Science.gov

Sample records for ordnance mines

  1. Army Research Laboratory land mine and unexploded ordnance experiments and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappra, Karl A.; Ressler, Marc A.; Nguyen, Lam H.; Ton, Tuan T.

    1999-10-01

    The (ARL), as part of customer and mission-funded exploratory development programs, has been evaluating low-frequency, ultra-wideband imaging radar for detection of buried mines and unexploded ordnance. As part of these programs, ARL has designed and built an instrumentation-grade radar measurement asset. In addition, ARL has established and conducted experiments at two nationally significant subsurface target test sites at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This paper reviews the significance of the test sites and recent modeling and data analysis results using the Eglin and Yuma data. It also discuses the difference in soil conditions from these data collections and the impact that they may have on mine radar cross section (RCS) and detection performance. Finally, new imagery is presented that shows positive contrast of low metal content mines at these test sites.

  2. Magnetic STAR technology for real-time localization and classification of unexploded ordnance and buried mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, R. F.

    2009-05-01

    A man-portable Magnetic Scalar Triangulation and Ranging ("MagSTAR") technology for Detection, Localization and Classification (DLC) of unexploded ordnance (UXO) has been developed by Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) with support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Proof of principle of the MagSTAR concept and its unique advantages for real-time, high-mobility magnetic sensing applications have been demonstrated by field tests of a prototype man-portable MagSTAR sensor. The prototype comprises: a) An array of fluxgate magnetometers configured as a multi-tensor gradiometer, b) A GPS-synchronized signal processing system. c) Unique STAR algorithms for point-by-point, standoff DLC of magnetic targets. This paper outlines details of: i) MagSTAR theory, ii) Design and construction of the prototype sensor, iii) Signal processing algorithms recently developed to improve the technology's target-discrimination accuracy, iv) Results of field tests of the portable gradiometer system against magnetic dipole targets. The results demonstrate that the MagSTAR technology is capable of very accurate, high-speed localization of magnetic targets at standoff distances of several meters. These advantages could readily be transitioned to a wide range of defense, security and sensing applications to provide faster and more effective DLC of UXO and buried mines.

  3. Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) activities in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    This technical report presents the summary of the 2nd NASA Aerospace Pyrotechnic Systems Workshop's discussion on Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO). Laser initiated ordnance benefits, applications, advantage of laser ordnance, and disadvantage of laser diode initiated ordnance are discussed. In addition, the three LIO programs: NASA standard laser diode safe and arm, NASA standard laser detonators, and laser diode safe/arm performance are reviewed. Steps for the LIO implementation are also presented.

  4. Optical ordnance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merson, J. A.; Salas, F. J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt(III) perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro- 1,3,5,7 - tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  5. Flight demonstration of laser diode initiated ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Craig J.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1995-01-01

    A program has been initiated by NASA Headquarters to validate laser initiated ordnance in flight applications. The primary program goal is to bring together a team of government and industry members to develop a laser initiated ordnance system having the test and analysis pedigree to be flown on launch vehicles. The culmination of this effort was a flight of the Pegasus launch vehicle which had two fin rockets initiated by this laser system. In addition, a laser initiated ordnance squib was fired into a pressure bomb during thrusting flight. The complete ordnance system comprising a laser diode firing unit, fiber optic cable assembly, laser initiated detonator, and laser initiated squib was designed and built by The Ensign Bickford Company. The hardware was tested to the requirements of the Pegasus launch vehicle and integrated into the vehicle by The Ensign Bickford Company and the Orbital Sciences Corporation. Discussions include initial program concept, contract implementation, team member responsibilities, analysis results, vehicle integration, safing architecture, ordnance interfaces, mission timeline and telemetry data. A complete system description, summary of the analyses, the qualification test results, and the results of flight are included.

  6. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  7. Method for laser machining explosives and ordnance

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross E.; Rivera, Thomas; Sanchez, John A.

    2003-05-06

    Method for laser machining explosives and related articles. A laser beam is directed at a surface portion of a mass of high explosive to melt and/or vaporize the surface portion while directing a flow of gas at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion. The gas flow sends the melted and/or vaporized explosive away from the charge of explosive that remains. The method also involves splitting the casing of a munition having an encased explosive. The method includes rotating a munition while directing a laser beam to a surface portion of the casing of an article of ordnance. While the beam melts and/or vaporizes the surface portion, a flow of gas directed at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion sends it away from the remaining portion of ordnance. After cutting through the casing, the beam then melts and/or vaporizes portions of the encased explosive and the gas stream sends the melted/vaporized explosive away from the ordnance. The beam is continued until it splits the article, after which the encased explosive, now accessible, can be removed safely for recycle or disposal.

  8. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Signal & Ordnance Warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Signal & Ordnance Warehouse in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) SECTIONS AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Signal & Ordnance Warehouse, 7620 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  9. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Signal & Ordnance Warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Signal & Ordnance Warehouse in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General)TRUSS DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Signal & Ordnance Warehouse, 7620 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  10. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Signal & Ordnance Warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Signal & Ordnance Warehouse in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) PLANS, ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Signal & Ordnance Warehouse, 7620 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  11. Trace Explosives Signatures from World War II Unexploded Undersea Ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.; Plett, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion some 50 years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance that appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts per billion level, whereas ordnance that had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts per trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea unexploded ordnance.

  12. Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Beard, Les P.

    2007-01-15

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO) presents serious problems in Europe, Asia, as well as in the United States. Explosives and mines from World War I and World War II still turn up at European and Asian construction sites, backyard gardens, beaches, wildlife preserves and former military training grounds. The high rate of failure among munitions from 60-90 years ago is cited as one of the main reasons for such a high level of contamination. Apart from war activities, military training has resulted in many uncovered ordnance. It is especially true in the United States, where most UXO has resulted from decades of military training, exercises, and testing of weapons systems. Such UXO contamination prevents civilian land use, threatens public safety, and causes significant environmental concern. In light of this problem, there has been considerable interest shown by federal, state, and local authorities in UXO remediation at former U.S. Department of Defense sites. The ultimate goal of UXO remediation is to permit safe public use of contaminated lands. A Defense Science Board Task Force Report from 1998 lists some 1,500 sites, comprising approximately 15 million acres, that potentially contain UXO. The UXO-related activity for these sites consists of identifying the subareas that actually contain UXO, and then locating and removing the UXO, or fencing the hazardous areas off from the public. The criteria for clearance depend on the intended land end-use and residual hazard risk that is deemed acceptable. Success in detecting UXO depends on the ordnance's size, metal content, and depth of burial, as well as on the ability of geophysical systems to detect ordnance in the presence of metallic fragments from exploded UXO and other metal clutter.

  13. Telerobotic excavation system for unexploded ordnance retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Rossi, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for unexploded ordnance (UXO) retrieval and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama on 13--17 September, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote UXO retrieval. During the demonstration, explosive ordnance disposal specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE, and then were asked to complete a simulated UXO retrieval task. Participants then submitted an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data. This presentation will describe the TSEE, retrieval demonstration, and summarize results of the performance evaluations. Some examples of the results are given below. Seventy percent of the demonstration participants found the tasks were as easy or easier to accomplish utilizing the remote system than with an unmodified system. Similarly, eighty percent of the participants found the TSEE hand controller was as easy or easier to use than the normal manual controls.

  14. Unexploded ordnance detection experiments using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Clyde C.; Marinelli, Vincent R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Ton, Tuan T.

    1998-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has several technology development programs that are evaluating the use of ultra- wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) to detect and locate targets that are subsurface or concealed by foliage. Under these programs, a 1-GHz-bandwidth, low-frequency, fully polarimetric UWB SAR instrumentation system was developed to collect the data needed to support foliage and ground- penetrating radar studies. The radar was integrated onto a 150-ft-high mobile boomlift platform in 1995 and was thus named the BoomSAR. In 1997, under the sponsorship of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), ARL began a project focused on enhancing the detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO). The program's technical approach is to collect high-quality, precision data to support phenomenological investigations of electromagnetic wave propagation through varying dielectric media, which in turn supports the development of algorithms for automatic target detection. For this project, a UXO test site was set up at the Steel Crater Test Area -- an existing test site that already contained subsurface mines, tactical vehicles, 55-gallon drums, storage containers, wires, pipes, and arms caches located at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. More than 600 additional pieces of inert UXO were added to the Steel Crater Test Area, including bombs (250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 lb), mortars (60 and 81 mm), artillery shells (105 and 155 mm), 2.75-in. rockets, submunitions (M42, BLU-63, M68, BLU-97, and M118), and mines (Gator, VS1.6, M12, PMN, and POM- Z). In the selection of UXO to be included at YPG, an emphasis was placed on the types of munitions that may be present at CONUS test and training ranges.

  15. Heat strain during explosive ordnance disposal.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian B; Rojek, Amanda M; Hunt, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    Bomb technicians perform their work while encapsulated in explosive ordnance disposal suits. Designed primarily for safety, these suits have an unintended consequence of impairing the body's natural mechanisms for heat dissipation. Consequently, bomb technicians are known to experience symptoms of heat illness while performing their work. This research provides the first field based analysis of heat strain in bomb technicians. Six participants undertook simulated operational tasks across 2 days of variable climate. All subjects demonstrated high levels of heat strain as evidenced by elevated heart rate, core body temperature, and physiological strain index. Participants also reported signs and symptoms associated with heat illness. These results were exacerbated by more intense physical activity despite being undertaken in a cooler environment. The universal experience of heat strain in this sample has significant implications for the health of bomb technicians and additional research examining methods to improve temperature regulation and performance is warranted. PMID:21882791

  16. Condition of in situ unexploded ordnance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Bigl, Susan; Packer, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO) become point contamination sources when their casings fail and their explosive fill dissolve. To determine the modes of failure, we documented the condition of UXO found on military training ranges and sampled soils for explosives beneath 42 in situ UXO. We found that oxidation caused the metal UXO casings to swell and fail catastrophically. Unlike previous work, pitting of the metal casings was not found to be an important release route for explosives. Of the 42 UXO sampled, eight were leaking explosives into the soil and of these, four had perforated or cracked casings, three were corroded and one was a partially detonated round. We estimated a surface density of 74 UXO per hectare for a subset of UXO sampled. We used the relative concentrations of explosives and their transformation products in the soil to determine if the explosives had recently dissolved or were from past military training. PMID:25461079

  17. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  18. View of building 11050 looking southeast. Naval Ordnance Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050 looking southeast. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Fire Station & Marine Barracks, D Street, at corner of 4th Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  19. 8. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BUILDING VISIBLE BETWEEN BARRICADES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. 9. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING SOUTHEAST BETWEEN BUILDING AND BLAST BARRICADES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. 41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING CONVEYOR SYSTEM WHICH BROUGHT PROPELLANTS FROM STORAGE MAGAZINE - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. 12. Photograph of a topographic map. 'HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS, KINGSPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a topographic map. 'HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE, VICINITY MAP: ENLARGED KINGSPORT AREA. WAR DEPARTMENT, INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES INVENTORY, PART I, SECTION 3.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant A, Parts I, II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  3. Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) activities in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    Laser initiated ordnance appears to offer the advantages of greater reliability, enhanced safety, lighter, less costly products, and improvements in spacecraft system designs which can lead to higher operational efficiency. But the lack of flight demonstrations has prevented the application of this new technology into new programs. Hence, a three-phase technology program was initiated by NASA to provide flight proof of their technical and programmatic feasibility: flight demonstration aboard an unmanned commercial vehicle (Pegasus), use as a Space Shuttle payload, and the most demanding of applications, namely, solid rocket motor vehicle ignition and flight termination. The programs investigate, via flight demonstrations the use of fully solid state laser diode systems to reduce potential hazards imposed by stray electrical signals. Inadvertent ignition has proven to cause serious problems. While the current electromechanical have been made safe, the result has been complex systems. Now is the time to take advantage of this new technology to further enhance safety and reliability of spacecraft systems. Two of the three phases are underway; an announcement of opportunity for the third, a sounding rocket flight demonstration, was made at the workshop.

  4. Unexploded Ordnance in an Expectant Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Howell, Christopher M; Sontgerath, Joseph S; Simonet, Luke B

    2016-03-01

    Retained unexploded ordnance is only one of the numerous potential threats to coalition forces while deployed in the theater of operations. Though rare, these are also very real dangers for personnel involved with patient care and movement. Principles of management include determination of device type with plain film radiography, minimizing rotational and vibratory movement, and strategic isolation of the patient from the hospital facility, hospital personnel, and other patients. Early identification of this threat, as well as early involvement of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal team is paramount to safe and successful management. We present a case of a deceased patient in the expectant triage category with a delayed identification of retained unexploded ordnance during postmortem preparation. PMID:26926759

  5. 20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 448-C, GENERAL STOREHOUSE (HIGH EXPLOSIVES MAGAZINE-WEIGHING & MIXING), IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  7. MULTISENSOR METHODS FOR BURIED UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO) cleanup is the number one priority Army installation remediation restoration requirement. The problem is enormous in scope, with millions of acres and hundreds of sites potentially contaminated. Before the UXO can be recovered and destroyed, it must be l...

  8. Assessing sites contaminated with unexploded ordnance: statistical modeling of ordnance spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Jacqueline A; Small, Mitchell J

    2006-02-01

    More than 40,000 km2 of former military land in the United States are contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). Cleanup costs are estimated to total as much as 140 billion dollars. The amount of contaminated acreage and total costs are likely to increase as the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) follows through on recently announced plans to close an additional 22 domestic military bases. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) and DOD disagree on how these sites should be characterized to assess their risks and plan for cleanup. As a result, much potentially valuable land remains idle while remediation decisions are pending. One of the sources of disagreement is how the locations of UXO should be characterized, given that the exact spatial distribution of UXO is unknown in advance of cleanup. In this paper, we propose and test a new model to represent the spatial distribution of UXO. Unlike existing DOD models, the new model accounts for the tendency of UXO to cluster, presumably around targets at which soldiers aimed during training. We fit the cluster model to geographic data on UXO locations at two former military installations and show that it describes key characteristics of the data more accuratelythan the existing DOD model. We discuss how the choice of a UXO spatial distribution model could affect important decisions about cleaning up and reusing UXO-affected property. PMID:16509339

  9. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetranitro -- 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  10. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  12. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-03-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  14. Chemical Sensing of Unexploded Ordnance with the Mobile Underwater Survey System (MUDSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to sense explosives residues in the marine environment is a critical tool for identification and classification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO). Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from mulitple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada.

  15. 33 CFR 334.810 - Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.810 Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. (a) The area... Commanding Officer of the Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee, and such agencies as he may designate. ... Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. 334.810 Section 334.810 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  16. 33 CFR 334.810 - Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.810 Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. (a) The area... Commanding Officer of the Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee, and such agencies as he may designate. ... Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. 334.810 Section 334.810 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  17. 33 CFR 334.810 - Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.810 Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. (a) The area... Commanding Officer of the Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee, and such agencies as he may designate. ... Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. 334.810 Section 334.810 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  18. 33 CFR 334.810 - Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.810 Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. (a) The area... Commanding Officer of the Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee, and such agencies as he may designate. ... Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. 334.810 Section 334.810 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  19. 33 CFR 334.810 - Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.810 Holston River at Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. (a) The area... Commanding Officer of the Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee, and such agencies as he may designate. ... Works, Kingsport, Tenn.; restricted area. 334.810 Section 334.810 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  20. 40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL SOUTHEAST SIDE OF EXTERIOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM, SHOWING DOOR TO SEWING ROOM NO. 3, VENTILATOR FAN (OVER DOOR), STEAM LINE (PIPE), SEWING MACHINE MOTOR IN OVERHEAD, ALARM BELL, EXPLOSION-PROOF SWITCH BOXES, GROUNDS ON DOORS, PULL ALARM HANDLE (EXTREME RIGHT; PULLEY CABLE CONDUCTED IN CONDUIT TO SWITCH INSIDE BUILDING. PULLEYS INSIDE ALL ELBOW JOINTS.) - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  2. Reducing tensor magnetic gradiometer data for unexploded ordnance detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bracken, Robert E.; Brown, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    We performed a survey to demonstrate the effectiveness of a prototype tensor magnetic gradiometer system (TMGS) for detection of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO). In order to achieve a useful result, we designed a data-reduction procedure that resulted in a realistic magnetic gradient tensor and devised a simple way of viewing complicated tensor data, not only to assess the validity of the final resulting tensor, but also to preview the data at interim stages of processing. The final processed map of the surveyed area clearly shows a sharp anomaly that peaks almost directly over the target UXO. This map agrees well with a modeled map derived from dipolar sources near the known target locations. From this agreement, it can be deduced that the reduction process is valid, making the prototype TMGS a foundation for development of future systems and processes.

  3. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient…

  4. Application of the MESA reactive hydrocode to space vehicle explosive ordnance devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Selma

    1993-01-01

    The construction of detailed computational models of the dynamic behavior of various explosive ordnance devices used on space vehicles is discussed. The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: numerical methods, explosives and detonations, and the MESA computer code.

  5. Unexploded ordnance detection using imaging giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiken, A., LLNL

    1997-05-06

    False positive detections account for a great part of the expense associated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) remediation. Presently fielded systems like pulsed electromagnetic induction systems and cesium-vapor magnetometers are able to distinguish between UXO and other metallic ground clutter only with difficulty. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) has led to the development of a new generation of integrated-circuit magnetic sensors that are far more sensitive than previously available room-temperature-operation electronic devices. The small size of GMR sensors makes possible the construction of array detectors that can be used to image the flux emanating from a ferrous object or from a non-ferrous object with eddy currents imposed by an external coil. The purpose of a GMR-based imaging detector would be to allow the operator to easily distinguish between UXO and benign objects (like shrapnel or spent bullets) that litter formerly used defense sites (FUDS). In order to demonstrate the potential of a GMR-based imaging technology, a crude magnetic imaging system has been constructed using commercially available sensors. The ability to roughly determine the outline and disposition of magnetic objects has been demonstrated. Improvements to the system which are necessary to make it into a high-performance UXO detector are outlined.

  6. Quantifying the risks of unexploded ordnance at closed military bases.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline A; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M Granger

    2009-01-15

    Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) left over from live-fire weapons training. These sites present risks to civilians who might come into contact with the UXO and cause it to explode. This paper presents the first systems analysis model for assessing the explosion risks of UXO at former military training ranges. We develop a stochastic model for estimating the probability of exposure to and explosion of UXO, before and after site cleanup. An application of the model to a 310-acre parcel at Fort Ord, California, shows that substantial risk can remain even after a site is declared clean. We estimate that risk to individual construction workers of encountering UXO that explodes would range from 4 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-2), depending on model assumptions, well above typical Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target risk levels of 10(-4) to 10(-6). In contrast, a qualitative UXO risk assessment method, the Munitions and Explosives of Concern Hazard Assessment (MEC HA), developed by an interagency work group led by the EPA, indicates that the explosion risk at the case study site is low and "compatible with current and determined or reasonably anticipated future risk." We argue that a quantitative approach, like that illustrated in this paper, is necessary to provide a more complete picture of risks and the opportunities for risk reduction. PMID:19238949

  7. Broadband acoustic scattering measurements of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO).

    PubMed

    Bucaro, J A; Houston, B H; Saniga, M; Dragonette, L R; Yoder, T; Dey, S; Kraus, L; Carin, L

    2008-02-01

    In order to evaluate the potential for detection and identification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) by exploiting their structural acoustic response, we carried out broadband monostatic scattering measurements over a full 360 degrees on UXO's (two mortar rounds, an artillery shell, and a rocket warhead) and false targets (a cinder block and a large rock). The measurement band, 1-140 kHz, includes a low frequency structural acoustics region in which the wavelengths are comparable to or larger than the target characteristic dimensions. In general, there are aspects that provide relatively high target strength levels ( approximately -10 to -15 dB), and from our experience the targets should be detectable in this structural acoustics band in most acoustic environments. The rigid body scattering was also calculated for one UXO in order to highlight the measured scattering features involving elastic responses. The broadband scattering data should be able to support feature-based separation of UXO versus false targets and identification of various classes of UXO as well. PMID:18247878

  8. Subsurface electromagnetic induction imaging for unexploded ordnance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Fernández, Juan Pablo; Shubitidze, Fridon; O'Neill, Kevin; Barrowes, Benjamin E.

    2012-04-01

    Detection and classification of unexploded ordnance based on electromagnetic induction have made tremendous progress over the last few years, to the point that not only more realistic terrains are being considered but also more realistic questions - such as when to stop digging - are being posed. Answering such questions would be easier if it were somehow possible to see under the surface. In this work we propose a method that, within the limitations on resolution imposed in the available range of frequencies, generates subsurface images from which the positions, relative strengths, and number of targets can be read off at a glance. The method seeds the subsurface with multiple dipoles at known locations that contribute collectively but independently to the measured magnetic field. The polarizabilities of the dipoles are simultaneously updated in a process that seeks to minimize the mismatch between computed and measured fields over a grid. In order to force the polarizabilities to be positive we use their square roots as optimization variables, which makes the problem nonlinear. The iterative update process guided by a Jacobian matrix discards or selects dipoles based on their influence on the measured field. Preliminary investigations indicate a fast convergence rate and the ability of the algorithm to locate multiple targets based on data from various state-of-the-art electromagnetic induction sensors.

  9. Cooperative robotics: bringing autonomy to explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Signore, Michael J.; Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    An ongoing effort within the US Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) is exploring the integration of autonomous robotic technologies onto current and future Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot platforms. The Cooperative Robotics program, though the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), has identified several autonomous robotic technologies useful to the EOD operator, and with the collaboration of academia and industry is in the process of bringing these technologies to EOD robot operators in the field. Initiated in January 2007, the Cooperative Robotics program includes the demonstration of various autonomous technologies to the EOD user community, and the optimization of these technologies for use on small EOD Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in relevant environments. Through close interaction with actual EOD operators, these autonomous behaviors will be designed to work within the bounds of current EOD Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). This paper will detail the ongoing and future efforts encompassing the Cooperative Robotics program including: technology demonstrations of autonomous robotic capabilities, development of autonomous capability requirements based on user focus groups, optimization of autonomous UGV behaviors to enable use in relevant environments based on current EOD TTP, and finally the transition of these technologies to current and future EOD robotic systems.

