to industrial applications and scientific research. The ultrashort pulse evolution in fiber lasers can be described by the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. However, analytic soliton solutions for this equation have not been obtained by use of existing methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to deal with this equation. The analytic soliton solution is obtained for the first time, and is proved to be stable against amplitude perturbations. Through the split-step Fourier method, the bright soliton solution is studied numerically. The analytic results here may extend the integrable methods, and could be used to study soliton dynamics for some equations in other disciplines. It may also provide the other way to obtain two-soliton solutions for higher-order GL equations. PMID:27086841
Novel asymmetric representation method for solving the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau equation.
Wong, Pring; Pang, Lihui; Wu, Ye; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In ultrafast optics, optical pulses are generated to be of shorter pulse duration, which has enormous significance to industrial applications and scientific research. The ultrashort pulse evolution in fiber lasers can be described by the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. However, analytic soliton solutions for this equation have not been obtained by use of existing methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to deal with this equation. The analytic soliton solution is obtained for the first time, and is proved to be stable against amplitude perturbations. Through the split-step Fourier method, the bright soliton solution is studied numerically. The analytic results here may extend the integrable methods, and could be used to study soliton dynamics for some equations in other disciplines. It may also provide the other way to obtain two-soliton solutions for higher-order GL equations. PMID:27086841
Closed-Form Equation of Data Dependent Jitter in First Order Low Pass System
2014-01-01
This paper presents a closed-form equation of data dependent jitter (DDJ) in first order low pass systems. The DDJ relates to the system bandwidth, the bit rate, the input rise/fall time, and the number of maximum consecutive identical bits of the data pattern. To confirm the derived equation, simulations have been done with a first order RC low pass circuit for various system bandwidths, bit rates, input rise/fall times, and data patterns. The simulation results agree well with the calculated DDJ values by the derived equation. PMID:25386614
On the global behavior of a high-order rational difference equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghan, Mehdi; Rastegar, Narges
2009-06-01
In this paper, we consider the (k+1)-order rational difference equation y={p+qy+ry}/{1+y},n=0,1,2,… where k∈{1,2,3,…}, and the initial conditions y,…,y,y and the parameters p, q and r are non-negative. We investigate the global stability, the periodic character and the boundedness nature of solutions of the above mentioned difference equation. In particular, our results solve the open problem introduced by Kulenovic and Ladas in their monograph [Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations with Open Problems and Conjectures, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, 2002].
A critical study of higher-order numerical methods for solving the boundary-layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wornom, S. F.
1977-01-01
A fourth-order box method is presented for calculating numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations. The method is the natural extension of the second-order Keller Box Scheme to fourth order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary-layer equations. The efficiency of the present method is compared with other two-point and three-point higher-order methods; namely, the Keller Box Scheme with Richardson extrapolation, the method of deferred corrections, and the three-point spline methods. For equivalent accuracy, numerical results show the present method to be more efficient than the other higher-order methods for both laminar and turbulent flows.
Critical study of higher order numerical methods for solving the boundary-layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wornom, S. F.
1978-01-01
A fourth order box method is presented for calculating numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations. The method, which is the natural extension of the second order box scheme to fourth order, was demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent, boundary layer equations. The efficiency of the present method is compared with two point and three point higher order methods, namely, the Keller box scheme with Richardson extrapolation, the method of deferred corrections, a three point spline method, and a modified finite element method. For equivalent accuracy, numerical results show the present method to be more efficient than higher order methods for both laminar and turbulent flows.
Application of higher-order numerical methods to the boundary-layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wornom, S. F.
1978-01-01
A fourth-order method is presented for calculating numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations. The method is the natural extension of the second-order Keller Box Scheme to fourth order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary-layer equations for both attached and separated flows. The efficiency of the present method is compared with other higher-order methods; namely, the Keller Box Scheme with Richardson extrapolation, the method of deferred corrections, the three-point spline methods, and a modified finite-element method. For equivalent accuracy, numerical results show the present method to be more efficient than the other higher-order methods for both laminar and turbulent flows.
Non-probabilistic solutions of imprecisely defined fractional-order diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraverty, S.; Smita, Tapaswini
2014-12-01
The fractional diffusion equation is one of the most important partial differential equations (PDEs) to model problems in mathematical physics. These PDEs are more practical when those are combined with uncertainties. Accordingly, this paper investigates the numerical solution of a non-probabilistic viz. fuzzy fractional-order diffusion equation subjected to various external forces. A fuzzy diffusion equation having fractional order 0 < α <= 1 with fuzzy initial condition is taken into consideration. Fuzziness appearing in the initial conditions is modelled through convex normalized triangular and Gaussian fuzzy numbers. A new computational technique is proposed based on double parametric form of fuzzy numbers to handle the fuzzy fractional diffusion equation. Using the single parametric form of fuzzy numbers, the original fuzzy diffusion equation is converted first into an interval-based fuzzy differential equation. Next, this equation is transformed into crisp form by using the proposed double parametric form of fuzzy numbers. Finally, the same is solved by Adomian decomposition method (ADM) symbolically to obtain the uncertain bounds of the solution. Computed results are depicted in terms of plots. Results obtained by the proposed method are compared with the existing results in special cases.
Second derivative multistep method for solving first-order ordinary differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turki, Mohammed Yousif; Ismail, Fudziah; Senu, Norazak; Ibrahim, Zarina Bibi
2016-06-01
In this paper, a new second derivative multistep method was constructed to solve first order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In particular, we used the new method as a corrector method and 5-steps Adam's Bashforth method as a predictor method to solve first order (ODEs). Numerical results were compared with the existing methods which clearly showed the efficiency of the new method.
Using Kernel Equating to Assess Item Order Effects on Test Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim; Yang, Wen-Ling; Wilson, Christine
2007-01-01
This study explored the use of kernel equating for integrating and extending two procedures proposed for assessing item order effects in test forms that have been administered to randomly equivalent groups. When these procedures are used together, they can provide complementary information about the extent to which item order effects impact test…
Nonlocal Symmetry Reductions, CTE Method and Exact Solutions for Higher-Order KdV Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Bo; Liu, Xi-Zhong; Liu, Ping
2015-02-01
The nonlocal symmetries for the higher-order KdV equation are obtained with the truncated Painlevé method. The nonlocal symmetries can be localized to the Lie point symmetries by introducing suitable prolonged systems. The finite symmetry transformations and similarity reductions for the prolonged systems are computed. Moreover, the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method is applied to the higher-order KdV equation. These methods lead to some novel exact solutions of the higher-order KdV system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, K.
2007-01-01
Following the general framework of the gauge invariant perturbation theory developed in the papers [K. Nakamura, Prog. Theor. Phys. 110 (2003), 723; ibid. 113 (2005), 481], we formulate second-order gauge invariant cosmological perturbation theory in a four-dimensional homogeneous isotropic universe. We consider perturbations both in the universe dominated by a single perfect fluid and in that dominated by a single scalar field. We derive all the components of the Einstein equations in the case that the first-order vector and tensor modes are negligible. All equations are derived in terms of gauge invariant variables without any gauge fixing. These equations imply that second-order vector and tensor modes may be generated due to the mode-mode coupling of the linear-order scalar perturbations. We also briefly discuss the main progress of this work through comparison with previous works.
First-Order System Least Squares for the Stokes Equations, with Application to Linear Elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.
1996-01-01
Following our earlier work on general second-order scalar equations, here we develop a least-squares functional for the two- and three-dimensional Stokes equations, generalized slightly by allowing a pressure term in the continuity equation. By introducing a velocity flux variable and associated curl and trace equations, we are able to establish ellipticity in an H(exp 1) product norm appropriately weighted by the Reynolds number. This immediately yields optimal discretization error estimates for finite element spaces in this norm and optimal algebraic convergence estimates for multiplicative and additive multigrid methods applied to the resulting discrete systems. Both estimates are uniform in the Reynolds number. Moreover, our pressure-perturbed form of the generalized Stokes equations allows us to develop an analogous result for the Dirichlet problem for linear elasticity with estimates that are uniform in the Lame constants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mostrel, M. M.
1988-01-01
New shock-capturing finite difference approximations for solving two scalar conservation law nonlinear partial differential equations describing inviscid, isentropic, compressible flows of aerodynamics at transonic speeds are presented. A global linear stability theorem is applied to these schemes in order to derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the finite element method. A technique is proposed to render the described approximations total variation-stable by applying the flux limiters to the nonlinear terms of the difference equation dimension by dimension. An entropy theorem applying to the approximations is proved, and an implicit, forward Euler-type time discretization of the approximation is presented. Results of some numerical experiments using the approximations are reported.
Dynamics and Control of a Reduced Order System of the 2-d Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smaoui, Nejib; Zribi, Mohamed
2014-11-01
The dynamics and control problem of a reduced order system of the 2-d Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is analyzed. First, a seventh order system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE) which approximates the dynamical behavior of the 2-d N-S equations is obtained by using the Fourier Galerkin method. We show that the dynamics of this ODE system transforms from periodic solutions to chaotic attractors through a sequence of bifurcations including a period doubling scenarios. Then three Lyapunov based controllers are designed to either control the system of ODEs to a desired fixed point or to synchronize two ODE systems obtained from the truncation of the 2-d N-S equations under different conditions. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. This research was supported and funded by the Research Sector, Kuwait University under Grant No. SM02/14.
Fast and Robust Sixth Order Multigrid Computation for 3D Convection Diffusion Equation.
Wang, Yin; Zhang, Jun
2010-10-15
We present a sixth order explicit compact finite difference scheme to solve the three dimensional (3D) convection diffusion equation. We first use multiscale multigrid method to solve the linear systems arising from a 19-point fourth order discretization scheme to compute the fourth order solutions on both the coarse grid and the fine grid. Then an operator based interpolation scheme combined with an extrapolation technique is used to approximate the sixth order accurate solution on the fine grid. Since the multigrid method using a standard point relaxation smoother may fail to achieve the optimal grid independent convergence rate for solving convection diffusion equation with a high Reynolds number, we implement the plane relaxation smoother in the multigrid solver to achieve better grid independency. Supporting numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the sixth order compact scheme (SOC), compared with the previously published fourth order compact scheme (FOC). PMID:21151737
Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenov, O. Y.
2009-09-01
This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): utt = uxx + 3(u2)xx + uxxxx + αuxxxxxx, α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.
A procedure on the first integrals of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasar, Emrullah; Yıldırım, Yakup
2015-12-01
In this article, we demonstrate the applicability of the integrating factor method to path equation describing minimum drag work, and a special Hamiltonian equation corresponding Riemann zeros for obtaining the first integrals. The effectiveness and powerfullness of this method is verified by applying it for two selected second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NLODEs). As a result integrating factors and first integrals for them are succesfully established. The obtained results show that the integrating factor approach can also be applied to other NLODEs.
Optimal lower bound for the first eigenvalue of the fourth order equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Gang; Yan, Ping
2016-09-01
In this paper we will find optimal lower bound for the first eigenvalue of the fourth order equation with integrable potentials when the L1 norm of potentials is known. We establish the minimization characterization for the first eigenvalue of the measure differential equation, which plays an important role in the extremal problem of ordinary differential equation. The conclusion of this paper will illustrate a new and very interesting phenomenon that the minimizing measures will no longer be located at the center of the interval when the norm is large enough.
A high-order element-based Galerkin Method for the global shallow water equations.
Nair, Ramachandran D.; Tufo, Henry M.; Levy, Michael Nathan
2010-08-01
The shallow water equations are used as a test for many atmospheric models because the solution mimics the horizontal aspects of atmospheric dynamics while the simplicity of the equations make them useful for numerical experiments. This study describes a high-order element-based Galerkin method for the global shallow water equations using absolute vorticity, divergence, and fluid depth (atmospheric thickness) as the prognostic variables, while the wind field is a diagnostic variable that can be calculated from the stream function and velocity potential (the Laplacians of which are the vorticity and divergence, respectively). The numerical method employed to solve the shallow water system is based on the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods. The discontinuous Galerkin method, which is inherently conservative, is used to solve the equations governing two conservative variables - absolute vorticity and atmospheric thickness (mass). The spectral element method is used to solve the divergence equation and the Poisson equations for the velocity potential and the stream function. Time integration is done with an explicit strong stability-preserving second-order Runge-Kutta scheme and the wind field is updated directly from the vorticity and divergence at each stage, and the computational domain is the cubed sphere. A stable steady-state test is run and convergence results are provided, showing that the method is high-order accurate. Additionally, two tests without analytic solutions are run with comparable results to previous high-resolution runs found in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaşar, Emrullah; Yıldırım, Yakup; Khalique, Chaudry Masood
In this paper Lie symmetry analysis of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito (FSKI) equation with Riemann-Liouville derivative is performed. Using the Lie point symmetries of FSKI equation, it is shown that it can be transformed into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of fractional order with a new dependent variable. In the reduced equation the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober sense. Furthermore, adapting the Ibragimov's nonlocal conservation method to time fractional partial differential equations, we obtain conservation laws of the underlying equation. In addition, we construct some exact travelling wave solutions for the FSKI equation using the sub-equation method.
Equation for disentangling time-ordered exponentials with arbitrary quadratic generators
Budanov, V.G.
1987-12-01
In many quantum-mechanical constructions, it is necessary to disentangle an operator-valued time-ordered exponential with time-dependent generators quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. By disentangling, one understands the finding of the matrix elements of the time-ordered exponential or, in a more general formulation. The solution of the problem can also be reduced to calculation of a matrix time-ordered exponential that solves the corresponding classical problem. However, in either case the evolution equations in their usual form do not enable one to take into account explicitly the symmetry of the system. In this paper the methods of Weyl analysis are used to find an ordinary differential equation on a matrix Lie algebra that is invariant with respect to the adjoint action of the dynamical symmetry group of a quadratic Hamiltonian and replaces the operator evolution equation for the Green's function.
A space-time spectral collocation algorithm for the variable order fractional wave equation.
Bhrawy, A H; Doha, E H; Alzaidy, J F; Abdelkawy, M A
2016-01-01
The variable order wave equation plays a major role in acoustics, electromagnetics, and fluid dynamics. In this paper, we consider the space-time variable order fractional wave equation with variable coefficients. We propose an effective numerical method for solving the aforementioned problem in a bounded domain. The shifted Jacobi polynomials are used as basis functions, and the variable-order fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. The proposed method is a combination of shifted Jacobi-Gauss-Lobatto collocation scheme for the spatial discretization and the shifted Jacobi-Gauss-Radau collocation scheme for temporal discretization. The aforementioned problem is then reduced to a problem consists of a system of easily solvable algebraic equations. Finally, numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed numerical method. PMID:27536504
A High-Order Accurate Parallel Solver for Maxwell's Equations on Overlapping Grids
Henshaw, W D
2005-09-23
A scheme for the solution of the time dependent Maxwell's equations on composite overlapping grids is described. The method uses high-order accurate approximations in space and time for Maxwell's equations written as a second-order vector wave equation. High-order accurate symmetric difference approximations to the generalized Laplace operator are constructed for curvilinear component grids. The modified equation approach is used to develop high-order accurate approximations that only use three time levels and have the same time-stepping restriction as the second-order scheme. Discrete boundary conditions for perfect electrical conductors and for material interfaces are developed and analyzed. The implementation is optimized for component grids that are Cartesian, resulting in a fast and efficient method. The solver runs on parallel machines with each component grid distributed across one or more processors. Numerical results in two- and three-dimensions are presented for the fourth-order accurate version of the method. These results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the approach.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.
A family of solutions of a higher order PVI equation near a regular singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimomura, Shun
2006-09-01
Restriction of the N-dimensional Garnier system to a complex line yields a system of second-order nonlinear differential equations, which may be regarded as a higher order version of the sixth Painlevé equation. Near a regular singularity of the system, we present a 2N-parameter family of solutions expanded into convergent series. These solutions are constructed by iteration, and their convergence is proved by using a kind of majorant series. For simplicity, we describe the proof in the case N = 2.
Multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares for Stokes equations
Lai, Chen-Yao G.
1996-12-31
Recently, The use of first-order system least squares principle for the approximate solution of Stokes problems has been extensively studied by Cai, Manteuffel, and McCormick. In this paper, we study multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in three dimensions. The least-squares functionals is defined to be the sum of the L{sup 2}-norms of the residuals, which is weighted appropriately by the Reynolds number. We develop convergence analysis for additive and multiplicative multilevel methods applied to the resulting discrete equations.
A note on the nonlocal boundary value problem for a third order partial differential equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belakroum, Kheireddine; Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Guezane-Lakoud, Assia
2016-08-01
The nonlocal boundary-value problem for a third order partial differential equation d/3u (t ) d t3 +A d/u (t ) d t =f (t ), 0
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q. M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
Constructing conservation laws for fractional-order integro-differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukashchuk, S. Yu.
2015-08-01
In a class of functions depending on linear integro-differential fractional-order variables, we prove an analogue of the fundamental operator identity relating the infinitesimal operator of a point transformation group, the Euler-Lagrange differential operator, and Noether operators. Using this identity, we prove fractional-differential analogues of the Noether theorem and its generalizations applicable to equations with fractional-order integrals and derivatives of various types that are Euler-Lagrange equations. In explicit form, we give fractional-differential generalizations of Noether operators that gives an efficient way to construct conservation laws, which we illustrate with three examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravchenko, Vladislav V.
2005-01-01
Given a particular solution of a one-dimensional stationary Schrödinger equation this equation of second order can be reduced to a first-order linear ordinary differential equation. This is done with the aid of an auxiliary Riccati differential equation. In the present work we show that the same fact is true in a multidimensional situation also. For simplicity we consider the case of two or three independent variables. One particular solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation allows us to reduce this second-order equation to a linear first-order quaternionic differential equation. As in the one-dimensional case this is done with the aid of an auxiliary quaternionic Riccati equation. The resulting first-order quaternionic equation is equivalent to the static Maxwell system and is closely related to the Dirac equation. In the case of two independent variables it is the well-known Vekua equation from theory of pseudoanalytic (or generalized analytic) functions. Nevertheless, we show that even in this case it is very useful to consider not only complex valued functions, solutions of the Vekua equation, but complete quaternionic functions. In this way the first-order quaternionic equation represents two separate Vekua equations, one of which gives us solutions of the Schrödinger equation and the other one can be considered as an auxiliary equation of a simpler structure. Moreover for the auxiliary equation we always have the corresponding Bers generating pair (F, G), the base of the Bers theory of pseudoanalytic functions, and what is very important, the Bers derivatives of solutions of the auxiliary equation give us solutions of the main Vekua equation and as a consequence of the Schrödinger equation. Based on this fact we obtain an analogue of the Cauchy integral theorem for solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation. Other results from theory of pseudoanalytic functions can be written for solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Moreover, for an ample
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, Jue; Shu, Chi-Wang; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we review the existing and develop new continuous Galerkin methods for solving time dependent partial differential equations with higher order derivatives in one and multiple space dimensions. We review local discontinuous Galerkin methods for convection diffusion equations involving second derivatives and for KdV type equations involving third derivatives. We then develop new local discontinuous Galerkin methods for the time dependent bi-harmonic type equations involving fourth derivatives, and partial differential equations involving fifth derivatives. For these new methods we present correct interface numerical fluxes and prove L(exp 2) stability for general nonlinear problems. Preliminary numerical examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Finally, we present new results on a post-processing technique, originally designed for methods with good negative-order error estimates, on the local discontinuous Galerkin methods applied to equations with higher derivatives. Numerical experiments show that this technique works as well for the new higher derivative cases, in effectively doubling the rate of convergence with negligible additional computational cost, for linear as well as some nonlinear problems, with a local uniform mesh.
High order asymptotic preserving nodal discontinuous Galerkin IMEX schemes for the BGK equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Tao; Jang, Juhi; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jing-Mei
2015-03-01
In this paper, we develop high-order asymptotic preserving (AP) schemes for the BGK equation in a hyperbolic scaling, which leads to the macroscopic models such as the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the asymptotic limit. Our approaches are based on the so-called micro-macro formulation of the kinetic equation which involves a natural decomposition of the problem to the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium parts. The proposed methods are formulated for the BGK equation with constant or spatially variant Knudsen number. The new ingredients for the proposed methods to achieve high order accuracy are the following: we introduce discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of arbitrary order of accuracy with nodal Lagrangian basis functions in space; we employ a high order globally stiffly accurate implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme as time discretization. Two versions of the schemes are proposed: Scheme I is a direct formulation based on the micro-macro decomposition of the BGK equation, while Scheme II, motivated by the asymptotic analysis for the continuous problem, utilizes certain properties of the projection operator. Compared with Scheme I, Scheme II not only has better computational efficiency (the computational cost is reduced by half roughly), but also allows the establishment of a formal asymptotic analysis. Specifically, it is demonstrated that when 0 < ε ≪ 1, Scheme II, up to O (ε2), becomes a local DG discretization with an explicit RK method for the macroscopic compressible Navier-Stokes equations, a method in a similar spirit to the ones in Bassi and Rebay (1997) [3], Cockburn and Shu (1998) [16]. Numerical results are presented for a wide range of Knudsen number to illustrate the effectiveness and high order accuracy of the methods.
Evolution of higher order nonlinear equation for the dust ion-acoustic waves in nonextensive plasma
Yasmin, S.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2012-10-15
There are three different types of nonlinear equations, namely, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed modified K-dV (mixed mK-dV) equations, for the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves. The effects of electron nonextensivity on DIA solitary waves propagating in a dusty plasma (containing negatively charged stationary dust, inertial ions, and nonextensive q distributed electrons) are examined by solving these nonlinear equations. The basic features of mixed mK-dV (higher order nonlinear equation) solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The properties of mK-dV solitons are compared with those of mixed mK-dV solitons. It is found that both positive and negative solitons are obtained depending on the q (nonextensive parameter).
Ismagilov, Timur Z.
2015-02-01
This paper presents a second order finite volume scheme for numerical solution of Maxwell's equations with discontinuous dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability on unstructured meshes. The scheme is based on Godunov scheme and employs approaches of Van Leer and Lax–Wendroff to increase the order of approximation. To keep the second order of approximation near dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability discontinuities a novel technique for gradient calculation and limitation is applied near discontinuities. Results of test computations for problems with linear and curvilinear discontinuities confirm second order of approximation. The scheme was applied to modelling propagation of electromagnetic waves inside photonic crystal waveguides with a bend.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Juntao; Hu, Zexi; Yong, Wen-An
2016-04-01
In this paper, we present a kind of second-order curved boundary treatments for the lattice Boltzmann method solving two-dimensional convection-diffusion equations with general nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. The key idea is to derive approximate boundary values or normal derivatives on computational boundaries, with second-order accuracy, by using the prescribed boundary condition. Once the approximate information is known, the second-order bounce-back schemes can be perfectly adopted. Our boundary treatments are validated with a number of numerical examples. The results show the utility of our boundary treatments and very well support our theoretical predications on the second-order accuracy thereof. The idea is quite universal. It can be directly generalized to 3-dimensional problems, multiple-relaxation-time models, and the Navier-Stokes equations.
Uniqueness of a high-order accurate bicompact scheme for quasilinear hyperbolic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragin, M. D.; Rogov, B. V.
2014-05-01
The possibility of constructing new third- and fourth-order accurate differential-difference bicompact schemes is explored. The schemes are constructed for the one-dimensional quasilinear advection equation on a symmetric three-point spatial stencil. It is proved that this family of schemes consists of a single fourth-order accurate bicompact scheme. The result is extended to the case of an asymmetric three-point stencil.
The 2nd-order Post-Newtonian Orbit Equation of Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yu; Fei, Bao-Jun; Sun, Wei-Jin; Ji, Cheng-Xiang
2008-10-01
Based on the 2nd-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX frame of the general relativity theory, the 2nd-order post-Newtonian orbital equation of light in the axis-symmetrical stationary spacetime is derived, and from this, the angle of deflection of light propagating in the equatorial plane is derived. The obtained results are consistent with those of the Schwarzchild and Kerr metrics within the limits of measuring precision.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowland, David R.; Jovanoski, Zlatko
2004-01-01
A study of first-year undergraduate students' interpretational difficulties with first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in modelling contexts was conducted using a diagnostic quiz, exam questions and follow-up interviews. These investigations indicate that when thinking about such ODEs, many students muddle thinking about the function…
Solving Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations without Using Complex Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kougias, Ioannis E.
2009-01-01
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a subject with a wide range of applications and the need of introducing it to students often arises in the last year of high school, as well as in the early stages of tertiary education. The usual methods of solving second-order ODEs with constant coefficients, among others, rely upon the use of complex…
Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri
2016-03-01
We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.
Panov, E Yu
2013-10-31
The concept of a renormalized entropy solution of the Cauchy problem for an inhomogeneous quasilinear equation of the first order is introduced. Existence and uniqueness theorems are proved, together with a comparison principle. Connections with generalized entropy solutions are investigated. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M
2013-01-01
Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach. PMID:23564972
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya
2015-01-01
The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…
Efficient High Order Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Talk Slides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Brian R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation presents information on the attempt to produce high-order, efficient, central methods that scale well to high dimension. The central philosophy is that the equations should evolve to the point where the data is smooth. This is accomplished by a cyclic pattern of reconstruction, evolution, and re-projection. One dimensional and two dimensional representational methods are detailed, as well.
A high-order Lagrangian-decoupling method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Lee-Wing; Maday, Yvon; Patera, Anthony T.; Ronquist, Einar M.
1989-01-01
A high-order Lagrangian-decoupling method is presented for the unsteady convection-diffusion and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based upon: (1) Lagrangian variational forms that reduce the convection-diffusion equation to a symmetric initial value problem; (2) implicit high-order backward-differentiation finite-difference schemes for integration along characteristics; (3) finite element or spectral element spatial discretizations; and (4) mesh-invariance procedures and high-order explicit time-stepping schemes for deducing function values at convected space-time points. The method improves upon previous finite element characteristic methods through the systematic and efficient extension to high order accuracy, and the introduction of a simple structure-preserving characteristic-foot calculation procedure which is readily implemented on modern architectures. The new method is significantly more efficient than explicit-convection schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations due to the decoupling of the convection and Stokes operators and the attendant increase in temporal stability. Numerous numerical examples are given for the convection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations for the particular case of a spectral element spatial discretization.
Keep Your Distance! Using Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations to Model Traffic Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCartney, Mark
2004-01-01
A simple mathematical model for how vehicles follow each other along a stretch of road is presented. The resulting linear second-order differential equation with constant coefficients is solved and interpreted. The model can be used as an application of solution techniques taught at first-year undergraduate level and as a motivator to encourage…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Islam, Najja Shakir
In this Dissertation, the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to some systems of nonlinear hyperbolic second-order partial differential equations is established. For that, (Al-Islam [4]) is first studied and then obtained under some suitable assumptions. That is, the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to a hyperbolic second-order partial differential equation with delay. The second-order partial differential equation (1) represents a mathematical model for the dynamics of gas absorption, given by uxt+a x,tux=Cx,t,u x,t , u0,t=4 t, 1 where a : [0, L] x RR , C : [0, L] x R x RR , and ϕ : RR are (jointly) continuous functions ( t being the greatest integer function) and L > 0. The results in this Dissertation generalize those of Poorkarimi and Wiener [22]. Secondly, a generalization of the above-mentioned system consisting of the non-linear hyperbolic second-order partial differential equation uxt+a x,tux+bx,t ut+cx,tu=f x,t,u, x∈ 0,L,t∈ R, 2 equipped with the boundary conditions ux,0 =40x, u0,t=u 0t, uxx,0=y 0x, x∈0,L, t∈R, 3 where a, b, c : [0, L ] x RR and f : [0, L] x R x RR are (jointly) continuous functions is studied. Under some suitable assumptions, the existence and uniqueness of pseudo almost periodic solutions to particular cases, as well as the general case of the second-order hyperbolic partial differential equation (2) are studied. The results of all studies contained within this text extend those obtained by Aziz and Meyers [6] in the periodic setting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-10-01
In this communication, we present a method for computing the Liouvillian solution of second-order linear differential equations via algebraic invariant curves. The main idea is to integrate Kovacic's results on second-order linear differential equations with the Prelle-Singer method for computing first integrals of differential equations. Some examples on using this approach are provided.
Lie Symmetry Analysis and Explicit Solutions of the Time Fractional Fifth-Order KdV Equation
Wang, Gang wei; Xu, Tian zhou; Feng, Tao
2014-01-01
In this paper, using the Lie group analysis method, we study the invariance properties of the time fractional fifth-order KdV equation. A systematic research to derive Lie point symmetries to time fractional fifth-order KdV equation is performed. In the sense of point symmetry, all of the vector fields and the symmetry reductions of the fractional fifth-order KdV equation are obtained. At last, by virtue of the sub-equation method, some exact solutions to the fractional fifth-order KdV equation are provided. PMID:24523885
Lie symmetry analysis and explicit solutions of the time fractional fifth-order KdV equation.
Wang, Gang Wei; Xu, Tian Zhou; Feng, Tao
2014-01-01
In this paper, using the Lie group analysis method, we study the invariance properties of the time fractional fifth-order KdV equation. A systematic research to derive Lie point symmetries to time fractional fifth-order KdV equation is performed. In the sense of point symmetry, all of the vector fields and the symmetry reductions of the fractional fifth-order KdV equation are obtained. At last, by virtue of the sub-equation method, some exact solutions to the fractional fifth-order KdV equation are provided. PMID:24523885
Masses from an inhomogeneous partial difference equation with higher-order isospin contributions
Masson, P.J.; Jaenecke, J.
1988-07-01
In the present work, a mass equation obtained as the solution of an inhomogeneous partial difference equation is used to predict masses of unknown neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei. The inhomogeneous source terms contain shell-dependent symmetry energy expressions (quadratic in isospin), and include, as well, an independently derived shell-model Coulomb energy equation which describes all known Coulomb displacement energies with a standarad deviation of sigma/sub c/ = 41 keV. Perturbations of higher order in isospin, previously recognized as a cause of systematic effects in long-range mass extrapolations, are also incorporated. The most general solutions of the inhomogeneous difference equation have been deduced from a chi/sup 2/-minimization procedure based on the recent atomic mass adjustment of Wapstra, Audi, and Hoekstra. Subjecting the solutions further to the condition of charge symmetry preserves the accuracy of Coulomb energies and allows mass predictions for nuclei with both Ngreater than or equal toZ and Z>N. The solutions correspond to a mass equation with 470 parameters. Using this equation, 4385 mass values have been calculated for nuclei with Agreater than or equal to16 (except N = Z = odd for A<40), with a standard deviation of sigma/sub m/ = 194 keV from the experimental masses. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.
Dynamical analysis of strongly nonlinear fractional-order Mathieu-Duffing equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Shao-Fang; Shen, Yong-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Na; Yang, Shao-Pu; Xing, Hai-Jun
2016-08-01
In this paper, the computation schemes for periodic solutions of the forced fractional-order Mathieu-Duffing equation are derived based on incremental harmonic balance (IHB) method. The general forms of periodic solutions are founded by the IHB method, which could be useful to obtain the periodic solutions with higher precision. The comparisons of the approximate analytical solutions by the IHB method and numerical integration are fulfilled, and the results certify the correctness and higher precision of the solutions by the IHB method. The dynamical analysis of strongly nonlinear fractional-order Mathieu-Duffing equation is investigated by the IHB method. Then, the effects of the excitation frequency, fractional order, fractional coefficient, and nonlinear stiffness coefficient on the complex dynamical behaviors are analyzed. At last, the detailed results are summarized and the conclusions are made, which present some useful information to analyze and/or control the dynamical response of this kind of system.
A High-Order Direct Solver for Helmholtz Equations with Neumann Boundary Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Xian-He; Zhuang, Yu
1997-01-01
In this study, a compact finite-difference discretization is first developed for Helmholtz equations on rectangular domains. Special treatments are then introduced for Neumann and Neumann-Dirichlet boundary conditions to achieve accuracy and separability. Finally, a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based technique is used to yield a fast direct solver. Analytical and experimental results show this newly proposed solver is comparable to the conventional second-order elliptic solver when accuracy is not a primary concern, and is significantly faster than that of the conventional solver if a highly accurate solution is required. In addition, this newly proposed fourth order Helmholtz solver is parallel in nature. It is readily available for parallel and distributed computers. The compact scheme introduced in this study is likely extendible for sixth-order accurate algorithms and for more general elliptic equations.
Dynamical analysis of strongly nonlinear fractional-order Mathieu-Duffing equation.
Wen, Shao-Fang; Shen, Yong-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Na; Yang, Shao-Pu; Xing, Hai-Jun
2016-08-01
In this paper, the computation schemes for periodic solutions of the forced fractional-order Mathieu-Duffing equation are derived based on incremental harmonic balance (IHB) method. The general forms of periodic solutions are founded by the IHB method, which could be useful to obtain the periodic solutions with higher precision. The comparisons of the approximate analytical solutions by the IHB method and numerical integration are fulfilled, and the results certify the correctness and higher precision of the solutions by the IHB method. The dynamical analysis of strongly nonlinear fractional-order Mathieu-Duffing equation is investigated by the IHB method. Then, the effects of the excitation frequency, fractional order, fractional coefficient, and nonlinear stiffness coefficient on the complex dynamical behaviors are analyzed. At last, the detailed results are summarized and the conclusions are made, which present some useful information to analyze and/or control the dynamical response of this kind of system. PMID:27586626
SIVA/DIVA- INITIAL VALUE ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SOLUTION VIA A VARIABLE ORDER ADAMS METHOD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.
1994-01-01
The SIVA/DIVA package is a collection of subroutines for the solution of ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single precision and double precision arithmetic. These solutions are applicable to stiff or nonstiff differential equations of first or second order. SIVA/DIVA requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable order Adams predictor-corrector methods. There is an option for the direct integration of second order equations which can make integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Other capabilities of SIVA/DIVA include: monitoring a user supplied function which can be separate from the derivative; dynamically controlling the step size; displaying or not displaying output at initial, final, and step size change points; saving the estimated local error; and reverse communication where subroutines return to the user for output or computation of derivatives instead of automatically performing calculations. The user must supply SIVA/DIVA with: 1) the number of equations; 2) initial values for the dependent and independent variables, integration stepsize, error tolerance, etc.; and 3) the driver program and operational parameters necessary for subroutine execution. SIVA/DIVA contains an extensive diagnostic message library should errors occur during execution. SIVA/DIVA is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and is machine independent. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 120K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1983 and last updated in 1987.
The second-order post-newtonian orbit equation of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Y.; Fei, B. J.; Sun, W. J.; Ji, C. X.
