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1

Bathing  

MedlinePLUS

... shower. Be gentle and respectful. Tell the person what you are going to do, step by step. Make sure the water temperature is comfortable. Don’t use bath oil. It can make the tub slippery and may ...

2

CdS thin films doped with metal-organic salts using chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdS thin films doped with metal-organic salts were grown on glass substrates at 90°C by the chemical bath deposition technique. Metal-organic salts such as zinc acetate, chromium acetylacetonate, ammonium fluoride, aluminum nitrate, tin acetate and indium acetate were used. The chemical bath was prepared with cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide. In the case of un-doped films, the

J. Santos Cruz; R. Castanedo Pérez; G. Torres Delgado; O. Zelaya Angel

2010-01-01

3

Metal article passivated by a bath having an organic activator and a film-forming element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrates, especially those having plated metal surfaces, are subjected to passivation treatments in baths that incorporate one or more film-forming agents at least one of which does not require chromium and includes anions or cations of elements other than chromium. Typically, the anions or cations are introduced as bath-soluble salts which react with the plated surface of the substrate to

Greene

1984-01-01

4

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

5

"Bath salts" and "plant food" products: the experience of one regional US poison center.  

PubMed

Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active ?-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited studies describing the clinical effects associated with reported "bath salts" exposure in the USA. This study describes the clinical effects associated with "bath salt" and "plant food" exposures as reported to the poison center serving the state of North Carolina (Carolinas Poison Center). We performed a retrospective review of the Carolinas Poison Center database for all cases of reported human exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products from 2010 to 2011 with specific attention to clinical effects and routes of exposure. Additionally, we reviewed therapies used, trended the volume of exposure cases reported over the study period, and evaluated the distribution of calls within state counties using descriptive statistics. Carolinas Poison Center received 485 total calls and 409 reported exposure calls regarding "bath salt" or "plant food" products between January of 2010 and December of 2011. The peak of reported exposures occurred in May of 2011. Clinical effects commonly reported in the exposure cases generated from these calls included tachycardia (53.3 %, n?=?218), agitated/irritable (50.4 %, n?=?206), hallucination/delusions (26.7 %, n?=?109), and hypertension (25.2 %, n?=?103). In addition to intravenous fluids, common therapies included benzodiazepines (46.0 %, n?=?188), sedation (13.4 %, n?=?55), alkalinization (3.90 %, n?=?16), antihistamine (4.16 %, n?=?17), and intubation (3.67 %, n?=?15). Haloperidol was the antipsychotic agent used most often to treat agitation (n?=?40). Serious complications associated with reported exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, excited delirium syndrome, and death. While treatments have not been empirically determined, sedation with benzodiazepines, aggressive cooling for hyperthermic patients, and use of small doses of antipsychotics for choreoathetoid movements not controlled with benzodiazepines are not likely to be harmful. PMID:22733603

Murphy, Christine M; Dulaney, Anna R; Beuhler, Michael C; Kacinko, Sherri

2013-03-01

6

Confined compression and torsion experiments on a pHEMA gel in various bath concentrations.  

PubMed

The constitutive behaviour of cartilaginous tissue is the result of complex interaction between electrical, chemical and mechanical forces. Electrostatic interactions between fixed charges and mobile ions are usually accounted for by means of Donnan osmotic pressure. Recent experimental data show, however, that the shear modulus of articular cartilage depends on ionic concentration even if the strain is kept constant. Poisson-Boltzmann simulations suggest that this dependence is intrinsic to the double-layer around the proteoglycan chains. In order to verify this premise, this study measures whether--at a given strain--this ionic concentration-dependent shear modulus is present in a polymerized hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate gel or not. A combined 1D confined compression and torque experiment is performed on a thin cylindrical hydrogel sample, which is brought in equilibrium with, respectively, 1, 0.1 and 0.03 M NaCl. The sample was placed in a chamber that consists of a stainless steel ring placed on a sintered glass filter, and on top a sintered glass piston. Stepwise ionic loading was cascaded by stepwise 1D compression, measuring the total stress after equilibration of the sample. In addition, a torque experiment was interweaved by applying a harmonic angular displacement and measuring the torque, revealing the relation between aggregate shear modulus and salt concentration at a given strain. PMID:22926832

Roos, Reinder W; Petterson, Rob; Huyghe, Jacques M

2013-06-01

7

The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

1988-01-01

8

Effects of MetalOrganic Chemical Vapour Deposition grown seed layer on the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods by Chemical Bath Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well aligned, long and uniform ZnO nanorods have been reproducibly fabricated adopting a two-steps Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) fabrication approaches. Thin (<100nm) ZnO buffer layers have been seeded on silicon substrates by MOCVD and ZnO layers have been subsequently grown, in form of well textured nanorods, using CBD. It has been found that the

Maria Elena Fragalà; Yana Aleeva; Graziella Malandrino

2011-01-01

9

[Experience in treating patients with lymphedema using radon baths combined with local barotherapy at Belokurikha health resort].  

PubMed

The efficacy of thermal nitrogen-radon water and local pneumocompression was studied in 66 patients with lymphedema of the lower limbs stage I-II receiving treatment in Belokurikha resort. The response of 10-48-month duration was achieved in 63 (95.5%) of those treated. The course of radon baths only was less effective. PMID:7785218

Ostapov, A D; Agafonov, N I; Sukhovershin, A V; Paskal', N A; Efendiev, B A; Kolesov, V P; Dereglazov, A M

1995-01-01

10

Perspectives of Older Persons on Bathing and Bathing Disability: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Bathing is an important and potentially challenging self-care activity, and disability in bathing is associated with several adverse consequences. Little is known about older persons’ experiences with and perspectives on bathing. Objectives To understand the bathing experiences, attitudes, and preferences of older persons in order to inform the development of effective patient-centered interventions. Design Qualitative Study using the Grounded Theory framework. Participants Twenty-three community-living persons, age ? 78 years, identified from the Precipitating Events Project (PEP). Approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participant’s home. Results Three themes emerged: 1) the importance and personal significance of bathing to older persons, 2) variability in attitudes, preferences, and sources of bathing assistance, and 3) older persons’ anticipation of and responses to bathing disability. Discussion The bathing experiences described by study participants underscore the personal significance of bathing and the need to account for attitudes and preferences when designing bathing interventions. Quantitative disability assessments may not capture the bathing modifications made by older persons in anticipation of disability and may result in missed opportunities for early intervention. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of targeted, patient-centered interventions that can subsequently be tested in clinical trials. PMID:20158554

Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Gill, Thomas M.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Fried, Terri R.

2009-01-01

11

What Are Bath Salts?  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by other drugs such as MDMA or LSD. These drugs raise levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . ... spot117-bath-salts-2013.pdf [560 KB] . Can You Get Addicted to Bath Salts? Yes. Research shows ...

12

Quantum Heat Bath  

E-print Network

A model for a quantum heat bath is introduced. When the bath molecules have finitely many degrees of freedom, it is shown that the assumption that the molecules are weakly interacting is sufficient to enable one to derive the canonical distribution for the energy of a small system immersed in the bath. While the specific form of the bath temperature, for which we provide an explicit formula, depends on (i) spectral properties of the bath molecules, and (ii) the choice of probability measure on the state space of the bath, we are in all cases able to establish the existence of a strictly positive lower bound on the temperature of the bath. The results can be used to test the merits of different hypotheses for the equilibrium states of quantum systems. Two examples of physically plausible choices for the probability measure on the state space of a quantum heat bath are considered in detail, and the associated lower bounds on the temperature of the bath are worked out.

Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston

2014-06-22

13

Quantum Heat Bath  

E-print Network

A model for a quantum heat bath is introduced. When the bath molecules have finitely many degrees of freedom, it is shown that the assumption that the molecules are weakly interacting is sufficient to enable one to derive the canonical distribution for the energy of a small system immersed in the bath. While the specific form of the bath temperature, for which we provide an explicit formula, depends (i) on spectral properties of the bath molecules, and (ii) on the choice of probability measure on the state space of the bath, we are in all cases able to establish the existence of a strictly positive lower bound on the temperature of the bath. The results can be used to test the merits of different hypotheses for the equilibrium states of quantum systems. Two examples of physically plausible choices for the probability measure on the state space of a quantum heat bath are considered in detail, and the associated lower bounds on the temperature of the bath are worked out.

Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston

2014-06-22

14

Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

Williamson, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

15

10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

16

Uniformly accelerated observer in a thermal bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the quantum field aspects in flat spacetime for a uniformly accelerated observer moving in a thermal bath. In particular, we obtain an exact closed expression of the reduced density matrix for a uniformly accelerated observer with acceleration a =2?T when the state of the quantum field is a thermal bath at temperature T'. We find that the density matrix has a simple form with an effective partition function Z being a product, Z =ZTZT', of two thermal partition functions corresponding to temperatures T and T' and hence is not thermal, even when T=T'. We show that, even though the partition function has a product structure, the two thermal baths are, in fact, interacting systems; although in the high frequency limit ?k?T and ?k?T', the interactions are found to become subdominant. We further demonstrate that the resulting spectrum of the Rindler particles can be interpreted in terms of spontaneous and stimulated emission due to the background thermal bath. The density matrix is also found to be symmetric in the acceleration temperature T and the thermal bath temperature T' indicating that thermodynamic experiments alone cannot distinguish between the thermal effects due to T and those due to T'. The entanglement entropy associated with the reduced density matrix (with the background contribution of the Davies-Unruh bath removed) is shown to satisfy, in the ?k?T' limit, a first law of thermodynamics relation of the form T?S=?E, where ?E is the difference in the energies corresponding to the reduced density matrix and the background Davies-Unruh bath. The implications are discussed.