  10. Clearing Unexploded Ordnance: Bayesian Methodology for Assessing Success

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K K.

    2005-10-30

    The Department of Defense has many Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) that are slated for transfer for public use. Some sites have unexploded ordnance (UXO) that must be cleared prior to any land transfers. Sites are characterized using geophysical sensing devices and locations are identified where possible UXO may be located. In practice, based on the analysis of the geophysical surveys, a dig list of N suspect locations is created for a site that is possibly contaminated with UXO. The suspect locations on the dig list are often assigned into K bins ranging from ``most likely to contain UXO" to ``least likely to be UXO" based on signal discrimination techniques and expert judgment. Usually all dig list locations are sampled to determine if UXO is present before the site is determined to be free of UXO. While this method is 100% certain to insure no UXO remains in the locations identified by the signal discrimination and expert judgment, it is very costly. This paper proposes a statistical Bayesian methodology that may result in digging less than 100% of the suspect locations to reach a pre-defined tolerable risk, where risk is defined in terms of a low probability that any UXO remains in the unsampled dig list locations. Two important features of a Bayesian approach are that it can account for uncertainties in model parameters and that it can handle data that becomes available in stages. The results from each stage of data can be used to direct the subsequent digs.

  11. Chemical Sensing of Unexploded Ordnance with the Mobile Underwater Survey System (MUDSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to sense explosives residues in the marine environment is a critical tool for identification and classification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO). Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion fifty years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater, and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas-chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance which appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts-per-billion level, whereas ordnance which had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts-per-trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea UXOs.

  12. 32 CFR 621.2 - Sales of ordnance property to individuals, non-Federal government agencies, institutions, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Sales of ordnance property to individuals, non-Federal government agencies, institutions, and organizations. 621.2 Section 621.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN AND SALE OF PROPERTY § 621.2 Sales of ordnance property...

  13. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. 334.850 Section 334.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.850 Lake Erie, west end, north of...

  14. 78 FR 55216 - Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and Ordnance Recovery, Suisun Bay, Concord, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security DoD Department of Defense FR Federal Register MMRP Military... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and... support of the Military Ocean Terminal Concord (MOTCO) electromagnetic scan and ordnance...

  15. Review and Identification of DOE Laboratory Technologies for Countermine/Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    2002-04-03

    Several Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have worked and/or are working on technologies that are applicable to the detection of landmines and/or unexploded ordnance. This report is a compilation of technical summaries for many of these technologies. For additional information on any technology, appropriate points of contact are provided for each technology.

  16. System for performing site characterization for test ranges containing unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. Edward; Crane, Carl D., III

    1996-05-01

    Wright Laboratory has been tasked by the Naval Explosive Ordnance Technical Division to develop robotic platforms to perform characterization of areas set aside for ordnance testing. These areas require the identification and removal of the unexploded ordnance before they can be utilized for safe, productive use. The characterization task is performed by autonomously sweeping a designated area with the autonomous tow vehicle (ATV). The ATV tows the multiple sensor platform containing a magnetometer array and a ground penetrating radar. The ATV provides the time and position stamp for sensor data. Analysts then review the post survey sensor data to determine ordnance position. The ATV makes use of several advanced technologies. A hybrid navigation and guidance system using an external Kalman filter delivers vehicle position based on information from a real time centimeter level differential global positioning system and a strapped down laser gyro inertial navigation system. A vision-based obstacle avoidance system helps to account for unknown obstacles during survey. Sophisticated path planning algorithms, and an intelligent software architecture for planning and behavior provide a measure of autonomy. A data collection system controls the functions of the various sensors used for the characterization process and manipulates the data stream to conform to an open ASCII data format and stores it to rugged removable hard disks for later analysis.

  17. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. 334.850 Section 334.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.850 Lake Erie, west end, north of...

  18. POLLUTANT EMISSION FACTORS FOR A TRANSPORTABLE DETONATION SYSTEM FOR DESTROYING UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discourages the disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open air and soil-covered detonations, because these processes cause toxic metals, organics and explosives to be released into the environment. This paper presents the resul...

  19. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. 334.850 Section 334.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.850 Lake Erie, west end, north of...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS TO THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE EMANATING FROM BURIED UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of locating buried UXO and landmines is a significant challenge to science and technology. Technology development efforts are under way to use chemical sensors that can discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that continue to be a threat. However, t...

  1. A Field Evaluation of Airborne Techniques for Detection of Unexploded Ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; Doll, W.E.; Hamlett, P.; Holladay, J.S.; Nyquist, J.E.; Smyre, J.; Gamey, T.J.

    1999-03-14

    US Defense Department estimates indicate that as many as 11 million acres of government land in the U. S. may contain unexploded ordnance (UXO), with the cost of identifying and disposing of this material estimated at nearly $500 billion. The size and character of the ordnance, types of interference, vegetation, geology, and topography vary from site to site. Because of size or composition, some ordnance is difficult to detect with any geophysical method, even under favorable soil and cultural interference conditions. For some sites, airborne methods may provide the most time and cost effective means for detection of UXO. Airborne methods offer lower risk to field crews from proximity to unstable ordnance, and less disturbance of sites that maybe environmentally sensitive. Data were acquired over a test site at Edwards AFB, CA using airborne magnetic, electromagnetic, multispectral and thermal sensors. Survey areas included sites where trenches might occur, and a test site in which we placed deactivated ordnance, ranging in size from small ''bomblets'' to large bombs. Magnetic data were then acquired with the Aerodat HM-3 system, which consists of three cesium magnetometers within booms extending to the front and sides of the helicopter, and mounted such that the helicopter can be flown within 3m of the surface. Electromagnetic data were acquired with an Aerodat 5 frequency coplanar induction system deployed as a sling load from a helicopter, with a sensor altitude of 15m. Surface data, acquired at selected sites, provide a comparison with airborne data. Multispectral and thermal data were acquired with a Daedelus AADS 1268 system. Preliminary analysis of the test data demonstrate the value of airborne systems for UXO detection and provide insight into improvements that might make the systems even more effective.

  2. Environmental effects on detection of buried mines and UXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsch, Richard M.; Jenkins, Thomas F.; Arcone, Steven A.; Koh, Gary; O'Neill, Kevin

    1998-09-01

    Several studies are under way at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) to define environmental effects on detection and classification of buried mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Ground that is very wet, frozen, or snow covered can pose severe constraints on demining operations. The qualitative and quantitative nature of chemical signatures of buried land mines is being documented. Research to date indicates that although 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene constitutes over 99% of military-grade TNT, it is a minor component of the vapor signature at ground level. CRREL operates a year-round test site to determine the effect of weather on radar and IR systems used to detect buried mines. The New England site experiences many of the weather conditions likely to interfere with mine detection around the world. Short-pulse ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to profile both ordnance and non-ordnance targets at the 40-acre UXO site at Jefferson Proving Ground. Analysis of the data indicates that future systems will have to operate at faster data acquisition rates. Radar modeling is being used to simulate the effects of the environment and identify new techniques for finding and classifying buried ferrous objects.

  3. A Survey of Commercially Available and Proven Remote Control Machines for Excavation and Recovery of Buried Ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C; Bilstrom, A

    2002-03-01

    The issue of unexploded ordnance excavation and removal is complicated by the interaction between the independent robotics systems (e.g. manipulator, sensors, and software). A review of commercially available robotic systems highlights the specificity of the design and intent of each for the application and problem being addressed. Although multiple parties, including universities, research institutes, and manufacturers worldwide are concerned with removing explosive ordnance (EOD) and unexploded ordnance (UXO), the exact details of the problems and tasks at each site differ between projects, even slightly. The risks associated with the excavation and removal of ordnance require a level of robustness that necessitates extensive testing and engineering despite project similarities. Based on the experience of researchers, the integration of systems at unique excavation sites will be the critical element of the project to ensure the safe and robust removal of buried ordnance. Although this report touches on some systems integration issues to a limited degree, the report at this stage is primarily a survey of commercially available, proven robotics components and systems for the excavation and recovery of buried ordnance.

  4. 77 FR 25435 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that a LOA has been issued to the U.S. Department of the Air Force, Headquarters 96th Air Base Wing (U.S. Air Force), Eglin Air Force Base (Eglin AFB) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS) training......

  5. Hazardous waste. Status of cleanup at the former West Virginia Ordnance Works

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    After discussing its responsibility for cleanup with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for 2 years, the Army has accepted the lead role of investigation and cleanup at the ordnance works. The various phases of the decontamination program appear to be progressing smoothly. Officials of both the EPA and the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources have expressed their overall satisfaction with the Army's actions. Our observations are presented in more detail on pages 6 and 7 of the enclosed briefing document.

  6. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  7. Exploiting forward scattering for detecting submerged proud/half-buried unexploded ordnance.

    PubMed

    Bucaro, J A; Houston, B H; Simpson, H; Dragonette, L R; Kraus, L; Yoder, T

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory underwater bistatic scattering measurements are reported for free, proud, and half-buried unexploded ordnances for 0 degrees and 90 degrees source angles. Forward echoes are larger than backscattered returns, and half burial significantly decreases the latter but not the former. Results agree with analytic predictions borrowed from radar. The forward echo and source signal are separated by measurements made with and without the target, a method not possible in a target search. For this, a method is described that uses knowledge of the source location and the hyperbolic character in time-cross range of the signals received at points along a line. PMID:20000890

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site, Operable Unit 1, Mead, NE, August 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) site, in Mead, Nebraska. The former NOP site was used as an ordnance loading, assembly, and packing facility. Operations at the NOP resulted in contamination of soil with explosive compounds. Operable Unit 1 (OU1) encompasses the upper 4 feet of soil contaminated with explosive compounds. The remedial action for OU1 addresses one of the principal threats at the site, explosives-contaminated soil, by thermally treating the contaminated soil on-site.

  9. Differential Global Positioning System for the Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System: Testing, results, and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Hubbard, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory integrated and tested a Global Positioning System (GPS) for use with the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center`s (NEODTC) Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System (STOLS). The GPS automatically and continuously provides latitude, longitude, and elevation information at the mobile GPS unit. The results of testing the GPS are shown in this report. The results reveal accuracies in the submeter range in real time and within a few centimeters using post-processing software. A description of hardware and software components is also included, along with system drawings and parts lists.

  10. Quantifying the transport of energetic materials in unsaturated sediments from cracked unexploded ordnance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Martel, Richard; Trépanier, Luc; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved explosive species have been found in the groundwater under military training areas. These explosives are thought to originate from munitions although the mechanism of transport to the groundwater is poorly understood. This study was conducted to determine whether ruptured unexploded ordnance may be a viable source term for these explosives. The rupturing effect of one 81 mm-mortar exploding in close proximity to another 81-mm mortar was observed and the resulting contaminants were collected. These contaminants were then subjected to leaching experiments on repacked, jack drill compacted unsaturated sediment columns in a climate controlled laboratory. The mortars which were exposed to nearby explosions were shown to be susceptible to rupturing rather than sympathetically detonating under certain conditions. The ruptured mortars released up to 166+/-2 g of pulverized explosive residues (largely Composition B) and the results from the subsequent leaching tests showed that this explosive residue is highly mobile in unsaturated sandy soil. Up to 4.45+/-1.00 g of dissolved explosive contamination was transported through the unsaturated soil columns during the first year of infiltration. The results indicate the mass of transported explosive residue dissolved in the leachate was primarily caused by the preferential dissolution of explosive contaminants having a grain size under 0.125 mm. Surface or near-surface unexploded ordnance (UXO) on live fire ranges may therefore be significant sources of explosive environmental contamination after they have been exposed to other rounds which explode nearby. PMID:19875778

  11. Inversion of dynamically repositioned multi-axis electromagnetic data for ordnance characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, Joe; Shubitidze, Fridon; Besaw, Lance; Casari, Matthew J.; Miller, Jonathan; Schultz, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    The challenges associated with removing UXO and explosive remnants of war have led to a variety of methods for detection and discrimination of buried metallic objects using time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI). Recent work has shown that parameters recovered from physics-based inversions can discriminate and classify buried ordnance from non-ordnance. We present results of applying advanced processing to data from a dynamically repositioned multiaxis EMI instrument. Data are collected using an adaptive sampling process to find the center of the anomaly and collect minimal data while maintaining model fidelity. An ortho-normalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) model is used to resolve various targets at different depths. The ONVMS model is a generalized volume dipole model, with the single dipole model being a special limiting case. Using the ONVMS model, an object's response to a sensor's primary magnetic field is modeled mathematically by a set of equivalent magnetic dipoles distributed inside a volume containing the object. We assess the utility and veracity of the dynamic sampling strategy coupled with the ONVMS model on data acquired over a set of calibration and simulant targets. Rapid target characterization codes are aggregated into a software package with particular focus on ease of use for non-expert users.

  12. Acoustic identification of buried underwater unexploded ordnance using a numerically trained classifier (L).

    PubMed

    Bucaro, Joseph A; Waters, Zachary J; Houston, Brian H; Simpson, Harry J; Sarkissian, Angie; Dey, Saikat; Yoder, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Using a finite element-based structural acoustics code, simulations were carried out for the acoustic scattering from an unexploded ordnance rocket buried in the sediment under 3 m of water. The simulation treated 90 rocket burial angles in steps of 2°. The simulations were used to train a generative relevance vector machine (RVM) algorithm for identifying rockets buried at unknown angles in an actual water/sediment environment. The trained RVM algorithm was successfully tested on scattering measurements made in a sediment pool facility for six buried targets including the rocket at 90°, 120°, and 150°, a boulder, a cinderblock, and a cinderblock rolled 45° about its long axis. PMID:23231093

  13. Terminal ballistics of 7.62 mm NATO bullets: experiments in ordnance gelatin.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Vigsnaes, J S; Rasmussen, R; Nissen, P S

    1995-01-01

    Military rifle bullets are assumed to tumble 180 degrees in the target and end up facing backwards, but intact. It has been claimed, however, that a German version of the 7.62 mm x 51 (7.62 mm NATO) bullet may fragment at ranges up to 100 m. A lack of strength in the jacket, causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high impact velocity, has been held responsible for this behaviour. The Danish Armed Forces use a 7.62 mm x 51 bullet, produced by Ammunitionsarsenalet (AMA), which is similar in design. Since the legality of this and similar bullets may be questioned in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899, we decided to supplement an investigation of actual fatal cases with an investigation using ordnance gelatin. In order to compare various makes of bullets on an equal basis, they were fired into ordnance gelatin at various ranges and, consequently with various impact velocities. Bullets manufactured by the US Government, Bofors (Sweden), Raufoss (Norway) and AMA were used. The AMA bullet M/75 used previously was found to fragment at ranges up to approx. 100 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 715 m/sec, while all the other 3 types of bullets were intact at ranges down to 2.5 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 810 m/sec. The final prototype of an AMA bullet to answer this criticism proved capable of withstanding fragmentation as well as the foreign makes previously tested. It will enter series production in late 1995. PMID:8547160

  14. Non-linear inversion of controlled source multi-receiver electromagnetic induction data for unexploded ordnance using a continuation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, A.; Everett, M. E.

    2007-03-01

    This work adopts a continuation approach, based on path tracking in model space, to solve the non-linear least-squares problem for discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) using multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. The forward model corresponds to a stretched-exponential decay of eddy currents induced in a magnetic spheroid. We formulate an over-determined, or under-parameterized, inverse problem. An example using synthetic multi-receiver EMI responses illustrates the efficiency of the method. The fast inversion of actual field multi-receiver EMI responses of inert, buried ordnances is also shown. Software based on the continuation method could be installed within a multi-receiver EMI sensor and used for near-real-time UXO decision-making purposes without the need for a highly-trained operator.

  15. DYNAMIC PROJECT COLLABORATION TOOLS FOR UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE (UXO) REMOVAL Case Study: Jefferson Proving Ground UXO Removal Projector

    SciTech Connect

    Daffron, James Y.

    2003-02-27

    Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) removal and investigation projects typically involve multiple organizations including Government entities, private contractors, and technical experts. Resources are split into functional ''teams'' who perform the work and interface with the clients. The projects typically generate large amounts of data that must be shared among the project team members, the clients, and the public. The ability to efficiently communicate and control information is essential to project success. Web-based project collaboration is an effective management and communication tool when applied to ordnance and explosives (OE) projects. During a recent UXO/OE removal project at the Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) in Madison, IN, American Technologies, Inc. (ATI) successfully used the Project Commander(reg sign) (www.ProCommander.com) project collaboration website as a dynamic project and information management tool.

  16. Performance metrics for state-of-the-art airborne magnetic and electromagnetic systems for mapping and detection of unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, William E.; Bell, David T.; Gamey, T. Jeffrey; Beard, Les P.; Sheehan, Jacob R.; Norton, Jeannemarie

    2010-04-01

    Over the past decade, notable progress has been made in the performance of airborne geophysical systems for mapping and detection of unexploded ordnance in terrestrial and shallow marine environments. For magnetometer systems, the most significant improvements include development of denser magnetometer arrays and vertical gradiometer configurations. In prototype analyses and recent Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) assessments using new production systems the greatest sensitivity has been achieved with a vertical gradiometer configuration, despite model-based survey design results which suggest that dense total-field arrays would be superior. As effective as magnetometer systems have proven to be at many sites, they are inadequate at sites where basalts and other ferrous geologic formations or soils produce anomalies that approach or exceed those of target ordnance items. Additionally, magnetometer systems are ineffective where detection of non-ferrous ordnance items is of primary concern. Recent completion of the Battelle TEM-8 airborne time-domain electromagnetic system represents the culmination of nearly nine years of assessment and development of airborne electromagnetic systems for UXO mapping and detection. A recent ESTCP demonstration of this system in New Mexico showed that it was able to detect 99% of blind-seeded ordnance items, 81mm and larger, and that it could be used to map in detail a bombing target on a basalt flow where previous airborne magnetometer surveys had failed. The probability of detection for the TEM-8 in the blind-seeded study area was better than that reported for a dense-array total-field magnetometer demonstration of the same blind-seeded site, and the TEM-8 system successfully detected these items with less than half as many anomaly picks as the dense-array total-field magnetometer system.

  17. Design and development of a family of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, Karl; Simpson, Tim; Rogan, Chris; Merenich, John; Brennan, Sean; Crow, Ed

    2008-10-01

    Across many consumer product industries, the prevailing practice is to design families of product variants that exploit commonality to provide the ability to easily customize a base platform for particular uses and to take advantage of commonality for streamlining design, manufacturing, maintenance and logistic; examples include Black & Decker, Seagate, and Volkswagen. This paper describes the application of product family concepts to the design and development of a family of robots to satisfy requirements for explosive ordnance disposal. To facilitate this process, we have developed a market segmentation grid that plots the desired capabilities and cost versus the target use cases. The product family design trade space is presented using a multi-dimensional trade space visualization tool which helps identify dependencies between different design variables and identify Pareto frontiers along which optimal design choices will lie. The EOD robot product family designs share common components and subsystems yet are modularized and scalable to provide functionality to satisfy a range of user requirements. This approach has been shown to significantly reduce development time and costs, manufacturing costs, maintenance and spare parts inventory, and operator and maintainer training.

  18. Demilitarization of conventional ordnance: Priorities for data-base assessments of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; McKone, T.E.; Hall, C.H.; Nelson, M.A.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1986-02-01

    The primary goal of this study has been to identify a set of environmental by-products from the demilitarization of conventional ordnance that should be the subject of more detailed data-base assessments. In order to rank the by-products according to their potential health risks, estimates were made of the contaminant releases associated with destructive techniques (e.g., open burning, open detonation, and incineration) and nondestructive techniques (e.g., filler recovery and reuse). Estimates of the types and quantities of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics in the demilitarization inventories of various installations in the US were made. To calculate hypothetical doses to man from contaminant releases, a multimedia compartmental model was used to calculate the concentrations of contaminants in water, soils, air, and biota. Based on an analysis of the doses and toxicity data for the compounds, several substances were recommended for further analysis, including DNT, TNT, and RDX and their degradation products in the environment. Other compounds are dibutyl phthalate, diphenylamine, HMX, and tetryl.

  19. PELAN for non-intrusive inspection of ordnance, containers, and vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holslin, Daniel T.; Shyu, Chaur-Ming; Sullivan, Robert A.; Vourvopoulos, George

    2006-05-01

    When neutrons interact with nuclei, the resulting energy of the interaction can be released in the form of gamma rays, whose energy is characteristic of the nucleus involved in the reaction. The PELAN (Pulsed Elemental Analysis with Neutrons) system uses a pulsed neutron generator and an integral thermalizing shield that induce reactions that cover most of the entire neutron energy range. The neutron generator uses a d-T reaction, which releases fast 14 MeV neutrons responsible for providing information on chemical elements such as C, N, and O. During the time period between pulses, the fast neutrons undergo multiple elastic and inelastic interactions that lower their energy making them easier to be captured by chemical elements, such as H and Cl. The PELAN system has been used for a number of applications where non-intrusive, non-destructive interrogation is needed. This report illustrates examples of its performance in interrogations for unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines, large vehicle bombs and illicit drug detection.

  20. Low-cost explosive ordnance disposal robot using off-the-shelf parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt; Murphy, James; Zimmerman, Todd

    2005-05-01

    The continuing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in a rapidly growing demand for mobile robots to be used during Explosive Ordnance Disposal operations. These robots are predominately used by EOD technicians for surveillance and neutralization of explosive threats from a safe standoff distance. The hazardous nature of the mission these vehicles help perform requires them to be expendable. Current commercially available systems, however, although capable of performing the mission, are costly and are not currently available in the large quantities needed by EOD technicians. The Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) proposes an alternative; a low cost, mobile robot using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts that is specifically tailored to perform hazardous EOD missions. The main functions of this robot are efficient surveillance and explosive threat neutralization. The use of COTS parts allows for streamlined field supportability and repair. A proposed speed of five miles per hour is a drastic improvement over many existing EOD robots and will allow EOD teams to quickly survey and assess potentially dangerous situations. The manipulator will be capable of precision placement of neutralization charges. The cost of this proposed robot is 10,000. Current commercial robots capable of performing these EOD tasks range in price from 40,000 to over $150,000. This conference paper will describe the robot design and prototyping process, from gathering requirements to fabrication and testing.