2008-04-01
The photon's orbital equation is often used to discuss the movement of man-made satellite, small planet and photon in the solar system. It is also applied to the studies of astronomical measure such as VLBI, GPS and XNAV etc. In this paper, based on the second-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX scheme of GTR, it is educed that the second-order post-Newtonian orbit equation of light in axis-symmetrical stationary space-time using Lagrange equation. From here, the orbit equation and deflection angle of light propagating in equatorial plane are got. The conclusions are consistent with that of Schwarzchild and Kerr metric in the precision of measure. Because the oblateness of star is considered, it is more accurate than that of Kerr metric. The great advantage of the second-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX scheme of GTR is satisfy linear superposition. So, the conclusions in the paper can be applied to deal with the motion of light in multiple systems, but in this situation Kerr metric is of no effect.
Travelling wave solutions for higher-order wave equations of kdv type (iii).
Li, Jibin; Rui, Weigou; Long, Yao; He, Bin
2006-01-01
By using the theory of planar dynamical systems to the travelling wave equation of a higher order nonlinear wave equations of KdV type, the existence of smooth solitary wave, kink wave and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are proved. In different regions of the parametric space, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given. In some conditions, exact explicit parametric representations of these waves are obtain. PMID:20361813
High-order all-optical differential equation solver based on microring resonators.
Tan, Sisi; Xiang, Lei; Zou, Jinghui; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhao; Yu, Yu; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang
2013-10-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme to solve all-optical differential equations using microring resonators (MRRs) that is capable of solving first- and second-order linear ordinary differential equations with different constant coefficients. Employing two cascaded MRRs with different radii, an excellent agreement between the numerical simulation and the experimental results is obtained. Due to the inherent merits of silicon-based devices for all-optical computing, such as low power consumption, small size, and high speed, this finding may motivate the development of integrated optical signal processors and further extend optical computing technologies. PMID:24081039
Second order non-linear equations of motion for spinning highly flexible line elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salama, M.; Trubert, M.; Essawi, M.; Utku, S.
1982-01-01
The second order nonlinear equations of motion are formulated for spinning line elements having little or no intrinsic structural stiffness. The derivation is based on the extended Hamilton's principle and includes the effect of initial geometric imperfections (axial, curvature, and twist) on the line element dynamics. For comparison with previous work, the nonlinear equations are reduced to a linearized form frequently found in the literature. The comparison revealed several new spin-stiffening terms that have not been previously identified and/or retained. They combine geometric imperfections, rotary inertia, Coriolis, and gyroscopic terms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yajun; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong; Wang, Jinfeng
2016-03-01
In this article, a Galerkin finite element method combined with second-order time discrete scheme for finding the numerical solution of nonlinear time fractional Cable equation is studied and discussed. At time t_{k-α/2} , a second-order two step scheme with α -parameter is proposed to approximate the first-order derivative, and a weighted discrete scheme covering second-order approximation is used to approximate the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, where the approximate order is higher than the obtained results by the L1-approximation with order (2-α in the existing references. For the spatial direction, Galerkin finite element approximation is presented. The stability of scheme and the rate of convergence in L^2 -norm with O(Δ t^2+(1+Δ t^{-α})h^{m+1}) are derived in detail. Moreover, some numerical tests are shown to support our theoretical results.
Modulational instability of a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation with higher-order nonlinearity.
Qi, Xiu-Ying; Xue, Ju-Kui
2012-07-01
We consider the modulational instability (MI) of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) described by a modified Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with higher-order nonlinearity both analytically and numerically. A new explicit time-dependent criterion for exciting the MI is obtained. It is shown that the higher-order term can either suppress or enhance the MI, which is interesting for control of the system instability. Importantly, we predict that with the help of the higher-order nonlinearity, the MI can also take place in a BEC with repulsively contact interactions. The analytical results are confirmed by direct numerical simulations. PMID:23005569
High-order rogue waves in vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations.
Ling, Liming; Guo, Boling; Zhao, Li-Chen
2014-04-01
We study the dynamics of high-order rogue waves (RWs) in two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We find that four fundamental rogue waves can emerge from second-order vector RWs in the coupled system, in contrast to the high-order ones in single-component systems. The distribution shape can be quadrilateral, triangle, and line structures by varying the proper initial excitations given by the exact analytical solutions. The distribution pattern for vector RWs is more abundant than that for scalar rogue waves. Possibilities to observe these new patterns for rogue waves are discussed for a nonlinear fiber. PMID:24827185
Next-to-leading order Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with resummation
Lappi, T.; Mantysaari, H.
2016-05-03
Here, we solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation at next-to-leading order accuracy including a resummation of large single and double transverse momentum logarithms to all orders. We numerically determine an optimal value for the constant under the large transverse momentum logarithm that enables including a maximal amount of the full NLO result in the resummation. When this value is used, the contribution from the α2s terms without large logarithms is found to be small at large saturation scales and at small dipoles. Close to initial conditions relevant for phenomenological applications, these fixed-order corrections are shown to be numerically important.
Bayat, M.; Khatami, Z.; Mehri, B.
2008-09-17
In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equations of order n. Our method is based on the evaluation of Brouwer's degree theory and making use of the homotopy invariance property of the topological degree and also suitable norm inequalities. For this, we prove two lemmas about the second and third order ODE systems and then present two theorems about the sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic solutions for the even and odd n-order ODE respectively.
Next-to-leading order Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with resummation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lappi, T.; Mäntysaari, H.
2016-05-01
We solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation at next-to-leading order accuracy including a resummation of large single and double transverse momentum logarithms to all orders. We numerically determine an optimal value for the constant under the large transverse momentum logarithm that enables including a maximal amount of the full NLO result in the resummation. When this value is used, the contribution from the αs2 terms without large logarithms is found to be small at large saturation scales and at small dipoles. Close to initial conditions relevant for phenomenological applications, these fixed-order corrections are shown to be numerically important.
Second-order accurate kinetic schemes for the ultra-relativistic Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunik, Matthias; Qamar, Shamsul; Warnecke, Gerald
2003-12-01
A second-order accurate kinetic scheme for the numerical solution of the relativistic Euler equations is presented. These equations describe the flow of a perfect fluid in terms of the particle density n, the spatial part of the four-velocity u and the pressure p. The kinetic scheme, is based on the well-known fact that the relativistic Euler equations are the moments of the relativistic Boltzmann equation of the kinetic theory of gases when the distribution function is a relativistic Maxwellian. The kinetic scheme consists of two phases, the convection phase (free-flight) and collision phase. The velocity distribution function at the end of the free-flight is the solution of the collisionless transport equation. The collision phase instantaneously relaxes the distribution to the local Maxwellian distribution. The fluid dynamic variables of density, velocity, and internal energy are obtained as moments of the velocity distribution function at the end of the free-flight phase. The scheme presented here is an explicit method and unconditionally stable. The conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy as well as the entropy inequality are everywhere exactly satisfied by the solution of the kinetic scheme. The scheme also satisfies positivity and L1-stability. The scheme can be easily made into a total variation diminishing method for the distribution function through a suitable choice of the interpolation strategy. In the numerical case studies the results obtained from the first- and second-order kinetic schemes are compared with the first- and second-order upwind and central schemes. We also calculate the experimental order of convergence and numerical L1-stability of the scheme for smooth initial data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yun-Qing; Chen, Yong
2011-01-01
Based on the method developed by Nucci, the pseudopotentials, Lax pairs and the singularity manifold equations of the generalized fifth-order KdV equation are derived. By choosing different coefficient, the corresponding results and the Bäcklund transformations can be obtained on three conditioners which include Caudrey—Dodd—Gibbon—Sawada—Kotera equation, the Lax equation and the Kaup-kupershmidt equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fehlberg, E.
1974-01-01
Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas of the seventh, sixth, and fifth order were derived for the general second order (vector) differential equation written as the second derivative of x = f(t, x, the first derivative of x). The formulas include a stepsize control procedure, based on a complete coverage of the leading term of the local truncation error in x, and they require no more evaluations per step than the earlier Runge-Kutta formulas for the first derivative of x = f(t, x). The developed formulas are expected to be time saving in comparison to the Runge-Kutta formulas for first-order differential equations, since it is not necessary to convert the second-order differential equations into twice as many first-order differential equations. The examples shown saved from 25 percent to 60 percent more computer time than the earlier formulas for first-order differential equations, and are comparable in accuracy.
Long-time behavior of a finite volume discretization for a fourth order diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maas, Jan; Matthes, Daniel
2016-07-01
We consider a non-standard finite-volume discretization of a strongly non-linear fourth order diffusion equation on the d-dimensional cube, for arbitrary d≥slant 1 . The scheme preserves two important structural properties of the equation: the first is the interpretation as a gradient flow in a mass transportation metric, and the second is an intimate relation to a linear Fokker–Planck equation. Thanks to these structural properties, the scheme possesses two discrete Lyapunov functionals. These functionals approximate the entropy and the Fisher information, respectively, and their dissipation rates converge to the optimal ones in the discrete-to-continuous limit. Using the dissipation, we derive estimates on the long-time asymptotics of the discrete solutions. Finally, we present results from numerical experiments which indicate that our discretization is able to capture significant features of the complex original dynamics, even with a rather coarse spatial resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri, Gholam-Ali; Yomba, Emmanuel
2015-06-01
A generalized (2+1)-dimensional coupled cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation with higher-order nonlinearities is fully investigated for modulational instability regions. We obtained the constraints that allow the modulational instability (MI) procedure to transform the system under consideration into an analysis of the roots of a polynomial equation of the fourth degree. Because of the complexity of the dispersion relation and its dependence on many parameters, we study numerous examples that are presented graphically. A numerical simulation based on a split-step Fourier method is implemented on the above equation. In addition to the general case, we have considered some special cases that allow us to investigate the behavior of MI in different regions.
Zakeri, Gholam-Ali; Yomba, Emmanuel
2015-06-01
A generalized (2+1)-dimensional coupled cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation with higher-order nonlinearities is fully investigated for modulational instability regions. We obtained the constraints that allow the modulational instability (MI) procedure to transform the system under consideration into an analysis of the roots of a polynomial equation of the fourth degree. Because of the complexity of the dispersion relation and its dependence on many parameters, we study numerous examples that are presented graphically. A numerical simulation based on a split-step Fourier method is implemented on the above equation. In addition to the general case, we have considered some special cases that allow us to investigate the behavior of MI in different regions. PMID:26172769
Reduced-order-model based feedback control of the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Ma, Zhanhua; Gates, David; Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John
2012-10-01
In this study, we demonstrate the development of model-based feedback control for stabilization of an unstable equilibrium obtained in the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation is applied; a model reduction technique that has been proved successful in flow control design problems, to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. A model-based feedback controller is then designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR) then a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control. The controllers are then applied on the original linearized and nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulences.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Alvin, K. F.; Belvin, W. Keith
1991-01-01
A second-order form of discrete Kalman filtering equations is proposed as a candidate state estimator for efficient simulations of control-structure interactions in coupled physical coordinate configurations as opposed to decoupled modal coordinates. The resulting matrix equation of the present state estimator consists of the same symmetric, sparse N x N coupled matrices of the governing structural dynamics equations as opposed to unsymmetric 2N x 2N state space-based estimators. Thus, in addition to substantial computational efficiency improvement, the present estimator can be applied to control-structure design optimization for which the physical coordinates associated with the mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the structure are needed instead of modal coordinates.
On Higher-order Corrections to Gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson Equations in the Long Wavelength Limit
W.W. Lee and R.A. Kolesnikov
2009-02-17
In this paper, we present a simple iterative procedure for obtaining the higher order E x B and dE/dt (polarization) drifts associated with the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations in the long wavelength limit of k⊥ρi ~ o(ε) and k⊥L ~ o(1), where ρi is the ion gyroradius, L is the scale length of the background inhomogeneity and ε is a smallness parameter. It can be shown that these new higher order k⊥ρi terms, which are also related to the higher order perturbations of the electrostatic potential Φ, should have negligible effects on turbulent and neoclassical transport in tokamaks, regardless of the form of the background distribution and the amplitude of the perturbation. To address further the issue of a non-Maxwellian plasma, higher order finite Larmor radius terms in the gyrokinetic Poisson's equation have been studied and shown to be unimportant as well. On the other hand, the terms of o(k2⊥ρi2) ~ o(ε) and k⊥L ~ o(1) can indeed have impact on microturbulence, especially in the linear stage, such as those arising from the difference between the guiding center and the gyrocenter densities due to the presence of the background gradients. These results will be compared with a recent study questioning the validity of the commonly used gyrokinetic equations for long time simulations.
Extension of Low Dissipative High Order Hydrodynamics Schemes for MHD Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The objective of this paper is to extend our recently developed highly parallelizable nonlinear stable high order schemes for complex multiscale hydrodynamic applications to the viscous MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) equations. These schemes employed multiresolution wavelets as adaptive numerical dissipation controls to limit the amount and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of dissipation to be used. The new scheme is formulated for both the conservative and non-conservative form of the MHD equations in curvi-linear grids. The three features of the present MHD scheme over existing schemes in the open literature are as follows. First, the scheme is constructed for long-time integrations of shock/turbulence/combustion magnetized flows. Available schemes are too diffusive for long-time integrations and/or turbulence/combustion problems. Second, unlike existing schemes for the conservative MHD equations which suffer from ill-conditioned eigen-decompositions, the present scheme makes use of a well-conditioned eigen-decomposition to solve the conservative form of the MHD equations. This is due to, partly. the fact that the divergence of the magnetic field condition is a different type of constraint from its incompressible Navier-Stokes cousin. Third, a new approach to minimize the numerical error of the divergence free magnetic condition for high order scheme is introduced.
Evaluation of a higher order differencing method for the solution of the fluid flow equations
Tzanos, C.P.
1991-01-01
For the numerical solution of the transport equations that describe the convection and diffusion of various physical quantities (e.g., momentum, heat, material concentrations), first-order upwind schemes are widely used. These schemes are simple and give physically plausible solutions. However, due to false diffusion, at high Peclet or Reynolds numbers, their accuracy on practical meshes is poor. On the other hand, at these numbers, central difference schemes and Galerkin finite-element methods require a fine mesh to eliminate spurious spatial oscillations. A higher order differencing method was recently presented by Tzanos that even with a coarse mesh produces oscillation-free solutions and of superior accuracy than those of the upwind scheme. This method has been successfully tested for the solution of the heat transfer equations with a known flow field, and for the solution of the incompressible fluid flow equations in the vorticity-stream function formulation. In this work this method was evaluated for the solution of the incompressible fluid flow equations in their primitive-variables (velocities, pressure) formulation. The flow in a square cavity was used as a test problem. 6 refs., 1 tab.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pototzky, Anthony S.
2010-01-01
A methodology is described for generating first-order plant equations of motion for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic applications. The description begins with the process of generating data files representing specialized mode-shapes, such as rigid-body and control surface modes, using both PATRAN and NASTRAN analysis. NASTRAN executes the 146 solution sequence using numerous Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) calls to import the mode-shape files and to perform the aeroelastic response analysis. The aeroelastic response analysis calculates and extracts structural frequencies, generalized masses, frequency-dependent generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients, sensor deflections and load coefficients data as text-formatted data files. The data files are then re-sequenced and re-formatted using a custom written FORTRAN program. The text-formatted data files are stored and coefficients for s-plane equations are fitted to the frequency-dependent GAF coefficients using two Interactions of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) programs. With tabular files from stored data created by ISAC, MATLAB generates the first-order aeroservoelastic plant equations of motion. These equations include control-surface actuator, turbulence, sensor and load modeling. Altitude varying root-locus plot and PSD plot results for a model of the F-18 aircraft are presented to demonstrate the capability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.; Freed, A. D.
1991-01-01
New methods for integrating systems of stiff, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations are developed by casting the differential equations into integral form. Nonlinear recursive relations are obtained that allow the solution to a system of equations at time t plus delta t to be obtained in terms of the solution at time t in explicit and implicit forms. Examples of accuracy obtained with the new technique are given by considering systems of nonlinear, first order equations which arise in the study of unified models of viscoplastic behaviors, the spread of the AIDS virus, and predator-prey populations. In general, the new implicit algorithm is unconditionally stable, and has a Jacobian of smaller dimension than that which is acquired by current implicit methods, such as the Euler backward difference algorithm; yet, it gives superior accuracy. The asymptotic explicit and implicit algorithms are suitable for solutions that are of the growing and decaying exponential kinds, respectively, whilst the implicit Euler-Maclaurin algorithm is superior when the solution oscillates, i.e., when there are regions in which both growing and decaying exponential solutions exist.
Maxwell's second- and third-order equations of transfer for non-Maxwellian gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baganoff, D.
1992-01-01
Condensed algebraic forms for Maxwell's second- and third-order equations of transfer are developed for the case of molecules described by either elastic hard spheres, inverse-power potentials, or by Bird's variable hard-sphere model. These hardly reduced, yet exact, equations provide a new point of origin, when using the moment method, in seeking approximate solutions in the kinetic theory of gases for molecular models that are physically more realistic than that provided by the Maxwell model. An important by-product of the analysis when using these second- and third-order relations is that a clear mathematical connection develops between Bird's variable hard-sphere model and that for the inverse-power potential.
Parallel Implementation of a High Order Implicit Collocation Method for the Heat Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kouatchou, Jules; Halem, Milton (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We combine a high order compact finite difference approximation and collocation techniques to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. The resulting method is implicit arid can be parallelized with a strategy that allows parallelization across both time and space. We compare the parallel implementation of the new method with a classical implicit method, namely the Crank-Nicolson method, where the parallelization is done across space only. Numerical experiments are carried out on the SGI Origin 2000.
Scattering theory for the fourth-order Schrödinger equation in low dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pausader, Benoit; Xia, Suxia
2013-08-01
We prove scattering for the defocusing fourth-order Schrödinger equation in low spatial dimensions (1 ⩽ n ⩽ 4). Inspired by the method in (Pausader 2010 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 59 791-822), we utilize a strategy from Kenig and Merle (2006 Invent. Math. 166 645-75) to compensate for the absence of a Morawetz-type estimate, then we use a new virial-type ingredient to finish the proof.
On the Fractional-Order Logistic Equation with Two Different Delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Sayed, Ahmed M. A.; El-Saka, Hala A. A.; El-Maghrabi, Esam M.
2011-04-01
The fractional-order logistic equation with the two different delays r1, r2 > 0, Dα x(t) = ρx(t - r1)[1-x(t -r2)], t > 0 and ρ > 0, with the initial data x(t) = x0, t ≤ 0 are considered. The existence of a unique uniformly stable solution is studied and the Adams-type predictor-corrector method is applied to obtain the numerical solution.
Chaotic attractors based on unstable dissipative systems via third-order differential equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos-Cantón, E.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present an approach how to yield 1D, 2D and 3D-grid multi-scroll chaotic systems in R3 based on unstable dissipative systems via third-order differential equation. This class of systems is constructed by a switching control law(SCL) changing the equilibrium point of an unstable dissipative system. The switching control law that governs the position of the equilibrium point varies according to the number of scrolls displayed in the attractor.
Higher-order numerical solutions using cubic splines. [for partial differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.
1975-01-01
A cubic spline collocation procedure has recently been developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. In the present paper, this spline procedure is reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy for a non-uniform mesh and overall fourth-order accuracy for a uniform mesh. Solutions using both spline procedures, as well as three-point finite difference methods, will be presented for several model problems.-
New high order iterative scheme in the solution of convection-diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Sam Teek; Ali, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd.
2014-07-01
In this paper, a new fourth-order nine-point finite difference scheme based on the rotated grid combined with the traditional Successive Over Relaxation (SOR)-type iterative method is discussed in solving the two-dimensional convection-diffusion partial differential equation (pde) with variable coefficients. Numerical experiments are carried out to verify the high accuracy solution of the scheme. Comparisons with the exact solutions also show that the rotated scheme converges faster than the existing compact scheme of the same order.
POD/DEIM nonlinear model order reduction of an ADI implicit shallow water equations model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ştefănescu, R.; Navon, I. M.
2013-03-01
In the present paper we consider a 2-D shallow-water equations (SWE) model on a β-plane solved using an alternating direction fully implicit (ADI) finite-difference scheme on a rectangular domain. The scheme was shown to be unconditionally stable for the linearized equations. The discretization yields a number of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. We then use a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the SWE model. Due to the model nonlinearities, the computational complexity of the reduced model still depends on the number of variables of the full shallow - water equations model. By employing the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) we reduce the computational complexity of the reduced order model due to its depending on the nonlinear full dimension model and regain the full model reduction expected from the POD model. To emphasize the CPU gain in performance due to use of POD/DEIM, we also propose testing an explicit Euler finite difference scheme (EE) as an alternative to the ADI implicit scheme for solving the swallow water equations model. We then proceed to assess the efficiency of POD/DEIM as a function of number of spatial discretization points, time steps, and POD basis functions. As was expected, our numerical experiments showed that the CPU time performances of POD/DEIM schemes are proportional to the number of mesh points. Once the number of spatial discretization points exceeded 10000 and for 90 DEIM interpolation points, the CPU time decreased by a factor of 10 in case of POD/DEIM implicit SWE scheme and by a factor of 15 for the POD/DEIM explicit SWE scheme in comparison with the corresponding POD SWE schemes. Moreover, our numerical tests revealed that if the number of points selected by DEIM algorithm reached 50, the approximation errors due to POD/DEIM and POD reduced systems have the same orders of magnitude, thus supporting the theoretical results existing in the literature.
Fourth-order partial differential equation noise removal on welding images
Halim, Suhaila Abd; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Sulong, Tuan Nurul Norazura Tuan; Manurung, Yupiter HP
2015-10-22
Partial differential equation (PDE) has become one of the important topics in mathematics and is widely used in various fields. It can be used for image denoising in the image analysis field. In this paper, a fourth-order PDE is discussed and implemented as a denoising method on digital images. The fourth-order PDE is solved computationally using finite difference approach and then implemented on a set of digital radiographic images with welding defects. The performance of the discretized model is evaluated using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Simulation is carried out on the discretized model on different level of Gaussian noise in order to get the maximum PSNR value. The convergence criteria chosen to determine the number of iterations required is measured based on the highest PSNR value. Results obtained show that the fourth-order PDE model produced promising results as an image denoising tool compared with median filter.
A Fourth Order Difference Scheme for the Maxwell Equations on Yee Grid
Fathy, Aly E; Wilson, Joshua L
2008-09-01
The Maxwell equations are solved by a long-stencil fourth order finite difference method over a Yee grid, in which different physical variables are located at staggered mesh points. A careful treatment of the numerical values near the boundary is introduced, which in turn leads to a 'symmetric image' formula at the 'ghost' grid points. Such a symmetric formula assures the stability of the boundary extrapolation. In turn, the fourth order discrete curl operator for the electric and magnetic vectors gives a complete set of eigenvalues in the purely imaginary axis. To advance the dynamic equations, the four-stage Runge-Kutta method is utilized, which results in a full fourth order accuracy in both time and space. A stability constraint for the time step is formulated at both the theoretical and numerical levels, using an argument of stability domain. An accuracy check is presented to verify the fourth order precision, using a comparison between exact solution and numerical solutions at a fixed final time. In addition, some numerical simulations of a loss-less rectangular cavity are also carried out and the frequency is measured precisely.
A high-order conservative collocation scheme and its application to global shallow-water equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, C.; Li, X.; Shen, X.; Xiao, F.
2015-02-01
In this paper, an efficient and conservative collocation method is proposed and used to develop a global shallow-water model. Being a nodal type high-order scheme, the present method solves the pointwise values of dependent variables as the unknowns within each control volume. The solution points are arranged as Gauss-Legendre points to achieve high-order accuracy. The time evolution equations to update the unknowns are derived under the flux reconstruction (FR) framework (Huynh, 2007). Constraint conditions used to build the spatial reconstruction for the flux function include the pointwise values of flux function at the solution points, which are computed directly from the dependent variables, as well as the numerical fluxes at the boundaries of the computational element, which are obtained as Riemann solutions between the adjacent elements. Given the reconstructed flux function, the time tendencies of the unknowns can be obtained directly from the governing equations of differential form. The resulting schemes have super convergence and rigorous numerical conservativeness. A three-point scheme of fifth-order accuracy is presented and analyzed in this paper. The proposed scheme is adopted to develop the global shallow-water model on the cubed-sphere grid, where the local high-order reconstruction is very beneficial for the data communications between adjacent patches. We have used the standard benchmark tests to verify the numerical model, which reveals its great potential as a candidate formulation for developing high-performance general circulation models.
Higher-Order Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Methods
Hirata, So
2004-07-01
The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods with cluster and linear excitation operators truncated after double, triple, or quadruple excitation level (EOM-CCSD, EOM-CCSDT, and EOM-CCSDTQ) for excitation energies, excited-state dipole moments, and transition moments, and also related Λ equation solvers for coupled-cluster (CC) methods through and up to connected quadruple excitation (CCSD, CCSDT, and CCSDTQ) have been implemented into programs that execute in parallel, taking advantage of spin, spatial (real Abelian), and permutation symmetries simultaneously and fully (within the spin-orbital formalisms). This has been achieved by virtue of the new implementation paradigm of using an algebraic and symbolic manipulation program that automated the formula derivation and implementation altogether. The EOM-CC methods and CC Λ equations introduce a new class of second quantized ansatz with a de-excitation operator ( ), an arbitrary number of excitation operators ( ), and a physical (e.g., the Hamiltonian) operator ( ), the tensor contraction expressions of which can be performed in the order of or at the minimal peak operation cost. Any intermediate tensor resulting from either contraction order is shown to have at most six groups of permutable indices, which finding is used to guide the computer-synthesized programs to fully exploit the permutation symmetry of any tensor to minimize the arithmetic and memory costs.
High-order nite volume WENO schemes for the shallow water equations with dry states
Xing, Yulong; Shu, Chi-wang
2011-01-01
The shallow water equations are used to model flows in rivers and coastal areas, and have wide applications in ocean, hydraulic engineering, and atmospheric modeling. These equations have still water steady state solutions in which the flux gradients are balanced by the source term. It is desirable to develop numerical methods which preserve exactly these steady state solutions. Another main difficulty usually arising from the simulation of dam breaks and flood waves flows is the appearance of dry areas where no water is present. If no special attention is paid, standard numerical methods may fail near dry/wet front and produce non-physical negative water height. A high-order accurate finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed in this paper to address these difficulties and to provide an efficient and robust method for solving the shallow water equations. A simple, easy-to-implement positivity-preserving limiter is introduced. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are provided to verify the positivity-preserving property, well-balanced property, high-order accuracy, and good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.
Primitive-Equation-Based Low-Order Models with Seasonal Cycle. Part I: Model Construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achatz, Ulrich; Opsteegh, J. D.
2003-02-01
In a continuation of previous investigations on deterministic reduced atmosphere models with compact state space representation, two main modifications are introduced. First, primitive equation dynamics is used to describe the nonlinear interactions between resolved scales. Second, the seasonal cycle in its main aspects is incorporated. Stability considerations lead to a gridpoint formulation of the basic equations in the dynamical core. A total energy metric consistent with the equations can be derived, provided surface pressure is treated as constant in time. Using this metric, a reduction in the number of degrees of freedom is achieved by a projection onto three-dimensional empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), each of them encompassing simultaneously all prognostic variables (winds and temperature). The impact of unresolved scales and not explicitly described physical processes is incorporated via an empirical linear parameterization. The basis patterns having been determined from 3 sigma levels from a GCM dataset, it is found that, in spite of the presence of a seasonal cycle, at most 500 are needed for describing 90% of the variance produced by the GCM. If compared to previous low-order models with quasigeostrophic dynamics, the reduced models exhibit at this and lower-order truncations, a considerably enhanced capability to predict GCM tendencies. An analysis of the dynamical impact of the empirical parameterization is given, hinting at an important role in controlling the seasonally dependent storm track dynamics.
The spatial fourth-order energy-conserved S-FDTD scheme for Maxwell's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Dong; Yuan, Qiang
2013-06-01
In this paper we develop a new spatial fourth-order energy-conserved splitting finite-difference time-domain method for Maxwell's equations. Based on the staggered grids, the splitting technique is applied to lead to a three-stage energy-conserved splitting scheme. At each stage, using the spatial fourth-order difference operators on the strict interior nodes by a linear combination of two central differences, one with a spatial step and the other with three spatial steps, we first propose the spatial high-order near boundary differences on the near boundary nodes which ensure the scheme to preserve energy conservations and to have fourth-order accuracy in space step. The proposed scheme has the important properties: energy-conserved, unconditionally stable, non-dissipative, high-order accurate, and computationally efficient. We first prove that the scheme satisfies energy conversations and is in unconditional stability. We then prove the optimal error estimates of fourth-order in spatial step and second-order in time step for the electric and magnetic fields and obtain the convergence and error estimate of divergence-free as well. Numerical dispersion analysis and numerical experiments are presented to confirm our theoretical results.
Fourth-order convergence of a compact scheme for the one-dimensional biharmonic equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fishelov, D.; Ben-Artzi, M.; Croisille, J.-P.
2012-09-01
The convergence of a fourth-order compact scheme to the one-dimensional biharmonic problem is established in the case of general Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compact scheme invokes value of the unknown function as well as Pade approximations of its first-order derivative. Using the Pade approximation allows us to approximate the first-order derivative within fourth-order accuracy. However, although the truncation error of the discrete biharmonic scheme is of fourth-order at interior point, the truncation error drops to first-order at near-boundary points. Nonetheless, we prove that the scheme retains its fourth-order (optimal) accuracy. This is done by a careful inspection of the matrix elements of the discrete biharmonic operator. A number of numerical examples corroborate this effect. We also present a study of the eigenvalue problem uxxxx = νu. We compute and display the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions related to the continuous and the discrete problems. By the positivity of the eigenvalues, one can deduce the stability of of the related time-dependent problem ut = -uxxxx. In addition, we study the eigenvalue problem uxxxx = νuxx. This is related to the stability of the linear time-dependent equation uxxt = νuxxxx. Its continuous and discrete eigenvalues and eigenfunction (or eigenvectors) are computed and displayed graphically.
On p -form theories with gauge invariant second order field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deffayet, Cédric; Mukohyama, Shinji; Sivanesan, Vishagan
2016-04-01
We explore field theories of a single p -form with equations of motions of order strictly equal to 2 and gauge invariance. We give a general method for the classification of such theories which are extensions to the p -forms of the Galileon models for scalars. Our classification scheme allows us to compute an upper bound on the number of different such theories depending on p and on the space-time dimension. We are also able to build a nontrivial Galileon-like theory for a 3-form with gauge invariance and an action which is polynomial into the derivatives of the form. This theory has gauge invariant field equations but an action which is not, like a Chern-Simons theory. Hence the recently discovered no-go theorem stating that there are no nontrivial gauge invariant vector Galileons (which we are also able here to confirm with our method) does not extend to other odd-p cases.
First and second order operator splitting methods for the phase field crystal equation
Lee, Hyun Geun; Shin, Jaemin; Lee, June-Yub
2015-10-15
In this paper, we present operator splitting methods for solving the phase field crystal equation which is a model for the microstructural evolution of two-phase systems on atomic length and diffusive time scales. A core idea of the methods is to decompose the original equation into linear and nonlinear subequations, in which the linear subequation has a closed-form solution in the Fourier space. We apply a nonlinear Newton-type iterative method to solve the nonlinear subequation at the implicit time level and thus a considerably large time step can be used. By combining these subequations, we achieve the first- and second-order accuracy in time. We present numerical experiments to show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods.
High-order ENO methods for the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.
1991-01-01
The adaptive stencil concepts of ENO (Essentially Non-Oscillatory) methods are applied to the laminar Navier-Stokes equations to yield a high-order, time-accurate algorithm with a shock-capturing capability. The method targets problems in the areas of nonlinear acoustics, compressible transition, and turbulence which, due to the presence of shocks or complex geometries, are not easily solved by spectral methods. The present approach has been implemented and tested for the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a transformed curvilinear coordinate system. Validation results are presented for a variety of problems which verify the method's accuracy properties and shock capturing capabilities, as well as demonstrate its use as a direct simulation tool.
Fisher information of special functions and second-order differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yáñez, R. J.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Zarzo, A.; Dehesa, J. S.
2008-08-01
We investigate a basic question of analytic information theory, namely, the evaluation of the Fisher information and the relative Fisher information with respect to a non-negative function, for the probability distributions obtained by squaring the special functions of mathematical physics which are solutions of second-order differential equations. We obtain explicit expressions for these information-theoretic properties via the expectation values of the coefficients of the differential equation. We illustrate our approach for various nonrelativistic D-dimensional wavefunctions and some special functions of physicomathematical interest. Emphasis is made in the Nikiforov-Uvarov hypergeometric-type functions, which include and generalize the Hermite functions and the Gauss and Kummer hypergeometric functions, among others.
Collapse for the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation
Achilleos, V.; Diamantidis, S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Horikis, T. P.; Karachalios, N. I.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2016-02-01
We examine conditions for finite-time collapse of the solutions of the higher-order nonlinear Schr odinger (NLS) equation incorporating third-order dispersion, self-steepening, linear and nonlinear gain and loss, and Raman scattering; this is a system that appears in many physical contexts as a more realistic generalization of the integrable NLS. By using energy arguments, it is found that the collapse dynamics is chiefly controlled by the linear/nonlinear gain/loss strengths. We identify a critical value of the linear gain, separating the possible decay of solutions to the trivial zero-state, from collapse. The numerical simulations, performed for a wide class of initial data,more » are found to be in very good agreement with the analytical results, and reveal long-time stability properties of localized solutions. The role of the higher-order effects to the transient dynamics is also revealed in these simulations.« less
Rapidity window dependences of higher order cumulants and diffusion master equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo
2015-10-01
We study the rapidity window dependences of higher order cumulants of conserved charges observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The time evolution and the rapidity window dependence of the non-Gaussian fluctuations are described by the diffusion master equation. Analytic formulas for the time evolution of cumulants in a rapidity window are obtained for arbitrary initial conditions. We discuss that the rapidity window dependences of the non-Gaussian cumulants have characteristic structures reflecting the non-equilibrium property of fluctuations, which can be observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions with the present detectors. It is argued that various information on the thermal and transport properties of the hot medium can be revealed experimentally by the study of the rapidity window dependences, especially by the combined use, of the higher order cumulants. Formulas of higher order cumulants for a probability distribution composed of sub-probabilities, which are useful for various studies of non-Gaussian cumulants, are also presented.
Giraldo, Francis X. . E-mail: giraldo@nrlmry.navy.mil
2006-05-20
High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere are presented. The DG method can be characterized as the fusion of finite elements with finite volumes. This DG formulation uses high-order Lagrange polynomials on the triangle using nodal sets up to 15th order. The finite element-type area integrals are evaluated using order 2N Gauss cubature rules. This leads to a full mass matrix which, unlike for continuous Galerkin (CG) methods such as the spectral element (SE) method presented in Giraldo and Warburton [A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 129-150], is small, local and efficient to invert. Two types of finite volume-type flux integrals are studied: a set based on Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points (order 2N - 1) and a set based on Gauss quadrature points (order 2N). Furthermore, we explore conservation and advection forms as well as strong and weak forms. Seven test cases are used to compare the different methods including some with scale contractions and shock waves. All three strong forms performed extremely well with the strong conservation form with 2N integration being the most accurate of the four DG methods studied. The strong advection form with 2N integration performed extremely well even for flows with shock waves. The strong conservation form with 2N - 1 integration yielded results almost as good as those with 2N while being less expensive. All the DG methods performed better than the SE method for almost all the test cases, especially for those with strong discontinuities. Finally, the DG methods required less computing time than the SE method due to the local nature of the mass matrix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.