Kolekar, Sanved

2014-02-01

17

HEALTH EFFECTS AND RISkS OF SAUNA BATHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To study physiological, therapeutic and adverse effects of sauna bathing with special reference to chronic diseases, medication and special situations (pregnancy, children). Study design. A literature review. Methods. Experiments of sauna bathing were accepted if they were conducted in a heated room with sufficient heat (80 to 90ºC), comfortable air humidity and adequate ventilation. The sauna exposure for five

Katriina Kukkonen-Harjula; Kyllikki Kauppinen

18

Becoming Organized: The Creativity of Organization, DisOrganization and ReOrganization in Scientific and Artistic Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking its starting point from a recent experiment in the genetics of E. coli, this article explores how processes of organization, dis-organization and re-organization may be thought of as creative. Extending Deleuze and Guattari's concept of the Body without Organs and citing artworks such as George Legrady's Slippery Traces, Paul DeMarinis's Messenger, Jon McCormack's Eden and Natalie Jeremijenko's One Trees,

Timothy S. Barker

19

Becoming Organized: The Creativity of Organization, DisOrganization and ReOrganization in Scientific and Artistic Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking its starting point from a recent experiment in the genetics of E. coli, this article explores how processes of organization, dis-organization and re-organization may be thought of as creative. Extending Deleuze and Guattari's concept of the Body without Organs and citing artworks such as George Legrady's Slippery Traces, Paul DeMarinis's Messenger, Jon McCormack's Eden and Natalie Jeremijenko's One Trees,

Timothy S. Barker; Isabelle Stengers; Carl Zimmer

2012-01-01

20

Effects of BATHE Interview Protocol on Patient Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Background BATHE, the acronym for background, affect, trouble, handling, and empathy, is an interview approach that can be applied in the out-patient setting whereby questions belonging to each of the 5 categories are asked in the above order. As we have been taught to believe that BATHE raises the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of medical treatment overall, this study was designed to test the validity of the claim that applying BATHE heightens patient satisfaction. Methods Each of the 5 doctors was assigned 10 patients (5 in the BATHE group and the other 5 in the control group) with each patient being randomly assigned to either of the groups. The control group was interviewed as usual and the BATHE group was interviewed using BATHE. Immediately after the interview, each patient anonymously filled out a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Whether the questions asked were appropriate for each category of the protocol was evaluated by the researcher through video clips taped during the interviews. Results On 7 out of 10 items on the patient satisfaction questionnaire, the BATHE group was found to experience higher level of satisfaction than the control group in a statistically significant manner. The questions asked the BATHE group were confirmed to be more appropriate for each category of the protocol except empathy than those asked the control group. Conclusion As applying the BATHE approach was found to achieve higher level of patient satisfaction, we recommend using it in the out-patient setting. PMID:23267422

Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Yoon Na; Cheong, Yoo Seock; Choi, Eun Young

2012-01-01

21

Work extraction from microcanonical bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the maximal work extractable via a cyclic Hamiltonian process from a positive-temperature (T> 0) microcanonical state of a NGt1 spin bath. The work is much smaller than the total energy of the bath, but can be still much larger than the energy of a single bath spin, e.g. it can scale as {\\\\cal O}(\\\\sqrt{N\\\\ln N}) . Qualitatively the

A. E. Allahverdyan; K. V. Hovhannisyan

2011-01-01

22

A Series of Synthetic Organic Experiments Demonstrating Physical Organic Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones. Includes concepts on kinetic versus thermodynamic control of reaction, rearrangement of a secondary carbocation to a tertiary cation, and the effect of the size of the base on orientation during elimination. (MVL)

Sayed, Yousry; And Others

1989-01-01

23

Work extraction from microcanonical bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the maximal work extractable via a cyclic Hamiltonian process from a positive-temperature (T> 0) microcanonical state of a NGt1 spin bath. The work is much smaller than the total energy of the bath, but can be still much larger than the energy of a single bath spin, e.g. it can scale as {\\cal O}(\\sqrt{N\\ln N}) . Qualitatively the same results are obtained for those cases, where the canonical state is unstable (e.g., due to a negative specific heat) and the microcanonical state is the only description of equilibrium. For a system coupled to a microcanonical bath the concept of free energy does not generally apply, since such a system —starting from the canonical equilibrium density matrix ?T at the bath temperature T— can enhance the work exracted from the microcanonical bath without changing its state ?T. This is impossible for any system coupled to a canonical thermal bath due to the relation between the maximal work and free energy. But the concept of free energy still applies for a sufficiently large T. Here we find a compact expression for the microcanonical free-energy and show that in contrast to the canonical case it contains a linear entropy instead of the von Neumann entropy.

Allahverdyan, A. E.; Hovhannisyan, K. V.

2011-09-01

24

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath...

2013-04-01

25

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath...

2012-04-01

26

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath...

2014-04-01

27

Organizing a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience  

PubMed Central

Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. PMID:17136163

Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

2006-01-01

28

Electroplating of iron from alkaline gluconate baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroplating of iron onto copper substrates from non-polluting baths containing ferrous sulfate and sodium gluconate has been investigated under different bath composition, pH, temperature and current density conditions. A detailed study has been made on the influence of these parameters on potentiodynamic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing power of the baths. The optimum plating bath has been found

E. A Abd El Meguid; S. S Abd El Rehim; E. M Moustafa

2003-01-01

29

Chlorophyllin Chemoprevention in Trout Initiated by Aflatoxin B 1 Bath Treatment: An Evaluation of Reduced Bioavailability vs. Target Organ Protective Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyllin (CHL) is known to inhibit DNA adduction and hepatocarcinogenesis in trout when administered at doses up to 4000 ppm in the diet with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The principal protective mechanism is believed to involve CHL:AFB1 complex formation, which may reduce systemic carcinogen absorption. However, mechanisms operative within the target organ in situ have not been ruled out. The present

Vibeke Breinholt; Dan Arbogast; Pat Loveland; Cliff Pereira; Roderick Dashwood; Jerry Hendricks; George Bailey

1999-01-01

30

Experiment Results Microspectroscopy of Meteorites: Search for Organic Mineral Correlations  

E-print Network

Experiment Results Microspectroscopy of Meteorites: Search for Organic ­ Mineral Correlations M-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, 53211 Introduction * myesiltas @ knights.ucf.edu Organic molecules in meteorites can that coalesced to form meteorite source objects. The amount and type of such molecules created may depend

Peale, Robert E.

31

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

32

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

33

Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF.

Nehmann, Julia B.; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Bahnemann, Detlef W.

2012-07-01

34

Bathing: A framework for intervention focusing on psychosocial, architectural and human factors considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of bathing is usually pleasurable and relaxing for most persons and, although it serves hygienic needs, it is often individualized to a person's preferences in order to enhance the pleasurable experience. In contrast, the bathing process for elderly people suffering from dementia is often a traumatic experience for both the persons with dementia and their caregivers. Agitated behaviors

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Aleksandra Parpura-Gill

2007-01-01

35

Organic crystal growth experiment facility (13-IML-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interesting nature of metal-like organic compounds composed of charge transfer complexes has been recently realized. Crystals of these complexes can usually be grown by the solution crystallization method. It is difficult to grow such organic crystals on Earth, especially from the chemical reactions through diffusion controlled process in the solutions, because of gravitational disturbances, or sedimentation. The International Microgravity Lab. (IML-1) Organic Crystal Growth with G-Gitter Preventive Measure (OCGP) experiment is expected to grow a single crystal large enough to allow its intrinsic physical properties to be measured and its detailed crystal structure to be determined. This experiment also attempts to assess the experimental conditions including the microgravity environment for further study of the fundamental process of solution crystallization, nucleation, and growth from supersaturated phases including chemical reactions. Microgravity disturbances, G-jitter, may be an important environmental factor in the experimental method to assess. The vibration damping effects on organic crystal growth can be carefully studied.

Kanbayashi, Akio

1992-01-01

36

Theory of the spin bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum dynamics of mesoscopic or macroscopic systems is always complicated by their coupling to many `environmental' modes. At low T these environmental effects are dominated by localized modes, such as nuclear and paramagnetic spins, and defects (which also dominate the entropy and specific heat). This environment, at low energies, maps onto a `spin bath' model. This contrasts with `oscillator

N V Prokofev; Philip Stamp

2000-01-01

37

Theory of the spin bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum dynamics of mesoscopic or macroscopic systems is always complicated by their coupling to many 'environmental' modes. At low T these environmental effects are dominated by localized modes, such as nuclear and paramagnetic spins, and defects (which also dominate the entropy and specific heat). This environment, at low energies, maps onto a 'spin bath' model. This contrasts with 'oscillator

38

Cooling Bath for Cytological Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE disadvantage of liquid air1 as a cooling bath for the rapid quenching necessary in freezing and drying for cytological purposes was recognized by Hoerr2 as the formation of a vapour coat of low thermal conductivity around the specimen. He introduced isopentane for this purpose as a liquid of high boiling point which did not vaporize around the piece of

L. G. E. Bell

1952-01-01

39

Pulling bubbles from a bath  

E-print Network

Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many ...

Kao, Justin C. T.

40

Corporate Connections The Bath Advantage  

E-print Network

Corporate Connections The Bath Advantage Daniel Goord, BSc in Business Administration, on placement The Corporate Partners Scheme Contact us (inside back cover) www.bathconnectsyou.com Contents 02 03 05 06 06 07 have an excellent reputation for business education and international research. We work with a wide

Burton, Geoffrey R.

41

The ORGANIC Experiment on the ISS EXPOSE-R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are proposed as carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Recently the fullerenes C60 and C70 have been discovered in a young planetary nebula, Tc 1 and in other astronomical environments. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, which was deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2009 and retrieved by extra-vehicular activity (EVA) in January 2011. The ORGANIC experiment monitors the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes exposed to solar illumination and cosmic radiation. The radiation dose that is collected on the ISS by the samples cannot be accurately simulated in Earth laboratories. Dark samples are shielded from the UV photons and will enable us to differentiate between the effects of exposure to photons and cosmic rays. The samples are monitored before and after space exposure; ground control samples were continuously monitored. We describe the ORGANIC experiment on the Space Station and report on laboratory ground-control measurements in the UV-Vis-NIR at NASA-Ames. Extended space exposure allows us to collect data on multiple samples which can be extrapolated to other astrophysical environments and thus greatly enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space environment.

Bryson, K.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.

2011-05-01

42

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

43

Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

Goldstein, Steven W.