  1. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Nipper, M.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.; Miller, K.; Saepoff, S.

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log Kow, but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  2. Space: Past, Present, and Future: for Presentation to the American Ordnance Association, Washington Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Homer J.

    1959-01-01

    It is obvious that the last decade has produced dramatic changes in our national viewpoints on the question of the exploration of space. I would like to refer back, as a starting point, to a series of tests which were performed in 1949 under the sponsorship of the Army Ordnance Department under the code name, "Bumper." This project was carried out jointly by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the General Electric Company, and the Douglas Aircraft Company. The object of the project was to launch a Wac Corporal upper-stage vehicle from a V-2, and demonstrate a prototype high-performance, multi-stage rocket vehicle system. As you may recall, the project was entirely successful in demonstrating the feasibility of several unproved concepts: the staging of rocket vehicles at high altitudes, the utility of ablative materials for protection from aerodynamic heating, and a method of stabilizing rocket propelled vehicles operating in the vacuum of space. One of the most significant interpretations of this test to the engineers familiar with the work was the fact that the test showed that there were no longer any purely scientific barriers to the construction of vehicles capable of space flight. The barrier was engineering.

  3. Plasma arc technology development for application to demilitarization of pyrotechnic ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Mescavage, G.; Filius, K. |

    1995-12-31

    An initial investigation into the use of a plasma arc furnace for demilitarization of completely assembled, small-caliber, hand-emplaced pyrotechnic, smoke, and dye ordnance was conducted at the Department of Energy`s Western Environmental Technology Office, located in Butte, Montana. This technology is being pursued as an alternative to open burning/open detonation (OB/OD), which is the method of demilitarization traditionally used for these items, as increasingly more stringent environmental regulations have discouraged and disallowed the use of OB/OD. Problems have been experienced with the use of existing incinerators for demilitarization of these items. Varying quantities of 19 different types of live, completely assembled, small pyrotechnic, smoke, and dye items were processed in a pilot-scale Retech, Inc., Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment System. This testing demonstrated that a plasma arc furnace equipped with pollution abatement equipment can safely demilitarize these items in compliance with applicable environmental regulations. In addition, the process encapsulates heavy metals and other hazardous constituents into a solid, low-leachable slag product that passes Federally established tests as a nonhazardous material. This provides an advantage over standard incineration which yields a hazardous ash. The process also is able to overcome problems reported with standard incinerators. In addition, gas flows are significantly lower than those in standard incinerators, allowing smaller pollution abatement equipment to be used. However, operational problems and inefficiencies were identified that need to be resolved before full-scale implementation.

  4. Bistatic, above-critical angle scattering measurements of fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and clutter.

    PubMed

    Waters, Z J; Simpson, H J; Sarkissian, A; Dey, S; Houston, B H; Bucaro, J A; Yoder, T J

    2012-11-01

    Laboratory grade bistatic scattering measurements are conducted in order to examine the acoustic response of realistic fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) from above-critical angle insonification, between 2 and 40 kHz. A 127 mm diameter rocket UXO, a 155 mm diameter artillery shell, a natural rock of approximately the same size, and a cinder block are fully buried in water-saturated medium grained sand (mean grain diameter, 240 μm) at depths of 10 cm below the water-sediment interface. A two-dimensional array of bistatic scattering measurements is generated synthetically by scanning a single hydrophone in steps of 3 cm over a 1 m × 1 m patch directly above the targets at a height of 20 cm above the water-sediment interface. Three-dimensional volumetric acoustic images generated from the return waveforms reveal scattering components attributed to geometric and elastic scattering, as well as multiple-scattering interactions of returns between the sediment-water interface and the buried objects. The far-field target strength of the objects is estimated through extrapolation of the angular spectrum. Agreement is found between experimental data and simulated data generated from a finite-element-based, three-dimensional time-harmonic model (2-25 kHz). Separation of the measured UXO from the clutter objects is demonstrated through exploitation of structural-acoustics-based features. PMID:23145593

  5. Low-cost semi-autonomous manipulation technique for explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czop, Andrew; Del Signore, Michael J.; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    Robotic manipulators used on current EOD robotic platforms exhibit very few autonomous capabilities. This lack of autonomy forces the operator to completely control manipulator movements. With the increasing complexity of robotic manipulators, this can prove to be a very complex and tedious task. The development of autonomous capabilities for platform navigation are currently being extensively researched and applied to EOD robots. While autonomous manipulation has also been researched, this technology has yet to appear in fielded EOD robotic systems. As a result, there is a need for the exploration and development of manipulator automation within the scope of EOD robotics. In addition, due to the expendable nature of EOD robotic assets, the addition of this technology needs to add little to the overall cost of the robotic system. To directly address the need for a low-cost semi-autonomous manipulation capability for EOD robots, the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) proposes the Autonomous Robotic Manipulator (ARM). The ARM incorporates several semi-autonomous manipulation behaviors including point-and-click movement, user-defined distance movement, user-defined angle positioning, memory locations to save and recall manipulator positions, and macros to memorize and repeat multi-position repetitive manipulator movements. These semi-autonomous behaviors will decrease an EOD operator's time on target by reducing the manipulation workload in a user-friendly fashion. This conference paper will detail the background of the project, design of the prototype, algorithm development, implementation, results, and future work.

  6. West Virginia Ordnance Works supplemental remedial investigation. Final report, November 1986-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D.L.; Hendry, C.D.; Powell, V.J.

    1987-08-18

    A supplemental Remedial Investigation (RI) was conducted at the second operable unit of the West Virginia Ordnance Works (WVOW). The RI summarily assessed ground-water contamination at the Acids Area/Yellow Water Reservoir area, the Red Water Reservoirs area, and the Pond 13/Wet Well area. The field effort was conducted from March 1986-August 1986. The study included the following elements: (1) Installation of nine ground-water monitor wells and one water-level observation well (March 1986). (2) Sampling of 9 new monitor wells and 24 existing wells (April 1986). (3) Sampling of six sediment locations at the Red Water Reservoirs. (4) Time-series sampling of Wells GW27D and GW27 during a 48-hour pumping period (August 1986). (5) Resampling of six monitor wells and one water supply well (August 1986). Ground-water contamination is limited to the shallow alluvial aquifer at the three areas of concern. The shallow aquifer is separated from a deep glacial outwash aquifer by a gray clay confining layer. This confining layer is present in all areas of concern at WVOW and acts as an effective barrier to preclude vertical contaminant migration. Ground water flow in the shallow aquifer is to the west. A ground-water divide exists for the deep aquifer; ground-water flow is to the north (north of the Acids Area/Yellow Water Reservoir) and to the south at Pond 13/Wet Well Area. TNT, nitroaromatics.

  7. Magnetic sensor technology for detecting mines, UXO, and other concealed security threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czipott, Peter V.; Iwanowski, Mark D.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic sensors have been the sensor of choice in the detection and classification of buried mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), both on land and underwater, Quantum Magnetics (QM), together with its research partner IBM, have developed a variety of advanced, very high sensitivity superconducting and room temperature magnetic sensors to meet military needs. This work has led to the development and utilization of a three-sensor gradiometer (TSG) patented by IBM, which cannot only detect, but also localize mines and ordnance. QM is also working with IBM and the U.S. Navy to develop an advanced superconducting gradiometer for buried underwater mine detection. The ability to both detect and classify buried non-metallic mines is virtually impossible with existing magnetic sensors. To solve this problem, Quantum Magnetics, building on work of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is pioneering work in the development of quadrupole resonance (QR) methods which can be used to detect the explosive material directly. Based on recent laboratory work done at QM and previous work done in the U.S., Russia and the United Kingdom, we are confident that QR can be effectively applied to the non-metallic mine identification problem.

  8. Accounting for geophysical information in geostatistical characterization of unexploded ordnance (UXO) sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Hirotaka; Goovaerts, Pierre; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2003-06-01

    Efficient and reliable unexploded ordnance (UXO) site characterization is needed for decisions regarding future land use. There are several types of data available at UXO sites and geophysical signal maps are one of the most valuable sources of information. Incorporation of such information into site characterization requires a flexible and reliable methodology. Geostatistics allows one to account for exhaustive secondary information (i.e.,, known at every location within the field) in many different ways. Kriging and logistic regression were combined to map the probability of occurrence of at least one geophysical anomaly of interest, such as UXO, from a limited number of indicator data. Logistic regression is used to derive the trend from a geophysical signal map, and kriged residuals are added to the trend to estimate the probabilities of the presence of UXO at unsampled locations (simple kriging with varying local means or SKlm). Each location is identified for further remedial action if the estimated probability is greater than a given threshold. The technique is illustrated using a hypothetical UXO site generated by a UXO simulator, and a corresponding geophysical signal map. Indicator data are collected along two transects located within the site. Classification performances are then assessed by computing proportions of correct classification, false positive, false negative, and Kappa statistics. Two common approaches, one of which does not take any secondary information into account (ordinary indicator kriging) and a variant of common cokriging (collocated cokriging), were used for comparison purposes. Results indicate that accounting for exhaustive secondary information improves the overall characterization of UXO sites if an appropriate methodology, SKlm in this case, is used.

  9. Electromagnetic packable technology (EMPACT) for detection and characterization of ordnance in post-conflict areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory; Miller, Jonathan; Keranen, Joe

    2013-06-01

    Land reclamation efforts in post-conflict regions are often hampered by the presence of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW). Surface geophysical methods, such as Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) and magnetometry, are typically applied to screen rehabilitation areas for UXO prior to excavation; however, the prevalence of innocuous magnetic clutter related to indigenous scrap, fragmentation, or geology can severely impede the progress and efficiency of these remediation efforts. Additionally, the variability in surface conditions and local topography necessitates the development of sensor technologies that can be applied to a range of sites including those that prohibit the use of vehicle-mounted or large array systems. We present a man-portable EMI sensor known as the Electromagnetic Packable Technology (EMPACT) system that features a multi-axis sensor configuration in a compact form factor. The system is designed for operation in challenging site conditions and can be used in low ground-standoff modes to detect small and low-metal content objects. The EMPACT acquires high spatial density, multi-axis data that enable high resolution of small objects. This high density data can also be used to provide characterization of target physical features, such as size, material content, and shape. We summarize the development of this system for humanitarian demining operations and present results from preliminary system evaluations against a range of target types. Specifically, we assess the general detection capabilities of the EMPACT system and we evaluate the potential for target classification based on analysis of data and target model features.

  10. Underwater olfaction for real-time detection of submerged unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Ross J.; Dock, Matthew L.

    2007-04-01

    The presence of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance (UUXO) represents a considerable threat in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of dissolved explosive compounds, such as TNT and RDX, may be produced in the vicinity of degraded UUXO shell casings and are known to have significant toxicant effects on local marine organisms. During World War II and in subsequent years, the US military inadvertently or, in some cases intentionally, deposited many thousands of tons of UUXO in US coastal waters. Much of this material is difficult to locate by magnetometry or sonar imaging techniques, and can be extremely challenging to identify by visual means after lying on the bottom of the ocean for several decades. The present work is focused on advances in underwater olfaction, wherein trace amounts of dissolved explosive compounds may be detected and discriminated from other chemical species found in the marine environment, for the purpose of establishing safe cordons and/or neutralization of the explosives. ICx Nomadics has developed the first known real-time sensor system that is capable of detecting chemical signatures emanating from underwater explosives. The SeaPup sensor, which is based on the fluorescence-quenching transduction mechanism of an amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP), is capable of real-time detection of the trace chemical signatures emanating from submerged explosive compounds. The SeaPup system has been successfully tested on various marine platforms, including a crawler robot, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). In one study, the SeaPup was shown to effectively map liquid phase "explosive scent plumes" emanating from an underwater source of TNT. The presented paper will provide an overview of the history, current status, and future development of explosive analyte detection in the underwater environment.

  11. Physiological Tolerance Times while Wearing Explosive Ordnance Disposal Protective Clothing in Simulated Environmental Extremes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian B.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Worringham, Charles J.; Costello, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing’s thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25±6 years (mean ± sd), height 180±7 cm, body mass 79±9 kg, V˙O2max 57±6 ml.kg−1.min−1] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km⋅h−1 at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants’ core temperature reached 39°C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10–60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21°C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39°C in one of the 72 trials. PMID:24586228

  12. Physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian B; Stewart, Kelly L; Worringham, Charles J; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing's thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25 ± 6 years (mean ± sd), height 180 ± 7 cm, body mass 79 ± 9 kg, VO2max 57 ± 6 ml(.) kg(-1.)min(-1)] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km ⋅ h(-1) at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37 °C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants' core temperature reached 39 °C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10-60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21 °C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39 °C in one of the 72 trials. PMID:24586228

  13. A Multi-Object Inversion Approach for Efficient Magnetic Discrimination of Unexploded Ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S.; Oldenburg, D.; Pasion, L.

    2005-05-01

    Magnetometery is one of the primary methods used for detecting buried unexploded ordnances, either in a standalone mode, or in conjunction with electromagnetic induction. UXO's and other metallic debris generally appear as dipolar anomalies overprinting larger scale magnetic features due to near-surface magnetite variations and the regional geology. Non-linear high-pass filters are usually used to remove the larger scale effects and the remaining dipolar anomalies are inverted one at a time by an efficient bound-constrained optimization algorithm. This process works well when the individual anomalies are well separated and the geological variations are at larger scales than the UXO anomalies. When these conditions don't apply the inversion results are unreliable and the process of inverting each anomaly becomes time-consuming and unwieldy. We have developed an efficient multi-object inversion routine that allows simultaneous inversion of an arbitrary number of dipolar anomalies. Providing a good initial guess as to the number, location, magnitude and orientation of each dipole is critical to the success of the algorithm. We have found that an Automated Wavelet Detection algorithm we developed in a previous paper is ideal for this purpose. The multi-object inversion approach is very effective in most situations, but, like the original single-object approach, has trouble dealing with datasets with significant geological contamination. In an effort to overcome this problem we outline a framework for coupling our multi-object inversion scheme with an equivalent layer technique that attempts to model the background geology.

  14. SAR studies in the Yuma Desert, Arizona: Sand penetration, geology, and the detection of military ordnance debris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired over part of the Yuma Desert in southwestern Arizona demonstrate the ability of C-band (5.7-cm wavelength), L-band (24.5 cm), and P-band (68 cm) AIRSAR signals to backscatter from increasingly greater depths reaching several meters in blow sand and sandy alluvium. AIRSAR images obtained within the Barry M. Goldwater Bombing and Gunnery Range near Yuma, Arizona, show a total reversal of C- and P-band backscatter contrast (image tone) for three distinct geologic units. This phenomenon results from an increasingly greater depth of radar imaging with increasing radar wavelength. In the case of sandy- and small pebble-alluvium surfaces mantled by up to several meters of blow sand, backscatter increases directly with SAR wavelength as a result of volume scattering from a calcic soil horizon at shallow depth and by volume scattering from the root mounds of healthy desert vegetation that locally stabilize blow sand. AIRSAR images obtained within the military range are also shown to be useful for detecting metallic military ordnance debris that is located either at the surface or covered by tens of centimeters to several meters of blow sand. The degree of detectability of this ordnance increases with SAR wavelength and is clearly maximized on P-band images that are processed in the cross-polarized mode (HV). This effect is attributed to maximum signal penetration at P-band and the enhanced PHV image contrast between the radar-bright ordnance debris and the radar-dark sandy desert. This article focuses on the interpretation of high resolution AIRSAR images but also Compares these airborne SAR images with those acquired from spacecraft sensors such as ERS-SAR and Space Radar Laboratory (SIR-C/X-SAR).Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired over part of the Yuma Desert in southwestern Arizona demonstrate the ability of C-band (5.7-cm wavelength), L-band (24.5 cm), and P-band (68 cm) AIRSAR signals to backscatter from

  15. Interpretation of high-resolution low-altitude helicopter magnetometer surveys over sites contaminated with unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Stephen; Wright, David

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the world, millions of acres of potentially productive land are contaminated with unexploded ordnance due to either past conflicts or to military training activities. Low-level helicopter magnetometry (HeliMag) is currently being used to rapidly survey large areas and identify regions that are potentially clear of hazardous munitions. One configuration currently in use comprises seven cesium vapor magnetometers, horizontally spaced 1.5 m apart and mounted on a boom several meters in front of a Bell 206L helicopter. Magnetometer data are collected at 400 Hz at altitudes as low as 1.5 m above the ground along transects spaced 7 meters apart. From this dense, high-resolution data, potential metallic targets as small as a 60 mm mortar are identified using manual and/or automatic target picking methods. The target picks are then used to estimate densities of potential contamination. 100% detection is generally not feasible, so that HeliMag is usually applied in a characterization rather than in a clearance mode. We describe a HeliMag survey collected over a UXO contaminated site at Yekau Lake, near Edmonton, Canada. The objective was to identify the location and extent of an 11.5 pound bomb target area at a former training range. The target density estimates derived from manual picks were strongly influenced by geology and clutter and did not reflect the underlying density of ordnance and ordnance related clutter. By fitting a dipole model to each target pick, and comparing it to the expected response of the target item, we could estimate the density of objects with similar size/shape to an 11.5 pound bomb. This analysis clearly identified an area of elevated contamination in the same region where 11.5 pound bombs were found during ground reconnaissance. In summary, the new methodology significantly improves the interpretability of HeliMag data when used for UXO site assessment.

  16. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  17. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  18. Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrouchov, G

    2000-02-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density

  19. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results. PMID:26165674

  20. Childhood leukaemia and ordnance factories in west Cumbria during the Second World War

    PubMed Central

    Kinlen, L

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated that childhood leukaemia (CL) is a rare response to a common, but unidentified, infection and in particular that situations involving the unusual mixing of urban and rural groups (approximating to, respectively, groups infected with, and susceptible to, the relevant microorganism) can produce localised epidemics with consequent increases of the infrequent leukaemic complication. During the Second World War, explosives production factories were built and operated at Drigg and Sellafield, and a shell filling factory at Bootle, in west Cumbria, England, requiring substantial numbers of construction workers to be brought into this remote and isolated area. Following the design of an earlier study of CL near large (post-war) rural construction sites, mortality from this disease was investigated with the help of the Office of National Statistics, in the area around these Cumbrian factories where local workers largely lived, during the construction period and with particular reference to the overlapping construction and operational phase when the mixing of local and migrant workers would have been greatest. An excess of leukaemia deaths at ages 1–14 was found during the construction period (observed 3; observed/expected (O/E) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 6.0), which was more marked and statistically significant during the overlap with operations (O 3; O/E 4.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.2), especially at ages 1–4 (O 2; O/E 7.1, CI: 1.2, 23.6). A previous investigation did not detect this excess because it considered only a small part of west Cumbria that omitted the communities where most of the workforce lived, having incorrectly attributed the post-war expansion of the village of Seascale (situated between Drigg and Sellafield) to the wartime ordnance factories. The present findings are consistent with the results of the earlier study of rural construction projects and with the general evidence that marked rural–urban population

  1. Childhood leukaemia and ordnance factories in west Cumbria during the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Kinlen, L

    2006-07-01

    Much evidence has accumulated that childhood leukaemia (CL) is a rare response to a common, but unidentified, infection and in particular that situations involving the unusual mixing of urban and rural groups (approximating to, respectively, groups infected with, and susceptible to, the relevant microorganism) can produce localised epidemics with consequent increases of the infrequent leukaemic complication. During the Second World War, explosives production factories were built and operated at Drigg and Sellafield, and a shell filling factory at Bootle, in west Cumbria, England, requiring substantial numbers of construction workers to be brought into this remote and isolated area. Following the design of an earlier study of CL near large (post-war) rural construction sites, mortality from this disease was investigated with the help of the Office of National Statistics, in the area around these Cumbrian factories where local workers largely lived, during the construction period and with particular reference to the overlapping construction and operational phase when the mixing of local and migrant workers would have been greatest. An excess of leukaemia deaths at ages 1-14 was found during the construction period (observed 3; observed/expected (O/E) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 6.0), which was more marked and statistically significant during the overlap with operations (O 3; O/E 4.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.2), especially at ages 1-4 (O 2; O/E 7.1, CI: 1.2, 23.6). A previous investigation did not detect this excess because it considered only a small part of west Cumbria that omitted the communities where most of the workforce lived, having incorrectly attributed the post-war expansion of the village of Seascale (situated between Drigg and Sellafield) to the wartime ordnance factories. The present findings are consistent with the results of the earlier study of rural construction projects and with the general evidence that marked rural-urban population mixing

  2. Experiences with unexploded ordnance discrimination using magnetometry at a live-site in Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Stephen; Youmans, Clifton

    2007-03-01

    Advanced discrimination methods and careful optimization of operational procedures are critical for efficient remediation of unexploded ordnance (UXO) contaminated sites. In this paper, we report on our experiences with a 200 acre magnetic survey that was collected and processed under production survey conditions at Chevallier Ranch, Montana. All anomalies with fitted moments above 0.05 Am 2 were excavated. During the survey the magnetic remanence metric was predicted but not used to guide the discrimination. The retrospective analysis presented here reveals that discrimination using remanence would have significantly reduced the total number of anomalies (with good dipolar fits) that needed to be excavated, from 524 to 290 while still recovering all 69 UXO. The false alarm rate (FAR = number of non-UXOs excavated divided / number of UXO found) was reduced from 6.3 to 2.9. At a cut-off of 75% remanence, 77% of anomalies due to shrapnel and metallic debris and 64% of geological anomalies were rejected. Geological anomalies due to variations in magnetite concentration introduced a significant human-element into the interpretation process. Three different interpreters added a total of 305 additional anomalies that were not fit with a dipole model and which were later found to be non-UXO. Between 40 and 50% of anomalies picked by the two relatively inexperienced interpreters who analyzed the data turned out to be geology, as compared to 14% for an experienced interpreter. Critical analysis of results, operator training and feedback from the UXO technicians validating the anomaly are essential components towards improving the quality and consistency of the anomaly interpretations. This is consistent with the tenants of Total Quality Management (TQM). We compare the actual FAR that resulted during the survey when there was little feedback between UXO technician validation results, to a hypothetical result that could have been achieved had there been a constant feedback

  3. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  4. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  5. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  6. Using unmanned aerial vehicle-borne magnetic sensors to detect and locate improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, Hoke S., III; Perry, Alexander R.; Kumar, Sankaran; Czipott, Peter V.; Whitecotton, Brian R.; McManus, Tobin J.; Walsh, David O.