A general approach for high order absorbing boundary conditions for the Helmholtz equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarmi, Asaf; Turkel, Eli
2013-06-01
When solving a scattering problem in an unbounded space, one needs to implement the Sommerfeld condition as a boundary condition at infinity, to ensure no energy penetrates the system. In practice, solving a scattering problem involves truncating the region and implementing a boundary condition on an artificial outer boundary. Bayliss, Gunzburger and Turkel (BGT) suggested an Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) as a sequence of operators aimed at annihilating elements from the solution's series representation. Their method was practical only up to a second order condition. Later, Hagstrom and Hariharan (HH) suggested a method which used auxiliary functions and enabled implementation of higher order conditions. We compare various absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) and introduce a new method to construct high order ABCs, generalizing the HH method. We then derive from this general method ABCs based on different series representations of the solution to the Helmholtz equation - in polar, elliptical and spherical coordinates. Some of these ABCs are generalizations of previously constructed ABCs and some are new. These new ABCs produce accurate solutions to the Helmholtz equation, which are much less dependent on the various parameters of the problem, such as the value of k, or the eccentricity of the ellipse. In addition to constructing new ABCs, our general method sheds light on the connection between various ABCs. Computations are presented to verify the high accuracy of these new ABCs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Juhi; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jing-Mei; Xiong, Tao
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop a family of high order asymptotic preserving schemes for some discrete-velocity kinetic equations under a diffusive scaling, that in the asymptotic limit lead to macroscopic models such as the heat equation, the porous media equation, the advection-diffusion equation, and the viscous Burgers' equation. Our approach is based on the micro-macro reformulation of the kinetic equation which involves a natural decomposition of the equation to the equilibrium and non-equilibrium parts. To achieve high order accuracy and uniform stability as well as to capture the correct asymptotic limit, two new ingredients are employed in the proposed methods: discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spatial discretization of arbitrary order of accuracy with suitable numerical fluxes; high order globally stiffly accurate implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta scheme in time equipped with a properly chosen implicit-explicit strategy. Formal asymptotic analysis shows that the proposed scheme in the limit of ε → 0 is a consistent high order discretization for the limiting equation. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the stability and high order accuracy of the proposed schemes together with their performance in the limit. Our methods are also tested for the continuous-velocity one-group transport equation in slab geometry and for several examples with spatially varying parameters.
First Order Solutions for Klein-Gordon-Maxwell Equations in a Specific Curved Manifold Case
Murariu, Gabriel
2009-05-22
The aim of this paper is to study the SO(3,1)xU(1) gauge minimally coupled charged spinless field to a spherically symmetric curved space-time. It is derived the first order analytically approximation solution for the system of Klein-Gordon-Maxwell equations. Using these solutions, it evaluated the system electric charge density. The considered space -time manifold generalize an anterior studied one. The chosen space time configuration is of S diagonal type from the MAPLE GRTensor II metrics package.
Bifurcation and chaos in a perturbed soliton equation with higher-order nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jun; Zhang, Rongbo; Jin, Guojuan
2011-12-01
The influence of a soliton system under external perturbation is considered. We take the compound Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers-type equation with nonlinear terms of any order as an example, and investigate numerically the chaotic behavior of the system with periodic forcing. It is shown that dynamical chaos can occur when we appropriately choose system parameters. Abundant bifurcation structures and different routes to chaos, such as period doubling, intermittent bifurcation and crisis, are found by applying bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps and phase portraits. To characterize the chaotic behavior of this system, a spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimensions of attractors are also employed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burlutskaya, M. Sh.
2014-01-01
The Fourier method is used to find a classical solution of the mixed problem for a first-order differential equation with involution and periodic boundary conditions. The application of the Fourier method is substantiated using refined asymptotic formulas obtained for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the corresponding spectral problem. The Fourier series representing the formal solution is transformed using certain techniques, and the possibility of its term-by-term differentiation is proved. Minimal requirements are imposed on the initial data of the problem.
Second-order bosonic Kadanoff-Baym equations for plasmon-accompanied optical absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schüler, Michael; Pavlyukh, Yaroslav
2016-03-01
The availability of ultra-short and strong light sources opens the door for a variety of new experiments such as transient absorption, where optical properties of systems can be studied in extreme nonequilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium Green's function formalism is an efficient approach to investigate these processes theoretically. Here we apply the method to the light-matter interaction of the magnesium 2p core level accompanied by electron-plasmon interaction due to collective excitations in the conduction band. The plasmons are described as massive bosonic quasi-particle excitations, leading to a second-order equations of motion, requiring a new approach for their propagation.
On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel
2016-05-01
We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.
Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi
1996-01-01
An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.
Numerical simulations with a first-order BSSN formulation of Einstein's field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. David; Diener, Peter; Field, Scott E.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Herrmann, Frank; Mroué, Abdul H.; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel; Wagman, Michael
2012-04-01
We present a new fully first-order strongly hyperbolic representation of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of Einstein’s equations with optional constraint damping terms. We describe the characteristic fields of the system, discuss its hyperbolicity properties, and present two numerical implementations and simulations: one using finite differences, adaptive mesh refinement, and, in particular, binary black holes, and another one using the discontinuous Galerkin method in spherical symmetry. The results of this paper constitute a first step in an effort to combine the robustness of Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura evolutions with very high accuracy numerical techniques, such as spectral collocation multidomain or discontinuous Galerkin methods.
Numerical simulations with a First order BSSN formulation of Einstein's field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, David; Diener, Peter; Field, Scott; Hesthaven, Jan; Herrmann, Frank; Mroue, Abdul; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel; Wagman, Michael
2012-03-01
We present a new fully first order strongly hyperbolic representation of the BSSN formulation of Einstein's equations with optional constraint damping terms. In particular, we describe the characteristic fields of the system, discuss its hyperbolicity properties, and present two numerical implementations and simulations: one using finite differences, adaptive mesh refinement and in particular binary black holes, and another one using the discontinuous Galerkin method in spherical symmetry. These results constitute a first step in an effort to combine the robustness of BSSN evolutions with very high accuracy numerical techniques, such as spectral collocation multi-domain or discontinuous Galerkin methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Guasti, M.
2015-03-01
The solution to a non-autonomous second order ordinary differential equation is presented. The real function, dependent on the differentiation variable, is a squared hyperbolic tangent function plus a term that involves the quotient of hyperbolic functions. This function varies from one limiting value to another without having any singularities. The solution is remarkably simple and involves only trigonometric and hyperbolic trigonometric functions. The solution is analyzed in the context of wave propagation in an inhomogeneous one-dimensional medium. The profile is shown to act as a perfect anti-reflection interface, providing a possible alternative route to the fabrication of reflectionless surfaces.
Divergence Free High Order Filter Methods for the Compressible MHD Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yea, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern
2003-01-01
The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been achieved. The new scheme is shown to provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field numerical error. Standard diver- gence cleaning is not required by the present filter approach. For certain MHD test cases, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields has been achieved.
High Order Filter Methods for the Non-ideal Compressible MHD Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern
2003-01-01
The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been achieved. The new scheme is shown to provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field numerical error. Standard divergence cleaning is not required by the present filter approach. For certain non-ideal MHD test cases, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields has been achieved.
Crespi, Catherine M.; Wong, Weng Kee; Mishra, Shiraz I.
2009-01-01
SUMMARY In cluster randomized trials, it is commonly assumed that the magnitude of the correlation among subjects within a cluster is constant across clusters. However, the correlation may in fact be heterogeneous and depend on cluster characteristics. Accurate modeling of the correlation has the potential to improve inference. We use second-order generalized estimating equations to model heterogeneous correlation in cluster randomized trials. Using simulation studies we show that accurate modeling of heterogeneous correlation can improve inference when the correlation is high or varies by cluster size. We apply the methods to a cluster randomized trial of an intervention to promote breast cancer screening. PMID:19109804
Dissipative issue of high-order shock capturing schemes with non-convex equations of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heuzé, Olivier; Jaouen, Stéphane; Jourdren, Hervé
2009-02-01
It is well known that, closed with a non-convex equation of state (EOS), the Riemann problem for the Euler equations allows non-standard waves, such as split shocks, sonic isentropic compressions or rarefaction shocks, to occur. Loss of convexity then leads to non-uniqueness of entropic or Lax solutions, which can only be resolved via the Liu-Oleinik criterion (equivalent to the existence of viscous profiles for all admissible shock waves). This suggests that in order to capture the physical solution, a numerical scheme must provide an appropriate level of dissipation. A legitimate question then concerns the ability of high-order shock capturing schemes to naturally select such a solution. To investigate this question and evaluate modern as well as future high-order numerical schemes, there is therefore a crucial need for well-documented benchmarks. A thermodynamically consistent C∞ non-convex EOS that can be easily introduced in Eulerian as well as Lagrangian hydrocodes for test purposes is here proposed, along with a reference solution for an initial value problem exhibiting a complex composite wave pattern (the Bizarrium test problem). Two standard Lagrangian numerical approaches, both based on a finite volume method, are then reviewed (vNR and Godunov-type schemes) and evaluated on this Riemann problem. In particular, a complete description of several state-of-the-art high-order Godunov-type schemes applicable to general EOSs is provided. We show that this particular test problem reveals quite severe when working on high-order schemes, and recommend it as a benchmark for devising new limiters and/or next-generation highly accurate schemes.
Computational Study of Chaotic and Ordered Solutions of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smyrlis, Yiorgos S.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.
1996-01-01
We report the results of extensive numerical experiments on the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation in the strongly chaotic regime as the viscosity parameter is decreased and increasingly more linearly unstable modes enter the dynamics. General initial conditions are used and evolving states do not assume odd-parity. A large number of numerical experiments are employed in order to obtain quantitative characteristics of the dynamics. We report on different routes to chaos and provide numerical evidence and construction of strange attractors with self-similar characteristics. As the 'viscosity' parameter decreases the dynamics becomes increasingly more complicated and chaotic. In particular it is found that regular behavior in the form of steady state or steady state traveling waves is supported amidst the time-dependent and irregular motions. We show that multimodal steady states emerge and are supported on decreasing windows in parameter space. In addition we invoke a self-similarity property of the equation, to show that these profiles are obtainable from global fixed point attractors of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation at much larger values of the viscosity.
A High Order Finite Difference Scheme with Sharp Shock Resolution for the Euler Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerritsen, Margot; Olsson, Pelle
1996-01-01
We derive a high-order finite difference scheme for the Euler equations that satisfies a semi-discrete energy estimate, and present an efficient strategy for the treatment of discontinuities that leads to sharp shock resolution. The formulation of the semi-discrete energy estimate is based on a symmetrization of the Euler equations that preserves the homogeneity of the flux vector, a canonical splitting of the flux derivative vector, and the use of difference operators that satisfy a discrete analogue to the integration by parts procedure used in the continuous energy estimate. Around discontinuities or sharp gradients, refined grids are created on which the discrete equations are solved after adding a newly constructed artificial viscosity. The positioning of the sub-grids and computation of the viscosity are aided by a detection algorithm which is based on a multi-scale wavelet analysis of the pressure grid function. The wavelet theory provides easy to implement mathematical criteria to detect discontinuities, sharp gradients and spurious oscillations quickly and efficiently.
Fourth-order compact schemes for the numerical simulation of coupled Burgers' equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatt, H. P.; Khaliq, A. Q. M.
2016-03-01
This paper introduces two new modified fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta (ETDRK) schemes in combination with a global fourth-order compact finite difference scheme (in space) for direct integration of nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equations in their original form without using any transformations or linearization techniques. One scheme is a modification of the Cox and Matthews ETDRK4 scheme based on (1 , 3) -Padé approximation and other is a modification of Krogstad's ETDRK4-B scheme based on (2 , 2) -Padé approximation. Efficient versions of the proposed schemes are obtained by using a partial fraction splitting technique of rational functions. The stability properties of the proposed schemes are studied by plotting the stability regions, which provide an explanation of their behavior for dispersive and dissipative problems. The order of convergence of the schemes is examined empirically and found that the modification of ETDRK4 converges with the expected rate even if the initial data are nonsmooth. On the other hand, modification of ETDRK4-B suffers with order reduction if the initial data are nonsmooth. Several numerical experiments are carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and adaptability of the proposed schemes. The numerical results indicate that the proposed schemes provide better accuracy than other schemes available in the literature. Moreover, the results show that the modification of ETDRK4 is reliable and yields more accurate results than modification of ETDRK4-B, while solving problems with nonsmooth data or with high Reynolds number.
An equation of state for the financial markets: connecting order flow to price formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerig, Austin; Mike, Szabolcs; Doyne Farmer, J.
2006-03-01
Many of the peculiarities of price formation in the financial marketplace can be understood as the result of a few regularities in the placement and removal of trading orders. Based on a large data set from the London Stock Exchange we show that the distribution of prices where people place orders to buy or sell follows a surprisingly simple functional form that depends on the current best prices. In addition, whether or not an order is to buy or sell is described by a long-memory process, and the cancellation of orders can be described by a few simple rules. When these results are combined, simply by following the rules of the continuous double auction, the resulting simulation model produces good predictions for the distribution of price changes and transaction costs without any adjustment of parameters. We use the model to empirically derive equations of state relating order flow and the statistical properties of prices. In contrast to previous conjectures, our results demonstrate that these distributions are not universal, but rather depend on parameters of individual markets. They also show that factors other than supply and demand play an important role in price formation.
Wang, Wei; Shu, Chi-Wang; Yee, H.C.; Sjögreen, Björn
2012-01-01
A new high order finite-difference method utilizing the idea of Harten ENO subcell resolution method is proposed for chemical reactive flows and combustion. In reaction problems, when the reaction time scale is very small, e.g., orders of magnitude smaller than the fluid dynamics time scales, the governing equations will become very stiff. Wrong propagation speed of discontinuity may occur due to the underresolved numerical solution in both space and time. The present proposed method is a modified fractional step method which solves the convection step and reaction step separately. In the convection step, any high order shock-capturing method can be used. In the reaction step, an ODE solver is applied but with the computed flow variables in the shock region modified by the Harten subcell resolution idea. For numerical experiments, a fifth-order finite-difference WENO scheme and its anti-diffusion WENO variant are considered. A wide range of 1D and 2D scalar and Euler system test cases are investigated. Studies indicate that for the considered test cases, the new method maintains high order accuracy in space for smooth flows, and for stiff source terms with discontinuities, it can capture the correct propagation speed of discontinuities in very coarse meshes with reasonable CFL numbers.
Error analysis of exponential integrators for oscillatory second-order differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Volker; Hochbruck, Marlis
2006-05-01
In this paper, we analyse a family of exponential integrators for second-order differential equations in which high-frequency oscillations in the solution are generated by a linear part. Conditions are given which guarantee that the integrators allow second-order error bounds independent of the product of the step size with the frequencies. Our convergence analysis generalizes known results on the mollified impulse method by García-Archilla, Sanz-Serna and Skeel (1998, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 30 930-63) and on Gautschi-type exponential integrators (Hairer E, Lubich Ch and Wanner G 2002 Geometric Numerical Integration (Berlin: Springer), Hochbruck M and Lubich Ch 1999 Numer. Math. 83 403-26).
Symmetries and integrability of a fourth-order Euler-Bernoulli beam equation
Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Zaman, F. D.; Mahomed, F. M.
2010-05-15
The complete symmetry group classification of the fourth-order Euler-Bernoulli ordinary differential equation, where the elastic modulus and the area moment of inertia are constants and the applied load is a function of the normal displacement, is obtained. We perform the Lie and Noether symmetry analysis of this problem. In the Lie analysis, the principal Lie algebra which is one dimensional extends in four cases, viz. the linear, exponential, general power law, and a negative fractional power law. It is further shown that two cases arise in the Noether classification with respect to the standard Lagrangian. That is, the linear case for which the Noether algebra dimension is one less than the Lie algebra dimension as well as the negative fractional power law. In the latter case the Noether algebra is three dimensional and is isomorphic to the Lie algebra which is sl(2,R). This exceptional case, although admitting the nonsolvable algebra sl(2,R), remarkably allows for a two-parameter family of exact solutions via the Noether integrals. The Lie reduction gives a second-order ordinary differential equation which has nonlocal symmetry.
Cosmology in generalized Horndeski theories with second-order equations of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2014-08-01
We study the cosmology of an extended version of Horndeski theories with second-order equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background. In addition to a dark energy field χ associated with the gravitational sector, we take into account multiple scalar fields ϕI (I =1,2,…,N-1) characterized by the Lagrangians P(I)(XI) with XI=∂μϕI∂μϕI. These additional scalar fields can model the perfect fluids of radiation and nonrelativistic matter. We derive propagation speeds of scalar and tensor perturbations as well as conditions for the absence of ghosts. The theories beyond Horndeski induce nontrivial modifications to all the propagation speeds of N scalar fields, but the modifications to those for the matter fields ϕI are generally suppressed relative to that for the dark energy field χ. We apply our results to the covariantized Galileon with an Einstein-Hilbert term in which partial derivatives of the Minkowski Galileon are replaced by covariant derivatives. Unlike the covariant Galileon with second-order equations of motion in general space-time, the scalar propagation speed square cs12 associated with the field χ becomes negative during the matter era for late-time tracking solutions, so the two Galileon theories can be clearly distinguished at the level of linear cosmological perturbations.
High-order numerical solution of the nonlinear Helmholtz equation with axial symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruch, G.; Fibich, G.; Tsynkov, S.
2007-07-01
The nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation models the propagation of intense laser beams in a Kerr medium. The NLH takes into account the effects of nonparaxiality and backward scattering that are neglected in the more common nonlinear Schrodinger model. In [G. Fibich, S. Tsynkov, High-order two-way artificial boundary conditions for nonlinear wave propagation with backscattering, J. Comput. Phys., 171 (2001) 632-677] and [G. Fibich, S. Tsynkov, Numerical solution of the nonlinear Helmholtz equation using nonorthogonal expansions, J. Comput. Phys., 210 (2005) 183-224], a novel high-order numerical method for solving the NLH was introduced and implemented in the case of a two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The NLH was solved iteratively, using the separation of variables and a special nonlocal two-way artificial boundary condition applied to the resulting decoupled linear systems. In the current paper, we propose a major improvement to the previous method. Instead of using LU decomposition after the separation of variables, we employ an efficient summation rule that evaluates convolution with the discrete Green's function. We also extend the method to a three-dimensional setting with cylindrical symmetry, under both Dirichlet and Sommerfeld-type transverse boundary conditions.
The most general second-order field equations of bi-scalar-tensor theory in four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohashi, Seiju; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2015-07-01
The Horndeski theory is known as the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In this paper, we explore the bi-scalar extension of the Horndeski theory. Following Horndeski's approach, we determine all the possible terms appearing in the second-order field equations of the bi-scalar-tensor theory. We compare the field equations with those of the generalized multi-Galileons, and confirm that our theory contains new terms that are not included in the latter theory. We also discuss the construction of the Lagrangian leading to our most general field equations.
High Order Finite Volume Nonlinear Schemes for the Boltzmann Transport Equation
Bihari, B L; Brown, P N
2005-03-29
The authors apply the nonlinear WENO (Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory) scheme to the spatial discretization of the Boltzmann Transport Equation modeling linear particle transport. The method is a finite volume scheme which ensures not only conservation, but also provides for a more natural handling of boundary conditions, material properties and source terms, as well as an easier parallel implementation and post processing. It is nonlinear in the sense that the stencil depends on the solution at each time step or iteration level. By biasing the gradient calculation towards the stencil with smaller derivatives, the scheme eliminates the Gibb's phenomenon with oscillations of size O(1) and reduces them to O(h{sup r}), where h is the mesh size and r is the order of accuracy. The current implementation is three-dimensional, generalized for unequally spaced meshes, fully parallelized, and up to fifth order accurate (WENO5) in space. For unsteady problems, the resulting nonlinear spatial discretization yields a set of ODE's in time, which in turn is solved via high order implicit time-stepping with error control. For the steady-state case, they need to solve the non-linear system, typically by Newton-Krylov iterations. There are several numerical examples presented to demonstrate the accuracy, non-oscillatory nature and efficiency of these high order methods, in comparison with other fixed-stencil schemes.
Surya Mohan, P.; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Pulkkinen, Aki; Arridge, Simon R.
2011-08-10
Highlights: {yields} We developed a variable order global basis scheme to solve light transport in 3D. {yields} Based on finite elements, the method can be applied to a wide class of geometries. {yields} It is computationally cheap when compared to the fixed order scheme. {yields} Comparisons with local basis method and other models demonstrate its accuracy. {yields} Addresses problems encountered n modeling of light transport in human brain. - Abstract: We propose the P{sub N} approximation based on a finite element framework for solving the radiative transport equation with optical tomography as the primary application area. The key idea is to employ a variable order spherical harmonic expansion for angular discretization based on the proximity to the source and the local scattering coefficient. The proposed scheme is shown to be computationally efficient compared to employing homogeneously high orders of expansion everywhere in the domain. In addition the numerical method is shown to accurately describe the void regions encountered in the forward modeling of real-life specimens such as infant brains. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated over three model problems where the P{sub N} approximation is compared against Monte Carlo simulations and other state-of-the-art methods.
High order finite volume WENO schemes for the Euler equations under gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gang; Xing, Yulong
2016-07-01
Euler equations with gravitational source terms are used to model many astrophysical and atmospheric phenomena. This system admits hydrostatic balance where the flux produced by the pressure is exactly canceled by the gravitational source term, and two commonly seen equilibria are the isothermal and polytropic hydrostatic solutions. Exact preservation of these equilibria is desirable as many practical problems are small perturbations of such balance. High order finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes have been proposed in [22], but only for the isothermal equilibrium state. In this paper, we design high order well-balanced finite volume WENO schemes, which can preserve not only the isothermal equilibrium but also the polytropic hydrostatic balance state exactly, and maintain genuine high order accuracy for general solutions. The well-balanced property is obtained by novel source term reformulation and discretization, combined with well-balanced numerical fluxes. Extensive one- and two-dimensional simulations are performed to verify well-balanced property, high order accuracy, as well as good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.
High-Order Accurate Solutions to the Helmholtz Equation in the Presence of Boundary Singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britt, Darrell Steven, Jr.
Problems of time-harmonic wave propagation arise in important fields of study such as geological surveying, radar detection/evasion, and aircraft design. These often involve highfrequency waves, which demand high-order methods to mitigate the dispersion error. We propose a high-order method for computing solutions to the variable-coefficient inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in two dimensions on domains bounded by piecewise smooth curves of arbitrary shape with a finite number of boundary singularities at known locations. We utilize compact finite difference (FD) schemes on regular structured grids to achieve highorder accuracy due to their efficiency and simplicity, as well as the capability to approximate variable-coefficient differential operators. In this work, a 4th-order compact FD scheme for the variable-coefficient Helmholtz equation on a Cartesian grid in 2D is derived and tested. The well known limitation of finite differences is that they lose accuracy when the boundary curve does not coincide with the discretization grid, which is a severe restriction on the geometry of the computational domain. Therefore, the algorithm presented in this work combines high-order FD schemes with the method of difference potentials (DP), which retains the efficiency of FD while allowing for boundary shapes that are not aligned with the grid without sacrificing the accuracy of the FD scheme. Additionally, the theory of DP allows for the universal treatment of the boundary conditions. One of the significant contributions of this work is the development of an implementation that accommodates general boundary conditions (BCs). In particular, Robin BCs with discontinuous coefficients are studied, for which we introduce a piecewise parameterization of the boundary curve. Problems with discontinuities in the boundary data itself are also studied. We observe that the design convergence rate suffers whenever the solution loses regularity due to the boundary conditions. This is
Third order wave equation in Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory: Massive case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.
2015-11-01
Within the framework of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) formalism a more consistent approach to the derivation of the third order wave equation obtained earlier by M. Nowakowski [1] on the basis of heuristic considerations is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q -commutator (q is a primitive cubic root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ instead of the original matrices βμ of the DKP algebra are introduced. It is shown that in terms of these ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of cubic root of the third order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to a certain operation of the passage to the limit z →q , where z is some complex deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η -matrices. A corresponding generalization of the result obtained to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out and a comparison with M. Nowakowski's result is performed. A detailed analysis of the general structure for a solution of the first order differential equation for the wave function ψ (x ;z ) is performed and it is shown that the solution is singular in the z →q limit. The application to the problem of construction within the DKP approach of the path integral representation in parasuperspace for the propagator of a massive vector particle in a background gauge field is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral volume (SV) method for the solutions of Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids is presented. The concept of discontinuous 2nd high-order loca1 representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, but instead of using a Galerkin finite-element formulation, the SV method is based on a finite-volume approach to attain a simpler formulation. Conventional unstructured finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In the SV method, one starts with a relatively coarse grid of triangles or tetrahedra, called spectral volumes (SVs), and partition each SV into a number of structured subcells, called control volumes (CVs), that support a polynomial expansion of a desired degree of precision. The unknowns are cell averages over CVs. If all the SVs are partitioned in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstruction becomes universal as a weighted sum of unknowns, and only a few universal coefficients need to be stored for the surface integrals over CV faces. Since the solution is discontinuous across the SV boundaries, a Riemann solver is thus necessary to maintain conservation. In the paper, multi-parameter and symmetric SV partitions, up to quartic for triangle and cubic for tetrahedron, are first presented. The corresponding weight coefficients for CV face integrals in terms of CV cell averages for each partition are analytically determined. These discretization formulas are then applied to the integral form of
Chin, Siu A.; Krotscheck, Eckhard
2005-09-01
By implementing the exact density matrix for the rotating anisotropic harmonic trap, we derive a class of very fast and accurate fourth-order algorithms for evolving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. Such fourth-order algorithms are possible only with the use of forward, positive time step factorization schemes. These fourth-order algorithms converge at time-step sizes an order-of-magnitude larger than conventional second-order algorithms. Our use of time-dependent factorization schemes provides a systematic way of devising algorithms for solving this type of nonlinear equations.
Numerical study of fourth-order linearized compact schemes for generalized NLS equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Hong-lin; Shi, Han-sheng; Zhao, Ying
2014-08-01
The fourth-order compact approximation for the spatial second-derivative and several linearized approaches, including the time-lagging method of Zhang et al. (1995), the local-extrapolation technique of Chang et al. (1999) and the recent scheme of Dahlby et al. (2009), are considered in constructing fourth-order linearized compact difference (FLCD) schemes for generalized NLS equations. By applying a new time-lagging linearized approach, we propose a symmetric fourth-order linearized compact difference (SFLCD) scheme, which is shown to be more robust in long-time simulations of plane wave, breather, periodic traveling-wave and solitary wave solutions. Numerical experiments suggest that the SFLCD scheme is a little more accurate than some other FLCD schemes and the split-step compact difference scheme of Dehghan and Taleei (2010). Compared with the time-splitting pseudospectral method of Bao et al. (2003), our SFLCD method is more suitable for oscillating solutions or the problems with a rapidly varying potential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.
2002-01-01
The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.
Higher-order-effects management of soliton interactions in the Hirota equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Pring; Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Li, Yan-Qing; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming
2015-03-01
The study of soliton interactions is of significance for improving pulse qualities in nonlinear optics. In this paper, interaction between two solitons, which is governed by the Hirota equation, is considered. Via use of the Hirota method, an analytic soliton solution is obtained. Then a two-period vibration phenomenon is observed. Moreover, turning points of the coefficients of higher-order terms, which are related with sudden delaying or leading, are found and analyzed. With different coefficient constraints, soliton interactions are discussed by different frequency separation with the split-step Fourier method, and characteristics of soliton interactions are exhibited. Through turning points, we get a pair of solitons which tend to be bound solitons but not exactly. Furthermore, we control a pair of solitons to emit at different emission angles. The stability of the two-period vibration is analyzed. Results in this paper may be helpful for the applications of optical self-routing, waveguiding, and faster switching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoromskij, Boris N.
2007-09-01
We develop efficient data-sparse representations to a class of high order tensors via a block many-fold Kronecker product decomposition. Such a decomposition is based on low separation-rank approximations of the corresponding multivariate generating function. We combine the Sinc interpolation and a quadrature-based approximation with hierarchically organised block tensor-product formats. Different matrix and tensor operations in the generalised Kronecker tensor-product format including the Hadamard-type product can be implemented with the low cost. An application to the collision integral from the deterministic Boltzmann equation leads to an asymptotical cost O(n^4log^beta n) - O(n^5log^beta n) in the one-dimensional problem size n (depending on the model kernel function), which noticeably improves the complexity O(n^6log^beta n) of the full matrix representation.
Periodic solutions of Lienard differential equations via averaging theory of order two.
Llibre, Jaume; Novaes, Douglas D; Teixeira, Marco A
2015-01-01
For ε ≠ 0 sufficiently small we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic solutions for the Lienard differential equations of the form x'' + f (x) x' + n2x + g (x) = ε2p1 (t) + ε3 p2(t), where n is a positive integer, f : ℝ → ℝ is a C 3 function, g : ℝ → ℝ is a C 4 function, and p i : ℝ → ℝ for i = 1, 2 are continuous 2π-periodic function. The main tool used in this paper is the averaging theory of second order. We also provide one application of the main result obtained. PMID:26648545
Second order particle motion equations and linear chromaticity calculation in accelerator rings
Liu, R.Z.
1984-01-01
The first part of this note presents a thorough study on the second order particle motion equations, both in continuous field and in hard edges, with emphasis put on the latter. Having quite general conditions and strict mathematical treatments, it provides a sound ground from which many problems can be solved without fear of being misled. Then the linear CHR calculation is inspected, the first step being a general analytical expression of the transverse oscillation phase increment due to a small disturbance. The expression for the CHR is then readily obtained since tune is the transverse oscillation number per turn and the CHR is the linear dependence of the tune on particle energy/momentum deviation. The last part gives the formulae for practical CHR calculation, which are general enough to include almost all the magnet types commonly used in various accelerator rings and are simpler than can be found elsewhere.
Thomas, L.D.; Alexander, M.H.; Johnson, B.R.; Lester Jr., W. A.; Light, J.C.; McLenithan, K.D.; Parker, G.A.; Redmon, M.J.; Schmalz, T.G.; Secrest, D.; Walker, R.B.
1980-07-01
The numerical solution of coupled, second-order differential equations is a fundamental problem in theoretical physics and chemistry. There are presently over 20 commonly used methods. Unbiased comparisons of the methods are difficult to make and few have been attempted. Here we report a comparison of 11 different methods applied to 3 different test problems. The test problems have been constructed to approximate chemical systems of current research interest and to be representative of the state of the art in inelastic molecular collisions. All calculations were done on the same computer and the attempt was made to do all calculations to the same level of accuracy. The results of the initial tests indicated that an improved method might be obtained by using different methods in different integration regions. Such a hybrid program was developed and found to be at least 1.5 to 2.0 times faster than any individual method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesameddini, Esmail; Rahimi, Azam; Asadollahifard, Elham
2016-05-01
In this paper, we will introduce the reconstruction of variational iteration method (RVIM) to solve multi-order fractional differential equations (M-FDEs), which include linear and nonlinear ones. We will easily obtain approximate analytical solutions of M-FDEs by means of the RVIM based on the properties of fractional calculus. Moreover, the convergence of proposed method will be shown. Our scheme has been constructed for the fully general set of M-FDEs without any special assumptions, and is easy to implement numerically. Therefore, our method is more practical and helpful for solving a broad class of M-FDEs. Numerical results are carried out to confirm the accuracy and efficiency of proposed method. Several numerical examples are presented in the format of table and graphs to make comparison with the results that previously obtained by some other well known methods.
High order expanding domain methods for the solution of Poisson's equation in infinite domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Christopher R.
2016-06-01
In this paper we present a discrete Fourier transform based procedure to evaluate the infinite domain solution of Poisson's equation at points in a rectangular computational region. The numerical procedure is a modification of an "expanding domain" type method where one obtains approximations of increasing accuracy by expanding the computational domain. The modification presented here is one that leads to approximations that converge with high order rates of convergence with respect to domain size. Spectrally accurate approximations are used to approximate differential operators and so the method possesses very high rates of convergence with respect to mesh size as well. Computational results on both two and three dimensional test problems are presented that demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the procedure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jokipii, J. R.
1973-01-01
A derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation, based on the central limit theorem, is presented which clearly illustrates the conditions for its validity. It is reiterated that previous use of the Fokker-Planck equation in cosmic-ray transport is correct. Higher-order effects associated with magnetic mirroring and field line random walk at low energies are discussed heuristically.
Deffayet, C.; Deser, S.; Esposito-Farese, G.
2009-09-15
We extend to curved backgrounds all flat-space scalar field models that obey purely second-order equations, while maintaining their second-order dependence on both field and metric. This extension simultaneously restores to second order the, originally higher derivative, stress tensors as well. The process is transparent and uniform for all dimensions.
Zhao, J.M.; Tan, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.
2013-01-01
A new second order form of radiative transfer equation (named MSORTE) is proposed, which overcomes the singularity problem of a previously proposed second order radiative transfer equation [J.E. Morel, B.T. Adams, T. Noh, J.M. McGhee, T.M. Evans, T.J. Urbatsch, Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 214 (1) (2006) 12-40 (where it was termed SAAI), J.M. Zhao, L.H. Liu, Second order radiative transfer equation and its properties of numerical solution using finite element method, Numer. Heat Transfer B 51 (2007) 391-409] in dealing with inhomogeneous media where some locations have very small/zero extinction coefficient. The MSORTE contains a naturally introduced diffusion (or second order) term which provides better numerical property than the classic first order radiative transfer equation (RTE). The stability and convergence characteristics of the MSORTE discretized by central difference scheme is analyzed theoretically, and the better numerical stability of the second order form radiative transfer equations than the RTE when discretized by the central difference type method is proved. A collocation meshless method is developed based on the MSORTE to solve radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media. Several critical test cases are taken to verify the performance of the presented method. The collocation meshless method based on the MSORTE is demonstrated to be capable of stably and accurately solve radiative transfer in strongly inhomogeneous media, media with void region and even with discontinuous extinction coefficient.
A high-order time formulation of the RBC schemes for unsteady compressible Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lerat, A.