2014-01-01

44

Thermalization of quantum systems by finite baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a discrete quantum system coupled to a finite bath, which may consist of only one particle, in contrast to the standard baths which usually consist of continua of oscillators, spins, etc. We find that such finite baths may nevertheless equilibrate the system though not necessarily in the way predicted by standard open-system techniques. This behavior results regardless of

Jochen Gemmer; Mathias Michel

2006-01-01

45

Dissipative Landau-Zener transitions of a qubit: Bath-specific and universal behavior  

SciTech Connect

We study Landau-Zener transitions in a qubit coupled to a bath at zero temperature. A general formula that is applicable to models with a nondegenerate ground state is derived. We calculate exact transition probabilities for a qubit coupled to either a bosonic or a spin bath. The nature of the baths and the qubit-bath coupling is reflected in the transition probabilities. For diagonal coupling, when the bath causes energy fluctuations of the diabatic qubit states but no transitions between them, the transition probability coincides with the standard Landau-Zener probability of an isolated qubit. This result is universal as it does not depend on the specific type of bath. For pure off-diagonal coupling, by contrast, the tunneling probability is sensitive to the coupling strength. We discuss the relevance of our results for experiments on molecular nanomagnets, in circuit QED, and for the fast-pulse readout of superconducting phase qubits.

Saito, Keiji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, 2 CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Wubs, Martijn; Kohler, Sigmund; Haenggi, Peter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Kayanuma, Yosuke [Department of Mathematical Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

2007-06-01

46

Cognitive ability experiment with photosensitive organic molecular thin films.  

PubMed

We present an optical experiment which permits us to evaluate the information exchange necessary to self-induce cooperatively a well-organized pattern in a randomly activated molecular assembly. A low-power coherent beam carrying polarization and wavelength information is used to organize a surface relief grating on a photochromic polymer thin film which is photoactivated by a powerful incoherent beam. We demonstrate experimentally that less than 1% of the molecules possessing information cooperatively transmit it to the entire photoactivated polymer film. PMID:16907620

Barille, Régis; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Ortyl, Ewelina; Kucharski, Stanislaw; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

2006-07-28

47

Prediction of human thermophysiological responses during shower bathing.  

PubMed

This study develops a model to predict the thermophysiological response of the human body during shower bathing. Despite the needs for the quantitative evaluation of human body response during bathing for thermal comfort and safety, the complicated mechanisms of heat transfer at the skin surface, especially during shower bathing, have disturbed the development of adequate models. In this study, an initial modeling approach is proposed by developing a simple heat transfer model at the skin surface during shower bathing applied to Stolwijk's human thermal model. The main feature of the model is the division of the skin surface into three parts: a dry part, a wet part without water flow, and a wet part with water flow. The area ratio of each part is decided by a simple formula developed from a geometrical approach based on the shape of the Stolwijk's human thermal model. At the same time, the convective heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the flowing water is determined experimentally. The proposed model is validated by a comparison with the results of human subject experiments under controlled and free shower conditions. The model predicts the mean skin temperature during shower fairly well both for controlled and free shower bathing styles. PMID:19798515

Munir, Abdul; Takada, Satoru; Matsushita, Takayuki; Kubo, Hiroko

2010-03-01

48

Heat-bath cooling of spins in two amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1, 2- 13C 2-amino acids, using the ? protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, both carbons were cooled by about 2.5-fold, and in other experiments the polarization of C1 nearly doubled while all other spins had equilibrium polarization, indicating reduction in total entropy. The effect of adding Magnevist®, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

Elias, Y.; Gilboa, H.; Mor, T.; Weinstein, Y.

2011-12-01

49

Thermalization of quantum systems by finite baths  

E-print Network

We consider a discrete quantum system coupled to a finite bath, which may consist of only one particle, in contrast to the standard baths which usually consist of continua of oscillators, spins, etc. We find that such finite baths may nevertheless equilibrate the system though not necessarily in the way predicted by standard open system techniques. This behavior results regardless of the initial state being correlated or not.

Jochen Gemmer; Mathias Michel

2005-11-03

50

Organization and Analysis of Data from the Qweak Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qweak experiment, which was conducted at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in a collaboration consisting of over twenty institutions, measured the small parity violating asymmetry occurring in elastic e-p scattering at low four-momentum transfer. This asymmetry will be used to calculate a precise value for the proton's weak charge. The Standard Model firmly predicts this weak charge based on the running of the weak mixing angle from the Z0 pole (where it is anchored by precise measurements) down to low energies. Through testing this prediction the Qweak experiment hopes to either constrain or reveal possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. Because of the small size of the predicted asymmetry and the precise nature of the measurement, over 2000 hours of data were taken. In order to help organize and store this data, a database has been implemented containing averages over sets of this data. It must be organized in such a way as to allow the quick and easy retrieval of data by collaborators with minimal knowledge of the database language. Tools for aggregating and expanding parts of this database as well as data analysis will be discussed.

Cargill, Dan; Spayde, Damon

2013-04-01

51

20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.  

...2014-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

2014-04-01

52

20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

2011-04-01

53

20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

2013-04-01

54

20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

2012-04-01

55

Positronium signature in organic liquid scintillators for neutrino experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron antineutrinos are commonly detected in liquid scintillator experiments via inverse ? decay by looking at the coincidence between the reaction products: neutrons and positrons. Prior to positron annihilation, an electron-positron pair may form an orthopositronium (o-Ps) state, with a mean lifetime of a few nanoseconds. Even if the o-Ps decay is speeded up by spin-flip or pick-off effects, it may introduce distortions in the photon emission time distribution, crucial for position reconstruction and pulse shape discrimination algorithms in antineutrino experiments. Reversing the problem, the o-Ps-induced time distortion represents a new signature for tagging antineutrinos in liquid scintillator. In this article, we report the results of measurements of the o-Ps formation probability and lifetime for the most used solvents for organic liquid scintillators in neutrino physics (pseudocumene, linear alkyl benzene, phenylxylylethane, and dodecane). We characterize also a mixture of pseudocumene +1.5 g/l of 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a fluor acting as wavelength shifter. In the second part of the article, we demonstrate that the o-Ps-induced distortion of the scintillation photon emission time distributions represent an optimal signature for tagging positrons on an event by event basis, potentially enhancing the antineutrino detection.

Franco, D.; Consolati, G.; Trezzi, D.

2011-01-01

56

Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve ‘good’ water quality in ‘protected areas’. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing

D. Kay; M. Aitken; J. Crowther; I. Dickson; A. C. Edwards; C. Francis; M. Hopkins; W. Jeffrey; C. Kay; A. T. McDonald; D. McDonald; C. M. Stapleton; J. Watkins; J. Wilkinson; M. D. Wyer

2007-01-01

57

[An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].  

PubMed

Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae in it; and 3) Inadequate disinfection and washing for whole circulation system prior the experience bathing. The Hiuga City Committee directed 24 measures to improve the sanitary condition of the facility including following 5 items. 1) Fix the manual for maintenance and management of the bath. 2) Keep sufficient overflow of bath water. 3) Put disinfection of filters into practice. 4) Precise measurement and control of the residual chlorine concentration in bath water. 5) Replacement of filtrating material from crushed porous ceramic into natural sand. PMID:15103899

Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

2004-02-01

58

Drops bouncing on a vibrating bath  

E-print Network

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of millimetric droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrating fluid bath. We first characterize the system experimentally, deducing the dependence ...

Bush, John W. M.

59

Our plumbing, ourselves : a public bath house  

E-print Network

Cleansing for being well Cleansing for well being. This thesis will consider: --how developments in plumbing and sewage and their related fixtures, kitchens and baths, parallel cultural changes throughout history. Though ...

Merceret, Honor

1993-01-01

60

Protective coating for salt-bath brazing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic coating, consisting of graphite, enameler's clay, and algin binder, applied to materials prior to salt bath brazing facilitates brazing process and results in superior joints. Alternate coating materials and their various proportions are given.

Francisco, A. C.; Gyorgak, C. A.

1971-01-01

61

Organizing Science Popularization and Teacher Training Workshops : A Nigerian Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funding for science popularization has become a huge challenge in recent times especially for developing countries like Nigeria. However, a change in the school system from the 6-3-3-4 system (6 years primary, 3 years Junior secondary, 3year senior secondary, and 4 years tertiary education) to the 9-3-4 system ( 9 years junior basic, 3 years secondary, and 4 tertiary education) has made it even more convenient to strategically target the students through their teachers to attain the desired quality of education since the introduction of space science into the curriculum at the primary and secondary levels. Considering the size of Nigeria, there Is need for a shift in paradigm for sourcing resources to tackle this deficiency in a sustainable manner. Recently a teacher training and science popularization workshop was organized as a first in a series of subsequent workshops geared towards having a sustainable means of popularizing Science in Nigeria. Principally, the key lies in the partnership with the colleges of education which produce the teachers for primary schools in addition to the usual governmental actions. Experiences from this workshop will be enumerated with the hope of inspiring the same success in similar societies.

Okpala, Kingsley; Okere, Bonaventure

62

Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.  

PubMed

Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 ?M) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 ?M). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 ?M) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 ?M) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

2012-04-19

63

Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.  

PubMed

The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. PMID:24103364

Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

2014-03-01

64

Oil Formation: An "Unexpected" Difficulty in an Elementary Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment involving the separation of an unknown solid organic acid and an unknown solid organic base. The experiment is designed to present the student with an unexpected difficulty, namely, the formation of a separable viscous liquid, to see how the student handles this difficulty. (MLH)

Lewis, Dennis A.

1975-01-01

65

Customer Experience Management in Retailing: An Organizing Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival in today's economic climate and competitive retail environment requires more than just low prices and innovative products. To compete effectively, businesses must focus on the customer's shopping experience. To manage a customer's experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer experience includes every point of contact at which the customer interacts with the business, product, or service.