    2005-05-01

    Magnetic sensors configured as a tensor magnetic gradiometer not only detect magnetic targets, but also determine their location and their magnetic moment. Magnetic moment information can be used to characterize and classify objects. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) and thus many types of improvised explosive device (IED) contain steel, and thus can be detected magnetically. Suitable unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms, both gliders and powered craft, can enable coverage of a search area much more rapidly than surveys using, for instance, total-field magnetometers. We present data from gradiometer passes over different shells using a gradiometer mounted on a moving cart. We also provide detection range and speed estimates for aerial detection by a UAV.

  7. Characterization of the fate and transport of nitroaromatic compounds at a former DoD ordnance depot site

    SciTech Connect

    Klausmeier, M.E.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    The 975-acre Former Nansemond Ordnance Depot (FNOD) in Suffolk, Virginia was used by the Department of Defense (DoD) from 1917 until the mid-1950's for preparation, storage, transportation, inspection and demilitarization of many classes of ammunition and ordnance. Approximately 28 areas of Concern (AOC) have been identified by the EPA as areas that could pose potential risk to human health or the environment. The primary contaminants of concern are some trace metals and explosive compounds. During a summer 1987 field investigation, a slab of crystalline TNT was found which was estimated to weigh several tons. An enhanced MODFLOW model is being used to identify subsurface flow patterns. The calibrated model will be used to identify contaminant fate and transport behavior at the site. Enhancements to the MODFLOW model include an updated block-centered flow package (BCF4) and an updated recharge-seepage face boundary package (RSF4) to utilize for the FNOD site flow characterization. BCF4 package accurately delineates the water table without relying on an ad hoc rewetting procedure. This is accomplished by calculating the hydraulic head value required to transmit recharging water through the unsaturated zone without inactivating dry cells. The recharge-seepage face package eliminates the projection of heads above the ground surface by adjusting recharge to a cell when a user supplied ponding depth is reached. Using a regional model, a telescoping grid refinement technique was implemented to calculate the boundary conditions around the area of interest and to model quantity and quality interactions between surface and subsurface water regimes in a realistic manner.

  8. Low-cost backpack-portable robot system for mine and UXO detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl V.; Arabian, Adam K.

    2002-08-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has developed a prototype backpack-portable robot system for mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection and identification. The robot system is compact, lightweight and is estimated to be inexpensive to construct. The robot has been designed with an inexpensive, highly accurate, wide bandwidth time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor for the detection and identification of metal components in mines and UXO. The robot can be configured for autonomous or person-in-the-loop control. The robot system can be configured with additional light-weight and low-cost mine and UXO sensors such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and chemical explosive detectors.

  9. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities. PMID:23077828

  10. Hyperspectral IR polarimetry with applications in demining and unexploded ordnance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Herman E.; Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J., Jr.; Annen, Kurt D.

    1999-02-01

    Several years of effort in IR polarimetry have brought us convincing evidence of its effectiveness in differentiating man made objects from natural backgrounds. Adding modern focal plane array (FPA) technology (either cooled or uncooled) makes it possible to combine the benefits of polarimetry with the power of hyperspectral imaging. Aerodyne Research is embarked on a stepwise, controlled-risk development program with the objective of fielding an innovative and affordable hyperspectral imaging IR polarimeter. Proof-of-concept demonstrations are conducted for each significant technology increment as part of the prototype development effort. These steps, two demonstrated and two yet to be demonstrated, are: (1) LWIR (non-imaging) Spectral Polarimeter to demonstrate the effectiveness of combined polarimetric and hyperspectral discriminating capabilities in observations on static scenes; (2) LWIR Uncooled FPA Imaging (broadband) Polarimeter to test the sensitivity of an affordable Uncooled FPA in a broadband configuration against static scenes; (3) Multispectral Imaging Polarimeter to quantify clutter rejection performance improvements to be realized in multispectral polarimetry; and (4) Hyperspectral Imaging IR Polarimeter designed with optimal spatial and spectral resolution and sufficient throughput to achieve the reliable performance required in surface mine and UXO detection applications. Results from the ongoing proof-of- concept demonstrations in simulated surface mine detection will be presented.

  11. Mine system

    SciTech Connect

    Stoppani, B.R.

    1983-10-04

    A mine system comprises at least one mining machine adapted to haul itself, in a reciprocating manner, along a mineral face, and a control box housing means to control the various electrical elements of the machine(s), the box being located in a mine roadway at one end of the mineral face along which the machine(s) is reciprocating, and the box being electrically connected to a terminal box housed in a body of the machine(s).

  12. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  13. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  14. Applications of the associated-particle neutron-time-of-flight interrogation technique - From sheep to unexploded ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    2013-04-19

    The associated-particle technique (APT) will be presented for some diverse applications that include on the one hand, analyzing the body composition of live sheep and on the other, identifying the fillers of unexploded ordnance (UXO). What began with proof-of-concept studies using a large laboratory based 14 MeV neutron generator of the 'associated-particle' type, soon became possible for the first time to measure total body protein, fat and water simultaneously in live sheep using a compact field deployable associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG). This non-invasive technique offered the animal physiologist a tool to monitor the growth of an animal in response to new genetic, nutritional and pharmacologic methods for livestock improvement. While measurement of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) determined protein, fat and water because of the fixed stoichiometric proportions of these elements in these body components, the unique C/N and C/O ratios of high explosives revealed their identity in UXO. The algorithm that was developed and implemented to extract C, N and O counts from an APT generated gamma-ray spectrum will be presented together with the UXO investigations that involved preliminary proofof-concept studies and modeling with Monte Carlo produced synthetic spectra of 57-155 mm projectiles.

  15. Mining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.E.; Lane, A.J.; Mcgee, D.A.

    1981-03-10

    An improved mining apparatus for excavating material, such as coal, for example, from an earth formation, such as a coal seam, for example, wherein a miner, having a forward and a rearward cutter, is guided through the coal seam and excavates a borehole therein, the borehole being filled with a working fluid during the operation of the miner, the working fluid facilitating the operation of the miner and providing a vehicle for removing the mined material. Substantially all of the operations of the miner are controlled from the earth's surface thereby eliminating the necessity and accompanying hazards and costs involved in utilizing personnel underground during the mining operations.

  16. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  17. Applied behavior analysis is ideal for the development of a land mine detection technology using animals.

    PubMed

    Jones, B M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  18. Automatic classification of unexploded ordnance applied to Spencer Range live site for 5x5 TEMTADS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, John B.; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2013-06-01

    This paper details methods for automatic classification of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) as applied to sensor data from the Spencer Range live site. The Spencer Range is a former military weapons range in Spencer, Tennessee. Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) sensing is carried out using the 5x5 Time-domain Electromagnetic Multi-sensor Towed Array Detection System (5x5 TEMTADS), which has 25 receivers and 25 co-located transmitters. Every transmitter is activated sequentially, each followed by measuring the magnetic field in all 25 receivers, from 100 microseconds to 25 milliseconds. From these data target extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are extracted using the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and the Ortho-Normalized Volume Magnetic Source (ONVMS) algorithms, respectively. Namely, the inversion provides x, y, and z locations and a time series of the total ONVMS principal eigenvalues, which are intrinsic properties of the objects. The eigenvalues are fit to a power-decay empirical model, the Pasion-Oldenburg model, providing 3 coefficients (k, b, and g) for each object. The objects are grouped geometrically into variably-sized clusters, in the k-b-g space, using clustering algorithms. Clusters matching a priori characteristics are identified as Targets of Interest (TOI), and larger clusters are automatically subclustered. Ground Truths (GT) at the center of each class are requested, and probability density functions are created for clusters that have centroid TOI using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The probability functions are applied to all remaining anomalies. All objects of UXO probability higher than a chosen threshold are placed in a ranked dig list. This prioritized list is scored and the results are demonstrated and analyzed.

  19. Enhanced signal processing algorithms for buried unexploded ordnance detection and location estimation with magnetometer and electromagnetic induction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.

    1993-09-01

    Enhanced signal processing algorithms have been developed for the detection and location of buried unexploded ordnance using magnetometry and electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements. These signal processing algorithms are related to those used to image with geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT) employing wave-based measurements. The underlying relationship of GDT is the Generalized Projection Slice Theorem (GPST) that relates the spatial Fourier transform of acquired data to the spatial Fourier transform of subsurface inhomogeneities of one higher dimension. This relationship can be used to simulate data templates for known targets and, by virtue of the shift property of Fourier transforms, a data simulation need only be computed for one reference target location. All other target locations are generated by an appropriate phase shift. These data templates can be correlated with acquired data to determine the spatial distribution of probable target location. This approach to target detection and location estimation, referred to as a maximum likelihood estimation, can be used to produce an {open_quotes}image{close_quotes} of the likelihood of a specified target`s position. For non wave-based methods, the relationship between data and target characteristics is not strictly associated with Fourier transforms. In the case of magnetometry, the appropriate GPST requires a Fourier-Laplace transform of the target characteristics while the EMI GPST is based on an integral transform with a complex wavenumber. Nevertheless, the shift rule for integral transforms can be invoked to yield GPST`s for these tools and the associated computationally efficient maximum likelihood estimators. The EMI detection algorithm was applied to data acquired at a known underground storage tank site and the algorithms for both magnetometry and EMI were applied to data acquired at the Magnetic Range of the Naval EOD Tech Center in Indian Head, Maryland.

  20. Coastal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  1. Friedrich Paschen and the Mecklenburg ordnance survey 1853 to 1873. (German Title: Friedrich Paschen und die mecklenburgische Landesvermessung 1853 bis 1873 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard

    At the suggestion of the Prussian military geodesist Johann Jacob Baeyer, the government of Mecklenburg decided in 1853 to undertake an ordnance survey on a trigonometric basis. It appointed Friedrich Paschen (1804-1873) as the scientific and technical head of this survey. Paschen was a lawyer, but visited Gauss' lectures on mathematics, astronomy and geodesy during his student years in Göttingen. This paper gives an account of the astronomical-geodetic works. For the first time also parts of Paschen's correspondence with Gauss and other scientists is published.

  2. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, G.A.

    1985-05-07

    A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

  3. Asteroid mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  4. Mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.R.; Spence, A.M.

    1981-06-23

    In a system for the supply of fluid under pressure to machinery of an underground mine working, lengths of fixed conduit are secured to parts of the conveyor assembly, prior to the assembly of said parts at the underground mine working. When the conveyor assembly has been assembled, the length of fixed conduits are interconnected, either by straight lengths of flexible conduit, or by branched lengths of flexible conduit, where take off for fluid under pressure is required for the machinery, for example a roof support unit.

  5. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  6. Evaluation of the Contributing Area for Recovery Wells at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant is located on the southernmost tip of Anoka County, Minnesota, within the City of Fridley, and about one-quarter mile east of the Mississippi River. Industrial production at the plant began in 1941 and has continued since that time. Contamination spills and poor disposal practices in the past have led to significant ground-water contamination beneath the facility. A ground-water recovery (and containment) system began operation in 1992 to prevent contaminated ground-water from migrating off site. In an effort to determine the effectiveness of the recovery system, pressure transducers were installed in 23 monitoring wells, multiple hand water-level measurements were taken in an additional 56 wells, and two extensive rounds of water-level measurements were taken in all wells (one during pumping and one during non-pumping conditions). The cones of depression of the shallow flow zone wells AT-8 (17 gallons per minute (gal/min) and AT-9 (142 gal/min) overlap to form one broad cone, while the cone of depression of well AT-7 (42 gal/min) was more isolated. Shallow flow zone well AT-5A (156 gal/min) had a large, broad cone of depression which was the result of the relatively high pumping rate and the relatively high permeability of 200 feet per day (ft/d). Intermediate flow zone well AT-3A (182 gal/min) had a broad cone of depression that extended to the intermediate clays; well AT-10 (23 gal/min) had a relatively steep cone because it was screened in a relatively low-permeability zone. Deep flow zone well AT-5B (86 gal/min) had a broad cone of depression. Intermediate well AT-3A appears to be drawing water up vertically out of the deep flow zone. The combined contributing areas of recovery wells AT-7, AT-8, and AT-9 capture the high levels of trichloroethene (TCE) contamination (greater than 100 parts per billion (ppb) along their combined axis. Well AT-5A has a broad contributing area that reaches approximately halfway to the

  7. Development of an instrument for non-destructive identification of Unexploded Ordnance using tagged neutrons - a proof of concept study

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Dioszegi, I.

    2011-10-23

    Range clearance operations at munitions testing grounds must discriminate Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) from clutter items and distinguish UXO filled with High Explosives (HE) from those with inert fillers. Non-destructive technologies are thus necessary for the cost-effective disposal of UXO during remediation of such sites. The only technique showing promise so far for the non-destructive elemental characterization of UXO fillers utilizes neutron interactions with the material to detect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) which have unique ratios in HE. However, several unresolved issues hinder the wide application of this potentially very suitable technique. The most important one is that neutrons interact with all surrounding matter in addition to the interrogated material, leading to a very high gamma-ray background in the detector. Systems requiring bulky shielding and having poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for measuring elements are unsuitable for field deployment. The inadequacies of conventional neutron interrogation methods are overcome by using the tagged-neutron approach, and the availability of compact sealed neutron generators exploiting this technique offers field deployment of non-intrusive measurement systems for detecting threat materials, like explosives and drugs. By accelerating deuterium ions into a tritium target, the subsequent fusion reaction generates nearly back-to-back emissions of neutrons and alpha particles of energy 14.1 and 3.5 MeV respectively. A position-sensitive detector recognizes the associated alpha particle, thus furnishing the direction of the neutron. The tagged neutrons interact with the nuclei of the interrogated object, producing element-specific prompt gamma-rays that the gamma detectors recognize. Measuring the delay between the detections of the alpha particle and the gamma-ray determines where the reaction occurred along the axis of the neutron beam (14.1 MeV neutrons travel at 5 cm/nanosecond, while gamma rays

  8. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  9. Data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  10. Autonomous mine detection system (AMDS) neutralization payload module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerus, M.; Vanaman, R.; Wright, N.

    2010-04-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) program is developing a landmine and explosive hazards standoff detection, marking, and neutralization system for dismounted soldiers. The AMDS Capabilities Development Document (CDD) has identified the requirement to deploy three payload modules for small robotic platforms: mine detection and marking, explosives detection and marking, and neutralization. This paper addresses the neutralization payload module. There are a number of challenges that must be overcome for the neutralization payload module to be successfully integrated into AMDS. The neutralizer must meet stringent size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements to be compatible with a small robot. The neutralizer must be effective against a broad threat, to include metal and plastic-cased Anti-Personnel (AP) and Anti-Tank (AT) landmines, explosive devices, and Unexploded Explosive Ordnance (UXO.) It must adapt to a variety of threat concealments, overburdens, and emplacement methods, to include soil, gravel, asphalt, and concrete. A unique neutralization technology is being investigated for adaptation to the AMDS Neutralization Module. This paper will describe review this technology and how the other two payload modules influence its design for minimizing SWaP. Recent modeling and experimental efforts will be included.

  11. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  12. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  13. Mining review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  14. Sensor fusion performance gain for buried mine/UXO detection using GPR, EMI, and MAG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay A.; Ackenhusen, John G.; Wegrzyn, John W.; Mancuso, Joseph; Dwan, Chris M.

    2000-08-01

    In this presentation, we compare the gain in performance offered by combing the result of a ground-penetrating radar, an electromagnetic induction metal detector, and a magnetometer (MAG) against the performance offered by any one of these sensors alone on the problem of buried mine and unexploded ordnance detection. Using the community-wide DARPA background clutter data set, we characterize the single-channel performance of each of these detectors, describing the preprocessing and detection processing used for each. We then combine the sensor results, using a variety of binary decision-level Boolean methods. A performance gain was observed as a two-to-threefold reduction in the false alarm rate, operating at an 80 percent probability of detection, for 'majority voting', which was the best of the combining methods.

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 7): Weldon Spring Former Army Ordnance Works, Operable Unit 1: Soils and Pipeline, St. Charles County, MO, September 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action of Operable Unit 1 at the Former Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), in the Weldon Spring, Missouri. The selected remedy for Operable Unit 1 incorporates both treatment and containment technologies for remediation of soil and pipeline media at the site. The remedy includes incineration of nitroaromatics-contaminated soils and wooden pipeline, stabilization and on-site landfill of lead-contaminated soils, and on-site landfill of construction debris separated from the contaminated soils. These proven technologies will substantially reduce risks associated with the contaminated materials that represent the principal threat at the site, and provide for permanent destruction of the nitroaromatics contamination. The selected remedy also eliminates a source of nitroaromatics to the groundwater.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): West Virginia Ordnance Works, Mason County, West Virginia, (second remedial action), September 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The West Virginia Ordnance (WVO) site covers approximately 8,323 acres in Mason County, West Virginia. It is located on the east bank of the Ohio River. General Chemical Defense Corporation of New York operated the plant until 1945. Red and yellow water (liquid wastes) were produced during the TNT manufacturing process. Yellow water was discharged to the Mill Creek drainage system, which eventually drains into the Ohio River; red water was discharged directly to the Ohio River through a pipe located about one foot offshore. In May 1981, ranger officials observed a seep of red water adjacent to a pond located on the wildlife station. Upon examination, ground water discharging to this pond was found to be contaminated by di- and trinitrotoluenes and phenol. The selected remedial action for this site addresses three distinct areas of contamination.

  17. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  18. Mine detection performance in different soil conditions using data from an ultrawideband wide-area surveillance radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam H.; Kappra, Karl A.; Wong, David C.; Ressler, Marc A.; Sichina, Jeffrey

    1999-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of customer and mission-funded applied research programs, has been evaluating the use of low-frequency, ultra-wideband imaging radar to detect fields of buried mines. An instrumentation- grade measurement system has been designed and implemented by ARL. Four data collection campaigns in support of ground- penetrating radar objectives have led to the establishment of a significant and unique database of radar imagery. We are using these data to develop mine-detection algorithms that can aid an operator in separating mines from background clutter. This paper reviews recent findings and result from ARL's modeling, phenomenology, and algorithm development efforts. At SPIE '98, we reported on the performance of a physics-based mine-detection algorithm using data collected at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in January 1996. Subsequent measurements were made using the ARL BoomSAR at YPG in October 1997, January 1998, and June 1998. Most of the mines from the January 1996 experiment were still in place during the 1997/1998 experiments. Additional mines and unexploded ordnance were added to the YPG test after the January 1996 experiment. This paper discusses the difference in soil conditions from these data collections and the impact that may have on a mine's radar cross section (RCS) and detection performance. Detection results for M20 mines under different soil conditions will be shown. The detection algorithm invokes phenomenologically sound feature that exploit the expected mine RCS, texture, frequency dependent scattering, and model-based image correlation. Performance assessments, in terms of receiver operating characteristics, detail the detection capabilities at various false alarm rates. Finally, new imagery will be presented that shows the positive contrast of low metal content above dielectric background.

  19. Vehicle-mounted ground penetrating radar (Mine Stalker III) field evaluation in Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudato, Stephen; Hart, Kerry; Nevard, Michael; Lauziere, Steven; Grant, Shaun

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technology (NIITEK), Inc. and The HALO Trust have over the last decade funded, developed and tested various prototype vehicle mounted ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems named the Mine Stalker. The HD R&D Program and NIITEK developed the Mine Stalker to detect low metal anti-tank (LM-AT) mines in roads. The country of Angola is severely affected by LM-AT mines in and off road, some of which are buried beyond the effective range of detection sensors current used in country. The threat from LM-AT mines such as the South African Number 8 (No. 8) and the Chinese Type 72 (72AT) still persist from Angola's 30 years of civil war. These LM-AT threats are undetectable at depths greater than 5 to 10 centimeters using metal detection technology. Clearing commerce routes are a critical requirement before Angola can rebuild its infrastructure and improve safety conditions for the local populace. The Halo Trust, a non-governmental demining organization (NGO) focused on demining and clearance of unexploded ordnance (UXO), has partnered with the HD R&D Program to conduct an operational field evaluation (OFE) of the Mine Stalker III (MS3) in Angola. Preliminary testing and training efforts yielded encouraging results. This paper presents a review of the data collected, testing results, system limitations and deficiencies while operating in a real world environment. Our goal is to demonstrate and validate this technology in live minefield environments, and to collect data to prompt future developments to the system.