2015-12-01
Residual-Based Compact (RBC) schemes can approximate the compressible Euler equations with a high space-accuracy on a very compact stencil. For instance on a 2-D Cartesian mesh, the 5th- and 7th-order accuracy can be reached on a 5 × 5-point stencil. The time integration of the RBC schemes uses a fully implicit method of 2nd-order accuracy (Gear method) usually solved by a dual-time approach. This method is efficient for computing compressible flows in slow unsteady regimes, but for quick unsteady flows, it may be costly and not accurate enough. A new time-formulation is proposed in the present paper. Unusually, in a RBC scheme the time derivative occurs, through linear discrete operators due to compactness, not only in the main residual but also in the other two residuals (in 2-D) involved in the numerical dissipation. To extract the time derivative, a space-factorization method which preserves the high accuracy in space is developed for reducing the algebra to the direct solution of simple linear systems on the mesh lines. Then a time-integration of high accuracy is selected for the RBC schemes by comparing the efficiency of four classes of explicit methods. The new time-formulation is validated for the diagonal advection of a Gaussian shape, the rotation of a hump, the advection of a vortex for a long time and the interaction of a vortex with a shock.
Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas
2016-09-01
We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine
2012-06-01
This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.
Singh, Brajesh K.; Srivastava, Vineet K.
2015-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations. PMID:26064639
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfshtein, M.; Hirsh, R. S.; Pitts, B. H.
1975-01-01
A new method for the solution of non-linear partial differential equations by an ADI procedure is described. Although the method is second order accurate in time, it does not require either iterations or predictor corrector methods to overcome the nonlinearity of the equations. Thus the computational effort required for the solution of the non-linear problem becomes similar to that required for the linear case. The method is applied to a two-dimensional 'extended Burgers equation'. Linear stability is studied, and some numerical solutions obtained. The improved accuracy obtained by the 2nd order truncation error is clearly manifested.
Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations
Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.
2013-02-08
The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt^{1/2})] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.
Higher-order equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods for electron attachment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiya, Muneaki; Hirata, So
2007-04-01
High-order equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods for electron attachment (EA-EOM-CC) have been implemented with the aid of the symbolic algebra program TCE into parallel computer programs. Two types of size-extensive truncation have been applied to the electron-attachment and cluster excitation operators: (1) the electron-attachment operator truncated after the 2p-1h, 3p-2h, or 4p-3h level in combination with the cluster excitation operator after doubles, triples, or quadruples, respectively, defining EA-EOM-CCSD, EA-EOM-CCSDT, or EA-EOM-CCSDTQ; (2) the combination of up to the 3p-2h electron-attachment operator and up to the double cluster excitation operator [EA-EOM-CCSD(3p-2h)] or up to 4p-3h and triples [EA-EOM-CCSDT(4p-3h)]. These methods, capable of handling electron attachment to open-shell molecules, have been applied to the electron affinities of NH and C2, the excitation energies of CH, and the spectroscopic constants of all these molecules with the errors due to basis sets of finite sizes removed by extrapolation. The differences in the electron affinities or excitation energies between EA-EOM-CCSD and experiment are frequently in excess of 2eV for these molecules, which have severe multideterminant wave functions. Including higher-order operators, the EA-EOM-CC methods predict these quantities accurate to within 0.01eV of experimental values. In particular, the 3p-2h electron-attachment and triple cluster excitation operators are significant for achieving this accuracy.
Higher-order equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods for electron attachment.
Kamiya, Muneaki; Hirata, So
2007-04-01
High-order equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods for electron attachment (EA-EOM-CC) have been implemented with the aid of the symbolic algebra program TCE into parallel computer programs. Two types of size-extensive truncation have been applied to the electron-attachment and cluster excitation operators: (1) the electron-attachment operator truncated after the 2p-1h, 3p-2h, or 4p-3h level in combination with the cluster excitation operator after doubles, triples, or quadruples, respectively, defining EA-EOM-CCSD, EA-EOM-CCSDT, or EA-EOM-CCSDTQ; (2) the combination of up to the 3p-2h electron-attachment operator and up to the double cluster excitation operator [EA-EOM-CCSD(3p-2h)] or up to 4p-3h and triples [EA-EOM-CCSDT(4p-3h)]. These methods, capable of handling electron attachment to open-shell molecules, have been applied to the electron affinities of NH and C2, the excitation energies of CH, and the spectroscopic constants of all these molecules with the errors due to basis sets of finite sizes removed by extrapolation. The differences in the electron affinities or excitation energies between EA-EOM-CCSD and experiment are frequently in excess of 2 eV for these molecules, which have severe multideterminant wave functions. Including higher-order operators, the EA-EOM-CC methods predict these quantities accurate to within 0.01 eV of experimental values. In particular, the 3p-2h electron-attachment and triple cluster excitation operators are significant for achieving this accuracy. PMID:17430021
Xu, Hong-Yan; Tu, Jin; Xuan, Zu-Xing
2013-01-01
This paper considers the oscillation on meromorphic solutions of the second-order linear differential equations with the form f'' + A(z)f = 0, where A(z) is a meromorphic function with [p, q]-order. We obtain some theorems which are the improvement and generalization of the results given by Bank and Laine, Cao and Li, Kinnunen, and others. PMID:24453816
Analyzing a stochastic time series obeying a second-order differential equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehle, B.; Peinke, J.
2015-06-01
The stochastic properties of a Langevin-type Markov process can be extracted from a given time series by a Markov analysis. Also processes that obey a stochastically forced second-order differential equation can be analyzed this way by employing a particular embedding approach: To obtain a Markovian process in 2 N dimensions from a non-Markovian signal in N dimensions, the system is described in a phase space that is extended by the temporal derivative of the signal. For a discrete time series, however, this derivative can only be calculated by a differencing scheme, which introduces an error. If the effects of this error are not accounted for, this leads to systematic errors in the estimation of the drift and diffusion functions of the process. In this paper we will analyze these errors and we will propose an approach that correctly accounts for them. This approach allows an accurate parameter estimation and, additionally, is able to cope with weak measurement noise, which may be superimposed to a given time series.
Analyzing a stochastic time series obeying a second-order differential equation.
Lehle, B; Peinke, J
2015-06-01
The stochastic properties of a Langevin-type Markov process can be extracted from a given time series by a Markov analysis. Also processes that obey a stochastically forced second-order differential equation can be analyzed this way by employing a particular embedding approach: To obtain a Markovian process in 2N dimensions from a non-Markovian signal in N dimensions, the system is described in a phase space that is extended by the temporal derivative of the signal. For a discrete time series, however, this derivative can only be calculated by a differencing scheme, which introduces an error. If the effects of this error are not accounted for, this leads to systematic errors in the estimation of the drift and diffusion functions of the process. In this paper we will analyze these errors and we will propose an approach that correctly accounts for them. This approach allows an accurate parameter estimation and, additionally, is able to cope with weak measurement noise, which may be superimposed to a given time series. PMID:26172667
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.
2012-10-01
We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary
McCorquodale, Peter; Ullrich, Paul; Johansen, Hans; Colella, Phillip
2015-09-04
We present a high-order finite-volume approach for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere, using multiblock grids on the cubed-sphere. This approach combines a Runge--Kutta time discretization with a fourth-order accurate spatial discretization, and includes adaptive mesh refinement and refinement in time. Results of tests show fourth-order convergence for the shallow-water equations as well as for advection in a highly deformational flow. Hierarchical adaptive mesh refinement allows solution error to be achieved that is comparable to that obtained with uniform resolution of the most refined level of the hierarchy, but with many fewer operations.
IDSOLVER: A general purpose solver for nth-order integro-differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelmi, Claudio A.; Jorquera, Héctor
2014-01-01
Many mathematical models of complex processes may be posed as integro-differential equations (IDE). Many numerical methods have been proposed for solving those equations, but most of them are ad hoc thus new equations have to be solved from scratch for translating the IDE into the framework of the specific method chosen. Furthermore, there is a paucity of general-purpose numerical solvers that free the user from additional tasks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohanty, R. K.; Arora, Urvashi
2002-01-01
Three level-implicit finite difference methods of order four are discussed for the numerical solution of the mildly quasi-linear second-order hyperbolic equation A(x, t, u)u[subscript xx] + 2B(x, t, u)u[subscript xt] + C(x, t, u)u[subscript tt] = f(x, t, u, u[subscript x], u[subscript t]), 0 less than x less than 1, t greater than 0 subject to…
Spontaneous soliton generation in the higher order Korteweg-de Vries equations on the half-line.
Burde, G I
2012-03-01
Some new effects in the soliton dynamics governed by higher order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations are discussed based on the exact explicit solutions of the equations on the positive half-line. The solutions describe the process of generation of a soliton that occurs without boundary forcing and on the steady state background: the boundary conditions remain constant and the initial distribution is a steady state solution of the problem. The time moment when the soliton generation starts is not determined by the parameters present in the problem formulation, the additional parameters imbedded into the solution are needed to determine that moment. The equations found capable of describing those effects are the integrable Sawada-Kotera equation and the KdV-Kaup-Kupershmidt (KdV-KK) equation which, albeit not proven to be integrable, possesses multi-soliton solutions. PMID:22463014
Higher-Order Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Methods for Ionization Processes
Kamiya, Muneaki; Hirata, So
2006-08-21
Compact algebraic equations defining the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods for ionization potentials (IP-EOM-CC) have been derived and computer implemented by virtue of a symbolic algebra system largely automating these processes. Models with connected cluster excitation operators truncated after double, triple, or quadruple level and with linear ionization operators truncated after two-hole-one-particle (2h1p), three-hole-two-particle (3h2p), or four-hole-three-particle (4h3p) level (abbreviated as IP-EOM-CCSD, CCSDT, and CCSDTQ, respectively) have been realized into parallel algorithms taking advantage of spin, spatial, and permutation symmetries with optimal size dependence of the computational costs. They are based on spin-orbital formalisms and can describe both {alpha} and {beta} and ionizations from open-shell (doublet, triplet, etc.) reference states into ionized states with various spin magnetic quantum numbers. The application of these methods to Koopmans and satellite ionizations of N{sub 2} and CO (with the ambiguity due to finite basis sets eliminated by extrapolation) has shown that IP-EOM-CCSD frequently accounts for orbital relaxation inadequately and displays errors exceeding a couple of eV. However, these errors can be systematically reduced to tenths or even hundredths of an eV by IP-EOM-CCSDT or CCSDTQ. Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of the FH{sup +} and NH{sup +} radicals between IP-EOM-CC and experiments has also underscored the importance of higher-order IP-EOM-CC treatments. For instance, the harmonic frequencies of the {tilde A} {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup -} state of NH{sup +}+ are predicted to be 1285, 1723, and 1705 cm{sup -1} by IP-EOM-CCSD, CCSDT, and CCSDTQ, respectively, as compared to the observed value of 1707 cm{sup -1}. The small adiabatic energy separation (observed 0.04 eV) between the {tilde X} {sup 2}II and {tilde a} {sup 4}{sigma}{sup -} states of NH{sup +} also requires IP-EOM-CCSDTQ for a quantitative
Nonlinear waves described by a fifth-order equation derived from the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, A. K.; Kudryashov, N. A.
2016-04-01
Nonlinear wave processes described by a fifth-order generalized KdV equation derived from the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model are considered. It is shown that, in contrast to the KdV equation, which demonstrates the recurrence of initial states and explains the FPU paradox, the fifthorder equation fails to pass the Painlevé test, is not integrable, and does not exhibit the recurrence of the initial state. The results of this paper show that the FPU paradox occurs only at an initial stage of a numerical experiment, which is explained by the existence of KdV solitons only on a bounded initial time interval.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yunqing; Yan, Zhenya; Malomed, Boris A.
2015-10-01
We analytically study rogue-wave (RW) solutions and rational solitons of an integrable fifth-order nonlinear Schrödinger (FONLS) equation with three free parameters. It includes, as particular cases, the usual NLS, Hirota, and Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equations. We present continuous-wave (CW) solutions and conditions for their modulation instability in the framework of this model. Applying the Darboux transformation to the CW input, novel first- and second-order RW solutions of the FONLS equation are analytically found. In particular, trajectories of motion of peaks and depressions of profiles of the first- and second-order RWs are produced by means of analytical and numerical methods. The solutions also include newly found rational and W-shaped one- and two-soliton modes. The results predict the corresponding dynamical phenomena in extended models of nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant integrable systems.
Yang, Yunqing; Yan, Zhenya; Malomed, Boris A
2015-10-01
We analytically study rogue-wave (RW) solutions and rational solitons of an integrable fifth-order nonlinear Schrödinger (FONLS) equation with three free parameters. It includes, as particular cases, the usual NLS, Hirota, and Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equations. We present continuous-wave (CW) solutions and conditions for their modulation instability in the framework of this model. Applying the Darboux transformation to the CW input, novel first- and second-order RW solutions of the FONLS equation are analytically found. In particular, trajectories of motion of peaks and depressions of profiles of the first- and second-order RWs are produced by means of analytical and numerical methods. The solutions also include newly found rational and W-shaped one- and two-soliton modes. The results predict the corresponding dynamical phenomena in extended models of nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant integrable systems. PMID:26520078
Compacton solutions in a class of generalized fifth-order Korteweg--de Vries equations
Cooper, Fred; Hyman, James M.; Khare, Avinash
2001-08-01
Solitons play a fundamental role in the evolution of general initial data for quasilinear dispersive partial differential equations, such as the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV), nonlinear Schroedinger, and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. These integrable equations have linear dispersion and the solitons have infinite support. We have derived and investigate a new KdV-like Hamiltonian partial differential equation from a four-parameter Lagrangian where the nonlinear dispersion gives rise to solitons with compact support (compactons). The new equation does not seem to be integrable and only mass, momentum, and energy seem to be conserved; yet, the solitons display almost the same modal decompositions and structural stability observed in integrable partial differential equations. The compactons formed from arbitrary initial data, are nonlinearly self-stabilizing, and maintain their coherence after multiple collisions. The robustness of these compactons and the inapplicability of the inverse scattering tools, that worked so well for the KdV equation, make it clear that there is a fundamental mechanism underlying the processes beyond integrability. We have found explicit formulas for multiple classes of compact traveling wave solutions. When there are more than one compacton solution for a particular set of parameters, the wider compacton is the minimum of a reduced Hamiltonian and is the only one that is stable.
Compacton solutions in a class of generalized fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equations.
Cooper, F; Hyman, J M; Khare, A
2001-08-01
Solitons play a fundamental role in the evolution of general initial data for quasilinear dispersive partial differential equations, such as the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), nonlinear Schrödinger, and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. These integrable equations have linear dispersion and the solitons have infinite support. We have derived and investigate a new KdV-like Hamiltonian partial differential equation from a four-parameter Lagrangian where the nonlinear dispersion gives rise to solitons with compact support (compactons). The new equation does not seem to be integrable and only mass, momentum, and energy seem to be conserved; yet, the solitons display almost the same modal decompositions and structural stability observed in integrable partial differential equations. The compactons formed from arbitrary initial data, are nonlinearly self-stabilizing, and maintain their coherence after multiple collisions. The robustness of these compactons and the inapplicability of the inverse scattering tools, that worked so well for the KdV equation, make it clear that there is a fundamental mechanism underlying the processes beyond integrability. We have found explicit formulas for multiple classes of compact traveling wave solutions. When there are more than one compacton solution for a particular set of parameters, the wider compacton is the minimum of a reduced Hamiltonian and is the only one that is stable. PMID:11497731
Numerical solution of distributed order fractional differential equations by hybrid functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashayekhi, S.; Razzaghi, M.
2016-06-01
In this paper, a new numerical method for solving the distributed fractional differential equations is presented. The method is based upon hybrid functions approximation. The properties of hybrid functions consisting of block-pulse functions and Bernoulli polynomials are presented. The Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator for hybrid functions is introduced. This operator is then utilized to reduce the solution of the distributed fractional differential equations to a system of algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique.
Lump solitons in a higher-order nonlinear equation in 2 +1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estévez, P. G.; Díaz, E.; Domínguez-Adame, F.; Cerveró, Jose M.; Diez, E.
2016-06-01
We propose and examine an integrable system of nonlinear equations that generalizes the nonlinear Schrödinger equation to 2 +1 dimensions. This integrable system of equations is a promising starting point to elaborate more accurate models in nonlinear optics and molecular systems within the continuum limit. The Lax pair for the system is derived after applying the singular manifold method. We also present an iterative procedure to construct the solutions from a seed solution. Solutions with one-, two-, and three-lump solitons are thoroughly discussed.
Lump solitons in a higher-order nonlinear equation in 2+1 dimensions.
Estévez, P G; Díaz, E; Domínguez-Adame, F; Cerveró, Jose M; Diez, E
2016-06-01
We propose and examine an integrable system of nonlinear equations that generalizes the nonlinear Schrödinger equation to 2+1 dimensions. This integrable system of equations is a promising starting point to elaborate more accurate models in nonlinear optics and molecular systems within the continuum limit. The Lax pair for the system is derived after applying the singular manifold method. We also present an iterative procedure to construct the solutions from a seed solution. Solutions with one-, two-, and three-lump solitons are thoroughly discussed. PMID:27415266
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q.M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseev, N. Ya.; Silant'eva, I. Yu.
2008-07-01
An approach to the construction of second-and higher order accurate difference schemes in time and space is described for solving the linear one-and multidimensional advection equations with constant coefficients by the Godunov method with antidiffusion. The differential approximations for schemes of up to the fifth order are constructed and written. For multidimensional advection equations with constant coefficients, it is shown that Godunov schemes with splitting over spatial variables are preferable, since they have a smaller truncation error than schemes without splitting. The high resolution and efficiency of the difference schemes are demonstrated using test computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaillard, Pierre; Gastineau, Mickaël
2016-06-01
In this article, one gives a classification of the solutions to the one dimensional nonlinear focusing Schrödinger equation (NLS) by considering the modulus of the solutions in the ( x, t) plan in the cases of orders 3 and 4. For this, we use a representation of solutions to NLS equation as a quotient of two determinants by an exponential depending on t. This formulation gives in the case of the order 3 and 4, solutions with, respectively 4 and 6 parameters. With this method, beside Peregrine breathers, we construct all characteristic patterns for the modulus of solutions, like triangular configurations, ring and others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaillard, Pierre; Gastineau, Mickaël
2016-01-01
In this article, one gives a classification of the solutions to the one dimensional nonlinear focusing Schrödinger equation (NLS) by considering the modulus of the solutions in the (x, t) plan in the cases of orders 3 and 4. For this, we use a representation of solutions to NLS equation as a quotient of two determinants by an exponential depending on t. This formulation gives in the case of the order 3 and 4, solutions with, respectively 4 and 6 parameters. With this method, beside Peregrine breathers, we construct all characteristic patterns for the modulus of solutions, like triangular configurations, ring and others.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, T. J. R.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1984-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with some basic results for a predictor-multicorrector algorithm applied to the one-dimensional wave equation, giving particular attention to so-called 2-pass explicit schemes in which both lumped and coupled mass matrices are employed. In an assessment of the accuracy and stability properties of the algorithms, use is made of the one-dimensional, second-order wave equation. The maximum stable time step of the lumped right-hand-side mass, 2-pass explicit algorithm is twice that of the 1-pass explicit algorithm. Improved accuracy is obtained by employing higher-order, or consistent, right-hand-side, mass.
Sobolev type equations of time-fractional order with periodical boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plekhanova, Marina
2016-08-01
The existence of a unique local solution for a class of time-fractional Sobolev type partial differential equations endowed by the Cauchy initial conditions and periodical with respect to every spatial variable boundary conditions on a parallelepiped is proved. General results are applied to study of the unique solvability for the initial boundary value problem to Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers and Allair partial differential equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carleton, O.
1972-01-01
Consideration is given specifically to sixth order elliptic partial differential equations in two independent real variables x, y such that the coefficients of the highest order terms are real constants. It is assumed that the differential operator has distinct characteristics and that it can be factored as a product of second order operators. By analytically continuing into the complex domain and using the complex characteristic coordinates of the differential equation, it is shown that its solutions, u, may be reflected across analytic arcs on which u satisfies certain analytic boundary conditions. Moreover, a method is given whereby one can determine a region into which the solution is extensible. It is seen that this region of reflection is dependent on the original domain of difinition of the solution, the arc and the coefficients of the highest order terms of the equation and not on any sufficiently small quantities; i.e., the reflection is global in nature. The method employed may be applied to similar differential equations of order 2n.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galaktionov, Victor A.
2009-02-01
As a basic higher-order model, the fourth-order Boussinesq-type quasilinear wave equation (the QWE-4) \\[ \\begin{equation*}\\fl u_{tt} = -(|u|^n u)_{xxxx} \\tqs in\\ \\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{R}_+, \\quad with\\ exponent\\ n > 0,\\end{equation*} \\] is considered. Self-similar blow-up solutions \\[ \\begin{eqnarray*}\\tqs\\tqs u_-(x,t)=g(z), \\quad\\, z=\\frac x{\\sqrt{T-t}},\\\\ where\\ g\\ solved\\ the\\ ODE\\ \\frac 14 g'' z^2 + \\frac 34 g'z = -(|g|^n g)^{(4)},\\end{eqnarray*} \\] are shown to exist that generate as t → T- discontinuous shock waves. The QWE-4 is also shown to admit a smooth (for t > 0) global 'fundamental solution' \\[ \\begin{eqnarray*}\\fl b_n(x,t)= t^{\\frac{2}{n+4}} F_n(y),\\ y = x/t^{\\frac{n+2}{n+4}},\\ such\\ that\\ b_{n}(x,0)= 0,\\ b_{nt}(x,0)= {\\delta}(x),\\end{eqnarray*} \\] i.e. having a measure as initial data. A 'homotopic' limit n → 0 is used to get b_0(x,t)= \\sqrt t \\, F_0(x/\\sqrt t) being the classic fundamental solution of the 1D linear beam equation \\[ \\begin{equation*}u_{tt} = -u_{xxxx} \\tqs in\\ \\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{R}_+.\\end{equation*} \\
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Firdawati binti; Karim, Mohamad Faisal bin Abd
2015-10-01
Modelling physical problems in mathematical form yields the governing equations that may be linear or nonlinear for known and unknown boundaries. The exact solution for those equations may or may not be obtained easily. Hence we seek an analytical approximation solution in terms of asymptotic expansion. In this study, we focus on a singular perturbation in second order ordinary differential equations. Solutions to several perturbed ordinary differential equations are obtained in terms of asymptotic expansion. The aim of this work is to find an approximate analytical solution using the classical method of matched asymptotic expansion (MMAE). The Mathematica computer algebra system is used to perform the algebraic computations. The details procedures will be discussed and the underlying concepts and principles of the MMAE will be clarified. Perturbation problem for linear equation that occurs at one boundary and two boundary layers are discussed. Approximate analytical solution obtained for both cases are illustrated by graph using selected parameter by showing the outer, inner and composite solution separately. Then, the composite solution will be compare to the exact solution to show their accuracy by graph. By comparison, MMAE is found to be one of the best methods to solve singular perturbation problems in second order ordinary differential equation since the results obtained are very close to the exact solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.
2012-10-01
We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary
Kuznetsov-Ma soliton and Akhmediev breather of higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zai-Dong, Li; Xuan, Wu; Qiu-Yan, Li; P, B. He
2016-01-01
In terms of Darboux transformation, we have exactly solved the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation that describes the propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in optical fibers. We discuss the modulation instability (MI) process in detail and find that the higher-order term has no effect on the MI condition. Under different conditions, we obtain Kuznetsov-Ma soliton and Akhmediev breather solutions of higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The former describes the propagation of a bright pulse on a continuous wave background in the presence of higher-order effects and the soliton’s peak position is shifted owing to the presence of a nonvanishing background, while the latter implies the modulation instability process that can be used in practice to produce a train of ultrashort optical soliton pulses. Project supported by the Key Project of Scientific and Technological Research in Hebei Province, China (Grant No. ZD2015133).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael
2016-09-01
We study the Lie and Noether point symmetries of a class of systems of second-order differential equations with n independent and m dependent variables (n × m systems). We solve the symmetry conditions in a geometric way and determine the general form of the symmetry vector and of the Noetherian conservation laws. We prove that the point symmetries are generated by the collineations of two (pseudo)metrics, which are defined in the spaces of independent and dependent variables. We demonstrate the general results in two special cases (a) a system of m coupled Laplace equations and (b) the Klein-Gordon equation of a particle in the context of Generalized Uncertainty Principle. In the second case we determine the complete invariant group of point transformations, and we apply the Lie invariants in order to find invariant solutions of the wave function for a spin-0 particle in the two dimensional hyperbolic space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Liming; Feng, Bao-Feng; Zhu, Zuonong
2016-07-01
In the present paper, we are concerned with the general analytic solutions to the complex short pulse (CSP) equation including soliton, breather and rogue wave solutions. With the aid of a generalized Darboux transformation, we construct the N-bright soliton solution in a compact determinant form, the N-breather solution including the Akhmediev breather and a general higher order rogue wave solution. The first and second order rogue wave solutions are given explicitly and analyzed. The asymptotic analysis is performed rigorously for both the N-soliton and the N-breather solutions. All three forms of the analytical solutions admit either smoothed-, cusped- or looped-type ones for the CSP equation depending on the parameters. It is noted that, due to the reciprocal (hodograph) transformation, the rogue wave solution to the CSP equation can be a smoothed, cusponed or a looped one, which is different from the rogue wave solution found so far.
Olson, Gordon L.
2011-08-20
Highlights: {yields} An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. {yields} A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. {yields} The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. {yields} The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P{sub 1} forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilyeu, David
This dissertation presents an extension of the Conservation Element Solution Element (CESE) method from second- to higher-order accuracy. The new method retains the favorable characteristics of the original second-order CESE scheme, including (i) the use of the space-time integral equation for conservation laws, (ii) a compact mesh stencil, (iii) the scheme will remain stable up to a CFL number of unity, (iv) a fully explicit, time-marching integration scheme, (v) true multidimensionality without using directional splitting, and (vi) the ability to handle two- and three-dimensional geometries by using unstructured meshes. This algorithm has been thoroughly tested in one, two and three spatial dimensions and has been shown to obtain the desired order of accuracy for solving both linear and non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The scheme has also shown its ability to accurately resolve discontinuities in the solutions. Higher order unstructured methods such as the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods have been developed for one-, two- and three-dimensional application. Although these schemes have seen extensive development and use, certain drawbacks of these methods have been well documented. For example, the explicit versions of these two methods have very stringent stability criteria. This stability criteria requires that the time step be reduced as the order of the solver increases, for a given simulation on a given mesh. The research presented in this dissertation builds upon the work of Chang, who developed a fourth-order CESE scheme to solve a scalar one-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equation. The completed research has resulted in two key deliverables. The first is a detailed derivation of a high-order CESE methods on unstructured meshes for solving the conservation laws in two- and three-dimensional spaces. The second is the code implementation of these numerical methods in a computer code. For
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisov, Vasilii
2016-08-01
In this report, we study sufficient conditions on the lower order coefficients of a parabolic equation guaranteeing the power rate of the uniform stabilization to zero of the solution to the Cauchy problem on every compact K in RN and for any bounded initial function.
A nonlinear parabolic equation with discontinuity in the highest order and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Robin Ming; Liu, Qing
2016-01-01
In this paper we establish a viscosity solution theory for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations with discontinuities of the sign function type in the second derivatives of the unknown function. We modify the definition of classical viscosity solutions and show uniqueness and existence of the solutions. These results are related to the limit behavior for the motion of a curve by a very small power of its curvature, which has applications in image processing. We also discuss the relation between our equation and the total variation flow in one space dimension.
Reduced order feedback control equations for linear time and frequency domain analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisch, H. P.
1981-01-01
An algorithm was developed which can be used to obtain the equations. In a more general context, the algorithm computes a real nonsingular similarity transformation matrix which reduces a real nonsymmetric matrix to block diagonal form, each block of which is a real quasi upper triangular matrix. The algorithm works with both defective and derogatory matrices and when and if it fails, the resultant output can be used as a guide for the reformulation of the mathematical equations that lead up to the ill conditioned matrix which could not be block diagonalized.
Some properties of solutions of a functional-differential equation of second order with delay.
Ilea, Veronica Ana; Otrocol, Diana
2014-01-01
Existence, uniqueness, data dependence (monotony, continuity, and differentiability with respect to parameter), and Ulam-Hyers stability results for the solutions of a system of functional-differential equations with delays are proved. The techniques used are Perov's fixed point theorem and weakly Picard operator theory. PMID:24683363
Chaos in the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries equation with nonlinear terms of higher order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Wei-Zhen; Song, Xiang-Jiong; Yu, Jun
2010-03-01
The dynamical behaviour of the generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation under a periodic perturbation is investigated numerically. The bifurcation and chaos in the system are observed by applying bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and Poincaré maps. To characterise the chaotic behaviour of this system, the spectra of the Lyapunov exponent and Lyapunov dimension of the attractor are also employed.
Stabilization of high-order solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Alexandrescu, Adrian; Montesinos, Gaspar D.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2007-04-15
In this paper we consider the stabilization of nonfundamental unstable stationary solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Specifically, we study the stabilization of radially symmetric solutions with nodes and asymmetric complex stationary solutions. For the first ones, we find partial stabilization similar to that recently found for vortex solutions while for the later ones stabilization does not seem possible.
On the Well-Definedness of the Order of an Ordinary Differential Equation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbs, David E.
2006-01-01
It is proved that if the differential equations "y[(n)] = f(x,y,y[prime],...,y[(n-1)])" and "y[(m)] = g(x,y,y[prime],...,y[(m-1)])" have the same particular solutions in a suitable region where "f" and "g" are continuous real-valued functions with continuous partial derivatives (alternatively, continuous functions satisfying the classical…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Peng; Liu, Zhaolun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Jun; Xia, Dongming; Li, Jing; Zhu, Bo
2015-12-01
This paper introduces the fourth-order absorbing boundary condition (ABC) into staggered-grid finite difference forward modeling of the first-order stress-velocity acoustic equation, and develops a new method to optimize coefficients of the fourth-order ABC to further improve its overall absorbing effect. Theoretical analysis and the results of numerical tests demonstrate that the fourth-order ABC with optimized coefficients has much higher absorbing efficiency than both the conventional second-order and fourth-order ABCs without optimized coefficients, for waves with large incident angles. Compared with the perfectly matched layer (PML) with 40 layers, the fourth-order ABC not only has a much better absorbing effect, but also uses far less computer memory for calculation. We present the fourth-order ABC with optimized coefficients as an ideal artificial boundary for the simulation of the acoustic equation based on extensive and complex structure models. Supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (201513005).
High-order symplectic FDTD scheme for solving a time-dependent Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jing; Sha, Wei E. I.; Huang, Zhixiang; Chen, Mingsheng; Wu, Xianliang
2013-03-01
Using the three-order symplectic integrators and fourth-order collocated spatial differences, a high-order symplectic finite-difference time-domain (SFDTD) scheme is proposed to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. First, the high-order symplectic framework for discretizing a Schrödinger equation is described. Then the numerical stability and dispersion analyses are provided for the FDTD(2, 2), higher-order FDTD(2, 4) and SFDTD(3, 4) schemes. Next, to implement the Dirichlet boundary condition encountered in the quantum eigenvalue problem, the image theory and one-sided difference technique are manipulated particularly for high-order collocated differences. Finally, a detailed numerical study on 1D and 2D quantum eigenvalue problems is carried out. The simulation results of quantum wells and harmonic oscillators strongly confirm the advantages of the SFDTD scheme over the traditional FDTD method and other high-order approaches. The explicit SFDTD scheme, which is high-order-accurate and energy-conserving, is well suited for a long-term simulation and can save computer resources with large time step and coarse spatial grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shokri, Ali; Afshari, Fatemeh
2015-12-01
In this article, a high-order compact alternating direction implicit (HOC-ADI) finite difference scheme is applied to numerical solution of the complex Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation in two spatial dimensions with periodical boundary conditions. The GL equation has been used as a mathematical model for various pattern formation systems in mechanics, physics, and chemistry. The proposed HOC-ADI method has fourth-order accuracy in space and second-order accuracy in time. To avoid solving the nonlinear system and to increase the accuracy and efficiency of the method, we proposed the predictor-corrector scheme. Validation of the present numerical solutions has been conducted by comparing with the exact and other methods results and evidenced a good agreement.
High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.
Yin, Fukang; Song, Junqiang; Leng, Hongze; Lu, Fengshun
2014-01-01
We present a new numerical method to get the approximate solutions of fractional differential equations. A new operational matrix of integration for fractional-order Legendre functions (FLFs) is first derived. Then a modified variational iteration formula which can avoid "noise terms" is constructed. Finally a numerical method based on variational iteration method (VIM) and FLFs is developed for fractional differential equations (FDEs). Block-pulse functions (BPFs) are used to calculate the FLFs coefficient matrices of the nonlinear terms. Five examples are discussed to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique. PMID:24511303
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, G.
1972-01-01
The use of the theta-operator method and generalized hypergeometric functions in obtaining solutions to nth-order linear ordinary differential equations is explained. For completeness, the analysis of the differential equation to determine whether the point of expansion is an ordinary point or a regular singular point is included. The superiority of the two methods shown over the standard method is demonstrated by using all three of the methods to work out several examples. Also included is a compendium of formulae and properties of the theta operator and generalized hypergeometric functions which is complete enough to make the report self-contained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Zi-Zhe; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui
2016-04-01
We present the semirational solution in terms of the determinant form for the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It describes the nonlinear combinations of breathers and rogue waves (RWs). We show here that the solution appears as a mixture of polynomials with exponential functions. The k-order semirational solution includes k - 1 types of nonlinear superpositions, i.e., the l-order RW and (k-l)-order breather for l = 1 , 2 , … , k - 1 . By adjusting the shift and spectral parameters, we display various patterns of the semirational solutions for describing the interactions among the RWs and breathers. We find that k-order RW can be derived from a l-order RW interacting with 1/2(k - l) (k + l + 1) neighboring elements of a (k - l)-order breather for l = 1 , 2 , … , k - 1 .
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules
2000-01-01
A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yefet, Amir; Petropoulos, Peter G.
1999-01-01
We consider a divergence-free non-dissipative fourth-order explicit staggered finite difference scheme for the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations. Special one-sided difference operators are derived in order to implement the scheme near metal boundaries and dielectric interfaces. Numerical results show the scheme is long-time stable, and is fourth-order convergent over complex domains that include dielectric interfaces and perfectly conducting surfaces. We also examine the scheme's behavior near metal surfaces that are not aligned with the grid axes, and compare its accuracy to that obtained by the Yee scheme.
Analytic Solutions of a Second-Order Iterative Functional Differential Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lingxia
In this paper, the existence of analytic solutions of an iterative functional differential equation is studied. We reduce this problem to finding analytic solutions of a functional differential equation without iteration of the unknown function. For technical reasons, in previous work the constant α given in Schröder transformation is required to fulfill that α is off the unit circle or lies on the circle with the Diophantine condition. In this paper, we break the restraint of the Diophantine condition and obtain results of analytic solutions in the case of α at resonance, i.e., at a root of the unity and the case of α near resonance under the Brjuno condition.