Dhruv Grewal; Michael Levy; V. Kumar

2009-01-01

66

Experimental Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins  

E-print Network

Algorithmic cooling (AC) is a method to purify quantum systems, such as ensembles of nuclear spins, or cold atoms in an optical lattice. When applied to spins, AC produces ensembles of highly polarized spins, which enhance the signal strength in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). According to this cooling approach, spin-half nuclei in a constant magnetic field are considered as bits, or more precisely, quantum bits, in a known probability distribution. Algorithmic steps on these bits are then translated into specially designed NMR pulse sequences using common NMR quantum computation tools. The $algorithmic$ cooling of spins is achieved by alternately combining reversible, entropy-preserving manipulations (borrowed from data compression algorithms) with $selective$ $reset$, the transfer of entropy from selected spins to the environment. In theory, applying algorithmic cooling to sufficiently large spin systems may produce polarizations far beyond the limits due to conservation of Shannon entropy. Here, only selective reset steps are performed, hence we prefer to call this process "heat-bath" cooling, rather than algorithmic cooling. We experimentally implement here two consecutive steps of selective reset that transfer entropy from two selected spins to the environment. We performed such cooling experiments with commercially-available labeled molecules, on standard liquid-state NMR spectrometers. Our experiments yielded polarizations that $bypass$ $Shannon's$ $entropy$-$conservation$ $bound$, so that the entire spin-system was cooled. This paper was initially submitted in 2005, first to Science and then to PNAS, and includes additional results from subsequent years (e.g. for resubmission in 2007). The Postscriptum includes more details.

Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; José M. Fernandez; Haggai Gilboa; Jonathan A. Jones; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein; Li Xiao

2014-04-28

67

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

68

Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK  

E-print Network

by a dedicated research building, 8 East. There have been significant changes during The Centre's forty-year life, and a diversification beyond fluid power. However, the elements remain the same with the beneficial effects of cross), and today as City of Bristol College #12;Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Bath, Bath BA2 7

Burton, Geoffrey R.

69

Could Communication Form Impact Organizations' Experience with Diversity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that cultural diversity can be advantageous or detrimental for organizations depending on organization members' communication. Introduces three forms of communication (ethnocentric, modernistic and cosmopolitan) explored by W. Barnett Pearce, each of which differs in deeply held assumptions. Overviews the implications of cosmopolitan…

Grimes, Diane Susan; Richard, Orlando C.

2003-01-01

70

STP Einstein Solid Heat Bath Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP EinsteinSolidHeatBath program simulates the exchange of energy between an Einstein solid and a heat bath. The purpose of this simulation is to determine the properties of a Einstein solid at different temperature T and to compare our results with analytical calculations of the thermodynamic properties of the Einstein solid. The default state is an Einstein solid of N=20 particles in contact with a heat bath at temperature T = 2. Additional states and parameters can be specified using the Display|Switch GUI menu item. STP EinsteinSolidHeatBath is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_EinsteinSolidHeatBath.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-05-28

71

Bath salts” induced severe reversible cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Bath salt induced cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Agitation • fever • pedal edema Medication: Intravenous nor-epinephrine for less than 6 hours Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal medicine • cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: “Bath salts” is the street name for a group of recently identified and increasingly abused stimulant synthetic cathinones that are associated with multiple systemic effects. We present a case of a patient who developed reversible dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to their use. Case Report: A 27 year old male with no past medical history was brought to emergency department with agitation. He had been inhaling and intravenously injecting “bath salts”, containing a mephedrone/Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) combination. On presentation, he was tachycardic, hypotensive and febrile. His initial labs showed an elevated white count, creatinine and creatinine phosphokinase levels. His erythrocyte sedimentation rate; C-reactive protein; urinalysis; urine drug screen; Human Immunodeficiency Virus, hepatitis, coxsackie, and influenza serology were normal. EKG showed sinus tachycardia. An echocardiogram was done which showed dilated cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction (EF) of 15–20% and global hypokinesia. A left heart catheterization was done and was negative for coronary artery disease. At a 20 week follow up, he had stopped abusing bath salts and was asymptomatic. A repeat echocardiogram showed an EF of 52%. Cocnlusions: Bath salts (MDPV, mephedrone) are synthetic cathinones with amphetamine/cocaine like properties with potential cardiotoxic effects. Cardiovascular manifestations reported include tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. “Bath salts” can also cause severe reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Prior to diagnosis, other causes of cardiomyopathy including ischemic, infectious, familial, immunological, metabolic and cytotoxic may need to be ruled out; as was done in our patient. PMID:23919103

Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Chaudari, Dhara; Lopez, Pablo; Sutherland, Michael E; Ramu, Vijay K.

2013-01-01

72

Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia: an Italian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features at onset and outcome and the diagnostic approach in subjects with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Over a 7-year period we observed 78 cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia, in which well documented clinical and radiographic data were available. The final diagnosis of BOOP was validated when patients presented: (i)

S. CAZZATO; M. ZOMPATORI; G. BARUZZI; M. L. SCHIATTONE; M. BURZI; A. ROSSI; L. RATTA; G. TERZUOLO; F. FALCONE; V. POLETTI

2000-01-01

73

Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

Coffin, Marilyn

74

[Is Turkish bath water potable?: The baths of Sidi-Bel-Abbes].  

PubMed

In Algeria, large numbers of people regularly go to Turkish baths or "Hammams". The cold tap water of the baths in the town of Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria) comes either from wells or from a mixture of potable waterworks water and well water. Its principal use is for personal hygiene (washing). However, the steam heat generates thirst that can cause users to drink cold water during the steam bath. In addition, the wells feeding the baths are often poorly protected and especially badly treated. To ascertain whether their water quality, particularly bacteriological, meets the requirements for drinking water, we studied the characteristics of water from ten Turkish baths in Sidi-Bel-Abbes. Bacteriological analyses of cold water showed signs of contamination of fecal origin in 50% of the samples analysed. Moreover two water points from two of the baths appeared to have permanent fecal contamination. The physicochemical analysis showed that the water was very high in calcium (up to 550 mg/L) and magnesium (up to 299 mg/L). The maximum nitrate level observed was 68 mg/L. This study thus showed the existence of a health risk due to deterioration in the quality of the bath water and demonstrated the need for protection of the wells, frequent purification, and regular microbiological testing. PMID:19188127

Benouis, K; Benabderrahmane, M; Harrache-Chettouh, Djamila; Benabdeli, K

2008-01-01

75

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

76

Stormwater overflow impacts on the sanitary quality of bathing waters.  

PubMed

New European Directive 2006/7/EC concerning the management of bathing water quality introduces the concept of 'active management of bathing water sanitary quality' which could lead to a temporary bathing prohibition in case of short term pollution. For the last three bathing seasons, Veolia has carried out in experimental mode this 'active management' concept at more than one hundred bathing sites with various characteristics. Results confirm the high level of microbiological pollution observed in sewer overflows during rainy periods, which is the main cause of bathing water quality deterioration. An on-line treatment solution has been successfully tested. This solution may be used in dense urban areas. PMID:18057640

Soyeux, E; Blanchet, F; Tisserand, B

2007-01-01

77

Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.  

PubMed

A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T?0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle. PMID:23002817

Kolá?, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

2012-08-31

78

Preparing your Offshore Organization for Agility: Experiences in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strategies that have significantly changed the way we conventionally think about managing software development and sustainment are the family of development approaches collectively referred to as agile methods, and the distribution of development efforts on a global scale. When you combine the two strategies, organizations have to address not only the technical challenges that arise from introducing new ways

Jayakanth Srinivasan

2010-01-01

79

Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages

L. Moce-Llivina; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre

2005-01-01

80

String melting in a photon bath  

SciTech Connect

We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

Karouby, Johanna, E-mail: karoubyj@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139 (United States)

2013-10-01

81

University of Bath Travel Survey Spring 2013  

E-print Network

.3% of all respondents were aware of the car-share parking permits, and 11.5% were aware of the electric carUniversity of Bath Travel Survey 2012/13 Spring 2013 #12;2 Contents Executive Summary & Interest in Car-sharing scheme use......................................19 Support for methods of reducing

Burton, Geoffrey R.

82

The Effect of Organic Compounds in Pot Experiments.  

E-print Network

DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE M. FRANCIS, D. V. S., Veterinarian in Charge H. ScHMIDT, D. V . M ., Assistant Veter inarian DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY G. S. FRAPS, Ph. D., Chemist in Charge: Stale Chemist J . W. CHEWNING, B. S., Assistant Chemist R. H... by the usual methods employed by us. The quantity of soil contained in these pots was not always the same. In the earlier experiments there was from 5000 to 6000 gi'ams of soil, but in later experiments the quantity of soil taken was uniformly 5000 grams...

Fraps, G. S.

1915-01-01

83

Preparing your Offshore Organization for Agility: Experiences in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two strategies that have significantly changed the way we conventionally think about managing software development and sustainment are the family of development approaches collectively referred to as agile methods, and the distribution of development efforts on a global scale. When you combine the two strategies, organizations have to address not only the technical challenges that arise from introducing new ways of working, but more importantly have to manage the 'soft' factors that if ignored lead to hard challenges. Using two case studies of distributed agile software development in India we illustrate the areas that organizations need to be aware of when transitioning work to India. The key issues that we emphasize are the need to recruit and retain personnel; the importance of teaching, mentoring and coaching; the need to manage customer expectations; the criticality of well-articulated senior leadership vision and commitment; and the reality of operating in a heterogeneous process environment.

Srinivasan, Jayakanth

84

A Comparison of the Quality of Work Experience in Government and Private Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 5979 employees from a number of Australian government and private sector organizations participated in a survey measuring the quality of their work experience. This article examines the differences found between government and private sector employees' ratings of their work experience. The results of this study indicate that the government employees rate the quality of their work experience

Ron Cacioppe; Philip Mock

1984-01-01

85

Organizing High School Biology Experiences around Contemporary Bioethical Issues: An STS Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for a citizenry capable of comprehending and tackling contemporary issues related to science and technology demands science education experiences that are fundamentally different from traditional experiences in school science. Argues that high school biology experiences organized around contemporary bioethical issues can meet this need.…

Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

1997-01-01

86

General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, Maryland, looking west. - Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Southwest corner of Belair Drive and Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

87

30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses and toilet facilities. [Statutory Provisions]...