  20. Comparison of the terminal ballistics of full metal jacket 7.62-mm M80 (NATO) and 5.56-mm M193 military bullets: a study in ordnance gelatin.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, B D; Sohn, S S

    1988-05-01

    Great controversy has surrounded the replacement of the 7.62-mm caliber by the reduced 5.56-mm caliber as the standard U.S. military rifle. Although its relevance to human wounding can be debated, the terminal ballistics of military small arms in ordnance gelatin remains a convenient medium for comparative testing. In the present study, 7- by 10- by 24-in. (18 by 25 by 61 cm) blocks of 20% ordnance gelatin were fired upon from a range of 19 ft (6 m) under high-speed cinemagraphic surveillance. The tendency of the M193 5.56-mm full metal jacket projectile to break up in soft tissue simulant was confirmed as a fundamental difference from the 7.62-mm M80 NATO ball. PMID:3385379

  1. Chemical sensing system for classification of mine-like objects by explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.B.; Rodacy, P.J.; Jones, E.E.; Gomez, B.J.; Woodfin, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. The authors focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. They present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines which demonstrate their ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  2. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  3. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  4. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  5. Mining lease handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Mining leases and similar agreements are some of the most common documents encountered by mining attorneys. The mining Lease Handbook contains a collection of mining lease clauses which have been organized and assembled for over 25 years. The clauses in this book have been coordinated and cross-referenced to enable the Handbook user to create a mining lease having a logical structure with consistent terminology throughout. In many cases, alternative clauses are included. The accompanying commentary provides insight into the use of the various clauses while pointing our pitfalls to be avoided. This Handbook is devoted primarily to mining leases, several chapters cover the subjects of options, subleases, and ancillary documents.

  6. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  7. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  8. The application of induced polarization techniques to detect metal-bearing offshore anthropogenic waste and unexploded ordnance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Roberts, William

    2009-01-01

    Raw sewage and industrial waste have been dumped into sensitive estuaries, bays, and sounds for centuries. The full extents of the resulting sludge deposits are largely unknown, because they move in response to tidal and long‐shore currents, and because they are often buried by younger inert sediments. USGS field and laboratory measurements of toxic mine waste and organic effluent samples suggest that anthropogenic wastes typically contain finely‐divided metal and metal‐sulfide particles. The anoxic environment provided by anthropogenic wastes promotes the growth of anaerobic bacteria, creating a self‐reducing environment. We suggest that the finely‐divided metal and metal‐sulfide particles are the products of bacterial reduction and precipitation. The fine‐grained metallic precipitates are ideal targets for a surface‐effect electrochemical detection methodology called Induced Polarization (IP). A USGS‐patented (1998/2001) marine IP streamer technology has recently been commercialized and used to map “black smoker” sulfide deposits and their disseminated halos in the Bismarck Sea (2005), and titanium‐sand deposits offshore of South Africa (2007). The marine induced polarization system can do this mapping in three dimensions, more rapidly (it is towed at 3 knots), and with far higher resolution that land‐based measurements or vibracoring. Laboratory‐scale studies at the USGS suggest that anthropogenic wastes may display a specific multi‐frequency IP spectral signature that may be applicable to waste‐deposit mapping.

  9. Field testing of passive diffusion bag samplers for volatile organic compound concentrations in ground water, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota, November 1999 and May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile organic compound concentrations from passive diffusion bag samplers were compared with concentrations from conventional purge (three or more casing volumes) sampling and low-flow purge sampling in side-by-side tests in 17 wells at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. An initial comparison of 1,2-dichloroethene and trichloroethene concentrations obtained by using passive diffusion bag samplers and the conventional purge method in wells where one passive diffusion bag sampler was deployed showed good agreement at several wells but poor agreement at others. Collection of data from multiple diffusion samplers during the conventional purge sampling and during the low-flow sampling, however, suggests that the volatile organic compound concentrations from the passive diffusion bag samplers accurately reflect the volatile organic compound distribution in the screened interval, whereas the conventional purge and low-flow purge samples reflect mixing during pumping. The data also show that contaminant stratification was present in some wells. In one well, trichloroethene concentrations ranged from 470 to 1,600 micrograms per liter over a vertical distance of approximately 6 feet.

  10. Metabolic energy costs of USAF Explosive Ordnance Disposal render-safe procedures: Field determinations. Interim report, 1 Jun-1 Dec 87

    SciTech Connect

    Kroch, L.P.

    1991-05-01

    The primary mission of the USAF Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technicians is to render safe munition--conventional chemical, biological or nuclears--that pose a safety hazard during peacetime as well as wartime. The physical work is quite varied; a specific task may require only a few minutes with minimal physical effort, or may require many hours and be very physically demanding. This study measured the metabolic requirements of two EOD teams performing separate typical render safe procedures (RSO) on a chemical bomb. Data show the average work rate was between 0.68 and 0.80 liters of 02 per min for both RSP operations. This work requirement is considered moderate-to-hard, however, the EOD technician should be capable of performing this type of work on an extended daily basis without accumulating fatigue, provided there are no other external stresses. The extended duration and acute dexterity, both mental and physical, required for successful completion of an RSP operation add a unique and intangible level of difficulty to the metabolic requirements. The data from the present study represents an estimation of the energy required to perform a typical chemical operation RSP and should be useful in making management decisions regarding work tolerance for EOD technicians.

  11. Laboratory assessment of advanced oxidation processes for treatment of explosives and chlorinated solvents in groundwater from the former Nebraska ordnance plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Zappi, M.E.; Toro, E.; Hernandez, R.; Myers, K.

    1997-06-01

    Chemical oxidation processes that result in the generation of the hydroxyl radical (OH) have been referred to as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) by the American Water Works Association. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station under the direction of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Kansas City, and in conjunction with Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Overland Park, KS, evaluated the comparative performance of four AOPs for removing trichloroethylene, RDX, HMX, trinitrotoluene, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene from a representative sample of groundwater from the Nebraska Ordnance Plant using bench-scale reactors. During 1990, this site was placed on the National Priorities List. Candidate AOPs that were evaluated were irradiation of hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet (UV) light emitted from low-pressure mercury vapor UV lamps (LPUV-HP), irradiation with UV light emitted from a low-pressure mercury vapor UV lamp with ozone sparging (LPUV-OZ), irradiation of hydrogen peroxide with Uv light emitted from a medium-pressure mercury vapor UV lamp (MPUV-HP), and peroxone (ozone sparging with hydrogen peroxide dosing). The groundwater influent sample used in this study was a three-way composite (equal parts) of groundwater collected from three site observation wells (Wells MW-11A, MW-40B, and MW-47B). The experiments were performed using a 1-l borosilicate reactor configured to sparge ozone into the test solution.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): West Virginia Ordnance Works, Mason County, West Virginia, March 1987. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-22

    The West Virginia Ordnance Works (WVOW) site covers approximately 8,323 acres in Mason County, West Virginia. In 1942, WVOW was established as a government-owned, contractor-operated plant for the manufacture of trinitrotoluene explosives (TNT). Approximately one-third of the area is currently occupied by the McClintic Wildlife Station which is operated by the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources (DNR). Smaller portions of the nonindustrial areas of the site were declared excess and sold. They are now owned by Mason County or by private owners. TNT was produced from 1942-1945 by a batch process involving the nitration of toluene by the addition of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Production during World War II resulted in soil contamination of the industrial area, process facilities, and industrial waste water disposal facilities by TNT, associated by products, and environmental transformation products. At the close of operations in 1945, WVOW was decontaminated by the Department of Defense and placed on standby status. Later that year, the plant was declared surplus and the facilities salvaged or disposed of.

  13. Mine waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation.

  14. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  15. Data Mining for CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  16. Data Mining Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Paolo

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the role of statistical models and, more generally, of statistics, in choosing a Data Mining model. After a preliminary introduction on the distinction between Data Mining and statistics, we will focus on the issue of how to choose a Data Mining methodology. This well illustrates how statistical thinking can bring real added value to a Data Mining analysis, as otherwise it becomes rather difficult to make a reasoned choice. In the third part of the paper we will present, by means of a case study in credit risk management, how Data Mining and statistics can profitably interact.

  17. Mined area detection overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  18. Data mining in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  19. Data mining in radiology.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  20. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  1. Diffusion and drive-point sampling to detect ordnance-related compounds in shallow ground water beneath Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion samplers and temporary drive points were used to test for ordnance-related compounds in ground water discharging to Snake Pond near Camp Edwards at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA. The contamination resulted from artillery use and weapons testing at various ranges upgradient of the pond.The diffusion samplers were constructed with a high-grade cellulose membrane that allowed diffusion of explosive compounds, such as RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), into deionized water inside the samplers. Laboratory tests confirmed that the cellulose membrane was permeable to RDX and HMX. One transect of 22 diffusion samplers was installed and retrieved in August-September 2001, and 12 transects with a total of 108 samplers were installed and retrieved in September-October 2001. The diffusion samplers were buried about 0.5 feet into the pond-bottom sediments by scuba divers and allowed to equilibrate with the ground water beneath the pond bottom for 13 to 27 days before retrieval. Water samples were collected from temporary well points driven about 2-4 feet into the pond bottom at 21 sites in December 2001 and March 2002 for analysis of explosives and perchlorate to confirm the diffusion-sampling results. The water samples from the diffusion samplers exhibited numerous chromatographic peaks, but evaluation of the photo-diode-array spectra indicated that most of the peaks did not represent the target compounds. The peaks probably are associated with natural organic compounds present in the soft, organically enriched pond-bottom sediments. The presence of four explosive compounds at five widely spaced sites was confirmed by the photo-diode-array analysis, but the compounds are not generally found in contaminated ground water near the ranges. No explosives were detected in water samples obtained from the drive points. Perchlorate was detected at less than 1 microgram per liter in

  2. Discrimination between landmine and mine-like targets using wavelets and spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohana, Mahmoud A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; Gomaa, Mohamed L.; Ebrahim, Shereen M.

    2013-06-01

    Landmine is an explosive apparatus hidden in or on the ground, which blows up when a person or vehicle passes over it. Egypt is one of the countries suffering due to the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Around 2 million UXO are present in the Egyptian soil especially at Al-Alameen province, north of the western desert. Detection of buried landmines is a problem of military and humanitarian importance. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful and non-destructive geophysical approach with a wide range of advantages in the field of landmine inspection. In the present paper, we apply different simulation models with Vivaldi antenna and mine-like targets by using the CST Microwave studio program. The field work is carried out by using a GPR device of model SIR 2000 from GSSI (Geophysical Survey Systems Incorporation) connected to 900 MHz antenna where the targets were buried in sand soil. Depending on the fact that the receiving powers (reflected, refracted and scattered) from the different materials are different, we study the spectral power densities for the received power from the different targets. The techniques used in this study are: direct fast Fourier transform, short time Fourier transform (spectrogram), wavelets transform and denoising techniques. Our results ought to be considered as finger prints for different scanned targets during this work. So we can discriminate between landmines and mine-like targets.

  3. Collaborative Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  4. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  5. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  6. Mining agreements III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

  7. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  8. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  9. Mining Glossary and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  10. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  11. PRB mines mature

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-08-15

    Already seeing the results of reclamation efforts, America's largest surface mines advance as engineers prepare for the future. 30 years after the signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act by Jimmy Carter, western strip mines in the USA, especially in the Powder River Basin, are producing more coal than ever. The article describes the construction and installation of a $38.5 million near-pit crusher and overland belt conveyor system at Foundation Coal West's (FCW) Belle Ayr surface mine in Wyoming, one of the earliest PRB mines. It goes on to describe the development by Rio Tinto of an elk conservatory, the Rochelle Hill Conservation Easement, on reclaimed land at Jacobs Ranch, adjacent to the Rochelle Hills. 4 photos.

  12. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  13. Distribution and Migration of Ordnance-Related Compounds and Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable Isotopes in Ground Water near Snake Pond, Sandwich, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Massey, Andrew J.; Cochrane, Jessica J.; King, Jonathan H.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive compounds, such as RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), and the propellant compound perchlorate are present in ground water near Snake Pond, a ground-water flow-through glacial kettle pond in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer on western Cape Cod near Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The contaminants originate from the J-3 Range ordnance training and testing area. Ground-water samples were collected at 10 sites near the pond to determine the paths of the contaminants as they underflow or completely or partially discharge into the pond. Water-quality profiles were developed for sites on opposite ends of a 200-foot-long intermittent island near the northern, upgradient end of the pond by collecting water samples from two temporary drive-point borings. RDX was detected at both locations between 60 and 90 feet below the pond level. The highest RDX concentration was 0.99 micrograms per liter. Perchlorate was detected at only one location on the island, between 95 and 100 feet below the pond level at a concentration of 0.61 micrograms per liter. Profiles of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes were developed for seven sites spaced 300 to 600 feet apart along the southern, downgradient shore of the pond. A transition from heavier to lighter oxygen and hydrogen isotopes was observed at an altitude of about -50 feet. This transition most likely is the boundary between evaporation-affected pond water that is seeping into the aquifer and ground water that has passed beneath the pond. RDX was not detected in the ground-water samples collected south of the pond. Perchlorate was detected only in one sample from a shallow depth in one boring. The results of these analyses indicate that the J-3 Range plume contains low concentrations of RDX and perchlorate (less than 1 microgram per liter) as it passes beneath the northern end of Snake Pond. Results of ground-water-flow modeling

  14. 1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  15. 1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  17. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  18. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  19. Strata mechanics in coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book considers the following topics: coal measure; coal seam feature; roof and floor strata; virgin strata pressure; deformation and failure of structure; room and pillar mining; longwall mining; slice mining; open slope mining; sub-level caving; and coal pillar structure.

  20. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  1. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  2. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  3. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013 Part V Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  4. Coal mine subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

  5. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  6. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Data Stream Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Zaslavsky, Arkady; Krishnaswamy, Shonali

    Data mining is concerned with the process of computationally extracting hidden knowledge structures represented in models and patterns from large data repositories. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that has its roots in databases, statistics, machine learning, and data visualization. Data mining has emerged as a direct outcome of the data explosion that resulted from the success in database and data warehousing technologies over the past two decades (Fayyad, 1997,Fayyad, 1998,Kantardzic, 2003).

  8. Mining Specifications: A Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Andreas

    Recent advances in software validation and verification make it possible to widely automate whether a specification is satisfied. This progress is hampered, though, by the persistent difficulty of writing specifications. Are we facing a “specification crisis”? In this paper, I show how to alleviate the burden of writing specifications by reusing and extending specifications as mined from existing software and give an overview on the state of the art in specification mining, its origins, and its potential.

  9. Morenci Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization.

    The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. "easyMine" - realistic and systematic mine detection simulation tooltion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, U.; Beier, K.; Biering, B.; Müller, C.; Peichl, M.; Spyra, W.

    2004-05-01

    Mine detection is to date mainly performed with metal detectors, although new methods for UXO detection are explored worldwide. The main problem for the mine detection to date is, that there exist some ideas of which sensor combinations could yield a high score, but until now there is no systematic analysis of mine detection methods together with realistic environmental conditions to conclude on a physically and technically optimized sensor combination. This gap will be removed by a project "easyMine" (Realistic and systematic Mine Detection Simulation Tool) which will result in a simulation tool for optimizing land mine detection in a realistic mine field. The project idea for this software tool is presented, that will simulate the closed chain of mine detection, including the mine in its natural environment, the sensor, the evaluation and application of the measurements by an user. The tool will be modularly designed. Each chain link will be an independent, exchangeable sub- module and will describe a stand alone part of the whole mine detection procedure. The advantage of the tool will be the evaluation of very different kinds of sensor combinations in relation of their real potential for mine detection. Three detection methods (metal detector, GPR and imaging IR-radiometry) will be explained to be introduced into the easyMine software tool in a first step. An actual example for land mine detection problem will be presented and approaches for solutions with easyMine will be shown.

  11. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  12. CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hiett, J.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

  13. XML algebras for data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yao, JingTao

    2004-04-01

    The XML is a new standard for data representation and exchange on the Internet. There are studies on XML query languages as well as XML algebras in literature. However, attention has not been paid to research on XML algebras for data mining due to partially the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of XML mining tasks. This paper tries to examine the XML mining tasks and provide guidelines to design XML algebras for data mining. Some summarization and comparison have been done to existing XML algebras. We argue that by adding additional operators for mining tasks, XML algebras may work well for data mining with XML documents.

  14. Conveyorized applications to surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, A.N.

    1983-06-01

    Worldwide, there are numerous conveyorized surface mines successfully operating today. Each surface mine is unique and requires a custom made system which ideally begins as part of the mine development plan. When properly applied, conveyorized systems can offer major cost savings in both capital costs and operating and maintenance costs. With modern technology, both required availability and flexibility have been satisfied on the many currently operating mines. Conveyorized systems offer a valuable ''tool'' which when combined with the other proven mining technology results in the most efficient surface mine operations which spells lower costs and higher profits.

  15. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  16. Deep mine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Conan, J.

    1984-11-06

    A deep mine cooling system comprising a compressor supplied with air and rotatively driven by a motor and an expansion turbine supplied with compressed air from said compressor and driving an actuating unit, wherein the compressed air, after leaving the compressor but prior to reaching the expansion turbine, passes through a steam generator whose output provides the energy required to operate an absorption refrigeration machine used to cool utility water for mining, said compressed air on leaving the steam generator going to a first heat exchanger in which it yields calories to a water circuit comprising a second heat exchanger, said second heat exchanger giving off the calories absorbed by the water in the first heat exchanger to the air fed by the second heat exchanger to a drying cell that is regenerated by said air from the second heat exchanger, said drying cell being part of a set of two cells working in alternation, the other cell in the set receiving the compressed air from the first heat exchanger, such that the compressed air is fed to said expansion turbine after leaving said drying unit, and wherein the air exhausted from said expansion turbine is sent to a third heat exchanger after which it is distributed according to the needs of the mine, said third exchanger being traversed by the water collected in the mine, cooled in said exchanger and circulated upon leaving said exchanger to meet the cool water requirements of the mine.

  17. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  18. Mining the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Substances extracted from the earth - stone, iron, bronze - have been so critical to human development that historians name the ages of our past after them. But while scholars have carefully tracked human use of minerals, they have never accounted for the vast environmental damage incurred in mineral production. Few people would guess that a copper mining operation has removed a piece of Utah seven times the weight of all the material dug for the Panama Canal. Few would dream that mines and smelters take up to a tenth of all the energy used each year, or that the waste left by mining measures in the billions of tons - dwarfing the world's total accumulation of more familiar kinds of waste, such as municipal garbage. Indeed, more material is now stripped from the earth by mining than by all the natural erosion of the earth's rivers. The effects of mining operations on the environment are discussed under the following topics: minerals in the global economy, laying waste, at what cost cleaning up, and dipping out. It is concluded that in the long run, the most effective strategy for minimizing new damage is not merely to make mineral extraction cleaner, but to reduce the rich nations needs for virgin (non-recycled) minerals.

  19. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  20. Mine drainage and surface-mine reclamation. Volume 2. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands, and policy issues. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. The publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts.

  1. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  2. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A mechanized technique to seal abandoned mines has been used successfully to close 13 openings at Duquesne Light Co.'s mined-out Warwick No. 2 mine, near Greensboro, Pa. The mechanized system, which uses a pneumatic stower and crushed limestone, closed the entries more economically and in less time than it would have taken to install traditional concrete block stopping and clay plug seals, according to John C. Draper. Draper, a mining engineer with Duquesne Light's coal department, was in charge of installing the Warwick seals in a Bureau of Mines-sponsored field test on the pneumatic sealing technique. The lowest estimated cost for installing conventional stopping and plug closures for the 13 Warwick openings was $225,000, says Draper, while the openings were closed using the mechanized system for $245,000. Draper says the newer stopping cost more in the instance because work was stopped often to gather information for the experiment. The experimental closures were installed in 38 days. The job would have taken at least 149 days if traditional closures were being installed, Draper say. To install a traditional concrete block/clay plug closure, the mine opening must be cleaned thoroughly and the roof must be supported for some 3 ft from the outside. Then a solid wall or stopping must be built 25 ft from the surface and the entry must be packed with clay to the surface. Much of this job requires workers to remain underground. In pneumatic stowing, 1 1/2-in. crushed limestone with fines is conveyed through a pipeline and into the mine opening under low air pressure. Watertight seals can be installed by blowing about 10 ft of rock into the opening against the top to act as roof support. Safety posts are installed and about 10 or 15 ft of mine entry is cleaned. About 2 in. of raw cement or bentonite is placed on the floor and limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  8. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  11. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  14. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  15. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  17. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  18. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-04-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

  19. REMOTE SENSING AND MOUNTAINTOP MINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal mining is Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. Modem mining practices know as Mountaintop Mining (MTM) and Valley Fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations....

  20. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  1. Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Nevers, Noel

    1982-01-01

    An oilwell drilling rig accidentally drilled into an underground salt mine, draining a lake and filling the mine, with water jetting out of the mine 400 feet into the air. An explanation of the jetting phenomenon is offered in terms of the laws of fluid dynamics, with supporting diagrams and calculations. (Author/JN)

  2. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  3. Plutonium mining for cleanup.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, E T

    1988-08-01

    Cleanup is the act of making a contaminated site relatively free of Pu so it may be used without radiological safety restrictions. Contaminated ground is the focus of major cleanups. Cleanup traditionally involves determining Pu content of soil, digging up soil in which radioactivity exceeds guidelines, and relocating excised soil to a waste-disposal site. Alternative technologies have been tested at Johnston Atoll (JA), where there is as much as 100,000 m3 of Pu-contaminated soil. A mining pilot plant operated for the first 6 mo of 1986 and made 98% of soil tested "clean", from more than 40 kBq kg-1 (1000 pCi g-1) to less than about 500 Bq kg-1 (15 pCi g-1) by concentrating Pu in 2% of the soil. The pilot plant is now installed at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site for evaluating cleanup of other contaminated soils and refining cleanup effectiveness. A full-scale cleanup plant has been programmed for JA in 1988. In this paper, previous cleanups are reviewed, and the mining endeavor at JA is detailed. "True soil cleanup" is contrasted with the classical "soil relocation cleanup." The mining technology used for Pu cleanup has been in use for more than a century. Mining for cleanup, however, is unique. It is envisioned as being prominent for radiological and other cleanups in the future. PMID:3410718

  4. Mineral mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, H.

    1980-11-25

    A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

  5. Mining Your Own Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Conducting asteroid photometry frequently requires imaging one area of the sky for many hours. Apart from the asteroid being studied, there may be many other objects of interest buried in the data. The value of mining your own asteroid data is discussed, using examples from observations made by the author, primarily at the Preston Gott Observatory at Texas Tech University.