High-Order Spectral Volume Method for 2D Euler Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Laiping; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Spectral Volume (SV) method is extended to the 2D Euler equations. The focus of this paper is to study the performance of the SV method on multidimensional non-linear systems. Implementation details including total variation diminishing (TVD) and total variation bounded (TVB) limiters are presented. Solutions with both smooth features and discontinuities are utilized to demonstrate the overall capability of the SV method.
Unique continuation property for a higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvajal, X.; Panthee, M.
2005-03-01
We prove that, if a sufficiently smooth solution u to the initial value problem associated with the equation is supported in a half line at two different instants of time then u[reverse not equivalent]0. To prove this result we derive a new Carleman type estimate by extending the method introduced by Kenig et al. in [Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire 19 (2002) 191-208].
A numerical method for solving systems of higher order linear functional differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüzbasi, Suayip; Gök, Emrah; Sezer, Mehmet
2016-01-01
Functional differential equations have importance in many areas of science such as mathematical physics. These systems are difficult to solve analytically.In this paper we consider the systems of linear functional differential equations [1-9] including the term y(αx + β) and advance-delay in derivatives of y .To obtain the approximate solutions of those systems, we present a matrix-collocation method by using Müntz-Legendre polynomials and the collocation points. For this purpose, to obtain the approximate solutions of those systems, we present a matrix-collocation method by using Müntz-Legendre polynomials and the collocation points. This method transform the problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. The solutions of last system determine unknown co-efficients of original problem. Also, an error estimation technique is presented and the approximate solutions are improved by using it. The program of method is written in Matlab and the approximate solutions can be obtained easily. Also some examples are given to illustrate the validity of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Georg
This dissertation revolves around algorithm development in the context of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, with particular emphasis on unstructured meshes. Three distinct topics may be identified: Firstly, a new kinetic scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. Kinetic numerical schemes are based on the discretization of a probability density function. In the context of fluid flow such schemes have a natural basis rooted in the kinetic theory of gases. A significant advantage of kinetic schemes is that they allow a compact, completely mesh-independent discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, which makes them well suited for next-generation solvers on general unstructured meshes. The new kinetic scheme is based on the Xu-Prenderaast BGK scheme, and achieves a dramatic reduction in computational cost, while also improving and clarifying the formulation with respect to the underlying kinetic gas theory. The second topic addresses high-order numerical methods for conservation laws on unstructured meshes. High-order methods potentially produce higher accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom, compared to standard first or second order accurate schemes, while formulation for unstructured meshes makes complex computational domains amenable. The Spectral Difference Method offers a remarkably simple alternative to such high-order schemes for unstructured meshes as the Discontinuous Galerkin and Spectral Volume Methods. Significant contributions to the development of the Spectral Difference Method are presented, including stability analysis, viscous formulation, and h/p-multigrid convergence acceleration. Finally, the theory of Gibbs-complementary reconstruction is utilized in the context of high-order numerical methods for hyperbolic equations. Gibbs-complementary reconstruction makes it possible to extract pointwise high-order convergence in the spectral approximation of non
Solution of the linear shallow water equations by the fourth-order leapfrog scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kowalik, Z.
1993-01-01
Numerical schemes of the first and second order of approximation introduce numerical distortion when the wave propagation over a long distance is investigated. To alleviate this problem, the fourth-order leapfrog scheme is constructed. The standard leapfrog method is based on the truncated Taylor series expansion which depicts an error proportional to the second-order terms. In the proposed method the numerical solution is corrected for these terms. The space and time corrections work well in diminishing numerical dispersion and dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zinser, Brian
We present two distinct mathematical models where high-order integral equations are applied to electromagnetic problems. The first problem is to find the electric potential in and around ion channels and Janus particles. The second problem is to find the electromagnetic scattering caused by a set of simple geometric objects. In biology, we consider two types of inhomogeneities: the first one is a simple model of an ion channel which consists of a finite height cylindrical cavity embedded in a layered electrolytes/membrane environment, and the second one is a Janus particle made of two different semi-spherical dielectric materials. A boundary element method (BEM) for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation based on Muller's hyper-singular second kind integral equation formulation is used to accurately compute electrostatic potentials. The proposed BEM gives O(1) condition numbers and we show that the second order basis converges faster and is more accurate than the first order basis. For solar cells, we develop a Nystrom volume integral equation (VIE) method for calculating the electromagnetic scattering according to the Maxwell equations. The Cauchy principal values (CPVs) that arise from the VIE are computed using a finite size exclusion volume with explicit correction integrals. Outside the exclusion, the hyper-singular integrals are computed using an interpolated quadrature formulae with tensor-product quadrature nodes. We considered cubes, rectangles, cylinders, spheres, and ellipsoids. As the new quadrature weights are pre-calculated and tabulated, the integrals are calculated efficiently at runtime. Simulations with many scatterers demonstrate the efficiency of the interpolated quadrature formulae. We also demonstrate that the resulting VIE has high accuracy and p-convergence.
Behavior of a Competitive System of Second-Order Difference Equations
Din, Q.; Ibrahim, T. F.; Khan, K. A.
2014-01-01
We study the boundedness and persistence, existence, and uniqueness of positive equilibrium, local and global behavior of positive equilibrium point, and rate of convergence of positive solutions of the following system of rational difference equations: xn+1 = (α1 + β1xn−1)/(a1 + b1yn), yn+1 = (α2 + β2yn−1)/(a2 + b2xn), where the parameters αi, βi, ai, and bi for i ∈ {1,2} and initial conditions x0, x−1, y0, and y−1 are positive real numbers. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results. PMID:24959605
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vikas, V.; Wang, Z. J.; Fox, R. O.
2013-09-01
Population balance equations with advection and diffusion terms can be solved using quadrature-based moment methods. Recently, high-order realizable finite-volume schemes with appropriate realizability criteria have been derived for the advection term. However, hitherto no work has been reported with respect to realizability problems for the diffusion term. The current work focuses on developing high-order realizable finite-volume schemes for diffusion. The pitfalls of existing finite-volume schemes for the diffusion term based on the reconstruction of moments are discussed, and it is shown that realizability can be guaranteed only with the 2nd-order scheme and that the realizability criterion for the 2nd-order scheme is the same as the stability criterion. However, realizability of moments cannot be guaranteed when higher-order moment-based reconstruction schemes are used. To overcome this problem, realizable high-order finite-volume schemes based on the reconstruction of weights and abscissas are proposed and suitable realizability criteria are derived. The realizable schemes can achieve higher than 2nd-order accuracy for problems with smoothly varying abscissas. In the worst-case scenario of highly nonlinear abscissas, the realizable schemes are 2nd-order accurate but have lower error magnitudes compared to existing schemes. The results obtained using the realizable high-order schemes are shown to be consistent with those obtained using the 2nd-order moment-based reconstruction scheme.
Tunç, Cemil; Tunç, Osman
2016-01-01
In this paper, certain system of linear homogeneous differential equations of second-order is considered. By using integral inequalities, some new criteria for bounded and [Formula: see text]-solutions, upper bounds for values of improper integrals of the solutions and their derivatives are established to the considered system. The obtained results in this paper are considered as extension to the results obtained by Kroopnick (2014) [1]. An example is given to illustrate the obtained results. PMID:26843982
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nordstrom, Jan; Carpenter, Mark H.
1998-01-01
Boundary and interface conditions for high order finite difference methods applied to the constant coefficient Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are derived. The boundary conditions lead to strict and strong stability. The interface conditions are stable and conservative even if the finite difference operators and mesh sizes vary from domain to domain. Numerical experiments show that the new conditions also lead to good results for the corresponding nonlinear problems.
Matuttis, Hans-Georg; Wang, Xiaoxing
2015-03-10
Decomposition methods of the Suzuki-Trotter type of various orders have been derived in different fields. Applying them both to classical ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and quantum systems allows to judge their effectiveness and gives new insights for many body quantum mechanics where reference data are scarce. Further, based on data for 6 × 6 system we conclude that sampling with sign (minus-sign problem) is probably detrimental to the accuracy of fermionic simulations with determinant algorithms.
First-order system least-squares for the Helmholtz equation
Lee, B.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Ruge, J.
1996-12-31
We apply the FOSLS methodology to the exterior Helmholtz equation {Delta}p + k{sup 2}p = 0. Several least-squares functionals, some of which include both H{sup -1}({Omega}) and L{sup 2}({Omega}) terms, are examined. We show that in a special subspace of [H(div; {Omega}) {intersection} H(curl; {Omega})] x H{sup 1}({Omega}), each of these functionals are equivalent independent of k to a scaled H{sup 1}({Omega}) norm of p and u = {del}p. This special subspace does not include the oscillatory near-nullspace components ce{sup ik}({sup {alpha}x+{beta}y)}, where c is a complex vector and where {alpha}{sub 2} + {beta}{sup 2} = 1. These components are eliminated by applying a non-standard coarsening scheme. We achieve this scheme by introducing {open_quotes}ray{close_quotes} basis functions which depend on the parameter pair ({alpha}, {beta}), and which approximate ce{sup ik}({sup {alpha}x+{beta}y)} well on the coarser levels where bilinears cannot. We use several pairs of these parameters on each of these coarser levels so that several coarse grid problems are spun off from the finer levels. Some extensions of this theory to the transverse electric wave solution for Maxwell`s equations will also be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noreen, Amna; Olaussen, Kåre
2012-10-01
A subroutine for a very-high-precision numerical solution of a class of ordinary differential equations is provided. For a given evaluation point and equation parameters the memory requirement scales linearly with precision P, and the number of algebraic operations scales roughly linearly with P when P becomes sufficiently large. We discuss results from extensive tests of the code, and how one, for a given evaluation point and equation parameters, may estimate precision loss and computing time in advance. Program summary Program title: seriesSolveOde1 Catalogue identifier: AEMW_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 991 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 488116 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC's or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux and MacOS RAM: Few to many megabytes (problem dependent). Classification: 2.7, 4.3 External routines: CLN — Class Library for Numbers [1] built with the GNU MP library [2], and GSL — GNU Scientific Library [3] (only for time measurements). Nature of problem: The differential equation -s2({d2}/{dz2}+{1-ν+-ν-}/{z}{d}/{dz}+{ν+ν-}/{z2})ψ(z)+{1}/{z} ∑n=0N vnznψ(z)=0, is solved numerically to very high precision. The evaluation point z and some or all of the equation parameters may be complex numbers; some or all of them may be represented exactly in terms of rational numbers. Solution method: The solution ψ(z), and optionally ψ'(z), is evaluated at the point z by executing the recursion A(z)={s-2}/{(m+1+ν-ν+)(m+1+ν-ν-)} ∑n=0N Vn(z)A(z), ψ(z)=ψ(z)+A(z), to sufficiently large m. Here ν is either ν+ or ν-, and Vn(z)=vnz. The recursion is initialized by A(z)=δzν,for n
Novoa, David; Tommasini, Daniele; Nóvoa-López, José A
2015-01-01
We introduce a complete analytical and numerical study of the modulational instability process in a system governed by a canonical nonlinear Schrödinger equation involving local, arbitrary nonlinear responses to the applied field. In particular, our theory accounts for the recently proposed higher-order Kerr nonlinearities, providing very simple analytical criteria for the identification of multiple regimes of stability and instability of plane-wave solutions in such systems. Moreover, we discuss a new parametric regime in the higher-order Kerr response, which allows for the observation of several, alternating stability-instability windows defining a yet unexplored instability landscape. PMID:25679679
Analytic solution to leading order coupled DGLAP evolution equations: A new perturbative QCD tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; McKay, Douglas W.
2011-03-01
We have analytically solved the LO perturbative QCD singlet DGLAP equations [V. N. Gribov and L. N. Lipatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 15, 438 (1972)SJNCAS0038-5506][G. Altarelli and G. Parisi, Nucl. Phys. B126, 298 (1977)][Y. L. Dokshitzer, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 641 (1977)SPHJAR0038-5646] using Laplace transform techniques. Newly developed, highly accurate, numerical inverse Laplace transform algorithms [M. M. Block, Eur. Phys. J. C 65, 1 (2010)EPCFFB1434-604410.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1195-8][M. M. Block, Eur. Phys. J. C 68, 683 (2010)EPCFFB1434-604410.1140/epjc/s10052-010-1374-7] allow us to write fully decoupled solutions for the singlet structure function Fs(x,Q2) and G(x,Q2) as Fs(x,Q2)=Fs(Fs0(x0),G0(x0)) and G(x,Q2)=G(Fs0(x0),G0(x0)), where the x0 are the Bjorken x values at Q02. Here Fs and G are known functions—found using LO DGLAP splitting functions—of the initial boundary conditions Fs0(x)≡Fs(x,Q02) and G0(x)≡G(x,Q02), i.e., the chosen starting functions at the virtuality Q02. For both G(x) and Fs(x), we are able to either devolve or evolve each separately and rapidly, with very high numerical accuracy—a computational fractional precision of O(10-9). Armed with this powerful new tool in the perturbative QCD arsenal, we compare our numerical results from the above equations with the published MSTW2008 and CTEQ6L LO gluon and singlet Fs distributions [A. D. Martin, W. J. Stirling, R. S. Thorne, and G. Watt, Eur. Phys. J. C 63, 189 (2009)EPCFFB1434-604410.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1072-5], starting from their initial values at Q02=1GeV2 and 1.69GeV2, respectively, using their choice of αs(Q2). This allows an important independent check on the accuracies of their evolution codes and, therefore, the computational accuracies of their published parton distributions. Our method completely decouples the two LO distributions, at the same time guaranteeing that both G and Fs satisfy the singlet coupled DGLAP equations. It also allows one to easily obtain the effects of
Gallivan, K. A.
1980-12-01
Within any general class of problems there typically exist subclasses possessed of characteristics that can be exploited to create techniques more efficient than general methods applied to these subclasses. Two such subclasses of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations are stiff and oscillatory problems. Indeed, the subclass of oscillatory problems can be further refined into stiff and nonstiff oscillatory problems. This refinement is discussed in detail. The problem of developing a method of detection for nonstiff and stiff oscillatory behavior in initial-value problems is addressed. For this method of detection a control structure is proposed upon which a production code could be based. An experimental code using this control structure is described, and results of numerical tests are presented. 3 figures.
Impact of higher-order flows in the moment equations on Pfirsch-Schlüter friction coefficients
Honda, M.
2014-09-15
The impact of the higher-order flows in the moment approach on an estimate of the friction coefficients is numerically examined. The higher-order flows are described by the lower-order hydrodynamic flows using the collisional plasma assumption. Their effects have not been consistently taken into account thus far in the widely used neoclassical transport codes based on the moment equations in terms of the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux. Due to numerically solving the friction-flow matrix without using the small-mass ratio expansion, it is clearly revealed that incorporating the higher-order flow effects is of importance especially for plasmas including multiple hydrogenic ions and other lighter species with similar masses.
High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bran R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present high-order semi-discrete central-upwind numerical schemes for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. This scheme is based on the use of fifth-order central interpolants like those developed in [1], in fluxes presented in [3]. These interpolants use the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) approach to avoid spurious oscillations near singularities, and become "central-upwind" in the semi-discrete limit. This scheme provides numerical approximations whose error is as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those in previous WENO-based fifth-order methods [2, 1]. Thee results are discussed via examples in one, two and three dimensions. We also pregnant explicit N-dimensional formulas for the fluxes, discuss their monotonicity and tl!e connection between this method and that in [2].
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fehlberg, E.
1973-01-01
New Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas of the eighth, seventh, sixth, and fifth order are derived for the special second-order (vector) differential equation x = f (t,x). In contrast to Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas of an earlier NASA report, these formulas provide a stepsize control procedure based on the leading term of the local truncation error in x. This new procedure is more accurate than the earlier Runge-Kutta-Nystrom procedure (with stepsize control based on the leading term of the local truncation error in x) when integrating close to singularities. Two central orbits are presented as examples. For these orbits, the accuracy and speed of the formulas of this report are compared with those of Runge-Kutta-Nystrom and Runge-Kutta formulas of earlier NASA reports.
The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation
Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco
2016-05-01
Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux andmore » scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei
2009-09-01
In this study, a simplified spherical harmonics approximated higher order diffusion model is employed for 3-D diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints. We find that the use of a higher-order diffusion model in a stand-alone framework provides significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy over the diffusion approximation model. However, we also find that this is not the case in the image-guided setting when spatial prior knowledge from x-rays is incorporated. The results show that the reconstruction error between these two models is about 15 and 4%, respectively, for stand-alone and image-guided frameworks.
Second- and Higher-Order Virial Coefficients Derived from Equations of State for Real Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parkinson, William A.
2009-01-01
Derivation of the second- and higher-order virial coefficients for models of the gaseous state is demonstrated by employing a direct differential method and subsequent term-by-term comparison to power series expansions. This communication demonstrates the application of this technique to van der Waals representations of virial coefficients.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navas-Montilla, A.; Murillo, J.
2015-06-01
In this work, an ADER type finite volume numerical scheme is proposed as an extension of a first order solver based on weak solutions of RPs with source terms. The type of source terms considered here are a special but relevant type of source terms: their spatial integral is discontinuous. The relevant difference with other previously defined ADER schemes is that it considers the presence of the source term in the solutions of the DRP. Unlike the original ADER schemes, the proposed numerical scheme computes the RPs of the high order terms of the DRP departing from time derivatives of the fluxes as initial conditions for these RPs. Weak solutions of the RPs defined for the DRP are computed using an augmented version of the Roe solver that includes an extra wave that accounts for the contribution of the source term. The discretization done over the source term leads to an energy balanced numerical scheme that allows to obtain the exact solution for steady cases with independence of the grid refinement. In unsteady problems, the numerical scheme ensures the convergence to the exact solution. The numerical scheme is constructed with an arbitrary order of accuracy, and has no theoretical barrier. Numerical results for the Burger's equation and the shallow water equations are presented in this work and indicate that the proposed numerical scheme is able to converge with the expected order of accuracy.
Robust scale-space filter using second-order partial differential equations.
Ham, Bumsub; Min, Dongbo; Sohn, Kwanghoon
2012-09-01
This paper describes a robust scale-space filter that adaptively changes the amount of flux according to the local topology of the neighborhood. In a manner similar to modeling heat or temperature flow in physics, the robust scale-space filter is derived by coupling Fick's law with a generalized continuity equation in which the source or sink is modeled via a specific heat capacity. The filter plays an essential part in two aspects. First, an evolution step size is adaptively scaled according to the local structure, enabling the proposed filter to be numerically stable. Second, the influence of outliers is reduced by adaptively compensating for the incoming flux. We show that classical diffusion methods represent special cases of the proposed filter. By analyzing the stability condition of the proposed filter, we also verify that its evolution step size in an explicit scheme is larger than that of the diffusion methods. The proposed filter also satisfies the maximum principle in the same manner as the diffusion. Our experimental results show that the proposed filter is less sensitive to the evolution step size, as well as more robust to various outliers, such as Gaussian noise, impulsive noise, or a combination of the two. PMID:22652189
Solvability of the Dirichlet problem for an inhomogeneous second-order elliptic equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gushchin, A. K.
2015-10-01
We consider a statement of the Dirichlet problem which generalizes the notions of classical and weak solutions, in which a solution belongs to the space of (n-1)-dimensionally continuous functions with values in the space L_p. The property of (n-1)-dimensional continuity is similar to the classical definition of uniform continuity; however, instead of the value of a function at a point, it looks at the trace of the function on measures in a special class, that is, elements of the space L_p with respect to these measures. Up to now, the problem in the statement under consideration has not been studied in sufficient detail. This relates first to the question of conditions on the right-hand side of the equation which ensure the solvability of the problem. The main results of the paper are devoted to just this question. We discuss the terms in which these conditions can be expressed. In addition, the way the behaviour of a solution near the boundary depends on the right-hand side is investigated. Bibliography: 47 titles.
Higher-order flux difference splitting schemes for the Euler equations using upstream interpolations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, J. Y.
1986-01-01
A class of explicit two time-level, 2p + 1 space-point, (2p 1)-th order, upwind-biased flux difference splitting schemes are proposed for the numerical advection based on Lagrange's interpolation, and the method is an accord with the physical domain of dependence. A normalized Jacobian coefficient matrix is introduced to convert the schemes to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, and approaches to make the higher-order schemes total variation stable are discussed. Accuracy and stability of the present schemes are examined, and implicit total variation diminishing schemes are developed for steady-state calculations.Application to gasdynamic problems for both steady and unsteady flows covering a wide range of Mach numbers is considered, and results for a blast wave passing a cylinder, and head-on collision of two blast waves over a circular arc, are presented. The flow patterns were found to be symmetric, and good resolution of flow structures was obtained.
Mohanasubha, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2015-01-01
We unearth the interconnection between various analytical methods which are widely used in the current literature to identify integrable nonlinear dynamical systems described by third-order nonlinear ODEs. We establish an important interconnection between the extended Prelle–Singer procedure and λ-symmetries approach applicable to third-order ODEs to bring out the various linkages associated with these different techniques. By establishing this interconnection we demonstrate that given any one of the quantities as a starting point in the family consisting of Jacobi last multipliers, Darboux polynomials, Lie point symmetries, adjoint-symmetries, λ-symmetries, integrating factors and null forms one can derive the rest of the quantities in this family in a straightforward and unambiguous manner. We also illustrate our findings with three specific examples.
S.C. Jardin; J.A. Breslau
2004-12-17
Here we describe a technique for solving the four-field extended-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two dimensions. The introduction of triangular high-order finite elements with continuous first derivatives (C{sup 1} continuity) leads to a compact representation compatible with direct inversion of the associated sparse matrices. The split semi-implicit method is introduced and used to integrate the equations in time, yielding unconditional stability for arbitrary time step. The method is applied to the cylindrical tilt mode problem with the result that a non-zero value of the collisionless ion skin depth will increase the growth rate of that mode. The effect of this parameter on the reconnection rate and geometry of a Harris equilibrium and on the Taylor reconnection problem is also demonstrated. This method forms the basis for a generalization to a full extended-MHD description of the plasma with six, eight, or more scalar fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Chun-Yan; Tian, Shou-Fu; Wang, Xiu-Bin; Zhang, Tian-Tian
2016-07-01
Under investigation in this paper is a fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries type (fKdV-type) equation with time-dependent coefficients, which can be used to describe many nonlinear phenomena in fluid mechanics, ocean dynamics and plasma physics. The binary Bell polynomials are employed to find its Hirota’s bilinear formalism with an extra auxiliary variable, based on which its N-soliton solutions can be also directly derived. Furthermore, by considering multi-dimensional Riemann theta function, a lucid and straightforward generalization of the Hirota-Riemann method is presented to explicitly construct the multiperiodic wave solutions of the equation. Finally, the asymptotic properties of these periodic wave solutions are strictly analyzed to reveal the relationships between periodic wave solutions and soliton solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharan, Nek; Pantano, Carlos; Bodony, Daniel
2015-11-01
Overset grids provide an efficient and flexible framework to implement high-order finite difference methods for simulations of compressible viscous flows over complex geometries. However, prior overset methods were not provably stable and were applied with artificial dissipation in the interface regions. We will discuss new, provably time-stable methods for solving hyperbolic problems on overlapping grids. The proposed methods use the summation-by-parts (SBP) derivative approximations coupled with the simultaneous-approximation-term (SAT) methodology for applying boundary conditions and interface treatments. The performance of the methods will be assessed against the commonly-used approach of injecting the interpolated data onto each grid. Numerical results will be presented to confirm the stability and the accuracy of the methods for solving the Euler equations. The extension of these methods to solve the Navier-Stokes equations on overset grids in a time-stable manner will be briefly discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zingg, D. W.; Lomax, H.
1993-01-01
A six-stage low-storage Runge-Kutta time-marching method is presented and shown to be an efficient method for use with high-accuracy spatial difference operators for wave propagation problems. The accuracy of the method for inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations is demonstrated through numerical solutions of the linear convection equation with forced boundary conditions. Numerical experiments are presented simulating a sine wave and a Gaussian pulse propagating into and through the domain. For practical levels of mesh refinement corresponding to roughly ten points per wavelength, the six-stage Runge-Kutta method is more accurate than the popular fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Further numerical experiments are presented which show that the numerical boundary scheme at an inflow boundary can be a significant source of error when high-accuracy spatial discretizations are used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christlieb, Andrew J.; Feng, Xiao; Seal, David C.; Tang, Qi
2016-07-01
We propose a high-order finite difference weighted ENO (WENO) method for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The proposed method is single-stage (i.e., it has no internal stages to store), single-step (i.e., it has no time history that needs to be stored), maintains a discrete divergence-free condition on the magnetic field, and has the capacity to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure. To accomplish this, we use a Taylor discretization of the Picard integral formulation (PIF) of the finite difference WENO method proposed in Christlieb et al. (2015) [23], where the focus is on a high-order discretization of the fluxes (as opposed to the conserved variables). We use the version where fluxes are expanded to third-order accuracy in time, and for the fluid variables space is discretized using the classical fifth-order finite difference WENO discretization. We use constrained transport in order to obtain divergence-free magnetic fields, which means that we simultaneously evolve the magnetohydrodynamic (that has an evolution equation for the magnetic field) and magnetic potential equations alongside each other, and set the magnetic field to be the (discrete) curl of the magnetic potential after each time step. In this work, we compute these derivatives to fourth-order accuracy. In order to retain a single-stage, single-step method, we develop a novel Lax-Wendroff discretization for the evolution of the magnetic potential, where we start with technology used for Hamilton-Jacobi equations in order to construct a non-oscillatory magnetic field. The end result is an algorithm that is similar to our previous work Christlieb et al. (2014) [8], but this time the time stepping is replaced through a Taylor method with the addition of a positivity-preserving limiter. Finally, positivity preservation is realized by introducing a parameterized flux limiter that considers a linear combination of high and low-order numerical fluxes. The choice of the free
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hu; Lü, Shujuan; Chen, Wenping
2016-06-01
The numerical approximation of the distributed order time fractional reaction-diffusion equation on a semi-infinite spatial domain is discussed in this paper. A fully discrete scheme based on finite difference method in time and spectral approximation using Laguerre functions in space is proposed. The scheme is unconditionally stable and convergent with order O (τ2 + Δα2 +N (1 - m) / 2), where τ, Δα, N, and m are the time-step size, step size in distributed-order variable, polynomial degree, and regularity in the space variable of the exact solution, respectively. A pseudospectral scheme is also proposed and analyzed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byeon, Jaeyoung; Huh, Hyungjin; Seok, Jinmyoung
2016-07-01
In this paper, we are interested in standing waves with a vortex for the nonlinear Chern-Simons-Schrödinger equations (CSS for short). We study the existence and the nonexistence of standing waves when a constant λ > 0, representing the strength of the interaction potential, varies. We prove every standing wave is trivial if λ ∈ (0 , 1), every standing wave is gauge equivalent to a solution of the first order self-dual system of CSS if λ = 1 and for every positive integer N, there is a nontrivial standing wave with a vortex point of order N if λ > 1. We also provide some classes of interaction potentials under which the nonexistence of standing waves and the existence of a standing wave with a vortex point of order N are proved.
Rieben, R N; Rodrigue, G H; White, D A
2004-03-09
We present a mixed vector finite element method for solving the time dependent coupled Ampere and Faraday laws of Maxwell's equations on unstructured hexahedral grids that employs high order discretization in both space and time. The method is of arbitrary order accuracy in space and up to 5th order accurate in time, making it well suited for electrically large problems where grid anisotropy and numerical dispersion have plagued other methods. In addition, the method correctly models both the jump discontinuities and the divergence-free properties of the electric and magnetic fields, is charge and energy conserving, conditionally stable, and free of spurious modes. Several computational experiments are performed to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and benefits of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, B.; Ding, G. H.; Lei, X. L.
2015-05-01
A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime.
Tachim Medjo, T.
2011-02-15
We investigate in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for control problem associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with periodic inputs. We also derive a second-order sufficient condition for optimality. This work is closely related to Wang (SIAM J. Control Optim. 41(2):583-606, 2002) and He (Acta Math. Sci. Ser. B Engl. Ed. 26(4):729-734, 2006), in which the authors proved similar results for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olemskoy, I. V.; Eremin, A. S.
2016-06-01
We construct here an embedded Dormand-Prince pair of explicit methods of orders 6 and 4 for systems of ordinary differential equations with special structure, namely with two parts, in which the right-hand sides are dependent only on the unknown functions from the other group. The number of stages is six, which is fewer than for general explicit Runge-Kutta methods. The comparison to Dormand-Prince method of the same computation cost is made showing the higher accuracy of the suggested method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan, Brian G.
2000-01-01
A reduced order modeling approach of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented for the design of a distributed optimal feedback kernel. This approach is based oil a Krylov subspace method where significant modes of the flow are captured in the model This model is then used in all optimal feedback control design where sensing and actuation is performed oil tile entire flow field. This control design approach yields all optimal feedback kernel which provides insight into the placement of sensors and actuators in the flow field. As all evaluation of this approach, a two-dimensional shear layer and driven cavity flow are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiryakova, Virginia S.
2012-11-01
The Laplace Transform (LT) serves as a basis of the Operational Calculus (OC), widely explored by engineers and applied scientists in solving mathematical models for their practical needs. This transform is closely related to the exponential and trigonometric functions (exp, cos, sin) and to the classical differentiation and integration operators, reducing them to simple algebraic operations. Thus, the classical LT and the OC give useful tool to handle differential equations and systems with constant coefficients. Several generalizations of the LT have been introduced to allow solving, in a similar way, of differential equations with variable coefficients and of higher integer orders, as well as of fractional (arbitrary non-integer) orders. Note that fractional order mathematical models are recently widely used to describe better various systems and phenomena of the real world. This paper surveys briefly some of our results on classes of such integral transforms, that can be obtained from the LT by means of "transmutations" which are operators of the generalized fractional calculus (GFC). On the list of these Laplace-type integral transforms, we consider the Borel-Dzrbashjan, Meijer, Krätzel, Obrechkoff, generalized Obrechkoff (multi-index Borel-Dzrbashjan) transforms, etc. All of them are G- and H-integral transforms of convolutional type, having as kernels Meijer's G- or Fox's H-functions. Besides, some special functions (also being G- and H-functions), among them - the generalized Bessel-type and Mittag-Leffler (M-L) type functions, are generating Gel'fond-Leontiev (G-L) operators of generalized differentiation and integration, which happen to be also operators of GFC. Our integral transforms have operational properties analogous to those of the LT - they do algebrize the G-L generalized integrations and differentiations, and thus can serve for solving wide classes of differential equations with variable coefficients of arbitrary, including non-integer order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Mallo, I.; Portillo, A. M.
2016-04-01
Klein-Gordon equations on an unbounded domain are considered in one dimensional and two dimensional cases. Numerical computation is reduced to a finite domain by using the Hagstrom-Warburton (H-W) high-order absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs). Time integration is made by means of exponential splitting schemes that are efficient and easy to implement. In this way, it is possible to achieve a negligible error due to the time integration and to study the behavior of the absorption error. Numerical experiments displaying the accuracy of the numerical solution for the two dimensional case are provided. The influence of the dispersion coefficient on the error is also studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amore, Paolo; Boyd, John P.; Fernández, Francisco M.; Rösler, Boris
2016-05-01
We apply second order finite differences to calculate the lowest eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation, for complicated non-tensor domains in the plane, using different grids which sample exactly the border of the domain. We show that the results obtained applying Richardson and Padé-Richardson extrapolations to a set of finite difference eigenvalues corresponding to different grids allow us to obtain extremely precise values. When possible we have assessed the precision of our extrapolations comparing them with the highly precise results obtained using the method of particular solutions. Our empirical findings suggest an asymptotic nature of the FD series. In all the cases studied, we are able to report numerical results which are more precise than those available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.
2015-05-01
A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qian; Ren, Yu-Xin; Li, Wanai
2016-06-01
In this paper, the compact least-squares finite volume method on unstructured grids proposed in our previous paper is extended to multi-dimensional systems, namely the two-dimensional Euler equations. The key element of this scheme is the compact least-squares reconstruction in which a set of constitutive relations are constructed by requiring the reconstruction polynomial and its spatial derivatives on the control volume of interest to conserve their averages on the face-neighboring cells. These relations result in an over-determined linear equation system. A large sparse system of linear equations is resulted by using the least-squares technique. An efficient solution strategy is of crucial importance for the application of the proposed scheme in multi-dimensional problems since both direct and iterative solvers for this system are computationally very expensive. In the present paper, it is found that in the cases of steady flow simulation and unsteady flow simulation using dual time stepping technique, the present reconstruction method can be coupled with temporal discretization scheme to achieve high computational efficiency. The WBAP limiter and a problem-independent shock detector are used in the simulation of flow with discontinuities. Numerical results demonstrate the high order accuracy, high computational efficiency and capability of handling both complex physics and geometries of the proposed schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Yoshihiro
2013-03-01
In this paper, we prove unique existence of solutions to the generalized resolvent problem of the Stokes operator with first order boundary condition in a general domain {Ω} of the N-dimensional Eulidean space {{R}^N, N ≥ 2}. This type of problem arises in the mathematical study of the flow of a viscous incompressible one-phase fluid with free surface. Moreover, we prove uniform estimates of solutions with respect to resolvent parameter {λ} varying in a sector {Σ_{σ, λ_0} = \\{λ in {C} mid |arg λ| < π-σ, enskip |λ| ≥ λ_0\\}}, where {0 < σ < π/2} and {λ_0 ≥ 1}. The essential assumption of this paper is the existence of a unique solution to a suitable weak Dirichlet problem, namely it is assumed the unique existence of solution {p in hat{W}^1_{q, Γ}(Ω)} to the variational problem: {(nabla p, nabla \\varphi) = (f, nabla \\varphi)} for any {\\varphi in hat W^1_{q', Γ}(Ω)}. Here, {1 < q < infty, q' = q/(q-1), hat W^1_{q, Γ}(Ω)} is the closure of {W^1_{q, Γ}(Ω) = \\{ p in W^1_q(Ω) mid p|_Γ = 0\\}} by the semi-norm {\\|nabla \\cdot \\|_{L_q(Ω)}}, and {Γ} is the boundary of {Ω}. In fact, we show that the unique solvability of such a Dirichlet problem is necessary for the unique existence of a solution to the resolvent problem with uniform estimate with respect to resolvent parameter varying in {(λ_0, infty)}. Our assumption is satisfied for any {q in (1, infty)} by the following domains: whole space, half space, layer, bounded domains, exterior domains, perturbed half space, perturbed layer, but for a general domain, we do not know any result about the unique existence of solutions to the weak Dirichlet problem except for q = 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yilong; Fischer, Achim; Eberhard, Peter; Wu, Baohai
2015-06-01
A high-order full-discretization method (FDM) using Hermite interpolation (HFDM) is proposed and implemented for periodic systems with time delay. Both Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation are used to approximate state values and delayed state values in each discretization step. The transition matrix over a single period is determined and used for stability analysis. The proposed method increases the approximation order of the semidiscretization method and the FDM without increasing the computational time. The convergence, precision, and efficiency of the proposed method are investigated using several Mathieu equations and a complex turning model as examples. Comparison shows that the proposed HFDM converges faster and uses less computational time than existing methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, Devin A.; Gong, Justin Z.; Stanton, John F.