2010-07-01

88

Combinatorial performance characteristics of agitated nickel hypophosphite electroless plating baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present the combinatorial performance characteristics of agitated sodium hypophosphite electroless plating baths. Various performance characteristics assessed include bath conversion, plating efficiency, selective conversion, metal film thickness, average pore size, effective porosity and percent pore densification (PPD). Bath agitation was brought forward by rotating a symmetric disk shaped porous ceramic substrate with a nominal pore size of

Vijaya Kumar Bulasara; Harjyoti Thakuria; Ramgopal Uppaluri; Mihir Kumar Purkait

2011-01-01

89

Effect of Early Bathing on Temperature of Normal Newborn Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nowadays there is a strong tendency for early bathing of healthy newborns but little is known about the ther- mal stability of newborns in response to early bathing. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal effect of bathing on healthy newborn within 1-2 h of life versus 4-6 h after birth. Methods: In this randomized comparative

P Alizadeh Taheri; H Fakhraee; K Sotoudeh

90

HEAT CONDUCTION NETWORKS: DISPOSITION OF HEAT BATHS AND INVARIANT MEASURE  

E-print Network

HEAT CONDUCTION NETWORKS: DISPOSITION OF HEAT BATHS AND INVARIANT MEASURE ALAIN CAMANES Abstract linking existence and uniqueness of the invariant measure to the disposition of the heat baths. We consider a model of heat conduction networks consisting of oscillators in contact with heat baths

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

[The plasm welding of the digestive system organs in experiment].  

PubMed

The plasm welding of the gut organs--perspective trend, which permits to increase the surgeon possibilities in performance of operative intervention. The results of operations, performed on large intestine and stomach, trusts, that it is possible to apply the streams of the high temperature gas plasm for the tissues dissection and connection. There are such advantages of the method, as the operation time shortage, simplicity in manipulating "Plasmomed" apparatus, absence of foreign bodies in the connection zone, high degree of hemostasis achieved. After the operation there was observed rapid restoration of the main structure elements in the large intestine and stomach wall, localized in the plasm welding zone. There was elaborated and tested a new method of the living tissues welding, and the processes, occurring in tissues within the plasm welding application zone, were studied up. PMID:16255196

Furmanov, Iu A; Savitskaia, I M; Ge?lenko, O A; Terekhov, G V; Iakovenko, L F

2005-06-01

92

Classical small systems coupled to finite baths.  

PubMed

We have studied the properties of a classical N(S)-body system coupled to a bath containing N(B)-body harmonic oscillators, employing an (N(S)+N(B)) model that is different from most of the existing models with N(S)=1. We have performed simulations for N(S)-oscillator systems, solving 2(N(S)+N(B)) first-order differential equations with N(S)?1-10 and N(B)?10-1000, in order to calculate the time-dependent energy exchange between the system and the bath. The calculated energy in the system rapidly changes while its envelope has a much slower time dependence. Detailed calculations of the stationary energy distribution of the system f(S)(u) (u: an energy per particle in the system) have shown that its properties are mainly determined by N(S) but weakly depend on N(B). The calculated f(S)(u) is analyzed with the use of the ? and q-? distributions: the latter is derived with the superstatistical approach (SSA) and microcanonical approach (MCA) to the nonextensive statistics, where q stands for the entropic index. Based on analyses of our simulation results, a critical comparison is made between the SSA and MCA. Simulations have been performed also for the N(S)-body ideal-gas system. The effect of the coupling between oscillators in the bath has been examined by additional (N(S)+N(B)) models that include baths consisting of coupled linear chains with periodic and fixed-end boundary conditions. PMID:21405815

Hasegawa, Hideo

2011-02-01

93

Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy.  

PubMed

Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m(-3), 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm(-3), 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm(-3)), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples. PMID:21486832

Kávási, Norbert; Kovács, Tibor; Somlai, János; Jobbágy, Viktor; Nagy, Katalin; Deák, Eszter; Berhés, István; Bender, Tamás; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

2011-07-01

94

Effects of bathing on Pseudomonas and Klebsiella colonization in patients with spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed Central

This study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization in humans with spinal cord injuries who were using the external urinary collection system showed that meticulous bathing with the bar soap issued by the hospital did not eliminated colonization and was frequently associated with the shifting of these bacteria to adjacent sites on the body. Bacterial counts of the skin showed that bathing did reduce the numbers of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae found on the skin surface and temporarily eliminated these bacteria from some sites. The persistence of these organisms for long periods, even when patients were meticulously bathed, indicates that P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae may become part of the resident flora in these patients. PMID:6793623

Gilmore, D S; Aeilts, G D; Alldis, B A; Bruce, S K; Jimenez, E M; Schick, D G; Morrow, J W; Montgomerie, J Z

1981-01-01

95

Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia: an Italian experience.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features at onset and outcome and the diagnostic approach in subjects with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Over a 7-year period we observed 78 cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia, in which well documented clinical and radiographic data were available. The final diagnosis of BOOP was validated when patients presented: (i) negative microbiological analysis on BAL fluid; (ii) a well documented improvement either spontaneous, or after steroid treatment or (iii) cases with progressive respiratory failure and increasing radiographic shadows, an open lung biopsy or autopsy that excluded other entities. There were 42 males and 36 females; the mean age was 61+/-12 years (range 12-85 years). Forty-two (54%) patients were current smokers, 25 (32%) had never smoked and 11 (14%) were ex-smokers. The clinical pattern at presentation of BOOP was more frequently similar to classical acute or sub-acute infectious pneumonia. Fever (63%), dyspnoea (58%) and dry cough (53%) were the typical symptoms on admission. A flu-like syndrome preceeding BOOP was observed in 21 cases (27%). Inspiratory crackles (78%) were the most typical finding at physical examination. However, 13% of the patients were asymptomatic and an abnormal chest X-ray film was the reason for seeking medical attention. Radiographically the most frequent pattern of BOOP was a unilateral consolidation (44%) with lower field predominance. A migratory behaviour was present in 22% of the cases. High-resolution computed tomographic (HR-CT) scan when performed, was more sensitive in detecting ground glass infiltrates, sub-pleural or peri-bronchovascular distribution or the presence of nodules or cavitation. Most patients (68%) were classified as having idiopathic BOOP. However, the same clinical-roentgenological pattern was observed in patients after radiotherapy for ductal breast carcinoma (6%), in collagen-vascular diseases (6%), related to drugs (9%), to infections serologically documented (4%), and to graft vs. host disease (4%). Four patients (all of whom had idiopathic BOOP) presented a rapid progressive respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation. In another two cases respiratory failure appeared after a long period during which patients experienced exertional dyspnoea and low grade fever. BAL profile was characterized by lymphocytosis with a reduction of the CD4/CD8 ratio, associated with a slight increase of neutrophils and eosinophils and scattered mast cells. However in two cases we had an increased CD4/CD8 ratio and in one case the presence of a significant 12% of polyclonal B cells. In a few cases atypical (cytokeratin-positive cells) epithelial cells were detected: these cells were constantly present in the BAL fluid of patients with rapidly progressive respiratory failure. From the diagnostic point of view this series documents that transbronchial lung biopsy (coupled with BAL) can be the first diagnostic step. However, therapy can be started on the basis of BAL data (when a characteristic morphological and phenotypical profile is evident) in cases in which the clinical presentation is suggestive and a biopsy cannot be made. Most patients showed a rapid and good response to steroid therapy. However, three patients died (4%) in spite of steroid therapy (two cases) and steroid and cyclophosphamide therapy (one case). In conclusion, although clinical findings, chest X-ray film and CT Scan findings usually suggest the diagnosis a definite confirmation requires transbronchial lung biopsy and BAL and, less frequently, open lung biopsy. PMID:10926343

Cazzato, S; Zompatori, M; Baruzzi, G; Schiattone, M L; Burzi, M; Rossi, A; Ratta, L; Terzuolo, G; Falcone, F; Poletti, V

2000-07-01

96

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17

97

Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

Hodges, Linda C.

1995-12-01

98

Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

1973-01-01

99

Self-Organization of Behavioral Primitives as Multiple Attractor Dynamics: A Robot Experiment  

E-print Network

Self-Organization of Behavioral Primitives as Multiple Attractor Dynamics: A Robot Experiment (in press IEEE Trans. on System Man and Cybernetics B) Jun Tani Brain Science Institute, RIKEN 2-1 Hirosawa-ku, Tokyo Abstract This paper investigates how behavior primitives are self-organized in a neural network

Tani, Jun

100

The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)

Blackledge, Robert D.

1974-01-01

101

Analysis Of The Returned Samples From A Space Exposure Experiment: The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R on the International Space Station investigated the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes in space. Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features.Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment.EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS for 682 days starting in 2009. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA ARC (Bryson et al. 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1980). The UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic measurements were collected for the returned flight samples.We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and returned flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Zan; Salama, Farid; Foing, Bernard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ricco, Antonio; Jessberger, Elmar K; Schmidt, Werner; Robert, François

2014-06-01

102

Interaction of Polar and Nonpolar Organic Pollutants with Soil Organic Matter: Sorption Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

E-print Network

The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question How organic pollutants interact with SOM? is lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model followed by carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), representing the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and the theoretical outcomes explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil. 1. The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition mo...

Ahmed, Ashour A; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

2014-01-01

103

Characteristics of bath-related burns in Japan.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of bath-related burn injuries was carried out at our institution. A total of 216 patients with burns were admitted between 1982 and 1996. Bath-related burns were identified in 58 patients (26.9%). The number of patients with bath-related burns increased throughout the study period. The percentage body surface area burned was 43.8 +/- 25.7% in the bath-related burn group and 27.3 +/- 28.3% in the bath-unrelated burn group. This difference was significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to mortality rate. The mechanism by which the patients sustained a bath-related burn clearly differed according to age. The percentage of burns which are bath-related and the severity of bath-related burns are higher in Japan than in any other country. This can be attributed to lifestyle, bathing systems, bathroom architecture, housing conditions and an increase in the elderly population. These burns can be prevented. Education based on this study will play a critical role in the prevention of the bath-related burn injuries. PMID:10323615

Fukunishi, K; Maruyama, J; Takahashi, H; Kitagishi, H; Uejima, T; Maruyama, K; Sakata, I

1999-05-01

104

The Holburne Museum of Art, Bath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At present, the only way you can visit the Holburne Museum of Art in Bath is online, since they have closed for refurbishing till 2010. You can read about the plans for the improvements and check out floor plans and the development schedule from a link on the homepage. Visitors will be able to check out the history of the museum's beginnings, the highlights of the fine art and decorative art collections, or search through the collection. Users may also view the museum's exhibitions, learn more about workshops, school programs and more.