  6. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  7. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word “data-mining” is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  8. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  9. Multisource causal data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Shallenberger, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Analysts are faced with mountains of data, and finding that relevant piece of information is the proverbial needle in a haystack, only with dozens of haystacks. Analysis tools that facilitate identifying causal relationships across multiple data sets are sorely needed. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSi) has initiated research called Causal-View, a causal datamining visualization tool, to address this challenge. Causal-View is built on an agent-enabled framework. Much of the processing that Causal-View will do is in the background. When a user requests information, Data Extraction Agents launch to gather information. This initial search is a raw, Monte Carlo type search designed to gather everything available that may have relevance to an individual, location, associations, and more. This data is then processed by Data- Mining Agents. The Data-Mining Agents are driven by user supplied feature parameters. If the analyst is looking to see if the individual frequents a known haven for insurgents he may request information on his last known locations. Or, if the analyst is trying to see if there is a pattern in the individual's contacts, the mining agent can be instructed with the type and relevance of the information fields to look at. The same data is extracted from the database, but the Data Mining Agents customize the feature set to determine causal relationships the user is interested in. At this point, a Hypothesis Generation and Data Reasoning Agents take over to form conditional hypotheses about the data and pare the data, respectively. The newly formed information is then published to the agent communication backbone of Causal- View to be displayed. Causal-View provides causal analysis tools to fill the gaps in the causal chain. We present here the Causal-View concept, the initial research into data mining tools that assist in forming the causal relationships, and our initial findings.

  10. Coal mining methods in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Continuous miner methods dominate underground while dragline stripping is today's and tomorrow's favored method on surface. Poor roof conditions in Australian underground mines and the need to operate more efficient surface mines in view of rising fuel costs are key factors in determining the mining methods for the country's premier cash commodity - coal. These and other new developments in underground and surface mining in Australia were discussed in detail at the Australian Coal Association's 1980 coal conference which was held last April in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. Two papers presented at the conference form the basis of this article; H.L. Pearce, general superintendent of the Steel Division Collieries of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, described underground mining and K.J. Foots, manager of the Utah Development Company's Blackwater mine, talked about surface mining.

  11. Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, H.L.; Mutmansky, J.M.; Ramani, R.V.; Wang, Y.J.

    1998-12-31

    This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and behavior of air; Mine air-quality control; Mine gases; Dusts and other mine aerosols; Mine ventilation; Airflow through mine openings and ducts; Mine ventilation circuits and networks; Natural ventilation; Fan application to mines; Auxiliary ventilation and controlled recirculation; Economics of airflow; Control of mine fires and explosions; Mine air conditioning; Heat sources and effect in mines; Mine air conditioning systems; Appendices; References; Answers to selected problems; and Index.

  12. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  13. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Mining with microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings., D.E.; Silver, S.

    1995-08-01

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as {open_quotes}absorbants{close_quotes} of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Principles of data mining.

    PubMed

    Hand, David J

    2007-01-01

    Data mining is the discovery of interesting, unexpected or valuable structures in large datasets. As such, it has two rather different aspects. One of these concerns large-scale, 'global' structures, and the aim is to model the shapes, or features of the shapes, of distributions. The other concerns small-scale, 'local' structures, and the aim is to detect these anomalies and decide if they are real or chance occurrences. In the context of signal detection in the pharmaceutical sector, most interest lies in the second of the above two aspects; however, signal detection occurs relative to an assumed background model, therefore, some discussion of the first aspect is also necessary. This paper gives a lightning overview of data mining and its relation to statistics, with particular emphasis on tools for the detection of adverse drug reactions. PMID:17604416

  16. Trends in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This article presents some of the recent equipments developments in underground mining. Recent improvements in the transmission and braking systems of electric load-haul-dumpers are increasing cycle times and lowering maintenance costs. Torque produced by electric motors increases in response to load. This results in very high stall torque and fast cycling machines. Some of the other features becoming available include: improved switch-gear and adjustable solid-state overload relays, the new motor across the line starter device has vacuum contactors, power factor correction capacitors, a DC operating coil to eliminate contact chatter at low voltage, remote radio control of LHDs in mine areas, water-cooled and air cooled engines and hydraulic braking systems. The advantages of hydraulic drifters and roof bolters are presented.

  17. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

  18. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  19. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

  20. Longwall mining in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, P.J.; Curth, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of shields has been a major factor contributing to adequate roof control in Illinois. Short spans of exposed roof, quickly applied support, stability of structure, and full shelter for face crews are some of the significant advantages that led to the adoption of shields. The successful application of shields that were designed to sustain high yield loads resulting in a mean load density of 862.2 KN/m/sup 2/ (9 tons/ft/sup 2/) has encouraged the growth of longwall mining in the Illinois coal basin from one face to six in less than 4 years. Double-drum shearers of 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ kg/m (400 hp), using 995-volt power, with chainless haulage and high capacity face conveyors and stage loaders are standard face equipment. New coal mines are being developed for longwall mining with panel blocks as large as limiting factors allow. They are projected to have two active longwall faces and as many continuous miner units as are required for development and extraction.

  1. Data Mining and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining project seeks to bring the capability of data visualization to NASA anomaly and problem reporting systems for the purpose of improving data trending, evaluations, and analyses. Currently NASA systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of its organizations. This tailoring has led to a variety of nomenclatures and levels of annotation for procedures, parts, and anomalies making difficult the realization of the common causes for anomalies. Making significant observations and realizing the connection between these causes without a common way to view large data sets is difficult to impossible. In the first phase of the Data Mining project a portal was created to present a common visualization of normalized sensitive data to customers with the appropriate security access. The tool of the visualization itself was also developed and fine-tuned. In the second phase of the project we took on the difficult task of searching and analyzing the target data set for common causes between anomalies. In the final part of the second phase we have learned more about how much of the analysis work will be the job of the Data Mining team, how to perform that work, and how that work may be used by different customers in different ways. In this paper I detail how our perspective has changed after gaining more insight into how the customers wish to interact with the output and how that has changed the product.

  2. Organizational Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, Hamid R.; Barko, Christopher D.

    Many organizations today possess substantial quantities of business information but have very little real business knowledge. A recent survey of 450 business executives reported that managerial intuition and instinct are more prevalent than hard facts in driving organizational decisions. To reverse this trend, businesses of all sizes would be well advised to adopt Organizational Data Mining (ODM). ODM is defined as leveraging Data Mining tools and technologies to enhance the decision-making process by transforming data into valuable and actionable knowledge to gain a competitive advantage. ODM has helped many organizations optimize internal resource allocations while better understanding and responding to the needs of their customers. The fundamental aspects of ODM can be categorized into Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Technology (IT), and Organizational Theory (OT), with OT being the key distinction between ODM and Data Mining. In this chapter, we introduce ODM, explain its unique characteristics, and report on the current status of ODM research. Next we illustrate how several leading organizations have adopted ODM and are benefiting from it. Then we examine the evolution of ODM to the present day and conclude our chapter by contemplating ODM's challenging yet opportunistic future.

  3. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  4. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... used to maintain the projected direction of mining in entries, rooms, crosscuts and pillar splits....

  5. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... used to maintain the projected direction of mining in entries, rooms, crosscuts and pillar splits....

  6. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... used to maintain the projected direction of mining in entries, rooms, crosscuts and pillar splits....

  7. Analysis on Underground Coal Mining Subsidence Using Small Baseline InSAR in Yunjialing Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dapeng; Yang, Jin; Zeng, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    66.6 percent of China's energy production come from underground coal mining (fig. 1.) Hundreds of mining cities were affected by mining subsidence. Long-term underground mining activities ,which results in large areas of mined areas, are threatening the local ecological environment and people property.Coal mining development has become a major factor of restricting local economic and threatening the safety of future mine production. The research on mining subsidence takes a important practical significance.

  8. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  9. Lunar site characterization and mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

  10. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  11. New Equipment for Mine Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    While planning for the space shuttle, Bendix Corporation with the help of Johnson Space Center expanded the anthropometric data base for aerospace and nonaerospace use in clothing, workplace, etc. The result was the Anthropometric Source Book which was later utilized by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in designing advanced mining systems. The book was particularly valuable in the design of a remote cab used in mining.

  12. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine...

  14. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  15. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  16. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. (a) If an underground...

  19. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.4 Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. (a) If an...

  20. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  1. Data Mining for Financial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Vityaev, Evgenii

    This chapter describes Data Mining in finance by discussing financial tasks, specifics of methodologies and techniques in this Data Mining area. It includes time dependence, data selection, forecast horizon, measures of success, quality of patterns, hypothesis evaluation, problem ID, method profile, attribute-based and relational methodologies. The second part of the chapter discusses Data Mining models and practice in finance. It covers use of neural networks in portfolio management, design of interpretable trading rules and discovering money laundering schemes using decision rules and relational Data Mining methodology.

  2. Data mining applications in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hian Chye; Tan, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Data mining has been used intensively and extensively by many organizations. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular, if not increasingly essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. For example, data mining can help healthcare insurers detect fraud and abuse, healthcare organizations make customer relationship management decisions, physicians identify effective treatments and best practices, and patients receive better and more affordable healthcare services. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform these mounds of data into useful information for decision making. This article explores data mining applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses data mining and its applications within healthcare in major areas such as the evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare, customer relationship management, and the detection of fraud and abuse. It also gives an illustrative example of a healthcare data mining application involving the identification of risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes. Finally, the article highlights the limitations of data mining and discusses some future directions. PMID:15869215

  3. Mining's impact on groundwater assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detailed studies have indicated that groundwater is contaminated in the immediate vicinity of many mines in the eastern United States. However, no underground mines and very few refuse disposal areas have monitoring systems that can provide adequate warning of impending threats to groundwater quality.This was one of the conclusions of a 3-year study by Geraghty & Miller, Inc., a firm of consulting groundwater geologists and hydrologists based in Syosset, New York. The study focused on mines east of the 100th meridian. These mines will produce an estimated 1.1 billion tons of coal and 200 million tons of waste by 1985.

  4. A Wind-Tunnel Investigation to Determine the Effect of Various Head Designs on the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch of the Army Ordnance Corps T205 3.5-Inch Heat Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, William D., Jr.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1952-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics in pitch of the Army Ordnance Corps T205 3.5-inch HEAT rocket with various head designs and one fin modification have been determined at velocities of 500, 700 and 900 feet per second in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The results presented are those of the full-scale model. Comparison of results obtained at 500 feet per second shows, in general, that for changes on the forward portion of the head the missile configurations having the greatest stability - most rearward center-of-loads location - were those having the highest drag. However, very limited comparisons indicate that the shape of the rear position of the head may be an important factor in reducing the drag and increasing the restoring moments. Generally, large increases in drag were noted for the various head designs with an increase in Mach number from 0.62 to 0.82. Pitching-moment-curve slopes increased with Mach number on all models except those having reasonably well-faired forward sections. These models showed a decrease in stability with increases in Mach number.

  5. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  6. Web data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibonele, Kasanda J.; Zhang, Yanqing

    2002-03-01

    A web data mining system using granular computing and ASP programming is proposed. This is a web based application, which allows web users to submit survey data for many different companies. This survey is a collection of questions that will help these companies develop and improve their business and customer service with their clients by analyzing survey data. This web application allows users to submit data anywhere. All the survey data is collected into a database for further analysis. An administrator of this web application can login to the system and view all the data submitted. This web application resides on a web server, and the database resides on the MS SQL server.

  7. Noise in longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Antel, J.W.

    1983-03-01

    A series of full-shift noise surveys conducted on longwall sections of six randomly selected coal mines has indicated that the potential exists for 58 percent of the total number of longwall operators surveyed (i.e. shearer operators, headgate and tailgate operators) to be overexposed according to limits set forth in the Code of Federal Regulation; Title 30, Subpart F, Part 70.510. A breakdown by occupation shows that 50 percent of the headgate operators surveyed and 67 percent of the shearer operators surveyed potentially failed to comply with the noise standards.

  8. Airflow obstruction and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Stenton, S.C.; Hendrick, D.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Bronchitis and emphysema have long been described as diseases of miners, but the precise contribution of occupational exposures to coal and other mine dusts in causing these disorders, as opposed to cofactors such as social class, environmental pollution, and cigarette smoking, has not been fully defined. Epidemiologic studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to determine the incidence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in miners as compared to the general population. The results from these studies, and those in other nonmining industries with dust exposures, are examined. 98 refs.

  9. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, A.G. Jr.; Plumley, R.D.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes a power operated endless track assembly for use in transporting underground mining equipment comprising: a pair of separate transversely spaced parallel power driven endless track units; each of the endless track units including an endless track frame carrying forward and rearward sprocket wheels thereon and an endless track extending around the frame and the forward and rearward sprocket wheels; a carriage structure between the pair of endless track units; and a generally horizontally disposed mounting arm assembly extending transversely outwardly from each side of the carriage structure to the associated endless track unit.

  10. Mining the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  11. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  12. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  13. Environmental noise from surface mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of five mines were observed as part of a study to determine the magnitude and sources of environmental noise from surface mining operations and to identify noise abatement methods. These mining operations consisted of: a Minnesota iron ore mine, Midwestern and Appalachian coal mines, a Missouri clay pit operation, and a Texas limestone quarry. These operations are typical of Eastern and Midwestern mining activities. This paper highlights the findings of the noise measurement portion of that study.

  14. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  15. Finding Gold in Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

  16. Data Mining for Intrusion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Anoop; Jajodia, Sushil

    Data Mining Techniques have been successfully applied in many different fields including marketing, manufacturing, fraud detection and network management. Over the past years there is a lot of interest in security technologies such as intrusion detection, cryptography, authentication and firewalls. This chapter discusses the application of Data Mining techniques to computer security. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future research are suggested.

  17. Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-01

    This document represents the roadmap for education in the U.S. mining industry. It was developed based on the results of an Education Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held February 23, 2002 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  18. Process Mining Online Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Trcka, Nikola; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; van der Aalst, Wil; De Bra, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Traditional data mining techniques have been extensively applied to find interesting patterns, build descriptive and predictive models from large volumes of data accumulated through the use of different information systems. The results of data mining can be used for getting a better understanding of the underlying educational processes, for…

  19. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  20. Data mining and education.

    PubMed

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; D'Mello, Sidney; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Pardos, Zachary A; Rosé, Carolyn P

    2015-01-01

    An emerging field of educational data mining (EDM) is building on and contributing to a wide variety of disciplines through analysis of data coming from various educational technologies. EDM researchers are addressing questions of cognition, metacognition, motivation, affect, language, social discourse, etc. using data from intelligent tutoring systems, massive open online courses, educational games and simulations, and discussion forums. The data include detailed action and timing logs of student interactions in user interfaces such as graded responses to questions or essays, steps in rich problem solving environments, games or simulations, discussion forum posts, or chat dialogs. They might also include external sensors such as eye tracking, facial expression, body movement, etc. We review how EDM has addressed the research questions that surround the psychology of learning with an emphasis on assessment, transfer of learning and model discovery, the role of affect, motivation and metacognition on learning, and analysis of language data and collaborative learning. For example, we discuss (1) how different statistical assessment methods were used in a data mining competition to improve prediction of student responses to intelligent tutor tasks, (2) how better cognitive models can be discovered from data and used to improve instruction, (3) how data-driven models of student affect can be used to focus discussion in a dialog-based tutoring system, and (4) how machine learning techniques applied to discussion data can be used to produce automated agents that support student learning as they collaborate in a chat room or a discussion board. PMID:26263424

  1. Proceedings, 26th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.

    2007-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following topic headings: multiple-seam mining, surface subsidence, coal pillar, bunker and roadway/entry supports, mine design and highwall mining, longwall, roof bolting, stone and hardrock mining, rock mechanics and mine seal.

  2. In Brief: Coal mining regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) announced on 18 November measures to strengthen the oversight of state surface coal mining programs and to promulgate federal regulations to protect streams affected by surface coal mining operations. DOI's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is publishing an advance notice of a proposed rule about protecting streams from adverse impacts of surface coal mining operations. A rule issued by the Bush administration in December 2008 allows coal mine operators to place excess excavated materials into streams if they can show it is not reasonably possible to avoid doing so. “We are moving as quickly as possible under the law to gather public input for a new rule, based on sound science, that will govern how companies handle fill removed from mountaintop coal seams,” according to Wilma Lewis, assistant secretary for Land and Minerals Management at DOI.

  3. Introduction to Space Resource Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

  4. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  5. Power mine door system

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.R.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1993-06-29

    A mine door system for installation in a passageway in a mine is described, comprising a door frame adapted to be installed in the passageway to define a generally rectangular doorway, said door frame having a top and opposite sides, a mine door comprising a pair of door leaf hinged on opposite sides of the door frame to permit passage through the doorway, each door leaf being generally rectangular in shape with a top horizontal edge, a bottom horizontal edge, a generally vertical hinged side edge adjacent a respective side of the door frame, a generally vertical free side edge opposite the hinged side edge, a first leaf face facing away from the top of the door frame when the door leaf is closed, a second leaf face facing toward the top of the door frame when the door leaf is closed, the door leaf being so dimensioned that there is a substantial vertical gap between the door leaf when they are closed to accommodate convergence of side walls of the passageway, a relatively wide vertical sealing member secured to said first face of one of said door leaf adjacent its free side edge and projecting laterally therefrom for overlapping the first face of the other door leaf adjacent its free side edge thereby to cover said gap between the door leaf when the door leaf are closed, said door leaf having upper corner regions relieved to provide notch-like recesses adjacent the gap on opposite sides of the gap extending from the first leaf faces of the door leaf to the second leaf faces of the door leaf, said sealing member having an inclined upper end portion configured so that, when the door leaf are closed, it slopes upwardly through said recesses and said gap for substantially the full depth of the gap, said inclined upper end portion terminating in a tip engageable with the top of the door frame when the door leaf are closed thereby to inhibit the passage of air through the gap at a location adjacent the top of the door frame.

  6. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  7. [Introduction to medical data mining].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyun; Wu, Baoming; Cao, Changxiu

    2003-09-01

    Modern medicine generates a great deal of information stored in the medical database. Extracting useful knowledge and providing scientific decision-making for the diagnosis and treatment of disease from the database increasingly becomes necessary. Data mining in medicine can deal with this problem. It can also improve the management level of hospital information and promote the development of telemedicine and community medicine. Because the medical information is characteristic of redundancy, multi-attribution, incompletion and closely related with time, medical data mining differs from other one. In this paper we have discussed the key techniques of medical data mining involving pretreatment of medical data, fusion of different pattern and resource, fast and robust mining algorithms and reliability of mining results. The methods and applications of medical data mining based on computation intelligence such as artificial neural network, fuzzy system, evolutionary algorithms, rough set, and support vector machine have been introduced. The features and problems in data mining are summarized in the last section. PMID:14565039

  8. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  9. Data Mining SIAM Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok; McIntosh, Dawn; Castle, Pat; Pontikakis, Manos; Diev, Vesselin; Zane-Ulman, Brett; Turkov, Eugene; Akella, Ram; Xu, Zuobing; Kumaresan, Sakthi Preethi

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document describes the data mining system developed at NASA Ames. Many NASA programs have large numbers (and types) of problem reports.These free text reports are written by a number of different people, thus the emphasis and wording vary considerably With so much data to sift through, analysts (subject experts) need help identifying any possible safety issues or concerns and help them confirm that they haven't missed important problems. Unsupervised clustering is the initial step to accomplish this; We think we can go much farther, specifically, identify possible recurring anomalies. Recurring anomalies may be indicators of larger systemic problems. The requirement to identify these anomalies has led to the development of Recurring Anomaly Discovery System (ReADS).

  10. Mineral mining machines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgs, R.H.; Nicholls, J.T.; Oven, T.

    1980-06-24

    A mineral mining machine incorporates a guideway defining runs for a cutter chain which carries cutter picks. The guideway is movable as a whole and is formed with runs for the chain. The runs of the guideway are of generally l-shaped cross section, although the invention is not so limited, and have relatively outer and relatively inner supporting guide surfaces for the cutter chain. The relatively inner guide surface is positioned to the rear of the drive member, E.G. A sprocket, for the chain, I.E. Behind the center line of the chain in the cutting direction. The guide surfaces are continuous around the whole of the guideway thus providing continuous support for the chain during the whole of its movement around the guideway.

  11. Data mining goes multidimensional.

    PubMed

    Hettler, M

    1997-03-01

    The success of a healthcare organization depends on its ability to acquire, store, analyze and compare data across many parts of the enterprise, by many individuals. While relational databases have been around since the 1970s, their two-dimensional structure has limited--or made impossible--the kind of cross-dimensional trend analysis so necessary to healthcare today. Enter online analytical processing (OLAP), in which servers store data in multiple dimensions, opening a world of opportunity for data-mining across the enterprise. In this issue of HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS, we feature our first report from the National Software Testing Laboratories (NSTL) about technologies that will change the way healthcare does business. A division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, NSTL is an independent software and hardware testing lab offering services that include compatibility testing, bug testing, comparison testing, documentation evaluation and usability. PMID:10166948

  12. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Arsuaga, Y.

    1983-07-05

    A mineral mining installation is provided for use in a steeply-inclined longwall working. The installation comprises a ladder-shaped support frame, and a plurality of roof support units. The support frame extends along the entire length of the longwall working, and has a pair of generally parallel longitudinal beams interconnected by a plurality of transverse beams. The roof support units are positioned between the longitudinal beams, and are supported on the transverse beam. Each of the longitudinal beams comprises a plurality of beam sections pivotably connected together end-to-end. The support frame comprises a plurality of detachably connected sub-frames, each of which comprises a respective transverse beam and a respective beam section of each of the longitudinal beams.

  13. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... faulty pillar recovery methods. Pillar dimensions shall be compatible with effective control of the...

  14. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

  15. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. A Mining Plan...

  16. Image Information Mining Utilizing Hierarchical Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai

    2002-01-01

    The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.