2014-06-01
The derivation of analytic expressions for vibrational and rovibrational constants, for example the anharmonicity constants χij and the vibration-rotation interaction constants α^B_r, from second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) can be accomplished with pen and paper and some practice. However, the corresponding quantities from fourth-order perturbation theory (VPT4) are considerably more complex, with the only known derivations by hand extensively using many layers of complicated intermediates and for rotational quantities requiring specialization to orthorhombic cases or the form of Watson's reduced Hamiltonian. We present an automatic computer program for generating these expressions with full generality based on the adaptation of an existing numerical program based on the sum-over-states representation of the energy to a computer algebra context. The measures taken to produce well-simplified and factored expressions in an efficient manner are discussed, as well as the framework for automatically checking the correctness of the generated equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duru, Kenneth; Kozdon, Jeremy E.; Kreiss, Gunilla
2015-12-01
In computations, it is now common to surround artificial boundaries of a computational domain with a perfectly matched layer (PML) of finite thickness in order to prevent artificially reflected waves from contaminating a numerical simulation. Unfortunately, the PML does not give us an indication about appropriate boundary conditions needed to close the edges of the PML, or how those boundary conditions should be enforced in a numerical setting. Terminating the PML with an inappropriate boundary condition or an unstable numerical boundary procedure can lead to exponential growth in the PML which will eventually destroy the accuracy of a numerical simulation everywhere. In this paper, we analyze the stability and the well-posedness of boundary conditions terminating the PML for the elastic wave equation in first order form. First, we consider a vertical modal PML truncating a two space dimensional computational domain in the horizontal direction. We freeze all coefficients and consider a left half-plane problem with linear boundary conditions terminating the PML. The normal mode analysis is used to study the stability and well-posedness of the resulting initial boundary value problem (IBVP). The result is that any linear well-posed boundary condition yielding an energy estimate for the elastic wave equation, without the PML, will also lead to a well-posed IBVP for the PML. Second, we extend the analysis to the PML corner region where both a horizontal and vertical PML are simultaneously active. The challenge lies in constructing accurate and stable numerical approximations for the PML and the boundary conditions. Third, we develop a high order accurate finite difference approximation of the PML subject to the boundary conditions. To enable accurate and stable numerical boundary treatments for the PML we construct continuous energy estimates in the Laplace space for a one space dimensional problem and two space dimensional PML corner problem. We use summation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Hui; Peng, Ao-Ping; Zhang, Han-Xin; Yang, Jaw-Yen
2015-04-01
This article reviews rarefied gas flow computations based on nonlinear model Boltzmann equations using deterministic high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms (GKUA) in phase space. The nonlinear Boltzmann model equations considered include the BGK model, the Shakhov model, the Ellipsoidal Statistical model and the Morse model. Several high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms, which combine the discrete velocity ordinate method in velocity space and the compact high-order finite-difference schemes in physical space, are developed. The parallel strategies implemented with the accompanying algorithms are of equal importance. Accurate computations of rarefied gas flow problems using various kinetic models over wide ranges of Mach numbers 1.2-20 and Knudsen numbers 0.0001-5 are reported. The effects of different high resolution schemes on the flow resolution under the same discrete velocity ordinate method are studied. A conservative discrete velocity ordinate method to ensure the kinetic compatibility condition is also implemented. The present algorithms are tested for the one-dimensional unsteady shock-tube problems with various Knudsen numbers, the steady normal shock wave structures for different Mach numbers, the two-dimensional flows past a circular cylinder and a NACA 0012 airfoil to verify the present methodology and to simulate gas transport phenomena covering various flow regimes. Illustrations of large scale parallel computations of three-dimensional hypersonic rarefied flows over the reusable sphere-cone satellite and the re-entry spacecraft using almost the largest computer systems available in China are also reported. The present computed results are compared with the theoretical prediction from gas dynamics, related DSMC results, slip N-S solutions and experimental data, and good agreement can be found. The numerical experience indicates that although the direct model Boltzmann equation solver in phase space can be computationally expensive
Towards A Fast High-Order Method for Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations using FR/CPR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2014-11-01
A high-order compact spectral difference method for solving the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids is currently being developed. This method employs the gGA correction of Huynh, and falls under the class of methods now refered to as Flux Reconstruction/Correction Procedure via Reconstruction. This method and the artificial compressibility method are integrated along with a dual time-integration scheme to model unsteady incompressible viscous flows. A lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme and a backward Euler scheme are used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time and physical time, respectively. We demonstrate order of accuracy with steady Taylor-Couette flow at Re = 10. We further validate the solver with steady flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at Re = 1850 and unsteady flow past a circle at Re = 100. The implicit time-integration scheme for the pseudo time derivative term is proved efficient and effective for the classical artificial compressibility treatment to achieve the divergence-free condition of the continuity equation. We greatly acknowledge financial support from The George Washington University under the Presidential Merit Fellowship.
Banks, H T; Birch, Malcolm J; Brewin, Mark P; Greenwald, Stephen E; Hu, Shuhua; Kenz, Zackary R; Kruse, Carola; Maischak, Matthias; Shaw, Simon; Whiteman, John R
2014-01-01
We revisit a method originally introduced by Werder et al. (in Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 190:6685–6708, 2001) for temporally discontinuous Galerkin FEMs applied to a parabolic partial differential equation. In that approach, block systems arise because of the coupling of the spatial systems through inner products of the temporal basis functions. If the spatial finite element space is of dimension D and polynomials of degree r are used in time, the block system has dimension (r + 1)D and is usually regarded as being too large when r > 1. Werder et al. found that the space-time coupling matrices are diagonalizable over for r ⩽100, and this means that the time-coupled computations within a time step can actually be decoupled. By using either continuous Galerkin or spectral element methods in space, we apply this DG-in-time methodology, for the first time, to second-order wave equations including elastodynamics with and without Kelvin–Voigt and Maxwell–Zener viscoelasticity. An example set of numerical results is given to demonstrate the favourable effect on error and computational work of the moderately high-order (up to degree 7) temporal and spatio-temporal approximations, and we also touch on an application of this method to an ambitious problem related to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25834284
Jan Hesthaven
2012-02-06
Final report for DOE Contract DE-FG02-98ER25346 entitled Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences. Principal Investigator Jan S. Hesthaven Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University, Box F Providence, RI 02912 Jan.Hesthaven@Brown.edu February 6, 2012 Note: This grant was originally awarded to Professor David Gottlieb and the majority of the work envisioned reflects his original ideas. However, when Prof Gottlieb passed away in December 2008, Professor Hesthaven took over as PI to ensure proper mentoring of students and postdoctoral researchers already involved in the project. This unusual circumstance has naturally impacted the project and its timeline. However, as the report reflects, the planned work has been accomplished and some activities beyond the original scope have been pursued with success. Project overview and main results The effort in this project focuses on the development of high order accurate computational methods for the solution of hyperbolic equations with application to problems with strong shocks. While the methods are general, emphasis is on applications to gas dynamics with strong shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yajima, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Kazuhito
2016-03-01
Geometric structures of dynamical systems are investigated based on a differential geometric method (Jacobi stability of KCC-theory). This study focuses on differences of Jacobi stability of two-dimensional second-order differential equation from that of one-dimensional second-order differential equation. One of different properties from a one-dimensional case is the Jacobi unstable condition given by eigenvalues of deviation curvature with different signs. Then, this geometric theory is applied to an overhead crane system as a two-dimensional dynamical system. It is shown a relationship between the Hopf bifurcation of linearized overhead crane and the Jacobi stability. Especially, the Jacobi stable trajectory is found for stable and unstable spirals of the two-dimensional linearized system. In case of the linearized overhead crane system, the Jacobi stable spiral approaches to the equilibrium point faster than the Jacobi unstable spiral. This means that the Jacobi stability is related to the resilience of deviated trajectory in the transient state. Moreover, for the nonlinear overhead crane system, the Jacobi stability for limit cycle changes stable and unstable over time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ninghu; Nelson, Paul N.; Connor, Sarah
2015-10-01
We present a distributed-order fractional diffusion-wave equation (dofDWE) to describe radial groundwater flow to or from a well, and three sets of solutions of the dofDWE for flow from a well for aquifer tests: one for pumping tests, and two for slug tests. The dofDWE is featured by two temporal orders of fractional derivatives, β1 and β2, which characterise small and large pores, respectively. By fitting the approximate solutions of the dofDWE to data from slug tests in the field, we determined the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ke, transmissivity, Tf, and the order of fractional derivatives, β2 in one test and β2 and β1 in the second test. We found that the patterns of groundwater flow from a well during the slug tests at this site belong to the class of sub-diffusion with β2 < 1 and β1 < 1 using both the short-time and large-time solutions. We introduce the concept of the critical time to link Ke as a function of β2 and β1. The importance of the orders of fractional derivatives is obvious in the approximate solutions: for short time slug tests only the parameter β2 for flow in large pores is present while for long time slug tests the parameters β2 and β1 are present indicating both large and small pores are functioning.
Cheng, Juan; Shu, Chi-Wang
2014-09-01
In applications such as astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion, there are many three-dimensional cylindrical-symmetric multi-material problems which are usually simulated by Lagrangian schemes in the two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. For this type of simulation, a critical issue for the schemes is to keep spherical symmetry in the cylindrical coordinate system if the original physical problem has this symmetry. In the past decades, several Lagrangian schemes with such symmetry property have been developed, but all of them are only first order accurate. In this paper, we develop a second order cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving compressible Euler equations in cylindrical coordinates, based on the control volume discretizations, which is designed to have uniformly second order accuracy and capability to preserve one-dimensional spherical symmetry in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry when computed on an equal-angle-zoned initial grid. The scheme maintains several good properties such as conservation for mass, momentum and total energy, and the geometric conservation law. Several two-dimensional numerical examples in cylindrical coordinates are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the scheme in terms of accuracy, symmetry, non-oscillation and robustness. The advantage of higher order accuracy is demonstrated in these examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abedian, Rooholah; Adibi, Hojatollah; Dehghan, Mehdi
2013-08-01
In this paper, we propose a new WENO finite difference procedure for nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations which may contain discontinuous solutions. Our scheme is based on the method of lines, with a high-order accurate conservative approximation to each of the diffusion terms based on an idea that has been recently presented by Liu et al. [Y. Liu, C.-W. Shu, M. Zhang, High order finite difference WENO schemes for non-linear degenerate parabolic equations, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 (2011) 939-965]. Our scheme tries to circumvent the negative ideal weights that appear when applying the standard WENO idea, as is done in Liu et al. (2011) [13]. In one-dimensional case, first we obtain an optimum polynomial on a six-points stencil. This optimum polynomial is sixth-order accurate in regions of smoothness. Then, we consider this optimum polynomial as a symmetric and convex combination of four polynomials with ideal weights. Following the methodology of the classic WENO procedure, then we calculate the non-oscillatory weights with the ideal weights. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the resolution power and accuracy of the scheme. Finally, the new method is extended to multi-dimensional problems by dimension-by-dimension approach. More examples of multi-dimension problems are presented to show that our method remains non-oscillatory while giving good resolution of discontinuities. Finally, we would like to mention that this paper combines and extends the techniques proposed in [13] and Levy et al. (2000) [24].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel; Freund, Jonathan
2014-11-01
Finite-difference operators satisfying a summation-by-parts property enable discretization of PDEs such that the adjoint of the discretization is consistent with the continuous-adjoint equation. The advantages of this include smooth discrete-adjoint fields that converge with mesh refinement and superconvergence of linear functionals. We present a high-order dual-consistent discretization of the compressible flow equations with temperature-dependent viscosity and Fourier heat conduction in generalized curvilinear coordinates. We demonstrate dual-consistency for aeroacoustic control of a mixing layer by verifying superconvergence and show that the accuracy of the gradient is only limited by computing precision. We anticipate dual-consistency to play a key role in compressible turbulence control, for which the continuous-adjoint method, despite being robust, introduces adjoint-field errors that grow exponentially. Our dual-consistent formulation can leverage this robustness, while simultaneously providing an exact sensitivity gradient. We also present a strategy for extending dual-consistency to temporal discretization and show that it leads to implicit multi-stage schemes. Our formulation readily extends to multi-block grids through penalty-like enforcement of interface conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldred, Christopher; Dubos, Thomas; Kritsikis, Evaggelos
2016-04-01
There has been a great deal of work in the past decade on the development of mimetic and conservative numerical schemes for atmospheric dynamical cores using Hamiltonian methods, such as Dynamico (Dubos et. al 2015). This model conserves mass, potential vorticity and total energy; and posses properties such as a curl-free pressure gradient that does not produce spurious vorticity. Unfortunately, the underlying finite-difference discretization scheme used in Dynamico has been shown to be inconsistent on general grids. An alternative scheme based on mimetic finite elements has been developed for the rotating shallow water equations that solves these accuracy issues but retains the desirable mimetic and conservation properties. Preliminary results on the extension of this scheme to the hydrostatic primitive equations are shown. The compatible 2D finite elements spaces are extended to compatible 3D spaces using tensor products, in a way that preserves their properties. It is shown that use of the same prognostic variables as Dynamico combined with a Lorenz staggering leads to a relatively simple formulation that allows conservation of total energy along with high-order accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xueli; Sun, Fangfang; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin
2015-09-01
For fluorescence tomographic imaging of small animals, the liver is usually regarded as a low-scattering tissue and is surrounded by adipose, kidneys, and heart, all of which have a high scattering property. This leads to a breakdown of the diffusion equation (DE)-based reconstruction method as well as a heavy computational burden for the simplified spherical harmonics equation (SPN). Coupling the SPN and DE provides a perfect balance between the imaging accuracy and computational burden. The coupled third-order SPN and DE (CSDE)-based reconstruction method is developed for fluorescence tomographic imaging. This is achieved by doubly using the CSDE for the excitation and emission processes of the fluorescence propagation. At the same time, the finite-element method and hybrid multilevel regularization strategy are incorporated in inverse reconstruction. The CSDE-based reconstruction method is first demonstrated with a digital mouse-based liver cancer simulation, which reveals superior performance compared with the SPN and DE-based methods. It is more accurate than the DE-based method and has lesser computational burden than the SPN-based method. The feasibility of the proposed approach in applications of in vivo studies is also illustrated with a liver cancer mouse-based in situ experiment, revealing its potential application in whole-body imaging of small animals.
Chen, Xueli; Sun, Fangfang; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin
2015-01-01
For fluorescence tomographic imaging of small animals, the liver is usually regarded as a low-scattering tissue and is surrounded by adipose, kidneys, and heart, all of which have a high scattering property. This leads to a breakdown of the diffusion equation (DE)–based reconstruction method as well as a heavy computational burden for the simplified spherical harmonics equation (SP(N)). Coupling the SP(N) and DE provides a perfect balance between the imaging accuracy and computational burden. The coupled third-order SPN and DE (CSDE)-based reconstruction method is developed for fluorescence tomographic imaging. This is achieved by doubly using the CSDE for the excitation and emission processes of the fluorescence propagation. At the same time, the finite-element method and hybrid multilevel regularization strategy are incorporated in inverse reconstruction. The CSDE-based reconstruction method is first demonstrated with a digital mouse-based liver cancer simulation, which reveals superior performance compared with the SPN and DE-based methods. It is more accurate than the DE-based method and has lesser computational burden than the SPN-based method. The feasibility of the proposed approach in applications of in vivo studies is also illustrated with a liver cancer mouse-based in situ experiment, revealing its potential application in whole-body imaging of small animals. PMID:26385654
Kedziora, David J; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Akhmediev, Nail
2012-06-01
We present an explicit analytic form for the two-breather solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with imaginary eigenvalues. It describes various nonlinear combinations of Akhmediev breathers and Kuznetsov-Ma solitons. The degenerate case, when the two eigenvalues coincide, is quite involved. The standard inverse scattering technique does not generally provide an answer to this scenario. We show here that the solution can still be found as a special limit of the general second-order expression and appears as a mixture of polynomials with trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. A further restriction of this particular case, where the two eigenvalues are equal to i, produces the second-order rogue wave with two free parameters considered as differential shifts. The illustrations reveal a precarious dependence of wave profile on the degenerate eigenvalues and differential shifts. Thus we establish a hierarchy of second-order solutions, revealing the interrelated nature of the general case, the rogue wave, and the degenerate breathers. PMID:23005231
N-soliton interactions in an extended Schrödinger equation with higher order of nonlinearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yomba, Emmanuel; Zakeri, Gholam-Ali
2016-02-01
We investigate the existence of N-solitons in an extended general nonlinear Schrödinger equation with third and fourth order dispersive terms that is most important for applications, such as the dynamics of a general class of anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with different magnetic interactions, the alpha helical proteins, and in media that offer interactions in biophysics. We have transformed the model to a homogeneous model that is utilized to show the existence of interactions of N-soliton solutions. We analyzed, and gave specific forms of these new class of N-solitons in a new simple form and discussed the interactions of these N-solitons. We have shown the existence of three types of head-on collisions, head-on collisions with or without over-taking or splitting into two solitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S.
2014-03-01
We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Furthermore, we show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter , to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S.
2013-05-01
We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space {{R}^3} and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Furthermore, we show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter {α → 0}, to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, R. B.
1986-04-01
This paper presents a simple way of classifying higher-order differential equations based on the requirements of the Painlevé property, i.e., the presence of no movable critical points. The fundamental building blocks for such equations may be generated by strongly self-dominant differential equations of the type (∂/∂x)nu =(∂/∂xm)[u(m-n+p)/p] in which m and n are positive integers and p is a negative integer. Such differential equations having both a constant degree d and a constant value of the difference n-m form a Painlevé chain; however, only three of the many possible Painlevé chains can have the Painlevé property. Among the three Painlevé chains that can have the Painlevé property, one contains the Burgers' equation; another contains the dominant terms of the first Painlevé transcendent, the isospectral Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the isospectral Boussinesq equation; and the third contains the dominant terms of the second Painlevé transcendent and the isospectral modified (cubic) Korteweg-de Vries equation. Differential equations of the same order and having the same value of the quotient (n-m)/(d-1) can be mixed to generate a new hybrid differential equation. In such cases a hybrid can have the Painlevé property even if only one of its components has the Painlevé property. Such hybridization processes can be used to generate the various fifth-order evolution equations of interest, namely the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon, Kuperschmidt, and Morris equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isah, Abdulnasir; Chang, Phang
2016-06-01
In this article we propose the wavelet operational method based on shifted Legendre polynomial to obtain the numerical solutions of non-linear systems of fractional order differential equations (NSFDEs). The operational matrix of fractional derivative derived through wavelet-polynomial transformation are used together with the collocation method to turn the NSFDEs to a system of non-linear algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are given in order to demonstrate the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed techniques.
Wang, Z J
2012-12-06
The overriding objective for this project is to develop an efficient and accurate method for capturing strong discontinuities and fine smooth flow structures of disparate length scales with unstructured grids, and demonstrate its potentials for problems relevant to DOE. More specifically, we plan to achieve the following objectives: 1. Extend the SV method to three dimensions, and develop a fourth-order accurate SV scheme for tetrahedral grids. Optimize the SV partition by minimizing a form of the Lebesgue constant. Verify the order of accuracy using the scalar conservation laws with an analytical solution; 2. Extend the SV method to Navier-Stokes equations for the simulation of viscous flow problems. Two promising approaches to compute the viscous fluxes will be tested and analyzed; 3. Parallelize the 3D viscous SV flow solver using domain decomposition and message passing. Optimize the cache performance of the flow solver by designing data structures minimizing data access times; 4. Demonstrate the SV method with a wide range of flow problems including both discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The objectives remain the same as those outlines in the original proposal. We anticipate no technical obstacles in meeting these objectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beech, Robert; Osman, Frederick
2005-10-01
This paper will present the nonlinearity and dispersion effects involved in propagation of optical solitons, which can be understood by using a numerical routine to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). Here, Mathematica v5© (Wolfram, 2003) is used to explore in depth several features of optical solitons formation and propagation. These numerical routines were implemented through the use of Mathematica v5© and the results give a very clear idea of this interesting and important practical phenomenon. It is hoped that this work will open up an important new approach to the cause, effect, and correction of interference from secondary radiation found in the uses of soliton waves in lasers and in optical fiber telecommunication. It is believed that these results will be of considerable use in any work or research in this field and in self-focusing properties of the soliton (Osman et al., 2004a, 2004b; Hora, 1991). In a previous paper on this topic (Beech & Osman, 2004), it was shown that solitons of NLSE radiate. This paper goes on from there to show that these radiations only occur in solitons derived from cubic, or odd-numbered higher orders of NLSE, and that there are no such radiations from solitons of quadratic, or even-numbered higher order of NLSE. It is anticipated that this will stimulate research into practical means to control or eliminate such radiations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathai, Pramod P.
This thesis focuses on applying and augmenting 'Reduced Order Modeling' (ROM) techniques to large scale problems. ROM refers to the set of mathematical techniques that are used to reduce the computational expense of conventional modeling techniques, like finite element and finite difference methods, while minimizing the loss of accuracy that typically accompanies such a reduction. The first problem that we address pertains to the prediction of the level of heat dissipation in electronic and MEMS devices. With the ever decreasing feature sizes in electronic devices, and the accompanied rise in Joule heating, the electronics industry has, since the 1990s, identified a clear need for computationally cheap heat transfer modeling techniques that can be incorporated along with the electronic design process. We demonstrate how one can create reduced order models for simulating heat conduction in individual components that constitute an idealized electronic device. The reduced order models are created using Krylov Subspace Techniques (KST). We introduce a novel 'plug and play' approach, based on the small gain theorem in control theory, to interconnect these component reduced order models (according to the device architecture) to reliably and cheaply replicate whole device behavior. The final aim is to have this technique available commercially as a computationally cheap and reliable option that enables a designer to optimize for heat dissipation among competing VLSI architectures. Another place where model reduction is crucial to better design is Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) - the second problem in this thesis - which is a popular technique that is used to separate minute amounts of proteins from the other constituents that are present in a typical biological tissue sample. Fundamental questions about how to design IEF experiments still remain because of the high dimensional and highly nonlinear nature of the differential equations that describe the IEF process as well as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchssteiner, Benno; Oevel, Walter
1982-03-01
Using a bi-Hamiltonian formulation we give explicit formulas for the conserved quantities and infinitesimal generators of symmetries for some nonlinear fifth- and seventh-order nonlinear partial differential equations; among them, the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation and the Kupershmidt equation. We show that the Lie algebras of the symmetry groups of these equations are of a very special form: Among the C∞ vector fields they are generated from two given commuting vector fields by a recursive application of a single operator. Furthermore, for some higher order equations, those multisoliton solutions, which for ||t||→∞ asymptotically decompose into traveling wave solutions, are characterized as eigenvector decompositions of certain operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2012-08-01
In this work, we explore more applications of the simplified form of the bilinear method to the seventhorder Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (CDG) and the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-KP (CDG-KP) equation. We formally derive one and two soliton solutions for each equation. We also show that the two equations do not show resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad
2016-04-01
Water storage in the unsaturated zone is controlled by capillary forces which increase nonlinearly with decreasing pore size, because water acts as a wetting fluid in soil. The standard approach to represent capillary and gravity controlled soil water dynamics is the Darcy-Richards equation in combination with suitable soil water characteristics. This continuum model essentially assumes capillarity controlled diffusive fluxes to dominate soil water dynamics under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Today we know that the assumptions of local equilibrium conditions e.g. and a mainly diffusive flow are often not appropriate, particularly during rainfall events in structured soils. Rapid or preferential flow imply a strong local disequilibrium and imperfect mixing between a fast fraction of soil water, traveling in interconnected coarse pores or non-capillary macropores, and the slower diffusive flow in finer fractions of the pore space. Although various concepts have been proposed to overcome the inability of the Darcy - Richards concept to cope with not-well mixed preferential flow, we still lack an approach that is commonly accepted. Notwithstanding the listed short comings, one should not mistake the limitations of the Richards equation with non-importance of capillary forces in soil. Without capillarity infiltrating rainfall would drain into groundwater bodies, leaving an empty soil as the local equilibrium state - there would be no soil water dynamics at all, probably even no terrestrial vegetation without capillary forces. Better alternatives for the Darcy-Richards approach are thus highly desirable, as long they preserve the grain of "truth" about capillarity as first order control. Here we propose such an alternative approach to simulate soil moisture dynamics in a stochastic and yet physical way. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker Planck equation. The model concept builds on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, So; Nooijen, Marcel; Bartlett, Rodney J.
2000-10-01
General-order equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods for ionization potentials and electron affinities (IP-EOM-CC and EA-EOM-CC) are developed by employing a determinantal algorithm. With these, principal ionization potentials or electron affinities of diatomic molecules and the excitation energies of their ionized or electron-attached counterparts are computed across different approximations of the cluster operator and the ionization (electron-attachment) operator. IP-EOM-CC(2,2h-1p)=IP-EOM-CCSD and EA-EOM-CC(2,1h-2p)=EA-EOM-CCSD or EA-EOM-CC(2,2h-3p) prove to be well-balanced models for principal ionization potentials and electron affinities, whereas for the quantitative descriptions of non-Koopmans ionization or electron-attachment processes IP-EOM-CC(3,3h-2p)=IP-EOM-CCSDT and EA-EOM-CC(2,2h-3p) appear to be the minimal levels.
A new fourth-order Fourier-Bessel split-step method for the extended nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Nash, Patrick L.
2008-01-10
Fourier split-step techniques are often used to compute soliton-like numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Here, a new fourth-order implementation of the Fourier split-step algorithm is described for problems possessing azimuthal symmetry in 3 + 1-dimensions. This implementation is based, in part, on a finite difference approximation {delta}{sub perpendicular} {sup FDA} of 1/r ({partial_derivative})/({partial_derivative}r) r({partial_derivative})/({partial_derivative}r) that possesses an associated exact unitary representation of e{sup i/2{lambda}}{sup {delta}{sub perpendicular}{sup FDA}}. The matrix elements of this unitary matrix are given by special functions known as the associated Bessel functions. Hence the attribute Fourier-Bessel for the method. The Fourier-Bessel algorithm is shown to be unitary and unconditionally stable. The Fourier-Bessel algorithm is employed to simulate the propagation of a periodic series of short laser pulses through a nonlinear medium. This numerical simulation calculates waveform intensity profiles in a sequence of planes that are transverse to the general propagation direction, and labeled by the cylindrical coordinate z. These profiles exhibit a series of isolated pulses that are offset from the time origin by characteristic times, and provide evidence for a physical effect that may be loosely termed normal mode condensation. Normal mode condensation is consistent with experimentally observed pulse filamentation into a packet of short bursts, which may occur as a result of short, intense irradiation of a medium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galindo-Israel, V.; Imbriale, W.; Shogen, K.; Mittra, R.
1990-01-01
In obtaining solutions to the first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) for synthesizing offset dual-shaped reflectors, it is found that previously observed computational problems can be avoided if the integration of the PDEs is started from an inner projected perimeter and integrated outward rather than starting from an outer projected perimeter and integrating inward. This procedure, however, introduces a new parameter, the main reflector inner perimeter radius p(o), when given a subreflector inner angle 0(o). Furthermore, a desired outer projected perimeter (e.g., a circle) is no longer guaranteed. Stability of the integration is maintained if some of the initial parameters are determined first from an approximate solution to the PDEs. A one-, two-, or three-parameter optimization algorithm can then be used to obtain a best set of parameters yielding a close fit to the desired projected outer rim. Good low cross-polarization mapping functions are also obtained. These methods are illustrated by synthesis of a high-gain offset-shaped Cassegrainian antenna and a low-noise offset-shaped Gregorian antenna.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hai-Qiang; Chen, Jian
2016-04-01
In this paper, we study a higher-order variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which plays an important role in the control of the ultrashort optical pulse propagation in nonlinear optical systems. Then, we construct a generalized Darboux transformation (GDT) for the higher-order variable coefficient NLS equation. The Nth order rogue wave solution is obtained by the iterative rule and it can be expressed by the determinant form. As application, we calculate rogue waves (RWs) from first- to fourth-order in accordance with different kinds of parameters. In particular, the dynamical properties and spatial-temporal structures of RWs are discussed and compared with Hirota equation through some figures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Gui-qiong; Deng, Shu-fang
2016-06-01
In this article, we apply the singularity structure analysis to test an extended 2+1-dimensional fifth-order KdV equation for integrability. It is proven that the generalized equation passes the Painlevé test for integrability only in three distinct cases. Two of those cases are in agreement with the known results, and a new integrable equation is first given. Then, for the new integrable equation, we employ the Bell polynomial method to construct its bilinear forms, bilinear Bäcklund transformation, Lax pair, and infinite conversation laws systematically. The N-soliton solutions of this new integrable equation are derived, and the propagations and collisions of multiple solitons are shown by graphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenough, J. A.; Rider, W. J.
2004-05-01
A numerical study is undertaken comparing a fifth-order version of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory numerical (WENO5) method to a modern piecewise-linear, second-order, version of Godunov's (PLMDE) method for the compressible Euler equations. A series of one-dimensional test problems are examined beginning with classical linear problems and ending with complex shock interactions. The problems considered are: (1) linear advection of a Gaussian pulse in density, (2) Sod's shock tube problem, (3) the "peak" shock tube problem, (4) a version of the Shu and Osher shock entropy wave interaction and (5) the Woodward and Colella interacting shock wave problem. For each problem and method, run times, density error norms and convergence rates are reported for each method as produced from a common code test-bed. The linear problem exhibits the advertised convergence rate for both methods as well as the expected large disparity in overall error levels; WENO5 has the smaller errors and an enormous advantage in overall efficiency (in accuracy per unit CPU time). For the nonlinear problems with discontinuities, however, we generally see both first-order self-convergence of error as compared to an exact solution, or when an analytic solution is not available, a converged solution generated on an extremely fine grid. The overall comparison of error levels shows some variation from problem to problem. For Sod's shock tube, PLMDE has nearly half the error, while on the peak problem the errors are nearly the same. For the interacting blast wave problem the two methods again produce a similar level of error with a slight edge for the PLMDE. On the other hand, for the Shu-Osher problem, the errors are similar on the coarser grids, but favors WENO by a factor of nearly 1.5 on the finer grids used. In all cases holding mesh resolution constant though, PLMDE is less costly in terms of CPU time by approximately a factor of 6. If the CPU cost is taken as fixed, that is run times are
Zhou Qi-huang
1988-12-01
Starting with the general expression of a static state axisymmetric metric and using the principle of equivalence and the Maccullagh formula, the Einstein--Maxwell equations of a charged axisymmetric celestial body are obtained. Next, using the method of undetermined coefficients these equations are solved up to fourth-order approximate. These sets of solutions are generally appropriate for all kinds of charged axisymmetric celestial bodies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nevolin, V. I.
2003-04-01
We present a method for analyzing the characteristics of nonlinear detectors using the algorithms of first-order nonlinear differential equations. This method is based on numerical solutions of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equations in the form of series of functions over Hermite-Chebyshev polynomials for both nonlinear systems and their linear counterparts. The results of the solutions for the linear case are extended to nonlinear systems in a recurrent way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grima, Ramon
2015-10-01
It is well known that the linear-noise approximation (LNA) agrees with the chemical master equation, up to second-order moments, for chemical systems composed of zero and first-order reactions. Here we show that this is also a property of the LNA for a subset of chemical systems with second-order reactions. This agreement is independent of the number of interacting molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.
2016-08-01
Using the general solution of the differential equation x¨(t) +g1(t) x˙ +g2(t) x = 0 , a generic basis of the point-symmetry algebra sl(3 , R) is constructed. Deriving the equation from a time-dependent Lagrangian, the basis elements corresponding to Noether symmetries are deduced. The generalized Lewis invariant is constructed explicitly using a linear combination of Noether symmetries. The procedure is generalized to the case of systems of second-order ordinary differential equations with maximal sl(n + 2 , R) -symmetry, and its possible adaptation to the inhomogeneous non-linear case illustrated by an example.
Fike, Jeffrey A.
2013-08-01
The construction of stable reduced order models using Galerkin projection for the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations requires a suitable choice for the inner product. The standard L2 inner product is expected to produce unstable ROMs. For the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations this means the use of an energy inner product. In this report, Galerkin projection for the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations using the L2 inner product is implemented as a first step toward constructing stable ROMs for this set of physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babin, Vasile D.; Grigore, Maria; Cojocaru, Laurentiu; Ersen, Simion; Moldovan, Adrian
1998-07-01
In this work we use a technique inspired by the inverse problem in the scattering theory, that is, the calculation of partial derivatives along the characteristic directions of the D'Alembert solution of the wave equation (Maxwell and Euler). In this way, we construct a system of stochastic non-linear differential equations. The analysis of this system, using algebraic invariants, gives more information in comparison with that given by Ghelfand-Levitan-Marcenko, in the inverse problem in the scattering theory.
Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G.E.
2012-08-30
By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian
2014-02-01
In order to conquer the spurious reflections from the truncated edges and maintain the stability in the long-time simulation of elastic wave propagation, several perfectly matched layer (PML) methods have been proposed in the first-order (e.g., velocity-stress equations) and the second-order (e.g., energy equation with displacement unknown only) formulations. The multiaxial perfectly matched layer (M-PML) holds the excellent stability for the long-time simulation of wave propagation, even though it is not perfectly matched in the discretized M-PML equation system. This absorbing boundary approach can offer an alternative way to solve the problem of the late-time instability, especially for anisotropic media, which is also suffered by the convolutional perfectly matched layer (C-PML) that is supposed to be competent to handle most stable problems. The M-PML termination implementation in the first-order formulations is well proposed. The common drawback of the implementation of the first-order M-PML formulations is that it necessitates fundamental reconstruction of the existing codes of the second-order spectral element method (SEM) or finite element method (FEM). Therefore, we propose a nonconvolutional second-order M-PML absorbing boundary condition approach for the wave propagation simulation in elastic media that has not yet been developed before. Two-dimensional numerical simulation validations demonstrate that the proposed second-order M-PML has good performances: 1) superior efficiency and stability of absorbing the spurious elastic wavefields, both the surface waves and body waves, reflected on the boundaries; 2) superior stability in the long-time simulation even in the isotropic medium with a high Poisson's ratio; 3) superior efficiency and stability in the long-time simulation for anisotropic media. This method hence makes the SEM and FEM in the second-order wave equation formulation more efficient and stable for the long-time simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Hatsuhiro; Kato, Hatsuyoshi
2016-05-01
We proposed a new discretisation scheme for deriving a second-order difference equation from any system being formulated with the weak-form theory framework. The proposed scheme enables us to extend the application range of the recursive transfer method (RTM) and to express perfectly matching conditions for port boundaries in a discrete fashion under the RTM framework. To evaluate the accuracy and demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme, we discussed the scattering problem governed by the fourth-order differential equation that was hitherto outside the RTM application range. The difference equation can play an important role in maintaining the balance of the bending moment and the shear force at the interface of two segments. Using the new port boundary condition, a quasi-localised wave was extracted and found to be related to the phase shift due to Fano resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canestrelli, Alberto; Siviglia, Annunziato; Dumbser, Michael; Toro, Eleuterio F.