105

Communication: Quantum dynamics in classical spin baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formalism for studying the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in classical spin baths is introduced. The theory is based on generalized antisymmetric brackets and predicts the presence of open-path off-diagonal geometric phases in the evolution of the density matrix. The weak coupling limit of the equation can be integrated by standard algorithms and provides a non-Markovian approach to the computer simulation of quantum systems in classical spin environments. It is expected that the theory and numerical schemes presented here have a wide applicability.

Sergi, Alessandro

2013-07-01

106

Quantum Dynamics in Classical Spin Baths  

E-print Network

A formalism for studying the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in classical spin baths is introduced. The theory is based on generalized antisymmetric brackets and predicts the presence of open-path off-diagonal geometric phases in the evolution of the density matrix. The weak coupling limit of the equation can be integrated by standard algorithms and provides a non-Markovian approach to the computer simulation of quantum systems in classical spin environments. It is expected that the theory and numerical schemes presented here have a wide applicability.

Alessandro Sergi

2013-06-14

107

Communication: quantum dynamics in classical spin baths.  

PubMed

A formalism for studying the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in classical spin baths is introduced. The theory is based on generalized antisymmetric brackets and predicts the presence of open-path off-diagonal geometric phases in the evolution of the density matrix. The weak coupling limit of the equation can be integrated by standard algorithms and provides a non-Markovian approach to the computer simulation of quantum systems in classical spin environments. It is expected that the theory and numerical schemes presented here have a wide applicability. PMID:23883002

Sergi, Alessandro

2013-07-21

108

Beyond heat baths II: Framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories  

E-print Network

Cutting-edge experiments, which involve the nano- and quantum scales, have been united with thermodynamics, which describes macroscopic systems, via resource theories. Resource theories have modeled small-scale exchanges of heat and information. Recently, the models were extended to particle exchanges, and a family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family's structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilard's engine and Landauer's Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between informational and gravitational-energy forms, but also among varied physical degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit. Quantum operators associated with extensive variables offer opportunities to explore nonclassical noncommutation. This generalization of thermodynamic resource theories invites the modeling of realistic systems that might be harnessed to test small-scale statistical mechanics experimentally.

Nicole Yunger Halpern

2014-09-27

109

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

DOEpatents

A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

1992-01-01

110

The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its measurements are described.

Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

2012-01-01

111

Refractory materials for lining high-temperature salt baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.For lining salt baths, especially high-temperature baths, containing BM5B salts we recommend that chamotte be replaced with high-alumina refractory MKO-72 (TU 14-8-71) with high-alumina VT-1 mortar for the joints. The use of MKO-72 sharply increases the service life of salt baths, reduces the number of overhauls, and reduces the expenditure of electrical energy and the quantity of barium chloride spent

E. A. Smol'nikov; L. M. Sarmanova; G. A. Karpova

1978-01-01

112

SALT BATH HEAT TRANSFER RATES FOR URANIUM PLATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was made of the heat transfer conditions of a salt ; bath-salt linear system of the type used for annealing uranium sheet. This ; system utilizes a small inner bath (liner) set into a larger outer bath which is ; used as a heat sump. Film coefficients were derived for salt-touranium, salt-to-; liner-to-salt, and uranium-to-air systems for

Burditt

1960-01-01

113

Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the CANDY model  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen DYnamics) is a simulation system based on long-term experiments of organic matter turnover and nitrogen dynamics at Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Key driving variables are soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information. The main application of the CANDY model is the calculation of short-term dynamics of nitrogen transformation and long-term dynamics of organic matter turnover in

U. Franko; G. J. Crocker; P. R. Grace; J. Klír; M. Körschens; P. R. Poulton; D. D. Richter

1997-01-01

114

Bath Salts: A Newly Recognized Cause of Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Bath salts are substance of abuse that are becoming more common and are difficult to recognize due to negative toxicology screening. Acute kidney injury due to bath salt use has not previously been described. We present the case of a previously healthy male who developed acute kidney injury and dialysis dependence after bath salt ingestion and insufflation. This was self-reported with negative toxicology screening. Clinical course was marked by severe hyperthermia, hyperkalemia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria, and sepsis. We discuss signs and symptoms, differential diagnoses, potential mechanisms of injury, management, and review of the literature related to bath salt toxicity. PMID:24555135

McNeely, Jonathan; Parikh, Samir; Valentine, Christopher; Haddad, Nabil; Shidham, Ganesh; Rovin, Brad; Hebert, Lee; Agarwal, Anil

2012-01-01

115

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

116

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

117

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

118

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

119

Self-organization in dc glow microdischarges in krypton: modelling and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organized patterns of cathodic spots have been observed in microdischarges operated in xenon, but not in other gases. However, modelling has indicated that it is, in principle, possible to observe the patterns of spots in discharges operated in other gases provided that experimental conditions, in particular pressure, are right. In this work, self-organized patterns of cathodic spots are for the first time observed in dc glow microdischarges operated in a gas other than xenon: krypton. The experiments have been guided by the modelling. According to both the experiment and the modelling, patterns in krypton are similar to those found earlier in xenon, however occur at higher pressures.

Zhu, W.; Niraula, P.; Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S.; Santos, D. F. N.

2014-10-01

120

Failure of the Shockley-Haynes Mobility Experiment with organic semiconducting materials  

E-print Network

FAILURE OF THE SHOCKLEY-dAYNES MOB1LITY EXPERIMENT WITH ORGANIC SENICOHDUCTIHG NATERIALS A Thesis HOLLIS CLYDE BOEHNE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of tbe... requirements for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1961 Major Subjectt Physics PAILUHE OP THE SHOCKLEY-HAYNES MO31LITY EXPERIMENT I/ITH ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS s nl A rA X W R i 0 0 g A Thesis HOLLIS CLYDE BOEHME Approved...

Boehme, Hollis Clyde

2012-06-07

121

Falling Out: Authoritative Knowledge and Women's Experience with Pelvic Organ Prolapse  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women’s experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Bridgitte Jordan. Results By applying the concept of “authoritative knowledge,” we identified three themes of how women construct understanding about their pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women’s narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider’s authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women describe how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women’s experiences are not well acknowledged by themselves or the medical community, perpetuating the “hidden” nature of these conditions. Discussion This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan’s authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider’s definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and the power dynamic at play, women are silenced and their expertise about their body is delegitimized, limiting their active participation in seeking care for this condition. PMID:22954080

Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A.

2014-01-01

122

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

123

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

124

INTERPRETING ORGANIC SOLUTE TRANSPORT DATA FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT USING PHYSICAL NONEQUILIBRIUM MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a field experiment, two inorganic tracers and five organic solutes were injected into an unconfined sand aquifer. Breakthrough response curves were obtained at several points downgradient of the injection zone. These response curves are analyzed using a model which assumes equ...

125

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

126

Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

2006-01-01

127

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

128

Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

2010-01-01

129

Resources at the Grassroots of Recreation: Organizational Capacity and Quality of Experience in a Community Sport Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassroots recreation organizations are volunteer-run informal organizations that deliver sport and recreation at the local level. Using a qualitative case study approach, this study examined how the quality of experience in one community sport organization was affected by organizational capacity, or the ability of the organization to mobilize financial, human, and structural capital to fulfill its mission. While the volunteers

Erin K. Sharpe

2006-01-01

130

Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition  

DOEpatents

A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

2010-12-07

131

University of Bath Carbon Management Plan working with  

E-print Network

Management Team ­ delivering the projects 41 7.3 Risk 44 7.4 Continuity planning for key roles 45 Appendix A Carbon Management Plan working with Page 3 Glossary BAU Business as Usual BERR (Department for) BusinessUniversity of Bath Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 University of Bath Carbon Management

Burton, Geoffrey R.

132

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

133

75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08a with certain changes. The...bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08. An introductory phrase in the stability performance requirements in the ASTM standard should have been removed to...

2010-08-19

134

Process of pulse electrodeposition nanocrystalline chromium from trivalent chromium bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline chromium coating was prepared by pulse electrodeposition from trivalent chromium bath containing carboxylate-urea as complexing agent. The effects of electrodeposition parameters such as current density, bath temperature and solution concentration on the thickness and electrodeposition velocity of Cr deposited films were investigated. The crystallographic structures, morphology and chemical composition of Cr deposited films were analyzed by means of XRD,

QIU Guan-zhou; CHEN Bai-zhen; ZHOU Ning-bo; WU Lu-ye; XU Li-jian

135

Molten salt bath heating of uranium and its alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fabrication of uranium and its alloys, the workpiece is commonly preheated and postheated in a molten salt bath. In this report, past and present uranium salt bath technology is reviewed and critiqued. This critical review points out two distinct fruitful development areas: (1) need for a salt for warm working of uranium and (2) need for a hot

1989-01-01

136

Bath optimization in the cellular dynamical mean-field theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cellular dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT), a strongly correlated system is represented by a small cluster of correlated sites, coupled to an adjustable bath of uncorrelated sites simulating the cluster's environment; the parameters governing the bath are set by a self-consistency condition involving the local Green's function and the lattice electron dispersion. Solving the cluster problem with an exact

David Sénéchal

2010-01-01

137

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The

Robert K. Dawless; Alfred F. LaCamera; R. Lee Troup; Siba P. Ray; Robert B. Hosler

1999-01-01

138

Spectral features of a many-body-localized system weakly coupled to a bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study many-body-localized (MBL) systems that are weakly coupled to thermalizing environments, focusing on the spectral functions of local operators. These spectral functions carry signatures of localization even away from the limit of perfectly isolated systems. We find that, in the limit of vanishing coupling to a bath, MBL systems come in two varieties, with either discrete or continuous local spectra. Both varieties of MBL systems exhibit a "soft gap" at zero frequency in the spatially averaged spectral functions of local operators, which serves as a diagnostic for localization. We estimate the degree to which coupling to a bath broadens these spectral features, and we find that some characteristics of incipient localization survive as long as the system-bath coupling is much weaker than the characteristic energy scales of the system. We discuss the crossover to localization that occurs as the coupling to the external bath is tuned to zero. Since perfect isolation is impossible, we expect the ideas discussed in this paper to be relevant for experiments on many-body localization.