  17. A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

  18. Collaborative Data Mining Tool for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; Gea, Miguel; de Castro, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the continuous improvement of e-learning courses allowing teachers with similar course's profile sharing and scoring the discovered information. This mining tool is oriented to be used by instructors non experts in data mining such that, its…

  19. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... faulty pillar recovery methods. Pillar dimensions shall be compatible with effective control of the...

  20. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  1. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4560 - Mine entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine entrances. 57.4560 Section 57.4560 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4560 - Mine entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine entrances. 57.4560 Section 57.4560 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4560 - Mine entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine entrances. 57.4560 Section 57.4560 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4560 - Mine entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine entrances. 57.4560 Section 57.4560 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4560 - Mine entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine entrances. 57.4560 Section 57.4560 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  7. Comparison of no-purge and pumped sampling methods for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related compounds in groundwater, Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2012-01-01

    Field tests were conducted near the Impact Area at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to determine the utility of no-purge groundwater sampling for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related explosive compounds and perchlorate in the sand and gravel aquifer. The no-purge methods included (1) a diffusion sampler constructed of rigid porous polyethylene, (2) a diffusion sampler constructed of regenerated-cellulose membrane, and (3) a tubular grab sampler (bailer) constructed of polyethylene film. In samples from 36 monitoring wells, concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4-), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the major contaminants of concern in the Impact Area, in the no-purge samples were compared to concentrations of these compounds in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling with dedicated bladder pumps. The monitoring wells are constructed of 2- and 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe and have approximately 5- to 10-foot-long slotted screens. The no-purge samplers were left in place for 13-64 days to ensure that ambient groundwater flow had flushed the well screen and concentrations in the screen represented water in the adjacent formation. The sampling methods were compared first in six monitoring wells. Concentrations of ClO4-, RDX, and HMX in water samples collected by the three no-purge sampling methods and low-flow pumped sampling were in close agreement for all six monitoring wells. There is no evidence of a systematic bias in the concentration differences among the methods on the basis of type of sampling device, type of contaminant, or order in which the no-purge samplers were tested. A subsequent examination of vertical variations in concentrations of ClO4- in the 10-foot-long screens of six wells by using rigid porous polyethylene diffusion samplers indicated that concentrations in a given well varied by less than 15 percent

  8. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    .... Availability of Information MSHA published the proposed rule in the Federal Register on August 31, 2011 (76 FR... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on August...

  9. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Period On August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54163), MSHA published a proposed rule, Proximity Detection Systems for... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  10. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... inactive by the operator, the operator shall notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... inactive by the operator, the operator shall notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager...

  12. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  13. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  14. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  15. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  16. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.4 Alternative mine rescue capability...

  17. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability...

  18. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  19. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  20. POST-MINING DEVELOPMENT USING RESOURCES FROM FLOODED UNDERGROUND MINE WORKINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Post-mining issues of land and surface utilization now serve to accentuate how important it is to incorporate sustainable development aspects into hard rock mining. In an effort to revitalize lands degraded by historic mining, 10 acres of mine tailings near the Belmont Mine have...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  2. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  3. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  6. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  8. Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity

    PubMed

    Lozano; Vera Tome F; Gomez Escobar V; Blanco Rodriguez P

    2000-07-01

    We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the inactive mine were: 222Rn in air and water, 222Rn exhalation, effective 226Ra in soils and sediments, and natural uranium and 226Ra in water. Chemical analyses of water samples and measurements of meteorological variables were also made. Average values of these radiological parameters are presented. We characterize the zone radiologically and estimate the influence of the mine on the basis of some of these parameters, while others are used to reflect the status of the installation, information which could be very useful in the near future when restoration is complete. PMID:10879882

  9. Mining High-Dimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Jiong

    With the rapid growth of computational biology and e-commerce applications, high-dimensional data becomes very common. Thus, mining high-dimensional data is an urgent problem of great practical importance. However, there are some unique challenges for mining data of high dimensions, including (1) the curse of dimensionality and more crucial (2) the meaningfulness of the similarity measure in the high dimension space. In this chapter, we present several state-of-art techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data, e.g., frequent pattern mining, clustering, and classification. We will discuss how these methods deal with the challenges of high dimensionality.

  10. Automated Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

  11. Domestic uranium mining and milling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A field hearing was held in Riverton, Wyoming on the erosion of the state's uranium industry as production and capital investment have declined and inventories have continued to rise because of a shift to foreign suppliers. The result has been serious unemployment in Wyoming and a decline in uranium mines from 5400 in 1980 to the present 1200. The seven witnesses spoke for the mining industry and state and federal government. Among the issues raised were mining regulations and the cancellation of nuclear rejects which have impacted the health of the industry. Additional statements and a report supplied for the record follow their testimony. (DCK)

  12. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  13. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  14. Mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Erstling, Stefanie; Brüstle, Andrea; Wlecklik, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 four hard coal mines (at about 1000 m depth) were operating in Germany, three of them are in the Ruhr coal mining district. The mining method used (longwall mining in combination with caving) causes induced earthquakes due to the stress redistribution in the surrounding rock. Seismic events of magnitude 1.2 and larger are generally perceived by the population and thus trigger a wide interest. The Ruhr-University of Bochum routinely monitors the seismicity and its temporal evolution and energy release since the 1980s. The current seismological network consists of 14 stations (broad-band and short-period seismometers) in the Ruhr area. Six stations are located at the Ruhr-University Bochum at distances of approximately 20-40 km to the active coal fields. The remaining 8 stations are located in the vicinity of the mines (app. 1 to 5 km from the active mining). The magnitude of completeness is 0.9 throughout the entire Ruhr coal mining district with a local magnitude of completeness of 0.7 depending on the network configuration. In general, the identified earthquakes have a horizontal location uncertainty of 3 km. The routine detection and location of the seismicity is done by classical methods, e. g. based on first arrivals, and advanced methods like array techniques or cross-correlation of waveforms of master events with recorded seismograms from selected stations. Additionally selected event clusters are studied in more detail by reprocessing sub-datasets with methods like cluster analysis or consistent phase-picking. Reassessing this unique dataset of 30 years continuous recordings with newly developed methods and modern data processing techniques can provide new insights of the nature of mining induced seismicity. This methods may also be usable in the field of geothermal energy, unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs or underground storage of carbon dioxide which also deals with the detection and handling of large amounts of small magnitude earthquakes.

  15. US enacts new mine safety policies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-06-15

    New legislation in the USA requires mine operators to be prepared, increases funding for safety equipment research, strengthens mine rescue teams, and raises the limits for penalties. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act represents the efforts of industry and politicians in reaction to recent mining tragedies. S.2803 was signed on 15 June 2006. The article discusses the content of the Act and its implications for coal mine operators. 2 figs.

  16. The Leading Edge: Data Mining

    NASA Video Gallery

    When an airplane flies, hundreds of data streams fly from it every second—pilot reports, incident reports, control positions, instrument positions, warning modes. NASA is mining terabytes of avia...

  17. Position monitor for mining machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubich, J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit at output of incremental transducer records progress of longwall shearer. In contrast to mechanical shaft encoders, electronic circuit can be easily packaged to withstand shock and vibration of mining machine as it cuts across coal seam.

  18. Data mining mining data: MSHA enforcement efforts, underground coal mine safety, and new health policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kniesner, T.J.; Leeth, J.D.

    2004-09-15

    Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact. Even using results most favorable to the agency, MSHA is not currently cost effective. Almost 700,000 life years could be gained for typical miners if a quarter of MSHA's enforcement budget were reallocated to other programs (more heart disease screening or defibrillators at worksites).

  19. Mining law and regulations of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The mining law and regulations of Mexico have been of considerable interest to mining lawyers in the united States. Recent wide-ranging changes in Mexican mining regulations have come at a time when the mining industry hopes to broaden its scope to contend with worldwide competition. Article 27 of the Federal Constitution of Mexico governs the mining of metallic, nonmetallic, and coal materials. New regulation implementing this law became effective on December 10, 1990. These regulations, generally regarded as providing far greater flexibility in the acquisition and maintenance of mineral rights, also provide substantial additional flexibility in the ability of non-Mexican companies to own concessions. The Laws section of this book includes: General Provision, ministry of National Patrimony, mining concession, beneficiating plant concessions, execution and proof of exploitation work oppositions, national mineral reserves, special concessions on National Mineral Reserves, Public/Registry of mining, mining promotion and of the assistance to small miners, Industrial Mining Reserves and violations and penalties. The regulations section includes: general dispositions, mineral reserves, mining assignments and concessions, right of mining concession holders, obligations of the holders of mining concessions, mining companies, mining public registry, mining experts, inspections, sanctions and remedies.

  20. Mining the hydrosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Ulrich

    1994-05-01

    Rapid technological progress over the past two decades has significantly lowered the cost of water desalination and has spurred an impressive growth of this industry. About half of the desalination capacity uses seawater, the other half uses continental brackish water. Most of the desalted water is consumed for domestic and municipal purposes. However, some of it, especially that derived from brackish water, is also competitive for irrigation of high-value crops, and for some industrial purposes, particularly in water-deficient regions. In addition to fresh water, at present only halite, magnesium, and bromine are commercially obtained from seawater. These commodities plus sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, I, Li, B, and potash are also produced from natural brines. Prior attempts to obtain potash, U, Au, and other mineral commodities from seawater failed because the market value of the recovered products was too low to cover the capital and operating costs of processing plants exclusively dedicated to recover them separately. The economics are more favorable if these and/or other elements or compounds are obtained as byproducts of seawater desalination, especially when combined with cogeneration of electricity. Under these circumstances the major capital and operating costs for pumping seawater and for disposing of the reject brine are absorbed mostly by the proceeds from freshwater production. The byproducts need only to pay for the additional recovery processes. One advantage of this strategy is to reduce the environmental impact of reject brine disposal. Another is to reduce the environmental, safety, and health impacts of land-based mining. Furthermore, obtaining nonmetallic mineral commodities from seawater at a number of localities scattered over the Earth can significantly reduce their transportation costs, which is a major proportion of their cost to nations lacking these resources. This is particularly pertinent for common salt (halite), potash

  1. Some opportunities in teleoperated mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palowitch, E. R.; Broussard, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Processes involved in remote control mining (fragmentation, material handling, ground and environmental control) are discussed with reference to longwall shear mining, the method which affords the greatest potential for the use of teleoperated systems. The breakup and haulage procedures are outlined, with attention to environmental control subsystems, i.e., noise and dust abatement. A description of a four-legged chock, attached to a section of a face conveyor and operated remotely, is presented.

  2. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  3. Design of supports in mines

    SciTech Connect

    Biroen, C.; Arioglu, E.

    1983-01-01

    Much information is available on rock mechanics and some on mine supports but a need has been identified in the area of design and calculation of the actual dimensions of mining supports. A variety of roof support systems are described. Information is included on wooden supports, steel gallery supports, roof bolts and trusses, steel longwall supports, and concrete supports. A chapter is also included on stowing or filling the openings made by extraction of the seams of mineral deposits.

  4. Ground Control in Mining. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain 36 papers on strata control in underground mining. Specific topics include: support pillar design, mathematical modeling of support-rock interactions, deformation of mine roadways, support recovery, roof bolt design and performance, rock burst prediction methods, detection of abandoned shafts, water influx control, rock mechanical property measurements, ground subsidence effects and forecasting, surveying techniques, and stress analyses. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Coal Mining, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.

    The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  6. Radioactivities related to coal mining.

    PubMed

    Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

    2005-08-01

    Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk. PMID:16049576

  7. Longwall mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Beyer, H.

    1982-09-14

    A longwall mineral mining installation comprises a scraper-chain conveyor having a scraper assembly, a first straight conveyor portion extending along the longwall working, a second straight conveyor portion extending along a roadway positioned at one end of the longwall working, and a curved conveyor section connecting the two straight conveyor portions. A guide assembly is provided for guiding the scraper assembly around the curved conveyor section. A guide is fixed to the face side of the first straight conveyor portion, and a winning machine is reciprocable along the guide. A drive station is mounted on the goaf side of the first straight conveyor portion in the region of the curved conveyor section. A drive sprocket is rotatably mounted on the face side of the first straight conveyor portion in said region. The drive sprocket drives the winning machine via a drive chain. A drive shaft drivably connects the drive station and the drive sprocket. The drive station includes a drive motor whose axis of rotation is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the first straight conveyor portion, and the guide is angled away from the first straight conveyor portion in said region.

  8. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  10. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  11. Crisis in American mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The crisis in American mining is discussed. The discussion focuses on the outlook for coal in the overall energy picture. Because of the Arab oil embargo of 1973, the Iranian disruption of 1979, and the tenfold increase in oil prices over the past decade, radical changes have taken place in energy supply and demand patterns. Two of the most important of these changes relate to investment. First, large investments have been made in energy-efficient plants, equipment, buildings, and vehicles. Their effect will restrain energy demand growth for the foreseeable future. Second, investments have been made in fuel-switching, from oil to coal and nuclear power. As a result the oil demand at the end of this century will be at approximately the same level as it is today. Natural gas demand is also likely to be flat. Coal demand, on the other hand, is expected to increase steadily over the long term. Recent conditions in the coal industry are reviewed, and a specific 10-year forecast is given.

  12. Metagenomic mining for microbiologists.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-12-01

    Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures. PMID:21593798

  13. Metagenomic mining for microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures. PMID:21593798

  14. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  15. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  16. Spectral methods to detect surface mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Edwin M.; Schatten Silvious, Miranda

    2008-04-01

    Over the past five years, advances have been made in the spectral detection of surface mines under minefield detection programs at the U. S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The problem of detecting surface land mines ranges from the relatively simple, the detection of large anti-vehicle mines on bare soil, to the very difficult, the detection of anti-personnel mines in thick vegetation. While spatial and spectral approaches can be applied to the detection of surface mines, spatial-only detection requires many pixels-on-target such that the mine is actually imaged and shape-based features can be exploited. This method is unreliable in vegetated areas because only part of the mine may be exposed, while spectral detection is possible without the mine being resolved. At NVESD, hyperspectral and multi-spectral sensors throughout the reflection and thermal spectral regimes have been applied to the mine detection problem. Data has been collected on mines in forest and desert regions and algorithms have been developed both to detect the mines as anomalies and to detect the mines based on their spectral signature. In addition to the detection of individual mines, algorithms have been developed to exploit the similarities of mines in a minefield to improve their detection probability. In this paper, the types of spectral data collected over the past five years will be summarized along with the advances in algorithm development.

  17. Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Earth Science Mining Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L. B.; Lynnes, C. S.; Hegde, M.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.

    2008-12-01

    To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at the GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADaM components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestrates the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to this infusion is the loosely coupled, Web- Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.

  19. Earth Science Mining Web Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Long; Lynnes, Christopher; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Keiser, Ken

    2008-01-01

    To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at he GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADam components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestras the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to the infusion is the loosely coupled, Web-Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.

  20. Underground coal mine instrumentation and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.; Waldron, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The need to evaluate mechanical performance of mine tools and to obtain test performance data from candidate systems dictate that an engineering data recording system be built. Because of the wide range of test parameters which would be evaluated, a general purpose data gathering system was designed and assembled to permit maximum versatility. A primary objective of this program was to provide a specific operating evaluation of a longwall mining machine vibration response under normal operating conditions. A number of mines were visited and a candidate for test evaluation was selected, based upon management cooperation, machine suitability, and mine conditions. Actual mine testing took place in a West Virginia mine.

  1. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  2. Proceedings, 24th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.

    2005-07-01

    Topics covered: longwall mining; multiple seam mining; pillar/pillar extraction; surface subsidence; roof falls; geology; high horizontal stresses; highwall mining/slope stability; mine/roof support design; roof bolting; and detection of ground conditions.

  3. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  4. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  5. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  6. Data Mining Citizen Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discovery from big data is enabled through multiple channels, including data mining (through the application of machine learning algorithms) and human computation (commonly implemented through citizen science tasks). We will describe the results of new data mining experiments on the results from citizen science activities. Discovering patterns, trends, and anomalies in data are among the powerful contributions of citizen science. Establishing scientific algorithms that can subsequently re-discover the same types of patterns, trends, and anomalies in automatic data processing pipelines will ultimately result from the transformation of those human algorithms into computer algorithms, which can then be applied to much larger data collections. Scientific discovery from big data is thus greatly amplified through the marriage of data mining with citizen science.

  7. Mining Data, What a Blast!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T. L.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic network data processing involves a number of critical decisions which are a balance of available funding and manpower vs the amount and extent of data being processed. In an ideal world, any event detected by a given network would have associated arrivals and usually an associated origin. In this world of decreasing telecommunications costs, that has resulted in an ever increasing number of sensors and stations along with accessibility to ever expanding real-time data flow, this complete human data review is no longer a feasible reality with the existing personnel support. Decisions on catalogue inclusiveness are being made based on expediency and budget constraints rather than on a scientific or technical basis. One of the critical time sinks for an analyst is the location and discrimination of the large number of daily man-made blasts, whether they be from road construction, quarries, or mines. Given that mines exist in a given location it is possible to first, automatically assign event locations to blast sites in real-time, and second, to provide quick mine site associations on the post-real-time processing level. This reduces the analyst's job from a complete event location to simply verifying and correcting automatic detections. A study has been carried out using a grid of mine locations and running an event associator with automatic detections over this grid. Mine blasts are automatically located at the grid mine sites. This has been particularly successful with large blasts outside the network which were previously creating poor locations and necessitated analyst involvement to ensure that these events were not a seismic event within or near the boundaries of the network.

  8. Mobile mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1981-12-29

    A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

  9. Environmental health consequences of land mines.

    PubMed

    Newman, R D; Mercer, M A

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the environmental effects of anti-personnel land mines globally. Land mines represent an immediate environmental health problem. Between 60 and 70 million land mines are currently in place in over 70 countries. Designed to kill or main humans, including civilians, they injure an estimated 1, 200 persons and kill another 800 every week. Land-mine injuries tend to be serious; an estimated 300,000 persons worldwide have been disabled by them. The problem, politically very controversial, can be resolved only by preventing the further placement of mines, by demining of areas already mined, and by coping with the personal and environmental devastation that they have already caused. Environmental health personnel should be involved in promoting awareness of the problem, in improving services for land-mine victims, and in promoting political efforts to ban further use of land mines. PMID:10926729

  10. Position estimator for underground mine equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, G.K.; Stentz, A.; Whittaker, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, K.W. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes a 2-D perception system that exploits the accuracy and resolution of a laser range sensor to determine the position and orientation of a mobile robot in a mine environment. The perception system detects features from range sensor data and matches the features to a map of the mine to compute the sensor position. The features used are line segments and corners, which represent the typical geometry of the mine walls and intersections found in room-0and-pillar type mining. The position estimate is refined by minimizing the error between the map and sensed features. This position information can be used for autonomous navigation when a map of the mine is available or to survey the mine to build such a map. The technique is applied to robot navigation in a mine mockup. A refinement of this system could guide machines to yield productive, safe mining operations.

  11. Ensuring flat cuts in longwall mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Currie, J. R.; Deaton, E. T.; Kissel, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Minicomputer-controlled towed vehicle automatically determines flatness of wall of coal or other mineral as it is being cut by mining machine and allows machine operator to correct cut as necessary. Vehicle is used for longwall mining.

  12. Data Mining: Going beyond Traditional Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Luan, Jing

    2006-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of data mining, giving special attention to the relationship between data mining and statistics to unravel some misunderstandings about the two techniques. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Microcomputer keeps watch at Emerald Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    Where there's smoke, there's fire. Take the old adage a step further: ''Where there's carbon monoxide, there's likely to be a fire.'' That's the principle behind the mine monitoring system being used at the Emerald Mine operated by Emway Resources. Instead of watching for smoke or temperature rises, the system uses carbon monoxide (CO) sensors to detect fires - before they break out. CO, a gaseous product of incomplete combustion, is present in the early stages of a fire. Carried by the mine ventilation air, CO can be quickly traced by electrochemical gas sensors that are wired to a central computer. When preset levels are reached, alarms can alert mine personnel of the trouble. The Emerald Mine is located in southwestern Pennsylvania, near Waynesburg, and mines the Pittsburgh Seam, the nation's most heavily mined seam. Emerald is one of a number of progressive mines that are turning to computers to improve safety and productivity.

  14. Web Mining for Web Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Feng; Li, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongjiang

    2001-01-01

    Presents a prototype system for image retrieval from the Internet using Web mining. Discusses the architecture of the Web image retrieval prototype; document space modeling; user log mining; and image retrieval experiments to evaluate the proposed system. (AEF)

  15. Mining Technology. An Assessment Study for Educational Institutions Potential Involvement in Servicing the Mining Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmoreland County Community Coll., Youngwood, PA.

    Prepared to serve the 2-year college administrator and faculty member in becoming acquainted with the coal mining industry and in developing degree and nondegree programs in mining technology, this report provides descriptions of the mining industry, organization of labor, job descriptions, types and methods of coal mining, certification…

  16. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... the Federal Register on February 1, 2010 (75 FR 5009). The comment period closed on April 2, 2010..., crushing, and striking accidents. Commenters stated that conditions in the mining environment, including... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  17. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine

    drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  18. 42 CFR 84.3 - Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines. 84.3 Section 84.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES General Provisions § 84.3 Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines....

  19. 42 CFR 84.3 - Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines. 84.3 Section 84.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES General Provisions § 84.3 Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines....

  20. 42 CFR 84.3 - Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines. 84.3 Section 84.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES General Provisions § 84.3 Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines....

  1. 42 CFR 84.3 - Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines. 84.3 Section 84.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES General Provisions § 84.3 Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines....

  2. 42 CFR 84.3 - Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines. 84.3 Section 84.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DEVICES General Provisions § 84.3 Respirators for mine rescue or other emergency use in mines....