2009-06-01
This paper concerns the development of high-order accurate centred schemes for the numerical solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems containing non-conservative products and source terms. Combining the PRICE-T method developed in [Toro E, Siviglia A. PRICE: primitive centred schemes for hyperbolic system of equations. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 2003;42:1263-91] with the theoretical insights gained by the recently developed path-conservative schemes [Castro M, Gallardo J, Parés C. High-order finite volume schemes based on reconstruction of states for solving hyperbolic systems with nonconservative products applications to shallow-water systems. Math Comput 2006;75:1103-34; Parés C. Numerical methods for nonconservative hyperbolic systems: a theoretical framework. SIAM J Numer Anal 2006;44:300-21], we propose the new PRICE-C scheme that automatically reduces to a modified conservative FORCE scheme if the underlying PDE system is a conservation law. The resulting first-order accurate centred method is then extended to high order of accuracy in space and time via the ADER approach together with a WENO reconstruction technique. The well-balanced properties of the PRICE-C method are investigated for the shallow water equations. Finally, we apply the new scheme to the shallow water equations with fix bottom topography and with variable bottom solving an additional sediment transport equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngo-Cong, D.; Mohammed, F. J.; Strunin, D. V.; Skvortsov, A. T.; Mai-Duy, N.; Tran-Cong, T.
2015-06-01
The contaminant transport process governed by the advection-diffusion equation plays an important role in modelling industrial and environmental flows. In this article, our aim is to accurately reduce the 2-D advection-diffusion equation governing the dispersion of a contaminant in a turbulent open channel flow to its 1-D approximation. The 1-D model helps to quickly estimate the horizontal size of contaminant clouds based on the values of the model coefficients. We derive these coefficients analytically and investigate numerically the model convergence. The derivation is based on the centre manifold theory to obtain successively more accurate approximations in a consistent manner. Two types of the average velocity profile are considered: the classical logarithmic profile and the power profile. We further develop the one-dimensional integrated radial basis function network method as a numerical approach to obtain the numerical solutions to both the original 2-D equation and the approximate 1-D equations. We compare the solutions of the original models with their centre-manifold approximations at very large Reynolds numbers. The numerical results obtained from the approximate 1-D models are in good agreement with those of the original 2-D model for both the logarithmic and power velocity profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Azzouzi, Faiçal; Grelu, Philippe
2013-11-01
We consider a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger (HNLS) equation with third- and fourth-order dispersions, quintic non-Kerr terms, self steepening, and self-frequency-shift effects. The model applies to the description of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in highly nonlinear media. We propose a complex envelope function ansatz composed of single bright, single dark and the product of bright and dark solitary waves that allows us to obtain analytically different shapes of solitary wave solutions. Parametric conditions for the existence and uniqueness of such solitary waves are presented. The solutions comprise fundamental solitons, kink and anti-kink solitons, W-shaped, dipole, tripole, and fifth-order solitons. In addition, we found a new type of solitary wave solution that takes the shape of N, illustrating the potentially rich set of solitary wave solutions of the HNLS equation. Finally, the stability of the solutions is checked by direct numerical simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya
2016-03-01
Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields.
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya
2016-01-01
Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields. PMID:27002543
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya
2016-01-01
Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields. PMID:27002543
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.
2016-07-01
We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.
Lorenzo, C F; Hartley, T T; Malti, R
2013-05-13
A new and simplified method for the solution of linear constant coefficient fractional differential equations of any commensurate order is presented. The solutions are based on the R-function and on specialized Laplace transform pairs derived from the principal fractional meta-trigonometric functions. The new method simplifies the solution of such fractional differential equations and presents the solutions in the form of real functions as opposed to fractional complex exponential functions, and thus is directly applicable to real-world physics. PMID:23547228
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbi, Akbar; Abbaszadeh, Mostafa; Dehghan, Mehdi
2013-05-01
The aim of this paper is to study the high order difference scheme for the solution of modified anomalous fractional sub-diffusion equation. The time fractional derivative is described in the Riemann-Liouville sense. In the proposed scheme we discretize the space derivative with a fourth-order compact scheme and use the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization of the Riemann-Liouville derivative to obtain a fully discrete implicit scheme. We analyze the solvability, stability and convergence of the proposed scheme using the Fourier method. The convergence order of method is O(τ+h4). Numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical results and high accuracy of the proposed scheme.
Marsden, O; Bogey, C; Bailly, C
2014-03-01
The feasibility of using numerical simulation of fluid dynamics equations for the detailed description of long-range infrasound propagation in the atmosphere is investigated. The two dimensional (2D) Navier Stokes equations are solved via high fidelity spatial finite differences and Runge-Kutta time integration, coupled with a shock-capturing filter procedure allowing large amplitudes to be studied. The accuracy of acoustic prediction over long distances with this approach is first assessed in the linear regime thanks to two test cases featuring an acoustic source placed above a reflective ground in a homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous medium, solved for a range of grid resolutions. An atmospheric model which can account for realistic features affecting acoustic propagation is then described. A 2D study of the effect of source amplitude on signals recorded at ground level at varying distances from the source is carried out. Modifications both in terms of waveforms and arrival times are described. PMID:24606252
The existence of a real pole-free solution of the fourth order analogue of the Painlevé I equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claeys, T.; Vanlessen, M.
2007-05-01
We establish the existence of a real solution y(x, T) with no poles on the real line of the following fourth order analogue of the Painlevé I equation: \\[ \\begin{equation*}x=Ty-\\left(\\case 1 6 y^3+\\case{1}{24} (y_x^2+2yy_{xx}) +\\case {1}{240} y_{xxxx}\\right).\\end{equation*} \\] This proves the existence part of a conjecture posed by Dubrovin. We obtain our result by proving the solvability of an associated Riemann-Hilbert problem through the approach of a vanishing lemma. In addition, by applying the Deift/Zhou steepest-descent method to this Riemann-Hilbert problem, we obtain the asymptotics for y(x, T) as x → ±∞.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Qi; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui
2016-01-01
We study the nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds of the higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (HGNLS) equation describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in optical fibers. We derive the breather, rogue wave, and semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation. Our results show that these three types of solutions can be converted into the nonpulsating soliton solutions. In particular, we present the explicit conditions for the transitions between breathers and solitons with different structures. Further, we investigate the characteristics of the collisions between the soliton and breathers. Especially, based on the semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation, we display the novel interactions between the rogue waves and other nonlinear waves. In addition, we reveal the explicit relation between the transition and the distribution characteristics of the modulation instability growth rate.
Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Qi; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui
2016-01-01
We study the nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds of the higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (HGNLS) equation describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in optical fibers. We derive the breather, rogue wave, and semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation. Our results show that these three types of solutions can be converted into the nonpulsating soliton solutions. In particular, we present the explicit conditions for the transitions between breathers and solitons with different structures. Further, we investigate the characteristics of the collisions between the soliton and breathers. Especially, based on the semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation, we display the novel interactions between the rogue waves and other nonlinear waves. In addition, we reveal the explicit relation between the transition and the distribution characteristics of the modulation instability growth rate. PMID:26871080
Fedorov, Yuri E-mail: Chara.Pantazi@upc.edu; Pantazi, Chara E-mail: Chara.Pantazi@upc.edu
2014-03-15
We consider a family of genus 2 hyperelliptic curves of even order and obtain explicitly the systems of 5 linear ordinary differential equations for periods of the corresponding Abelian integrals of first, second, and third kind, as functions of some parameters of the curves. The systems can be regarded as extensions of the well-studied Picard–Fuchs equations for periods of complete integrals of first and second kind on odd hyperelliptic curves. The periods we consider are linear combinations of the action variables of several integrable systems, in particular the generalized Neumann system with polynomial separable potentials. Thus the solutions of the extended Picard–Fuchs equations can be used to study various properties of the actions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
JavanNezhad, R.; Meshkatee, A. H.; Ghader, S.; Ahmadi-Givi, F.
2016-09-01
This study is devoted to application of the fourth-order compact MacCormack scheme to spatial differencing of the conservative form of two-dimensional and non-hydrostatic equation of a dry atmosphere. To advance the solution in time a four-stage Runge-Kutta method is used. To perform the simulations, two test cases including evolution of a warm bubble and a cold bubble in a neutral atmosphere with open and rigid boundaries are employed. In addition, the second-order MacCormack and the standard fourth-order compact MacCormack schemes are used to perform the simulations. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the numerical results for different test cases exhibit the superiority of the fourth-order compact MacCormack scheme on the second-order method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max
2016-02-01
This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooshmandasl, M. R.; Heydari, M. H.; Cattani, C.
2016-08-01
Fractional calculus has been used to model physical and engineering processes that are best described by fractional differential equations. Therefore designing efficient and reliable techniques for the solution of such equations is an important task. In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate Galerkin method based on the fractional-order Legendre functions (FLFs) for solving the fractional sub-diffusion equation (FSDE) and the time-fractional diffusion-wave equation (FDWE). The time-fractional derivatives for FSDE are described in the Riemann-Liouville sense, while for FDWE are described in the Caputo sense. To this end, we first derive a new operational matrix of fractional integration (OMFI) in the Riemann-Liouville sense for FLFs. Next, we transform the original FSDE into an equivalent problem with fractional derivatives in the Caputo sense. Then the FLFs and their OMFI together with the Galerkin method are used to transform the problems under consideration into the corresponding linear systems of algebraic equations, which can be simply solved to achieve the numerical solutions of the problems. The proposed method is very convenient for solving such kind of problems, since the initial and boundary conditions are taken into account automatically. Furthermore, the efficiency of the proposed method is shown for some concrete examples. The results reveal that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient.
Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Yang, Yunqing
2016-06-01
The integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential [M. J. Ablowitz and Z. H. Musslimani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064105 (2013)] is investigated, which is an integrable extension of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Its novel higher-order rational solitons are found using the nonlocal version of the generalized perturbation (1,N-1)-fold Darboux transformation. These rational solitons illustrate abundant wave structures for the distinct choices of parameters (e.g., the strong and weak interactions of bright and dark rational solitons). Moreover, we also explore the dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rational solitons with some small noises on the basis of numerical simulations. PMID:27368788
Lee, T.; Leaf, G. K.; Mathematics and Computer Science; The City Univ. of New York
2009-04-01
We propose an Eulerian description of the bounce-back boundary condition based on the high-order implicit time-marching schemes to improve the accuracy of lattice Boltzmann simulation in the vicinity of curved boundary. The Eulerian description requires only one grid spacing between fluid nodes when second-order accuracy in time and space is desired, although high-order accurate boundary conditions can be constructed on more grid-point support. The Eulerian description also provides an analytical framework for several different interpolation-based boundary conditions. For instance, the semi-Lagrangian, linear interpolation boundary condition is found to be a first-order upwind discretization that changes the time-marching schemes from implicit to explicit as the distance between the fluid boundary node and the solid boundary increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Porsezian, K.; Grelu, Philippe
2016-07-01
A generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with polynomial Kerr nonlinearity and non-Kerr terms of an arbitrarily higher order is investigated. This model can be applied to the femtosecond pulse propagation in highly-nonlinear optical media. We introduce a new chirping ansatz given as an expansion in powers of intensity of the light pulse and obtain both linear and nonlinear chirp contributions associated with propagating optical pulses. By taking the cubic-quintic-septic-nonic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with seventh-order non-Kerr terms as an example for the generalized equation with Kerr and non-Kerr nonlinearity of arbitrary order, we derive families of chirped soliton solutions under certain parametric conditions. The solutions comprise bright, kink, anti-kink, and fractional-transform soliton solutions. In addition, we found the exact soliton solution for the model under consideration using a new ansatz. The parametric conditions for the existence of chirped solitons are also reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Biswas, Anjan; Milović, Daniela; Belić, Milivoj
2016-05-01
We consider a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic-quintic-septic nonlinearities, non-Kerr quintic nonlinearity, self-steepening, and self-frequency shift. The model describes the propagation of ultrashort (femtosecond) optical pulses in highly nonlinear optical fibers. A new ansatz is adopted to obtain nonlinear chirp associated with the propagating femtosecond soliton pulses. It is shown that the resultant elliptic equation of the problem is of high order, contains several new terms and is more general than the earlier reported results, thus providing a systematic way to find exact chirped soliton solutions of the septic model. Novel soliton solutions, including chirped bright, dark, kink and fractional-transform soliton solutions are obtained for special choices of parameters. Furthermore, we present the parameter domains in which these optical solitons exist. The nonlinear chirp associated with each of the solitonic solutions is also determined. It is shown that the chirping is proportional to the intensity of the wave and depends on higher-order nonlinearities. Of special interest is the soliton solution of the bright and dark type, determined for the general case when all coefficients in the equation have nonzero values. These results can be useful for possible chirped-soliton-based applications of highly nonlinear optical fiber systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Ibrar; Mahomed, Fazal M.; Qadir, Asghar
2007-12-01
Following the use of approximate symmetries for the Schwarzschild spacetime by A.H. Kara, F.M. Mahomed and A. Qadir (Nonlinear Dynam., to appear), we have investigated the exact and approximate symmetries of the system of geodesic equations for the Reissner-Nordström spacetime (RN). For this purpose we are forced to use second order approximate symmetries. It is shown that in the second-order approximation, energy must be rescaled for the RN metric. The implications of this rescaling are discussed.
Zharkov, G. F.
2001-06-01
Based on self-consistent solution of nonlinear GL equations, the phase boundary is found, which divides the regions of first- and second-order phase transitions to normal state of a superconducting cylinder of radius R, placed in magnetic field and remaining in the state of fixed vorticity m. This boundary is a complicated function of the parameters (m,R,{kappa}) ({kappa} is the GL parameter), which does not coincide with the simple phase boundary {kappa}=1/{radical}2, dividing the regions of first- and second-order phase transitions in infinite (open) superconducting systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsányi, Sz.; Endrődi, G.; Fodor, Z.; Katz, S. D.; Krieg, S.; Ratti, C.; Szabó, K. K.
2012-08-01
We determine the equation of state of QCD for nonzero chemical potentials via a Taylor expansion of the pressure. The results are obtained for N f = 2 + 1 flavors of quarks with physical masses, on various lattice spacings. We present results for the pressure, interaction measure, energy density, entropy density, and the speed of sound for small chemical potentials. At low temperatures we compare our results with the Hadron Resonance Gas model. We also express our observables along trajectories of constant entropy over particle number. A simple parameterization is given (the Matlab/Octave script parameterization.m, submitted to the arXiv along with the paper), which can be used to reconstruct the observables as functions of T and μ, or as functions of T and S/N.
Fujioka, J; Espinosa, A
2015-11-01
In this article, we show that if the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is generalized by simultaneously taking into account higher-order dispersion, a quintic nonlinearity, and self-steepening terms, the resulting equation is interesting as it has exact soliton solutions which may be (depending on the values of the coefficients) stable or unstable, standard or "embedded," fixed or "moving" (i.e., solitons which advance along the retarded-time axis). We investigate the stability of these solitons by means of a modified version of the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion, and numerical tests are carried out to corroborate that these solitons respond differently to perturbations. It is shown that this generalized NLS equation can be derived from a Lagrangian density which contains an auxiliary variable, and Noether's theorem is then used to show that the invariance of the action integral under infinitesimal gauge transformations generates a whole family of conserved quantities. Finally, we study if this equation has the Painlevé property. PMID:26627574
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, John P.; Xu, Zhengjie
2012-02-01
Computation of solitons of the cubically-nonlinear Benjamin-Ono equation is challenging. First, the equation contains the Hilbert transform, a nonlocal integral operator. Second, its solitary waves decay only as O(1/∣ x∣ 2). To solve the integro-differential equation for waves traveling at a phase speed c, we introduced the artificial homotopy H( uXX) - c u + (1 - δ) u2 + δu3 = 0, δ ∈ [0, 1] and solved it in two ways. The first was continuation in the homotopy parameter δ, marching from the known Benjamin-Ono soliton for δ = 0 to the cubically-nonlinear soliton at δ = 1. The second strategy was to bypass continuation by numerically computing perturbation series in δ and forming Padé approximants to obtain a very accurate approximation at δ = 1. To further minimize computations, we derived an elementary theorem to reduce the two-parameter soliton family to a parameter-free function, the soliton symmetric about the origin with unit phase speed. Solitons for higher order Benjamin-Ono equations are also computed and compared to their Korteweg-deVries counterparts. All computations applied the pseudospectral method with a basis of rational orthogonal functions invented by Christov, which are eigenfunctions of the Hilbert transform.
Wieselquist, William A.; Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Morel, Jim E.
2014-09-15
We present a quasidiffusion (QD) method for solving neutral particle transport problems in Cartesian XY geometry on unstructured quadrilateral meshes, including local refinement capability. Neutral particle transport problems are central to many applications including nuclear reactor design, radiation safety, astrophysics, medical imaging, radiotherapy, nuclear fuel transport/storage, shielding design, and oil well-logging. The primary development is a new discretization of the low-order QD (LOQD) equations based on cell-local finite differences. The accuracy of the LOQD equations depends on proper calculation of special non-linear QD (Eddington) factors from a transport solution. In order to completely define the new QD method, a proper discretization of the transport problem is also presented. The transport equation is discretized by a conservative method of short characteristics with a novel linear approximation of the scattering source term and monotonic, parabolic representation of the angular flux on incoming faces. Analytic and numerical tests are used to test the accuracy and spatial convergence of the non-linear method. All tests exhibit O(h{sup 2}) convergence of the scalar flux on orthogonal, random, and multi-level meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, De-Yin; Tian, Bo; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Yun-Po
2015-04-01
In this paper, an integrable higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation for a density-modulated quantum condensate is investigated. Based on the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur system, an infinite number of conservation laws are obtained. Introducing an auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and construct the dark-soliton solutions with the help of the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Dark one, two, and three solitons are analyzed graphically. Via asymptotic analysis, interactions between the two dark solitons are proved to be elastic. We see that the coefficients in the equation only affect the soliton velocity. We analyze the linear stability of the plane wave solutions in the presence of a small perturbation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, He; Gao, Yi-Tian; Liu, Li-Cai
2015-12-01
The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-type equations have been seen in fluid mechanics, plasma physics and lattice dynamics, etc. This paper will address the bilinearization problem for some higher-order KdV equations. Based on the relationship between the bilinear method and Bell-polynomial scheme, with introducing an auxiliary independent variable, we will present the general bilinear forms. By virtue of the symbolic computation, one- and two-soliton solutions are derived. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11272023, the Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), and by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China under Grant No. 2011BUPTYB02
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Euler, Marianna; Euler, Norbert; Wolf, Thomas
2012-10-01
Recently, Holm and Ivanov, proposed and studied a class of multi-component generalizations of the Camassa-Holm equations [D. D. Holm and R. I. Ivanov, Multi-component generalizations of the CH equation: geometrical aspects, peakons and numerical examples, J. Phys A: Math. Theor.43 (2010) 492001 (20pp)]. We consider two of those systems, denoted by Holm and Ivanov by CH(2,1) and CH(2,2), and report a class of integrating factors and its corresponding conservation laws for these two systems. In particular, we obtain the complete set of first-order integrating factors for the systems in Cauchy-Kovalevskaya form and evaluate the corresponding sets of conservation laws for CH(2,1) and CH(2,2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong
2015-11-01
Energy transfer through a (2+1)-dimensional α-helical protein can be described by a (2+1)-dimensional fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. For such an equation, a Lax pair and the infinitely-many conservation laws are derived. Using an auxiliary function and a bilinear formulation, we get the one-, two-, three- and N-soliton solutions via the Hirota method. The soliton velocity is linearly related to the lattice parameter γ, while the soliton' direction and amplitude do not depend on γ. Interactions between the two solitons are elastic, while those among the three solitons are pairwise elastic. Oblique, head-on and overtaking interactions between the two solitons are displayed. Oblique interaction among the three solitons and interactions among the two parallel solitons and a single one are presented as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Gene
1998-01-01
Sensitivity analysis is a technique for determining derivatives of system responses with respect to design parameters. Among many methods available for sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation has been proven through many applications in fluid dynamics and structural mechanics to be an accurate and easy method for obtaining derivatives. Nevertheless, the method can be computational expensive and can require a high memory space. This project will apply an automatic differentiation tool, ADIFOR, to a p-version finite element code to obtain first- and second- order then-nal derivatives, respectively. The focus of the study is on the implementation process and the performance of the ADIFOR-enhanced codes for sensitivity analysis in terms of memory requirement, computational efficiency, and accuracy.
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Sim, Imbo
2013-01-01
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems. PMID:23888085
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Sim, Imbo
2013-02-15
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems. PMID:23888085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Sim, Imbo
2013-02-01
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.
2016-06-01
A functional realization of the Lie algebra s l (" separators=" 3 , R) as a Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebra of second order differential equation (SODE) Lie systems is proposed. It is shown that a minimal Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebra L V G is obtained from proper subalgebras of s l (" separators=" 3 , R) for each of the SODE Lie systems of this type by particularization of one functional and two scalar parameters of the s l (" separators=" 3 , R) -realization. The relation between the various Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebras by means of a limiting process in the scalar parameters further allows to define a notion of contraction of SODE Lie systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-06-01
We report development of a high-order compact flux reconstruction method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit dual time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ Chorin's classic artificial compressibility formulation with dual time stepping to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time stepping scheme using both steady and unsteady incompressible flow problems. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. This compact high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2015-11-01
This paper reports development of a high-order compact method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ the classical artificial compressibility treatment, where dual time stepping is needed to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time-stepping scheme. Three-dimensional results computed on many processing elements will be presented. The high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. Financial support provided under the GW Presidential Merit Fellowship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achilleos, V.; Bishop, A. R.; Diamantidis, S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Horikis, T. P.; Karachalios, N. I.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2016-07-01
The dynamical behavior of a higher-order cubic Ginzburg-Landau equation is found to include a wide range of scenarios due to the interplay of higher-order physically relevant terms. We find that the competition between the third-order dispersion and stimulated Raman scattering effects gives rise to rich dynamics: this extends from Poincaré-Bendixson-type scenarios, in the sense that bounded solutions may converge either to distinct equilibria via orbital connections or to space-time periodic solutions, to the emergence of almost periodic and chaotic behavior. One of our main results is that third-order dispersion has a dominant role in the development of such complex dynamics, since it can be chiefly responsible (even in the absence of other higher-order effects) for the existence of periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic spatiotemporal structures. Suitable low-dimensional phase-space diagnostics are devised and used to illustrate the different possibilities and identify their respective parametric intervals over multiple parameters of the model.
Achilleos, V; Bishop, A R; Diamantidis, S; Frantzeskakis, D J; Horikis, T P; Karachalios, N I; Kevrekidis, P G
2016-07-01
The dynamical behavior of a higher-order cubic Ginzburg-Landau equation is found to include a wide range of scenarios due to the interplay of higher-order physically relevant terms. We find that the competition between the third-order dispersion and stimulated Raman scattering effects gives rise to rich dynamics: this extends from Poincaré-Bendixson-type scenarios, in the sense that bounded solutions may converge either to distinct equilibria via orbital connections or to space-time periodic solutions, to the emergence of almost periodic and chaotic behavior. One of our main results is that third-order dispersion has a dominant role in the development of such complex dynamics, since it can be chiefly responsible (even in the absence of other higher-order effects) for the existence of periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic spatiotemporal structures. Suitable low-dimensional phase-space diagnostics are devised and used to illustrate the different possibilities and identify their respective parametric intervals over multiple parameters of the model. PMID:27575126
Yaqi Wang; Cristian Rabiti; Giuseppe Palmiotti
2011-06-01
The Red-Black algorithm has been successfully applied on solving the second-order parity transport equation with the PN approximation in angle and the Hybrid Finite Element Method (HFEM) in space, i.e., the Variational Nodal Method (VNM) [1,2,3,4,5]. Any transport solving techniques, including the Red-Black algorithm, need to be parallelized in order to take the advantage of the development of supercomputers with multiple processors for the advanced modeling and simulation. To our knowledge, an attempt [6] was done to parallelize it, but it was devoted only to the z axis plans in three-dimensional calculations. General parallelization of the Red-Black algorithm with the spatial domain decomposition has not been reported in the literature. In this summary, we present our implementation of the parallelization of the Red-Black algorithm and its efficiency results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ye; Gu, Zhuquan; Liu, Yafeng
2012-07-01
In this paper, the Neumann system for the 4th-order eigenvalue problem Ly = (∂4+ q∂2+∂2 q+ ip∂+ i∂ p+ y = Λy) has been given. By means of the Neumann constraint condition, the perfect constraint set Γ and the relations between the potentials { q, p, r} and the eigenvector y are obtained. Then, based on the Euler-Lagrange function and Legendre transformations, a reasonable Jacobi-Ostrogradsky coordinate system has been found, which can be equal to the real Hamiltonian canonical coordinate system in R 8 N . Using Cao's method and Moser's constraint manifold, the Lax pairs of the evolution equation hierarchy with the 4th-order eigenvalue problems are nonlinearized. So a new finite-dimensional integrable Hamilton system on the constraint submanifold R 8 N-4 is generated. Moreover, the solutions of the evolution equations for the infinite-dimensional soliton systems are obtained by the involutive flow of the finite-dimensional completely integrable systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhen, Hui-Ling
2015-06-01
Three-coupled fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations describe the dynamics of alpha helical proteins with the interspine coupling at the higher order. Through symbolic computation and binary Bell-polynomial approach, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions for such equations are constructed. Key point lies in the introduction of auxiliary functions in the Bell-polynomial expression. Asymptotic analysis is applied to investigate the elastic interaction between the two solitons: two solitons keep their original amplitudes, energies and velocities invariant after the interaction except for the phase shifts. Soliton amplitudes are related to the energy distributed in the solitons of the three spines. Overtaking interaction, head-on interaction and bound-state solitons of two solitons are given. Bound states of three bright solitons arise when all of them propagate in parallel. Elastic interaction between the bound-state solitons and one bright soliton is shown. Increase of the lattice parameter can lead to the increase of the soliton velocity, that is, the interaction period becomes shorter. The solitons propagating along the neighbouring spines are found to interact elastically. Those solitons, exhibited in this paper, might be viewed as a possible carrier of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua
2016-06-01
We study a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-NLS) equation with higher-order effects. We show that the breather solution can be converted into four types of nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds including the multipeak solitons, antidark soliton, periodic wave, and W -shaped soliton. In particular, the transition condition requiring the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) to scale linearly is obtained analytically. We display several kinds of elastic interactions between the transformed nonlinear waves. We discuss the dispersion management of the multipeak soliton, which indicates that the GVD coefficient controls the number of peaks of the wave while the TOD coefficient has compression effect. The gain or loss has influence on the amplitudes of the multipeak soliton. We further derive the breather multiple births and Peregrine combs by using multiple compression points of Akhmediev breathers and Peregrine rogue waves in optical fiber systems with periodic GVD modulation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Peregrine comb can be converted into a Peregrine wall by the proper choice of the amplitude of the periodic GVD modulation. The Peregrine wall can be seen as an intermediate state between rogue waves and W -shaped solitons. We finally find that the modulational stability regions with zero growth rate coincide with the transition condition using rogue wave eigenvalues. Our results could be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in diverse physical systems modeled by vc-NLS equation with higher-order effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobodzhanov, A. A.; Safonov, V. F.
2016-04-01
We consider an algorithm for constructing asymptotic solutions regularized in the sense of Lomov (see [1], [2]). We show that such problems can be reduced to integro-differential equations with inverse time. But in contrast to known papers devoted to this topic (see, for example, [3]), in this paper we study a fundamentally new case, which is characterized by the absence, in the differential part, of a linear operator that isolates, in the asymptotics of the solution, constituents described by boundary functions and by the fact that the integral operator has kernel with diagonal degeneration of high order. Furthermore, the spectrum of the regularization operator A(t) (see below) may contain purely imaginary eigenvalues, which causes difficulties in the application of the methods of construction of asymptotic solutions proposed in the monograph [3]. Based on an analysis of the principal term of the asymptotics, we isolate a class of inhomogeneities and initial data for which the exact solution of the original problem tends to the limit solution (as \\varepsilon\\to+0) on the entire time interval under consideration, also including a boundary-layer zone (that is, we solve the so-called initialization problem). The paper is of a theoretical nature and is designed to lead to a greater understanding of the problems in the theory of singular perturbations. There may be applications in various applied areas where models described by integro-differential equations are used (for example, in elasticity theory, the theory of electrical circuits, and so on).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balajewicz, Maciej; Tezaur, Irina; Dowell, Earl
2016-09-01
For a projection-based reduced order model (ROM) of a fluid flow to be stable and accurate, the dynamics of the truncated subspace must be taken into account. This paper proposes an approach for stabilizing and enhancing projection-based fluid ROMs in which truncated modes are accounted for a priori via a minimal rotation of the projection subspace. Attention is focused on the full non-linear compressible Navier-Stokes equations in specific volume form as a step toward a more general formulation for problems with generic non-linearities. Unlike traditional approaches, no empirical turbulence modeling terms are required, and consistency between the ROM and the Navier-Stokes equation from which the ROM is derived is maintained. Mathematically, the approach is formulated as a trace minimization problem on the Stiefel manifold. The reproductive as well as predictive capabilities of the method are evaluated on several compressible flow problems, including a problem involving laminar flow over an airfoil with a high angle of attack, and a channel-driven cavity flow problem.
Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong
2015-08-15
Under investigation in this paper is a fifth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the propagation of attosecond pulses in an optical fiber. Based on the Lax pair, infinitely-many conservation laws are derived. With the aid of auxiliary functions, bilinear forms, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions in analytic forms are generated via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Soliton velocity varies linearly with the coefficients of the high-order terms. Head-on interaction between the bidirectional two solitons and overtaking interaction between the unidirectional two solitons as well as the bound state are depicted. For the interactions among the three solitons, two head-on and one overtaking interactions, three overtaking interactions, an interaction between a bound state and a single soliton and the bound state are displayed. Graphical analysis shows that the interactions between the two solitons are elastic, and interactions among the three solitons are pairwise elastic. Stability analysis yields the modulation instability condition for the soliton solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caplan, R. M.
2013-04-01
We present a simple to use, yet powerful code package called NLSEmagic to numerically integrate the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in one, two, and three dimensions. NLSEmagic is a high-order finite-difference code package which utilizes graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel architectures. The codes running on the GPU are many times faster than their serial counterparts, and are much cheaper to run than on standard parallel clusters. The codes are developed with usability and portability in mind, and therefore are written to interface with MATLAB utilizing custom GPU-enabled C codes with the MEX-compiler interface. The packages are freely distributed, including user manuals and set-up files. Catalogue identifier: AEOJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 124453 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4728604 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, CUDA, MATLAB. Computer: PC, MAC. Operating system: Windows, MacOS, Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Number of processors used: Single CPU, number of GPU processors dependent on chosen GPU card (max is currently 3072 cores on GeForce GTX 690). Supplementary material: Setup guide, Installation guide. RAM: Highly dependent on dimensionality and grid size. For typical medium-large problem size in three dimensions, 4GB is sufficient. Keywords: Nonlinear Schröodinger Equation, GPU, high-order finite difference, Bose-Einstien condensates. Classification: 4.3, 7.7. Nature of problem: Integrate solutions of the time-dependent one-, two-, and three-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Solution method: The integrators utilize a fully-explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme in time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suk, Heejun
2016-08-01
This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients involving distinct retardation factors. This proposed approach was developed to overcome the limitation reported by Suk (2013) regarding the identical retardation values for all reactive species, while maintaining the extensive capability of the previous Suk method involving spatially variable or temporally variable coefficients of transport, general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retardation values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in three verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Praveen; Jang, Seogjoo
2013-04-01
The emission lineshape of the B850 band in the light harvesting complex 2 of purple bacteria is calculated by extending the approach of 2nd order time-nonlocal quantum master equation [S. Jang and R. J. Silbey, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9312 (2003), 10.1063/1.1569239]. The initial condition for the emission process corresponds to the stationary excited state density where exciton states are entangled with the bath modes in equilibrium. This exciton-bath coupling, which is not diagonal in either site excitation or exciton basis, results in a new inhomogeneous term that is absent in the expression for the absorption lineshape. Careful treatment of all the 2nd order terms are made, and explicit expressions are derived for both full 2nd order lineshape expression and the one based on secular approximation that neglects off-diagonal components in the exciton basis. Numerical results are presented for a few representative cases of disorder and temperature. Comparison of emission line shape with the absorption line shape is also made. It is shown that the inhomogeneous term coming from the entanglement of the system and bath degrees of freedom makes significant contributions to the lineshape. It is also found that the perturbative nature of the theory can result in negative portion of lineshape in some situations, which can be removed significantly by inclusion of the inhomogeneous term and completely by using the secular approximation. Comparison of the emission and absorption lineshapes at different temperatures demonstrates the role of thermal population of different exciton states and exciton-phonon couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Li, Zhidong; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2012-12-01
Most simulators for subsurface flow of water, gas, and oil phases use empirical correlations, such as Henry's law, for the CO2 composition in the aqueous phase, and equations of state (EOS) that do not represent the polar interactions between CO2and water. Widely used simulators are also based on lowest-order finite difference methods and suffer from numerical dispersion and grid sensitivity. They may not capture the viscous and gravitational fingering that can negatively affect hydrocarbon (HC) recovery, or aid carbon sequestration in aquifers. We present a three-phase compositional model based on higher-order finite element methods and incorporate rigorous and efficient three-phase-split computations for either three HC phases or water-oil-gas systems. For HC phases, we use the Peng-Robinson EOS. We allow solubility of CO2in water and adopt a new cubic-plus-association (CPA) EOS, which accounts for cross association between H2O and CO2 molecules, and association between H2O molecules. The CPA-EOS is highly accurate over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The main novelty of this work is the formulation of a reservoir simulator with new EOS-based unique three-phase-split computations, which satisfy both the equalities of fugacities in all three phases and the global minimum of Gibbs free energy. We provide five examples that demonstrate twice the convergence rate of our method compared with a finite difference approach, and compare with experimental data and other simulators. The examples consider gravitational fingering during CO2sequestration in aquifers, viscous fingering in water-alternating-gas injection, and full compositional modeling of three HC phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wen-Rong; Shan, Wen-Rui; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Pan; Tian, Bo
2015-02-01
The fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation works as a model for the shallow water waves with surface tension. Through symbolic computation, binary Bell-polynomial approach and auxiliary independent variable, the bilinear forms, N-soliton solutions, two different Bell-polynomial-type Bäcklund transformations, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are obtained. Characteristic-line method is applied to discuss the effects of linear wave speed c as well as length scales τ and γ on the soliton amplitudes and velocities. Increase of τ, c and γ can lead to the increase of the soliton velocity. Soliton amplitude increases with the increase of τ. The larger-amplitude soliton is seen to move faster and then to overtake the smaller one. After the collision, the solitons keep their original shapes and velocities invariant except for the phase shift. Graphic analysis on the two and three-soliton solutions indicates that the overtaking collisions between/among the solitons are all elastic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, A. R.; Welch, J. A.; Kópházi, J.; Eaton, M. D.