Nandkishore, Rahul; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Huse, David A.

2014-08-01

139

Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

1994-01-01

140

The development of a virtual heat bath for calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

All existing calorimeter systems for sensitive nuclear assay employ a heat bath surrounding the sample chamber. The purpose of the heat bath is to maintain a constant temperature so that a fixed temperature difference is maintained across the thermal resistance of the calorimeter. Present calorimeter systems all employ an active, feedback-controlled system to maintain a fixed temperature. An alternative would be to allow the heat-bath temperature to change, to measure it, and to compensate the assay for this change. Two significant observations make this approach possible: (1) the effect on the measurement of a temperature change in the heat bath is differential in form and (2) temperature measurement systems are very accurate when measuring differences in temperature (either in time or between two locations). From these observations, the authors have developed a virtual heat-bath compensation system. The control theory and results will be presented.

Pickrell, M.M.; Bracken, D.S.; Rudy, C.R.

1998-12-31

141

South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com All about the 'bath salts' that aren't really for your bath  

E-print Network

at the office. Too costly for the bath On the street, bath salts are touted as fake cocaine, a potent smoked. "It is very much like cocaine," said Dr. Morton Levitt, a pathologist and chairman for human consumption" and not for sale to minors. The packet also warns: "In case of consumption, contact

Belogay, Eugene A.

142

Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.  

PubMed

The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways. Concentrated cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Nitrosomonas europaea were used to investigate the site preference of N(2)O by microbial processes during nitrification. The average site preference of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per thousand) and N. europaea (-2.3 +/- 1.9 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (-8.3 +/- 3.6 per thousand) differed significantly (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 247.9, p = 0). These results demonstrate that the mechanisms for hydroxylamine oxidation are distinct in M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea. The average delta(18)O-N(2)O values of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation for M. capsulatus Bath (53.1 +/- 2.9 per thousand) and N. europaea (-23.4 +/- 7.2 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (4.6 +/- 1.4 per thousand) were significantly different (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 279.98, p = 0). Although the nitrogen isotope value of the substrate, hydroxylamine, was similar in both cultures, the observed fractionation (delta(15)N) associated with N(2)O production via hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea (-2.3 and 26.0 per thousand, respectively) provided evidence that differences in isotopic fractionation were associated with these two organisms. The site preferences in this study are the first measured values for isolated microbial processes. The differences in site preference are significant and indicate that isotopomers provide a basis for apportioning biological processes producing N(2)O. PMID:12661029

Sutka, R L; Ostrom, N E; Ostrom, P H; Gandhi, H; Breznak, J A

2003-01-01

143

Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25?C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an intermediate product of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the formation of a specific clay mineral (proto-kaolinite) occurs in the presence of a specific organic compound (succinic acid). This implies that microbial species capable of excreting succinate among their EPS may promote authigenic kaolinite formation at low temperature and neutral pH. This biological degradation process might play a crucial role for the formation of authigenic kaolinite, which is a widespread clay mineral in sedimentary environments. Fiore, S., Dumontet, S., Huertas, F.J., and Pasquale, V., 2011. Bacteria-induced crystallization of kaolinite. Applied Clay Science, 53:566-571. Linares, J., and Huertas, F., 1971. Kaolinite: Synthesis at room temperature. Science 171: 896-897.

Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

2012-04-01

144

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2014-07-01

145

Microscopic insight into the nanocoalescence of a water droplet on a water bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalescence of a millimetric water droplet on a water bath has been extensively investigated by experiments, theory and continuum approaches. While the hydrodynamic processes have been largely studied the underlying microscopic mechanisms are much less understood. Thanks to the recent advances in mesoscopic modelling the physics occurring at the nanometric scale can be captured. By using the coarse- and fine-grained simulations we investigate the mechanism of the coalescence of a water nanodroplet on a water bath. In contrast to the millimetric drop we show the absence of a coalescence cascade. The two most probable mechanisms of coalescence largely discussed in the literature are i) the drainage of an air cushion between the water droplet and the bath and ii) the rupture of both water drop and reservoir interfacial layers. From the time-evolution of the 3D water density profile we show that the mechanism begins by the formation of a coalescence bridge during the first picosecond, followed by a temporary noncoalescence where the shape of the drop is modified. The life time of the temporary noncoalescence is ruled by the dissipation of the interfacial layers of the droplet and of the water bath. During this phase the droplet expels water downward through the bridge leading to a thinning of the interfacial layers and to their dissipation that corresponds to the beginning of the drop coalescence into the water bath. In this work we show that the microscopic mechanism of nanocoalescence is partially in line with the millimetric process. Indeed, in contrast with the macroscopic droplet a deformation of the interface was evidenced at the nanometric scale while at the millimetric scale the interfaces suddenly coalesce after the interfacial layers sufficiently dissipated and the drop merges into the bulk.

Ghoufi, A.; Malfreyt, P.

2013-11-01

146

Effect of bathing on atopic dermatitis during the summer season  

PubMed Central

Background There are little objective data regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing, although bathing and the use of moisturizers are the most important facets to atopic dermatitis (AD) management. Objective We performed this study to evaluate the effect of bathing on AD. Methods Ninety-six children with AD were enrolled during the summer season. Parents were educated to bathe them once daily with mildly acidic cleansers, and to apply emollients for 14 days. Parents recorded the frequency of bathing and skin symptoms in a diary. Scoring AD (SCORAD) scores were measured at the initial and follow-up visits. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the compliance of bathing; poor compliance was defined as ? 2 bathless days. Results There was an improvement of SCORAD score, itching, and insomnia in the good compliance group (all p < 0.001). The mean change in SCORAD score from the baseline at the follow-up visit was greater in the good compliance group than the poor compliance group (p = 0.038). Conclusion Daily bathing using weakly acidic syndets can reduce skin symptoms of pediatric AD during the summer season. PMID:23130333

Kim, Hakyoung; Ban, Jeongsuk; Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Ahn, Kangmo

2012-01-01

147

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-11-26

148

Experiments with organic field effect transistors based on polythiophene and thiophene oligomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible organic field effect transistor was developed based on 2,5-dihexylsexithiophene (DH6T), a recently synthesized thiophene oligomer with high regioregularity. The oligomer was tested on highly doped silicon as gate electrode and SiO2 as gate insulator film. For experiments on flexible substrates, aluminium was used as gate electrode. Several materials were tested as gate insulators with the best dielectric properties

P. T. Nguyen; U. Rammelt; W. Plieth; S. Richter; M. Plötner; W.-J. Fischer; N. Kiriy; K. Potje Kamloth; H.-J. Adler

2005-01-01

149

Suicide in the bath using weight and elevation of feet.  

PubMed

Suicide by drowning in the bath is rare. Because it implies to drown in a small volume of water, adult victims are often under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. More rarely, the use of weights is seen to induce drowning. Here is the case of a 62-year-old woman found dead in the bath. Her feet were tied and elevated by a rope attached to the shower head and a hammer was taped to her forehead. This very unique suicide is reported along with review of the literature on suicide in the bath. PMID:19749624

Racette, Stéphanie; Sauvageau, Anny

2008-03-01

150

Psychoactive "bath salts" intoxication with methylenedioxypyrovalerone.  

PubMed

Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. PMID:22682791

Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A

2012-09-01

151

Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

152

9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

153

6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

154

14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

155

11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

156

8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

157

Langevin Equation for Particle in Thermal Photon Bath  

E-print Network

The forward--backward path integral describing a charged particle moving in a thermal bath of photons is expressed in terms of the solution of a Langevin-type of equation. Approximate methods for solving this equation are discussed.

Z. Haba; H. Kleinert

2001-06-16

158

Quenching spin decoherence in diamond through spin bath polarization.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate that the decoherence of a spin by a spin bath can be completely eliminated by fully polarizing the spin bath. We use electron paramagnetic resonance at 240 GHz and 8 T to study the electron-spin coherence time T2 of nitrogen-vacancy centers and nitrogen impurities in diamond from room temperature down to 1.3 K. A sharp increase of T2 is observed below the Zeeman energy (11.5 K). The data are well described by a suppression of the flip-flop induced spin bath fluctuations due to thermal electron-spin polarization. T2 saturates at approximately 250 micros below 2 K, where the polarization of the electron-spin bath exceeds 99%. PMID:18764365

Takahashi, Susumu; Hanson, Ronald; van Tol, Johan; Sherwin, Mark S; Awschalom, David D

2008-07-25

159

Self-replaceable thermocouple for molten steel bath - A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermocouple wires, consisting of tungsten-rhenium alloy protected by ablative ceramic coating, are wound on a reel and fed continuously into bath. Tests indicate accuracy and reliability are comparable to conventional devices.

Blau, P.; Zellner, G.

1971-01-01

160

1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

161

Heat-bath cooling of spins in two amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1, 2-13C2-amino acids, using the ? protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate

Y. Elias; H. Gilboa; T. Mor; Y. Weinstein

162

Control of precious-metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis is included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1983-07-01

163

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W. G.

164

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic ''how to'' approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1986-01-01

165

Asymmetric gears in a bacterial bath: Crossover between equilibrium and active motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental distinction between active matter and equilibrium systems is that active matter is not governed by the conventional laws of thermodynamics. As a specific example, recent experiments have put asymmetric gears into a ``bacterial bath,'' in which bacteria consume food, propel themselves forward, collide into the gears, and induce asymmetric rotation, thus converting chemical energy into mechanical work (Sokolov et al, 2010). By comparison, the same gears would not rotate in a thermal bath, because the second law of thermodynamics prohibits converting equilibrium thermal energy into mechanical work. This experiment leads to the basic question of what makes the difference between self-propelled motion and equilibrium thermal motion. To address this question, we perform simulations of a gear in a bacterial bath, following the approach of Angelani et al (2009); these simulations confirm that bacterial motion leads asymmetric rotation. We then modify the equations of motion, interpolating between bacteria and equilibrium Brownian particles, and determine the motion of the gear. These results help to identify what features of active bacterial motion are necessary to violate the laws of thermodynamics and generate rotation, and how these features can be controlled.