  3. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  4. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

  5. Mine roof geology information system

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2005-05-01

    A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Turnaround team revitalizes mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-11-01

    Starting from scratch, the Broe Companies' Century Coal trains the next generation. The article describes how the newly created Century Coal LLC, controlled by Denver-based Broe Companies investment firm, is rebuilding and expanding its highwall mining operations, increasing production from a current 1 million tons to 5 to 6 million tons in 2006 and 2007. The company has a $100,000 outreach program with 95% of these funds going to local communities. Present coal mining operations are spread around Bell, Clay, Harlan Knox and Leslie Counties. A priority is the renovation of the WenLar preparation plant in Bell County. 5 photos.

  7. Data Mining for Target Marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Nissan; Zahavi, Jacob

    Targeting is the core of marketing management. It is concerned with offering the right product/service to the customer at the right time and using the proper channel. In this chapter we discuss how Data Mining modeling and analysis can support targeting applications. We focus on three types of targeting models: continuous-choice models, discrete-choice models and in-market timing models, discussing alternative modeling for each application and decision making. We also discuss a range of pitfalls that one needs to be aware of in implementing a data mining solution for a targeting problem.

  8. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to...

  12. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  13. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall...

  14. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  15. 30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.9 Mine...

  16. 30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.19 Mine emergency...

  17. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.9 Mine...

  19. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall...

  20. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  1. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  2. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  3. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  4. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  5. 30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.19 Mine emergency...

  6. 30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.9 Mine...

  7. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall...

  8. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  9. 30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.19 Mine emergency...

  10. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  12. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  13. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  14. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  15. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  16. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  17. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  18. 30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.19 Mine emergency...

  19. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  20. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall...

  2. 30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.19 Mine emergency...

  3. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall...

  4. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  5. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  6. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  7. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  8. Fibre optic sensors for mine hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, C.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Huo, D.; Shang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ning, Y.

    2009-07-01

    We report the development of a comprehensive safety monitoring solution for coal mines. A number of fibre optic sensors have been developed and deployed for safety monitoring of mine roof integrity and hazardous gases. The FOS-based mine hazard detection system offers unique advantages of intrinsic safety, multi-location and multi-parameter monitoring. They can be potentially used to build expert systems for mine hazard early detection and prevention.

  9. Data mining in the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Lisa M.

    1999-02-01

    Customer defined problems don't match data mining heuristics. A basic component of the data mining process is the transformation of the business problem into a form that fits one of these basic heuristics. This means changing the problem size or composition, addition variables, and using more than one data mining heuristic. We will also discuss the basics of data mining tool selection. After all, having the right type of tool can make the project easier to accomplish and more successful.

  10. Data mining in space physics: MineTool algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Sipes, T. B.; White, H.; Marinucci, M.; Dmitriev, A.; Chao, J. K.; Driscoll, J.; Balac, N.

    2007-11-01

    A novel data mining method called MineTool is introduced which, by virtue of automating the modeling process and model evaluations, makes it more accessible to nonexperts. The technique aggregates the various stages of model building into a four-step process consisting of (1) data segmentation and sampling, (2) variable preselection and transform generation, (3) predictive model estimation and validation, and (4) final model testing. Optimal strategies are chosen for each modeling step. However, the modular design of the MineTool enables the substitution of alternative strategies in any of the four modeling steps. A notable feature of the technique is that the final model is always in closed analytical form rather than "black box" form of most other techniques. MineTool can be used for analysis of data (e.g., time series) as well as images. The utility of the technique is illustrated through several examples based on synthetic data. Application of the technique to analysis of spacecraft data will be presented in subsequent papers.

  11. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  12. Socioeconomic Heterogeneity of Mining-Dependent Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Luloff, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Although the socioeconomic well-being of all U.S. mining-dependent counties was slightly above the national average in 1990, disaggregation reveals substantial effects of region and mining subsector. In particular, southern and Great Lakes coal-mining counties had significantly lower high school graduation rates and higher poverty and unemployment…

  13. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47... RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.47 Mining activities. (a) Other Lands. The standards and guidelines of this section apply to mining activities in the Other...

  14. Association Rule Mining from an Intelligent Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Buket; Camurcu, A. Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    Educational data mining is a very novel research area, offering fertile ground for many interesting data mining applications. Educational data mining can extract useful information from educational activities for better understanding and assessment of the student learning process. In this way, it is possible to explore how students learn topics in…

  15. CATAWISSA CREEK MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of flooding underground coal mine workings in an isolated basin of coal, thereby restoring or partially restoring the groundwater table in the basin and reducing the production of acid mine drainage. Flooding the mined ...

  16. The Lure of Statistics in Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Lovleen Kumar; Mehra, Rajni

    2008-01-01

    The field of Data Mining like Statistics concerns itself with "learning from data" or "turning data into information". For statisticians the term "Data mining" has a pejorative meaning. Instead of finding useful patterns in large volumes of data as in the case of Statistics, data mining has the connotation of searching for data to fit preconceived…

  17. Factors influencing mine rescue team behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Jacqueline H; Kowalski-Trakofler, K M; Brnich, M J; Vaught, C

    2016-01-01

    A focus group study of the first moments in an underground mine emergency response was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Office for Mine Safety and Health Research. Participants in the study included mine rescue team members, team trainers, mine officials, state mining personnel, and individual mine managers. A subset of the data consists of responses from participants with mine rescue backgrounds. These responses were noticeably different from those given by on-site emergency personnel who were at the mine and involved with decisions made during the first moments of an event. As a result, mine rescue team behavior data were separated in the analysis and are reported in this article. By considering the responses from mine rescue team members and trainers, it was possible to sort the data and identify seven key areas of importance to them. On the basis of the responses from the focus group participants with a mine rescue background, the authors concluded that accurate and complete information and a unity of purpose among all command center personnel are two of the key conditions needed for an effective mine rescue operation. PMID:26963229

  18. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  3. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage. PMID:25979297

  4. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  5. Investigating MOOCs through Blog Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The…

  6. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  7. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  8. Mining into the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-06-15

    After more than 3 years of production and a billion tons of coal shipped, Foundation Coal West, a subsidiary of Foundation Coal Holding Inc., continues to operate two of the original surface mines in Wyoming's Powder River Basin. The article describes equipment (conveyors, trucks, surface miners etc.) deployed at Belle Ayr and Eagle Butte PRB operations. 3 photos.

  9. Informatics & Data-Mining Group

    Cancer.gov

    Aims to create software tools to support the RAS Initiative; to mine existing large datasets, such as TCGA, for RAS-centric data; and to help integrate internal and external data in ways that elucidate the biology of RAS-driven cancers.

  10. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  11. Mining Agreements with Indian Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebben, Tom

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of negotiating agreements for exploration, development, and mining of hard minerals on Indian Reservations. The agreements discussed are typical of copper agreements, but the general points under discussion are applicable to most hard minerals except for uranium, coal, and oil which are substantially different.…

  12. Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navish, Frank, III; May, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS) program is developing a prototype autonomous mine-detection sensor suite designed to be mounted on a small robotic platform that can find buried anti-personnel mines. Over the past two years, CyTerra Corp. and NIITEK, Inc. have developed complementary senor suites using a variety of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configurations. The AMDS program is also working with industry and academia to develop automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. This paper provides a brief overview of evaluations that have been performed at Army facilities. Probability of Detection (Pd) and Probability of False Alarm (Pfa) results are provided for signal-to-noise type detection algorithms and also for promising pattern classification and neural network algorithms that were developed by Duke University, the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the University of Florida. After an evaluation in October 2005, both contractors' sensors performed comparably (about 90% Pd and 40% Pfa) against low-metal anti-personnel mines at an Army test site seeded with typical clutter. In some cases, university-developed pattern classification and neural network algorithms have reduced the Pfa by a factor of two against these clutter sets.

  13. Semiology Put to Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunbridge, Nat

    1999-01-01

    Describes Semio, a company founded in 1996 that uses semiology to provide straightforward access to information. Discusses the text-mining engine at the core of the company's software; products; focus on the intranet market; competitors; partnership with corporate portals. (AEF)

  14. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  15. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  16. DGIdb - Mining the druggable genome

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Adam C.; Weible, James V.; McMichael, Josh F.; Spies, Nicholas C.; Koval, James; Das, Indraniel; Callaway, Matthew B.; Eldred, James M.; Miller, Christopher A.; Subramanian, Janakiraman; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Kumar, Runjun D.; Bose, Ron; Ding, Li; Walker, Jason R.; Larson, David E.; Dooling, David J.; Smith, Scott M.; Ley, Timothy J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Drug-Gene Interaction database (DGIdb) mines existing resources that generate hypotheses about how mutated genes might be targeted therapeutically or prioritized for drug development. It provides an interface for searching lists of genes against a compendium of drug-gene interactions and potentially druggable genes. DGIdb can be accessed at dgidb.org. PMID:24122041

  17. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  18. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  19. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  1. Spatial and Spatiotemporal Data Mining: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, Shashi; Vatsavai, Raju; Celik, Mete

    2008-01-01

    Explosive growth in geospatial data and the emergence of new spatial technologies emphasize the need for automated discovery of spatial knowledge. Spatial data mining is the process of discovering interesting and previously unknown, but potentially useful patterns from large spatial databases. The complexity of spatial data and intrinsic spatial relationships limits the usefulness of conventional data mining techniques for extracting spatial patterns. In this chapter we explore the emerging field of spatial data mining, focusing on four major topics: prediction and classification, outlier detection, co-location mining, and clustering. Spatiotemporal data mining is also briefly discussed.

  2. Remote controlled high wall coal mining system

    SciTech Connect

    Apt, J.J.; Dury, J.D.; Lansberry, J.B.

    1982-04-06

    A high wall mining system including a continuous mining machine is claimed. The system consists of a remote control station outwardly of the high wall from which extend electric cables wound on cable reels which extend to the continuous mining machine enabling the operator to control the machine based upon television pictures transmitted to the control station from television cameras on the machine, and the signals from laser and sonar guidance systems provided at the control station in cooperation with elements on the continuous mining machine, and an extensible and retractable vacuum air conveyor system for the coal recovered by the mining machine.

  3. Laser fiber optics ordnance initiation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress on system development in the laser initiation of explosive devices is summarized. The topics included are: development of compact free-running mode and Q-switched lasers, development of low-loss fiber optic bundles and connectors, study of nuclear radiation effects on the system, characterization of laser initiation sensitivities of insensitive high explosives, and the design methods used to achieve attractive system weight and cost savings. Direction for future work is discussed.

  4. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  5. Pennsylvania's approach to underground coal mine permitting and long-term mine pool management

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, T.; Koricich, J.

    1999-07-01

    Pennsylvania's underground coal mine permitting process has two goals: first, to ensure that the mining and reclamation plan is designed to minimize adverse environmental impacts; and second, to minimize interference with the applicant's recovery of coal. A successful review process includes the consistent evaluation of mine site hydrology through scrutiny of key indicators of mining-induced, adverse hydrologic consequences. This allows the regulatory agency to assess the potential for mining-related impacts as well as cumulative impacts throughout the proposed mine area and adjacent area. General trends have been identified regarding quality of underground mine drainage versus coal seam mined. However, the large number of factors controlling the final mine pool chemistry along with the lack of focused research have combined to stunt the development of reliable methodologies for the prediction of postmining water quality. Absent reliable predictive methodologies, mine layout has become the best demonstrated technology for pollution prevention. Strategies include: (1) promotion of postmining inundation by down-dip development with proper location of mine openings and sizing and location of barriers; (2) restriction of mining to zones within the groundwater system where flow is relatively lethargic and time of travel is great when compared to natural mine pool amelioration time frames; and (3) mining in zones remote from groundwater discharge areas and features which may serve to short-circuit mine water to nearby existing water-supply aquifers or to the surface. This paper discusses Pennsylvania's application process for underground bituminous coal mines. It briefly outlines Pennsylvania's statutory history relating to mine discharges, touches on some of the tools permit reviewers use to evaluate the hydrology of proposed underground mining sites, and discusses the key factors that permit reviewers consider in assessing potential postmining mine pool levels.

  6. Mines in the Four Corners anticipate growth

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-02-15

    Productive mines in the southwest deplete reserves, while the government drags its heels on new power projects. Production in Arizona and New Mexico has fallen 18% over the last four years to 34.1 million tons. With Chevron Mining's McKinley mine rapidly depleting its reserves the industry will continue to contract. In the last three years at least three large mines in the Four Corners have terminated operations. Three others remain captive operations: BHP Billiton's San Juan Underground and Navajo Surface operations and Peabody Energy's Kayenta surface mine. In 2006 the Black Mesa mine stopped producing coal. These four mines are isolated from the national railways. Peabody's new El Segundo surface mine near Grants, NM is increasing production. If the planned $3 billion Desert Rock coal-fired power plant is built this will present a new market for the Navajo mine. The article gives details about the state of the aforementioned mines and of the new King II coal mine on the northern periphery of the San Juan basin and discusses the state of plans for the Desert Rock Energy Project. 5 photos.

  7. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  8. 7th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain 38 papers describing strata control, rock mechanics, and ground subsidence, especially in longwall mining. Other mining methods discussed include room and pillar mining, retreat mining, caving mining, and auger underground mining. Design, performance, and mathematical models of support pillars and other types of strata support systems are described. Most of the studies were done in US coal mines, but several papers describing strata control in India, China, South Africa, and Taiwan are included. All papers have been indexed separately.

  9. Mining Industry of the Future Vision: The Future Begins with Mining

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-09-01

    The Mining Industry of the Future was started in June 1998 when the Chairman of the National Mining Association and the Secretary of Energy entered into a Compact to pursue a collaborative technology research partnership. After the Compact signing, the mining industry developed its vision document, The Future Begins with Mining, A Vision of the Mining Industry of the Future, in September 1998. This vision document lists long-term goals for the mining industry. Stemming from this vision document, targeted technology roadmaps were developed that describe pathways of research to achieve the vision goals.

  10. Approaches to Post-Mining Land Reclamation in Polish Open-Cast Lignite Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the situation regarding the reclamation of post-mining land in the case of particular lignite mines in Poland until 2012 against the background of the whole opencast mining. It discusses the process of land purchase for mining operations and its sales after reclamation. It presents the achievements of mines in the reclamation and regeneration of post-mining land as a result of which-after development processes carried out according to European standards-it now serves the inhabitants as a recreational area that increases the attractiveness of the regions.

  11. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  12. A survey of mine ventilation practices

    SciTech Connect

    Mousset-Jones, P.

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent out to three classes of mines to determine the extent of the heat problem in U.S. and Foreign underground mines. At the present time there are approximately eleven non coal and one coal mine in the U.S. experiencing heat problems which require special efforts to maintain an acceptable working place climate. However since the survey was completed some of them have been placed on standby. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) does not have any specific regulations relating to heat stress. A number of the mines surveyed are primarily involved with mining gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and uranium, with many in a break even financial condition. Hence it is critical that economic solutions to their problems be found if they are to maintain productivity and remain operating. There are currently less than 12 mines in the U.S. experiencing hot working conditions, which is not a large number. However, it is anticipated that as upper level reserves are depleted, more mines in the U.S. will need to mine at deeper levels. This factor, together with increasing mechanization necessary to maintain productivity, means that more mines in the U.S. will experience heat problems in the future.

  13. Data mining in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Diego; Cornejo, Eduardo; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Guarracino, Mario R; Pardalos, Panos M

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical sciences and computational methods have found new applications in fields like medicine over the last few decades. Modern data acquisition and data analysis protocols have been of great assistance to medical researchers and clinical scientists. Especially in psychiatry, technology and science have made new computational methods available to assist the development of predictive modeling and to identify diseases more accurately. Data mining (or knowledge discovery) aims to extract information from large datasets and solve challenging tasks, like patient assessment, early mental disease diagnosis, and drug efficacy assessment. Accurate and fast data analysis methods are very important, especially when dealing with severe psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia. In this paper, we focus on computational methods related to data analysis and more specifically to data mining. Then, we discuss some related research in the field of psychiatry. PMID:22231840

  14. Regional medical data mining system.

    PubMed

    Robu, Raul; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a solution to acquire medical data from hospitals located in a region (addressing especially the DKMT Euroregion), and then perform data mining. The medical data from the hospital databases are exported in XML format, according to HL7 CDA standard. Afterwards, they are automatically centralized on a server in a database using web services calls. The data will be analyzed with the data mining tool WEKA. Data of interest are converted into ARFF format and loaded into WEKA. The next stage consists in preprocessing and analyzing the data based on the algorithms provided by WEKA, having as a goal several relevant medical conclusions. WEKA application interface has been improved to facilitate the process of performing predictions. PMID:21685596

  15. WIRELESS MINE-WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2004-03-01

    A comprehensive mine-wide, two-way wireless voice and data communication system for the underground mining industry was developed. The system achieves energy savings through increased productivity and greater energy efficiency in meeting safety requirements within mines. The mine-wide system is comprised of two interfaced subsystems: a through-the-earth communications system and an in-mine communications system. The mine-wide system permits two-way communication among underground personnel and between underground and surface personnel. The system was designed, built, and commercialized. Several systems are in operation in underground mines in the United States. The use of these systems has proven they result in considerable energy savings. A system for tracking the location of vehicles and people within the mine was also developed, built and tested successfully. Transtek's systems are being used by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in their underground mine rescue team training program. This project also resulted in a spin-off rescue team lifeline and communications system. Furthermore, the project points the way to further developments that can lead to a GPS-like system for underground mines allowing the use of autonomous machines in underground mining operations, greatly reducing the amount of energy used in these operations. Some products developed under this program are transferable to applications in fields other than mining. The rescue team system is applicable to use by first responders to natural, accidental, or terrorist-caused building collapses. The in-mine communications system can be installed in high-rise buildings providing in-building communications to security and maintenance personnel as well as to first responders.

  16. Longwall mining. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2006-10-15

    The book covers US longwall mining technology that was developed and practiced in the US for the past 30 years. It covers all phases of longwall technology in 14 chapters. Each chapter is devoted to a subsystem of equipment or engineering technology. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction on the historical trends of development of the subsystem equipment or engineering technology, followed by a detailed description of the subsystem and engineering technology as they are practiced in the US today.

  17. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Whitney, Paul; Thomas, Jim

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  18. Mining outlook: the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    A guide is presented to the rich reserves of iron ore, phosphate, coal, gold, zinc, manganese and other minerals in Egypt. A map is included which shows a wide distribution of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits, suitable for mining. Negotiations are being carried out with foreign companies to form joint venture agreement for developing gold deposits. The future looks bright for expansions in iron ore, phosphate, and coal.

  19. Simulation Of Mine Water Inflow: Case Study Of The Štavalj Coal Mine (Southwestern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Branko; Vakanjac, Vesna Ristić; Bukumirović, Dragomir; Dragišić, Veselin; Vakanjac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The inflow of mine water to mining operations is often caused by random events such as precipitation. Consequently, the mine water inflow regime can be defined as a function of random events applying the theory of random processes. Regression models of the multiple linear correlation type have been used to simulate the inflow of mine water into mining operations, produce short-range predictions and facilitate rapid response inside the mine. The significance of such models lies in the ability to simulate and predict the consequences (mine water inflow), caused by events of a random nature (meteorological parameters: precipitation and air temperature). The presented prognostic models have been calibrated for mine water inflow to the Štavalj Coal Mine in southwestern Serbia. Mathematical dependencies were defined based on daily mine water inflow rates recorded during the period from 2003 to 2011, which can be used to generate short-range (1-7 day) predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates to the Štavalj Coal Mine. A strong correlation (coefficient of correlation r = 0.93, Sig. = 0.00) was derived for the one-day forecast. The coefficients of correlation for predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates related to time periods of two, three...seven days gradually declined to 0.63 (7-day mean daily inflow rate).

  20. Ground movements caused by deep underground mining in Guan-Zhuang iron mine, Luzhong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Xiu; Wen, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2010-06-01

    It is difficult to calculate the accurate ground movement due to deep underground mining because of the complexity of the geotechnical environment. Guan-Zhuang iron mine is a pillarless sublevel caving mine operated by Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company, south-east of Jinan, PR China. It mines the Zhangjiawa Seam at a depth of approximately 520 m. Although the towers are outside the conventional 'angle of draw' subsidence influence criteria, and have seen only negligible vertical displacement as a result of deep mining, there has been widespread evidence of regional horizontal displacement of the land surface, large distances away from the mining area. Possible explanations of these displacements include one or a combination of mechanisms such as pre-mining stress relaxation, regional joint patterns, soft rock strata, displacement toward active goaf areas. Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company have been making precise measurements of distances near the shaft towers in the Guan-Zhuang iron mine since 2003. The results show horizontal displacements of up to 96 mm occur even when underground mining is about 0.8 km from the survey displacements. From an analysis of these and other survey results it is concluded that mining effects extend a long way from deep mining. The results also show that ground horizontal displacements are typically at least as great as the vertical component, that the maximum horizontal displacement occurs soon after undermining.

  1. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  2. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  3. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  4. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  5. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  6. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  7. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  8. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77.1501 Section 77.1501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Auger Mining § 77.1501 Auger mining; inspections. (a) The face of all highwalls, to a distance of...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77.1501 Section 77.1501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Auger Mining § 77.1501 Auger mining; inspections. (a) The face of all highwalls, to a distance of...

  11. 30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section 746.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan modification. (a) Mining...

  12. 30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section 746.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan modification. (a) Mining...

  13. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  14. 30 CFR 819.17 - Auger mining: Subsidence protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Subsidence protection. 819.17 Section 819.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.17 Auger mining: Subsidence protection. Auger mining shall be conducted in accordance...

  15. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  16. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  17. 30 CFR 819.17 - Auger mining: Subsidence protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Subsidence protection. 819.17 Section 819.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.17 Auger mining: Subsidence protection. Auger mining shall be conducted in accordance...

  18. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  19. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  20. 30 CFR 819.17 - Auger mining: Subsidence protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Subsidence protection. 819.17 Section 819.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.17 Auger mining: Subsidence protection. Auger mining shall be conducted in accordance...