2016-06-01
In this paper two discontinuous Galerkin isogeometric analysis methods are developed and applied to the first-order form of the neutron transport equation with a discrete ordinate (SN) angular discretisation. The discontinuous Galerkin projection approach was taken on both an element level and the patch level for a given Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) patch. This paper describes the detailed dispersion analysis that has been used to analyse the numerical stability of both of these schemes. The convergence of the schemes for both smooth and non-smooth solutions was also investigated using the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) for multidimensional problems and a 1D semi-analytical benchmark whose solution contains a strongly discontinuous first derivative. This paper also investigates the challenges posed by strongly curved boundaries at both the NURBS element and patch level with several algorithms developed to deal with such cases. Finally numerical results are presented both for a simple pincell test problem as well as the C5G7 quarter core MOX/UOX small Light Water Reactor (LWR) benchmark problem. These numerical results produced by the isogeometric analysis (IGA) methods are compared and contrasted against linear and quadratic discontinuous Galerkin finite element (DGFEM) SN based methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kara, A. H.; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.
2011-11-01
In this paper, we study and classify the conservation laws of the combined nonlinear KdV, Camassa-Holm, Hunter-Saxton and the inviscid Burgers equation which arises in, inter alia, shallow water equations. It is shown that these can be obtained by variational methods but the main focus of the paper is the construction of the conservation laws as a consequence of the interplay between symmetry generators and 'multipliers', particularly, the higher-order ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, S.; Saha Ray, S.
2016-04-01
In the present paper, we construct the analytical exact solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation in mathematical physics; namely time fractional modified KdV equation by using (G‧ / G)-expansion method and improved (G‧ / G)-expansion method. As a result, new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained.
A Comparison of IRT Equating and Beta 4 Equating.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Dong-In; Brennan, Robert; Kolen, Michael
Four equating methods were compared using four equating criteria: first-order equity (FOE), second-order equity (SOE), conditional mean squared error (CMSE) difference, and the equipercentile equating property. The four methods were: (1) three parameter logistic (3PL) model true score equating; (2) 3PL observed score equating; (3) beta 4 true…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abgrall, R.; De Santis, D.
2015-02-01
A robust and high order accurate Residual Distribution (RD) scheme for the discretization of the steady Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The proposed method is very flexible: it is formulated for unstructured grids, regardless the shape of the elements and the number of spatial dimensions. A continuous approximation of the solution is adopted and standard Lagrangian shape functions are used to construct the discrete space, as in Finite Element methods. The traditional technique for designing RD schemes is adopted: evaluate, for any element, a total residual, split it into nodal residuals sent to the degrees of freedom of the element, solve the non-linear system that has been assembled and then iterate up to convergence. The main issue addressed by the paper is that the technique relies in depth on the continuity of the normal flux across the element boundaries: this is no longer true since the gradient of the state solution appears in the flux, hence continuity is lost when using standard finite element approximations. Naive solution methods lead to very poor accuracy. To cope with the fact that the normal component of the gradient of the numerical solution is discontinuous across the faces of the elements, a continuous approximation of the gradient of the numerical solution is recovered at each degree of freedom of the grid and then interpolated with the same shape functions used for the solution, preserving the optimal accuracy of the method. Linear and non-linear schemes are constructed, and their accuracy is tested with the method of the manufactured solutions. The numerical method is also used for the discretization of smooth and shocked laminar flows in two and three spatial dimensions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Zhiqiang; Manteuffel, Thomas A.; McCormick, Stephen F.
1996-01-01
In this paper, we study the least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations (including linear elasticity) based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in d = 2 or 3 dimensions. The least squares functional is defined in terms of the sum of the L(exp 2)- and H(exp -1)-norms of the residual equations, which is weighted appropriately by by the Reynolds number. Our approach for establishing ellipticity of the functional does not use ADN theory, but is founded more on basic principles. We also analyze the case where the H(exp -1)-norm in the functional is replaced by a discrete functional to make the computation feasible. We show that the resulting algebraic equations can be uniformly preconditioned by well-known techniques.
Solving Ordinary Differential Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, F. T.
1987-01-01
Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Du, Jianke; Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Guijia; Wu, Rongxing; Huang, Dejin; Ma, Tingfeng; Wang, Ji
2013-11-01
The Mindlin plate equations have been widely used in the analysis of high-frequency vibrations of quartz crystal resonators with accurate solutions, as demonstrated by the design procedure based on analytical results in terms of frequency, mode shapes, and optimal parameters for the AT-cut quartz crystal plate, which is the core element in a resonator structure. Earlier studies have been focused on the AT-cut (which is one type of rotated Y-cut) quartz crystal plates because it is widely produced and has relatively simple couplings of vibration modes at thickness-shear frequencies of the fundamental and overtone modes. The simplified equations through the truncation, correction, and modification of the Mindlin plate equations have been widely accepted for practical applications, and further efforts to expand their applications to similar problems of other material types, such as doubly-rotated quartz crystals, with the SC-cut being a typical and popular one, are also naturally expected. We have found out that the Mindlin plate theory can be truncated and corrected for the SC-cut quartz crystal plates in a manner similar to the AT-cut plates. The analytical results show that the corrected Mindlin plate equations are equally accurate and convenient for obtaining essential design parameters of resonators for the thickness-shear vibrations of SC-cut quartz crystal plates. PMID:24158292
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2002-01-01
We investigate the pendulum equation [theta] + [lambda][squared] sin [theta] = 0 and two approximations for it. On the one hand, we suggest that the third and fifth-order Taylor series approximations for sin [theta] do not yield very good differential equations to approximate the solution of the pendulum equation unless the initial conditions are…
Emamuddin, M.; Yasmin, S.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-04-15
The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma whose constituents are negatively charged dust, Maxwellian ions with two distinct temperatures, and electrons following q-nonextensive distribution, is investigated by deriving a number of nonlinear equations, namely, the Korteweg-de-Vries (K-dV), the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mK-dV), and the Gardner equations. The basic characteristics of the hump (positive potential) and dip (negative potential) shaped dust-acoustic (DA) Gardner solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The effects of two temperature ions and electron nonextensivity on the basic features of DA K-dV, mK-dV, and Gardner solitons are also examined. It has been observed that the DA Gardner solitons exhibit negative (positive) solitons for qq{sub c}) (where q{sub c} is the critical value of the nonextensive parameter q). The implications of our results in understanding the localized nonlinear electrostatic perturbations existing in stellar polytropes, quark-gluon plasma, protoneutron stars, etc. (where ions with different temperatures and nonextensive electrons exist) are also briefly addressed.
Li, Wentao; Zhang, Dong H; Sun, Zhigang
2014-10-23
An efficient fourth-order split operator (named 4A6a in the main text), which was presented in the work by Blanes and Moan and was a partitioned Runge-Kutta method ( J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2002 , 142 , 313 ), is recommended for general usage in a reactive scattering calculation by the time-dependent quantum wavepacket method. This 4A6a propagator is constructed in a TVT form, that is, splitting in kinetic-potential-kinetic form, which is an optimal one among a series of higher-order split operators in examining with several typical triatomic reactive scattering processes, H + H2, H + H2(+), H + NH, H + O2, and F + HD reactions. A detailed comparison between the performances of higher-order split operators in the VTV form, that is, splitting in a potential-kinetic-potential, which was reported by Sun et al. ( Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012 , 14 , 1827 ), and in the TVT form reported in the current work suggests that the recommended 4A6a operator in the TVT form always has good numerical efficiency. This fact may suggest that this fourth propagator in the TVT form can be safely chosen without any further examination, at least among all of the higher-order split operators tested in this work, to apply in an efficient time-dependent wavepacket numerical calculation for describing a triatomic reactive scattering process. PMID:25268464
Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Qi, Feng-Hua; Li, Min; Guo, Rui
2015-06-01
In this paper, the nonautonomous Lenells-Fokas (LF) model is investigated. The modulational instability analysis of the solutions with variable coefficients in the presence of a small perturbation is studied. Higher-order soliton, breather, earthwormon, and rogue wave solutions of the nonautonomous LF model are derived via the n-fold variable-coefficient Darboux transformation. The solitons and earthwormons display the elastic collisions. It is found that the nonautonomous LF model admits the higher-order periodic rogue waves, composite rogue waves (rogue wave pair), and oscillating rogue waves, whose dynamics can be controlled by the inhomogeneous nonlinear parameters. Based on the second-order rogue wave, a diamond structure consisting of four first-order rogue waves is observed. In addition, the semirational solutions (the mixed rational-exponential solutions) of the nonautonomous LF model are obtained, which can be used to describe the interactions between the rogue waves and breathers. Our results could be helpful for the design of experiments in the optical fiber communications. PMID:26117105
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shastry, B. Sriram; Perepelitsky, Edward
2016-07-01
We present the results for the low-energy properties of the infinite-dimensional t -J model with J =0 , using O (λ2) equations of the extremely correlated Fermi liquid formalism. The parameter λ ∈[0 ,1 ] is analogous to the inverse spin parameter 1 /(2 S ) in quantum magnets. The present analytical scheme allows us to approach the physically most interesting regime near the Mott insulating state n ≲1 . It overcomes the limitation to low densities n ≲0.7 of earlier calculations, by employing a variant of the skeleton graph expansion, and a high-frequency cutoff that is essential for maintaining the known high-T entropy. The resulting quasiparticle weight Z , the low ω ,T self-energy, and the resistivity are reported. These are quite close at all densities to the exact numerical results of the U =∞ Hubbard model, obtained using the dynamical mean field theory. The present calculation offers the advantage of generalizing to finite T rather easily, and allows the visualization of the loss of coherence of Fermi liquid quasiparticles by raising T . The present scheme is generalizable to finite dimensions and a nonvanishing J .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calogero, Francesco
2013-01-01
Some properties of a solvable N-body problem featuring several free parameters ("coupling constants") are investigated. Restrictions on its parameters are reported which guarantee that all its solutions are completely periodic with a fixed period independent of the initial data (isochrony). The restrictions on its parameters which guarantee the existence of equilibria are also identified. In this connection a remarkable second-order ODE—generally not of hypergeometric type, hence not reducible to those characterizing the classical polynomials—is studied: if its parameters satisfy a Diophantine condition, its general solution is a polynomial of degree N, the N zeros of which identify the equilibria of the N-body system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Testut, C. E.; Brasseur, P.; Brankart, J. M.; Verron, J.
The main objective of this work is to develop an advanced statistical method in order to assimilate, simultaneously, various data sets characterised by low and high resolution, in a model of the North Atlantic Ocean. The assimilated sea surface temperature (SST) data originate from AVHRR observations gathered and processed within the NASA Pathfinder project while the altimetric data consist of sea surface height (SSH) maps computed as the sum of a time-invariant dynamic topography and gridded sea-level anomalies from the AVISO project. In addition, these high resolution data sets (1/4) have been complemented by a low resolution sea-surface salinity (SSS) coming from Levitus 98 monthly climatology. The assimilation system has been implemented in a eddy-permitting OPA configuration which has been elaborated within the framework of the French CLIPPER project and used in the MERCATOR Project for the near-real- time experiment during 2001. The domain of application is the North Atlantic Basin between 20S and 70N with high horizontal resolution (1/3×1/3). The method used in these assimilation experiments is a reduced-order Kalman filter derived from the SEEK, in which the error sub-space is represented by means of a truncated series of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (Eofs) of the system variability. The analysis al- gorithm has been further developed to strengthen the local impact of the data, and to update the forecast error statistics adaptively using all pertinent information left in the innovation vector. Hindcast experiments have been conducted with real observations to reconstruct the Atlantic Ocean circulation between 1992 and 1999. The validation of these experiments with independent in situ measurements (XBT) demonstrates the skill of the system to represent the upper ocean circulation.
Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )
1994-07-01
A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.
Noncommutativity and the Friedmann Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabido, M.; Guzmán, W.; Socorro, J.
2010-07-01
In this paper we study noncommutative scalar field cosmology, we find the noncommutative Friedmann equations as well as the noncommutative Klein-Gordon equation, interestingly the noncommutative contributions are only present up to second order in the noncommutitive parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fremier, A. K.; Estrada Carmona, N.; Harper, E.; DeClerck, F.
2011-12-01
Appropriate application of complex models to estimate system behavior requires understanding the influence of model structure and parameter estimates on model output. To date, most researchers perform local sensitivity analyses, rather than global, because of computational time and quantity of data produced. Local sensitivity analyses are limited in quantifying the higher order interactions among parameters, which could lead to incomplete analysis of model behavior. To address this concern, we performed a GSA on a commonly applied equation for soil loss - the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. USLE is an empirical model built on plot-scale data from the USA and the Revised version (RUSLE) includes improved equations for wider conditions, with 25 parameters grouped into six factors to estimate long-term plot and watershed scale soil loss. Despite RUSLE's widespread application, a complete sensitivity analysis has yet to be performed. In this research, we applied a GSA to plot and watershed scale data from the US and Costa Rica to parameterize the RUSLE in an effort to understand the relative importance of model factors and parameters across wide environmental space. We analyzed the GSA results using Random Forest, a statistical approach to evaluate parameter importance accounting for the higher order interactions, and used Classification and Regression Trees to show the dominant trends in complex interactions. In all GSA calculations the management of cover crops (C factor) ranks the highest among factors (compared to rain-runoff erosivity, topography, support practices, and soil erodibility). This is counter to previous sensitivity analyses where the topographic factor was determined to be the most important. The GSA finding is consistent across multiple model runs, including data from the US, Costa Rica, and a synthetic dataset of the widest theoretical space. The three most important parameters were: Mass density of live and dead roots found in the upper inch
Nonlinear differential equations
Dresner, L.
1988-01-01
This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin
2016-01-01
In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nibbelink, William H.
1990-01-01
Proposed is a gradual transition from arithmetic to the idea of an equation with variables in the elementary grades. Vertical and horizontal formats of open sentences, the instructional sequence, vocabulary, and levels of understanding are discussed in this article. (KR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultana, Nasrin
This dissertation consists of five papers in which discrete Volterra equations of different types and orders are studied and results regarding the behavior of their solutions are established. The first paper presents some fundamental results about subexponential sequences. It also illustrates the subexponential solutions of scalar linear Volterra sum-difference equations are asymptotically stable. The exact value of the rate of convergence of asymptotically stable solutions is found by determining the asymptotic behavior of the transient renewal equations. The study of subexponential solutions is also continued in the second and third articles. The second paper investigates the same equation using the same process as considered in the first paper. The discussion focuses on a positive lower bound of the rate of convergence of the asymptotically stable solutions. The third paper addresses the rate of convergence of the solutions of scalar linear Volterra sum-difference equations with delay. The result is proved by developing the rate of convergence of transient renewal delay difference equations. The fourth paper discusses the existence of bounded solutions on an unbounded domain of more general nonlinear Volterra sum-difference equations using the Schaefer fixed point theorem and the Lyapunov direct method. The fifth paper examines the asymptotic behavior of nonoscillatory solutions of higher-order integro-dynamic equations and establishes some new criteria based on so-called time scales, which unifies and extends both discrete and continuous mathematical analysis. Beside these five research papers that focus on discrete Volterra equations, this dissertation also contains an introduction, a section on difference calculus, a section on time scales calculus, and a conclusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qi-Min; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Mao, Bing-Qing; Gao, Zhe; Yang, Jin-Wei
2015-12-01
In this paper, a higher-order (2 + 1) -dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation is investigated, which describes the nonlinear spin dynamics of the (2 + 1) -dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with bilinear and biquadratic interaction. Lax pair and infinite-number conservation laws are constructed, which could prove the existence of the multi-soliton solutions. Via the auxiliary function, bilinear forms and dark-soliton solutions are derived. Properties and interaction patterns for the dark solitons are investigated: (i) Effects on the dark solitons arising from the bilinear interaction, biquadratic interaction and lattice parameter are discussed. (ii) Through the asymptotic analysis, elastic and inelastic interaction between the two solitons is discussed analytically and graphically, respectively. Due to the elastic interaction, amplitudes and velocities of the two dark solitons remain unchanged with the distortion of the interaction area, except for certain phase shifts. However, in virtue of the inelastic interaction, amplitudes of the dark solitons reduce to zero, without the distortion. (iii) Elastic interaction among the three dark solitons is investigated, which implies that the properties of the elastic interaction among the three are similar to that between the two, except for the more complicated distortion. Inelastic-elastic interaction is also investigated, which implies that the interaction between the inelastic region and the dark soliton is elastic. (iv) Linear stability analysis is proposed, which is used to analyze the properties of modulation instability and proves that the dark solitons are modulationally stable.
Conservational PDF Equations of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey
2010-01-01
Recently we have revisited the traditional probability density function (PDF) equations for the velocity and species in turbulent incompressible flows. They are all unclosed due to the appearance of various conditional means which are modeled empirically. However, we have observed that it is possible to establish a closed velocity PDF equation and a closed joint velocity and species PDF equation through conditions derived from the integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Although, in theory, the resulted PDF equations are neither general nor unique, they nevertheless lead to the exact transport equations for the first moment as well as all higher order moments. We refer these PDF equations as the conservational PDF equations. This observation is worth further exploration for its validity and CFD application
``Riemann equations'' in bidifferential calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chvartatskyi, O.; Müller-Hoissen, F.; Stoilov, N.
2015-10-01
We consider equations that formally resemble a matrix Riemann (or Hopf) equation in the framework of bidifferential calculus. With different choices of a first-order bidifferential calculus, we obtain a variety of equations, including a semi-discrete and a fully discrete version of the matrix Riemann equation. A corresponding universal solution-generating method then either yields a (continuous or discrete) Cole-Hopf transformation, or leaves us with the problem of solving Riemann equations (hence an application of the hodograph method). If the bidifferential calculus extends to second order, solutions of a system of "Riemann equations" are also solutions of an equation that arises, on the universal level of bidifferential calculus, as an integrability condition. Depending on the choice of bidifferential calculus, the latter can represent a number of prominent integrable equations, like self-dual Yang-Mills, as well as matrix versions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice, Hirota's bilinear difference equation, (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, and Davey-Stewartson equations. For all of them, a recent (non-isospectral) binary Darboux transformation result in bidifferential calculus applies, which can be specialized to generate solutions of the associated "Riemann equations." For the latter, we clarify the relation between these specialized binary Darboux transformations and the aforementioned solution-generating method. From (arbitrary size) matrix versions of the "Riemann equations" associated with an integrable equation, possessing a bidifferential calculus formulation, multi-soliton-type solutions of the latter can be generated. This includes "breaking" multi-soliton-type solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills and the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation, which are parametrized by solutions of Riemann equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul
2014-07-01
In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
1998-09-21
In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.
1998-11-01
In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis
1995-01-01
Kepler's Equation is solved over the entire range of elliptic motion by a fifth-order refinement of the solution of a cubic equation. This method is not iterative, and requires only four transcendental function evaluations: a square root, a cube root, and two trigonometric functions. The maximum relative error of the algorithm is less than one part in 10(exp 18), exceeding the capability of double-precision computer arithmetic. Roundoff errors in double-precision implementation of the algorithm are addressed, and procedures to avoid them are developed.
Obtaining Maxwell's equations heuristically
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, Gerhard; Weissbarth, Jürgen; Grossmann, Frank; Schmidt, Rüdiger
2013-02-01
Starting from the experimental fact that a moving charge experiences the Lorentz force and applying the fundamental principles of simplicity (first order derivatives only) and linearity (superposition principle), we show that the structure of the microscopic Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields can be deduced heuristically by using the transformation properties of the fields under space inversion and time reversal. Using the experimental facts of charge conservation and that electromagnetic waves propagate with the speed of light, together with Galilean invariance of the Lorentz force, allows us to finalize Maxwell's equations and to introduce arbitrary electrodynamics units naturally.
Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.
On the connection of the quadratic Lienard equation with an equation for the elliptic functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Sinelshchikov, Dmitry I.
2015-07-01
The quadratic Lienard equation is widely used in many applications. A connection between this equation and a linear second-order differential equation has been discussed. Here we show that the whole family of quadratic Lienard equations can be transformed into an equation for the elliptic functions. We demonstrate that this connection can be useful for finding explicit forms of general solutions of the quadratic Lienard equation. We provide several examples of application of our approach.
Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations
Kruger, S.E.
1999-02-01
A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.
Optimized solution of Kepler's equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kohout, J. M.; Layton, L.
1972-01-01
A detailed description is presented of KEPLER, an IBM 360 computer program used for the solution of Kepler's equation for eccentric anomaly. The program KEPLER employs a second-order Newton-Raphson differential correction process, and it is faster than previously developed programs by an order of magnitude.
Shore, B.W.
1981-01-30
The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.
A Graphical Approach to Evaluating Equating Using Test Characteristic Curves
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wyse, Adam E.; Reckase, Mark D.
2011-01-01
An essential concern in the application of any equating procedure is determining whether tests can be considered equated after the tests have been placed onto a common scale. This article clarifies one equating criterion, the first-order equity property of equating, and develops a new method for evaluating equating that is linked to this…
The Statistical Drake Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Claudio
2010-12-01
function, apparently previously unknown and dubbed "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies. DATA ENRICHMENT PRINCIPLE. It should be noticed that ANY positive number of random variables in the Statistical Drake Equation is compatible with the CLT. So, our generalization allows for many more factors to be added in the future as long as more refined scientific knowledge about each factor will be known to the scientists. This capability to make room for more future factors in the statistical Drake equation, we call the "Data Enrichment Principle," and we regard it as the key to more profound future results in the fields of Astrobiology and SETI. Finally, a practical example is given of how our statistical Drake equation works numerically. We work out in detail the case, where each of the seven random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value and has a given standard deviation. For instance, the number of stars in the Galaxy is assumed to be uniformly distributed around (say) 350 billions with a standard deviation of (say) 1 billion. Then, the resulting lognormal distribution of N is computed numerically by virtue of a MathCad file that the author has written. This shows that the mean value of the lognormal random variable N is actually of the same order as the classical N given by the ordinary Drake equation, as one might expect from a good statistical generalization.
Coupled rotor and fuselage equations of motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warmbrodt, W.
1979-01-01
The governing equations of motion of a helicopter rotor coupled to a rigid body fuselage are derived. A consistent formulation is used to derive nonlinear periodic coefficient equations of motion which are used to study coupled rotor/fuselage dynamics in forward flight. Rotor/fuselage coupling is documented and the importance of an ordering scheme in deriving nonlinear equations of motion is reviewed. The nature of the final equations and the use of multiblade coordinates are discussed.
An Exact Mapping from Navier-Stokes Equation to Schr"odinger Equation via Riccati Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christianto, Vic; Smarandache, Florentin
2010-03-01
In the present article we argue that it is possible to write down Schr"odinger representation of Navier-Stokes equation via Riccati equation. The proposed approach, while differs appreciably from other method such as what is proposed by R. M. Kiehn, has an advantage, i.e. it enables us extend further to quaternionic and biquaternionic version of Navier-Stokes equation, for instance via Kravchenko's and Gibbon's route. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.
Generalized reduced MHD equations
Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1998-07-01
A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibeault, Michael
2005-01-01
Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…
Spin field equations and Heun's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Min; Wang, Xuejing; Li, Zhongheng
2015-06-01
The Kerr-Newman-(anti) de Sitter metric is the most general stationary black hole solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equation with a cosmological constant. We study the separability of the equations of the massless scalar (spin s=0), neutrino ( s=1/2), electromagnetic ( s=1), Rarita-Schwinger ( s=3/2), and gravitational ( s=2) fields propagating on this background. We obtain the angular and radial master equations, and show that the master equations are transformed to Heun's equation. Meanwhile, we give the condition of existence of event horizons for Kerr-Newman-(anti) de Sitter spacetime by using Sturm theorem.
Abel's Theorem Simplifies Reduction of Order
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, William R.
2011-01-01
We give an alternative to the standard method of reduction or order, in which one uses one solution of a homogeneous, linear, second order differential equation to find a second, linearly independent solution. Our method, based on Abel's Theorem, is shorter, less complex and extends to higher order equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1981-01-01
Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Quasi self-adjoint nonlinear wave equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibragimov, N. H.; Torrisi, M.; Tracinà, R.
2010-11-01
In this paper we generalize the classification of self-adjoint second-order linear partial differential equation to a family of nonlinear wave equations with two independent variables. We find a class of quasi self-adjoint nonlinear equations which includes the self-adjoint linear equations as a particular case. The property of a differential equation to be quasi self-adjoint is important, e.g. for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation.
Bogomol'nyi equations of classical solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atmaja, Ardian N.; Ramadhan, Handhika S.
2014-11-01
We review the Bogomol'nyi equations and investigate an alternative route in obtaining it. It can be shown that the known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield equations can be derived directly from the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations via the separation of variables, without having to appeal to the Hamiltonian. We apply this technique to the Dirac-Born-Infeld solitons and obtain the corresponding equations and the potentials. This method is suitable for obtaining the first-order equations and determining the allowed potentials for noncanonical defects.
Binomial moment equations for stochastic reaction systems.
Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer
2011-04-15
A highly efficient formulation of moment equations for stochastic reaction networks is introduced. It is based on a set of binomial moments that capture the combinatorics of the reaction processes. The resulting set of equations can be easily truncated to include moments up to any desired order. The number of equations is dramatically reduced compared to the master equation. This formulation enables the simulation of complex reaction networks, involving a large number of reactive species much beyond the feasibility limit of any existing method. It provides an equation-based paradigm to the analysis of stochastic networks, complementing the commonly used Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21568538
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...
Duffing's Equation and Nonlinear Resonance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of nonlinear resonance (sometimes called the "jump phenomenon") is examined and second-order van der Pol plane analysis is employed to indicate that this phenomenon is not a feature of the equation, but rather the result of accumulated round-off error, truncation error and algorithm error that distorts the true bounded solution onto…
Ordinary Differential Equation System Solver
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-03-05
LSODE is a package of subroutines for the numerical solution of the initial value problem for systems of first order ordinary differential equations. The package is suitable for either stiff or nonstiff systems. For stiff systems the Jacobian matrix may be treated in either full or banded form. LSODE can also be used when the Jacobian can be approximated by a band matrix.
The telegraph equation in charged particle transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gombosi, T. I.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.; Lorencz, K.; Williams, L. L.
1993-01-01
We present a new derivation of the telegraph equation which modifies its coefficients. First, an infinite order partial differential equation is obtained for the velocity space solid angle-averaged phase-space distribution of particles which underwent at least a few collisions. It is shown that, in the lowest order asymptotic expansion, this equation simplifies to the well-known diffusion equation. The second-order asymptotic expansion for isotropic small-angle scattering results in a modified telegraph equation with a signal propagation speed of v(5/11) exp 1/2 instead of the usual v/3 exp 1/2. Our derivation of a modified telegraph equation follows from an expansion of the Boltzmann equation in the relevant smallness parameters and not from a truncation of an eigenfunction expansion. This equation is consistent with causality. It is shown that, under steady state conditions in a convecting plasma, the telegraph equation may be regarded as a diffusion equation with a modified transport coefficient, which describes a combination of diffusion and cosmic-ray inertia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blakley, G. R.
1982-01-01
Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto
2016-06-01
Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a mathbb{C}{P}^2 space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n - gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ-algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.
Exact solution to fractional logistic equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Bruce J.
2015-07-01
The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Mode decomposition evolution equations
Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang
2011-01-01
Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doikou, Anastasia; Ioannidou, Theodora
2011-04-01
A non-compact version of the Weyl equation is proposed, based on the infinite dimensional spin zero representation of the mathfrak{s}{mathfrak{l}_2} algebra. Solutions of the aforementioned equation are obtained in terms of the Kummer functions. In this context, we discuss the ADHMN approach in order to construct the corresponding non-compact BPS monopoles.
Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.
1979-01-01
A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.
Solving Parker's transport equation with stochastic differential equations on GPUs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunzlaff, P.; Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.
2015-07-01
The numerical solution of transport equations for energetic charged particles in space is generally very costly in terms of time. Besides the use of multi-core CPUs and computer clusters in order to decrease the computation times, high performance calculations on graphics processing units (GPUs) have become available during the last years. In this work we introduce and describe a GPU-accelerated implementation of Parker's equation using Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) for the simulation of the transport of energetic charged particles with the CUDA toolkit, which is the focus of this work. We briefly discuss the set of SDEs arising from Parker's transport equation and their application to boundary value problems such as that of the Jovian magnetosphere. We compare the runtimes of the GPU code with a CPU version of the same algorithm. Compared to the CPU implementation (using OpenMP and eight threads) we find a performance increase of about a factor of 10-60, depending on the assumed set of parameters. Furthermore, we benchmark our simulation using the results of an existing SDE implementation of Parker's transport equation.
Order stars and stiff integrators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hairer, Ernst; Wanner, Gerhard
2000-12-01
Order stars, introduced in G. Wanner, E. Hairer, S.P. Nørsett (Order stars and stability theorems, BIT 18 (1978) 475-489), have become a fundamental tool for the understanding of order and stability properties of numerical methods for stiff differential equations. This survey retraces their discovery and their principal achievements. We also sketch some later extensions and describe some recent developments.
Single wall penetration equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.
1991-01-01
Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.
Transport equations in tokamak plasmas
Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Cole, A. J.
2010-05-15
Tokamak plasma transport equations are usually obtained by flux surface averaging the collisional Braginskii equations. However, tokamak plasmas are not in collisional regimes. Also, ad hoc terms are added for neoclassical effects on the parallel Ohm's law, fluctuation-induced transport, heating, current-drive and flow sources and sinks, small magnetic field nonaxisymmetries, magnetic field transients, etc. A set of self-consistent second order in gyroradius fluid-moment-based transport equations for nearly axisymmetric tokamak plasmas has been developed using a kinetic-based approach. The derivation uses neoclassical-based parallel viscous force closures, and includes all the effects noted above. Plasma processes on successive time scales and constraints they impose are considered sequentially: compressional Alfven waves (Grad-Shafranov equilibrium, ion radial force balance), sound waves (pressure constant along field lines, incompressible flows within a flux surface), and collisions (electrons, parallel Ohm's law; ions, damping of poloidal flow). Radial particle fluxes are driven by the many second order in gyroradius toroidal angular torques on a plasma species: seven ambipolar collision-based ones (classical, neoclassical, etc.) and eight nonambipolar ones (fluctuation-induced, polarization flows from toroidal rotation transients, etc.). The plasma toroidal rotation equation results from setting to zero the net radial current induced by the nonambipolar fluxes. The radial particle flux consists of the collision-based intrinsically ambipolar fluxes plus the nonambipolar fluxes evaluated at the ambipolarity-enforcing toroidal plasma rotation (radial electric field). The energy transport equations do not involve an ambipolar constraint and hence are more directly obtained. The 'mean field' effects of microturbulence on the parallel Ohm's law, poloidal ion flow, particle fluxes, and toroidal momentum and energy transport are all included self-consistently. The
Reduction of dispersionless coupled Korteweg-de Vries equations to the Euler-Darboux equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuno, Yoshimasa
2001-04-01
A quasilinear hyperbolic system of two first-order equations is introduced. The system is linearized by means of the hodograph transformation combined with Riemann's method of characteristics. In the process of linearization, the main step is to explicitly express the characteristic velocities in terms of the Riemann invariants. The procedure is shown to be performed by quadrature only for specific combinations of the parameters in the system. We then apply the method developed here to the dispersionless versions of the typical coupled Korteweg-de Vries (cKdV) equations including the Broer-Kaup, Ito, Hirota-Satsuma, and Bogoyavlenskii equations and show that these equations are transformed into the classical Euler-Darboux equation. A more general quasilinear system of equations is also considered with application to the dispersionless cKdV equations for the Jaulent-Miodek and Nutku-Ög˜uz equations.
Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf
1994-01-01
Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)
Reflections on Chemical Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorman, Mel
1981-01-01
The issue of how much emphasis balancing chemical equations should have in an introductory chemistry course is discussed. The current heavy emphasis on finishing such equations is viewed as misplaced. (MP)
Grima, Ramon
2011-11-01
The mesoscopic description of chemical kinetics, the chemical master equation, can be exactly solved in only a few simple cases. The analytical intractability stems from the discrete character of the equation, and hence considerable effort has been invested in the development of Fokker-Planck equations, second-order partial differential equation approximations to the master equation. We here consider two different types of higher-order partial differential approximations, one derived from the system-size expansion and the other from the Kramers-Moyal expansion, and derive the accuracy of their predictions for chemical reactive networks composed of arbitrary numbers of unimolecular and bimolecular reactions. In particular, we show that the partial differential equation approximation of order Q from the Kramers-Moyal expansion leads to estimates of the mean number of molecules accurate to order Ω(-(2Q-3)/2), of the variance of the fluctuations in the number of molecules accurate to order Ω(-(2Q-5)/2), and of skewness accurate to order Ω(-(Q-2)). We also show that for large Q, the accuracy in the estimates can be matched only by a partial differential equation approximation from the system-size expansion of approximate order 2Q. Hence, we conclude that partial differential approximations based on the Kramers-Moyal expansion generally lead to considerably more accurate estimates in the mean, variance, and skewness than approximations of the same order derived from the system-size expansion. PMID:22181475
Some remarks on unilateral matrix equations
Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno
2001-02-01
We briefly review the results of our paper LBNL-46775: We study certain solutions of left-unilateral matrix equations. These are algebraic equations where the coefficients and the unknown are square matrices of the same order, or, more abstractly, elements of an associative, but possibly noncommutative algebra, and all coefficients are on the left. Recently such equations have appeared in a discussion of generalized Born-Infeld theories. In particular, two equations, their perturbative solutions and the relation between them are studied, applying a unified approach based on the generalized Bezout theorem for matrix polynomials.