Duzgun, Ayhan; Selinger, Jonathan

2013-03-01

166

Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of 'bath salt' cathinones.  

PubMed

A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as 'legal' alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone, and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable with those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liabilities. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than those of cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly because MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits because of adverse effects of taking 'bath salts'. PMID:23839026

Gatch, Michael B; Taylor, Cynthia M; Forster, Michael J

2013-09-01

167

Locomotor Stimulant and Discriminative Stimulus Effects of "Bath Salt" Cathinones  

PubMed Central

A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as “legal” alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable to those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liability. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly since MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits due to adverse effects from taking “bath salts”. PMID:23839026

Gatch, Michael B.; Taylor, Cynthia M.; Forster, Michael J.

2014-01-01

168

Effect of alkali and alkaline-earth chloride addition on electrolytic reduction of UO 2 in LiCl salt bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolytic reduction process of actinide oxides in a LiCl salt bath at 923K has been developed for nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since some salt-soluble fission products, such as Cs, Sr and Ba, accumulate in the LiCl salt bath, their effect on UO2 reduction was investigated. In the experiments, UO2 specimens were reduced by potential- or current-controlled electrolysis in various LiCl

Yoshiharu Sakamura

2011-01-01

169

Teaching Catalytic Antibodies to Undergraduate Students: An Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only 13 years ago, few believed that antibodies could be catalytic or that any protein could be made to order to perform a catalytic task. The field has quickly matured from initial proof of concept and demonstration of fundamental enzyme-like characteristics to one in which antibodies have catalyzed an extremely broad range of organic transformations. Now that the first catalytic antibody is commercially available, it is possible to bring these novel biocatalysts into the classroom so every student can gain hands-on experience and carry out experiments on the cutting edge of scientific discovery. This lab project deals with antibody-catalyzed aldol condensations. It includes the (i) synthesis of substrate and product; (ii) HPLC characterization of the antibody-catalyzed reaction; (iii) titration of the antibody active-site; and (iv) analysis of the kinetics of the antibody-catalyzed reaction. The lab project provides training not only in biocatalysis but in a number of related aspects of chemical and biochemical research, including organic synthesis, mechanistic organic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Students will learn the use of various experimental techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC, to monitor chemical reactions and determine kinetic parameters. They will be exposed to concepts and terminology of bioorganic chemistry, such as protein structure and function, inhibition and active-site titration, and basic principles of biocatalysis.

Shulman, Avidor; Keinan, Ehud; Shabat, Doron; Barbas, Carlos F., III

1999-07-01

170

Kerr black hole in equilibrium with a rotating heat bath  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium and stability of a rotating black hole in a finite heat bath is discussed. An axisymmetric box of radiation in thermal equilibrium rotates rigidly, and some radiation slumps towards the outer wall. When such a heat bath is in equilibrium with a black hole, the temperatures and angular velocities of the hole and the bath are equal. The situation in which the heat bath is in a cylindrical box much larger than the hole, and contains only massless modes, is particularly simple and may be examined in detail. A sufficient condition for the stability of the equilibrium can be derived, analogous to the stability condition derived by Davies and by Gibbons and Perry for the nonrotating case. Depending on the total energy {ital E}, total angular momentum {ital J}, and radius {ital R} of the heat bath, the system at equilibrium may be in one of three thermodynamic regimes: a radiation-only state, a state dominated by a black hole, or a transition state in which both the black hole and the heat bath contain significant energy, angular momentum, and entropy.

Schumacher, B. (Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States)); Miller, W.A.; Zurek, W.H. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1992-08-15

171

Development of a System for Temperature Profile Characterization of Baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid baths are the main calibration equipment to directly affect the measurement uncertainty in temperature calibrations. Therefore, the characteristics of baths need to be well investigated and understood. The temperature profile and stability of liquid baths are one of the most important contributions to the calibration uncertainty of platinum resistance thermometers, digital thermometers, liquid-in-glass thermometers, and thermocouples. Commercial baths only present stability and uniformity data in two dimensions in general; however, thermometers and thermocouples are immersed into the body of the bath, so the depth or z-axis is also very important. In this study, a measurement system has been designed using three-stepper motors and a data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS is developed using object-oriented algorithms to form a three-dimensional (3-D) scanning system. The 3-D scanning system is home-made and used in conjunction with a reference platinum thermometer. The temperature profiles and stability of several types of baths: water, oil, and salt were obtained in the temperature range from 30 °C to 450 °C. Therefore, this contributed toward a more accurate uncertainty budget evaluation.

Torun, Mehmet Kemalettin; Ince, Ahmet T.

2011-12-01

172

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2001-07-10

173

Flume Experiments on the Co-Deposition of Organic Matter and Clays in Muddy Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of mudstone sedimentology has entered a period of rapid change, largely driven by recent experimental studies and the boom in shale gas exploration. A key milestone was the recognition that many seemingly quiet deposited mudstones may actually have been deposited by currents that carried flocculated clays in bedload. Multiple ancient black shales show sedimentary features that indicate accumulation from bottom currents rather than simply settling of organic matter and detritus from the water column, and many contain organic-rich sand-size mixed aggregates of clays and organic matter. The latter have previously been interpreted as marine snow aggregates that settled rapidly through the water column and enhanced rapid delivery of organic matter to the sediment water interface. An alternative formative process is the mingling of organic marine matter (degrading organic debris) with flocculating clays in muddy bottom currents. We are conducting flume experiments to compare organo-clay textures in bottom current and still-water settling mode, in order to evaluate the impact of these competing processes on organic matter preservation. Initial results show that degrading organic particles form sand-size aggregates with clays in muddy flows, and that these aggregates form ripples and accrete into laminated appearing deposits. Still-water settled muds generally show a more "open" pore structure with dispersed clumps of OM and clays, whereas flow deposited OM-clay mixtures show indications of roll-aggregation, small scale OM-bridges between clay particles, and "coatings" of OM and/or clays. These fabric differences are also reflected in the water contents of the accumulating sediments and suggest a fundamentally different pore structure. Roll-aggregated material dewaters more rapidly upon burial than still-water settled material, even though roll-aggregated surface sediments (top 2 cm) have higher initial water contents than comparable still-water settled sediments. Our observations suggest that there is likely a pronounced difference in carbon preservation potential between still water vs flow deposited marine organic-rich muds.

Schieber, J.; Schimmelmann, A.; Bennett, R.; Douglas, J.; Curry, K.

2011-12-01

174

ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

175

Transition from hospital to home following pediatric solid organ transplant: qualitative findings of parent experience.  

PubMed

Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child's solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three wk following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge, and adherence. The parents' responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

Lerret, Stacee M; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

2014-08-01

176

Microwave activated chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) of zinc oxide: Influence of bath composition and substrate characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO films have been deposited using microwave activated chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) technique. In this procedure, a substrate is immersed in an aqueous chemical bath containing soluble ZnO precursors and irradiated with microwaves. Deposits produced by this method are crystalline and strongly adhered. The use of water–ethanol 1:1 (v\\/v) mixtures instead of water as a solvent and the addition of

Ana M. Peiró; José A. Ayllón; José Peral; Xavier Domènech; Concepción Domingo

2005-01-01

177

Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants.  

PubMed

Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and observed mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies. PMID:24365588

Hebig, Klaus H; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott J

2014-03-01

178

Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

179

Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.  

PubMed

The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

2014-03-01

180

Early experience of a safety net provider reorganizing into an accountable care organization.  

PubMed

Although safety net providers will benefit from health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act, they also face significant challenges in the postreform environment. Some have embraced the concept of the accountable care organization to help improve quality and efficiency while addressing financial shortfalls. The experience of Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA) in Massachusetts, where health care reform began six years ago, provides insight into the opportunities and challenges of this approach in the safety net. CHA's strategies include care redesign, financial realignment, workforce transformation, and development of external partnerships. Early results show some improvement in access, patient experience, quality, and utilization; however, the potential efficiencies will not eliminate CHA's current operating deficit. The patient population, payer mix, service mix, cost structure, and political requirements reduce the likelihood of financial sustainability without significant changes in these factors, increased public funding, or both. Thus the future of safety net institutions, regardless of payment and care redesign success, remains at risk. PMID:24842968

Hacker, Karen; Santos, Palmira; Thompson, Douglas; Stout, Somava S; Bearse, Adriana; Mechanic, Robert E

2014-08-01

181

Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-12-01

182

Dissipative Landau-Zener transitions of a qubit: Bath-specific and universal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Landau-Zener transitions in a qubit coupled to a bath at zero temperature. A general formula that is applicable to models with a nondegenerate ground state is derived. We calculate exact transition probabilities for a qubit coupled to either a bosonic or a spin bath. The nature of the baths and the qubit-bath coupling is reflected in the transition

Keiji Saito; Martijn Wubs; Sigmund Kohler; Yosuke Kayanuma; Peter Hänggi

2007-01-01

183

Drowning of babies in bath seats: do they provide false reassurance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the problem of children drowning in bath seats by examining case reports, by looking at the epidemiology of bath drowning in children under two years of age and by reviewing the literature. Methods We describe two babies: one who drowned and one nearly drowned in the bath whilst in a bath seat. We examined the RoSPA\\/RLSS UK

J. Sibert; N. John; D. Jenkins; M. Mann; V. Sumner; A. Kemp; P. Cornall

2005-01-01

184

Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows that the methylphenanthrenes do react on short timescales, even at temperatures below what would be reached during a large earthquake. These results provide a more accurate picture of temperature rise on previously studied faults. The Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada, the Champlain thrust in Vermont, the Punchbowl fault in Southern California, and the proto-decollement on Sitkinak Island, Alaska, all show no difference in MPI-1 values between on- and off-fault samples, suggesting a lack of differential heating. Our experiments allow us to more accurately estimate the maximum temperature rise that could have occurred during fault slip without significantly altering the methylphenanthrene thermal maturity.

Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

2012-12-01

185

Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect

A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, {sup 30}NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and reflected light microscopy. Based on these measurements, it was possible to recognize three distinct temperature regimes, within which the type and amount of sulfur in the analyzed fractions underwent transformations: (1) between 150 and 225C significant proportion of kerogen-bound sulfur is lost probably due to the collapse of polysulfide bridges; (2) between 225 and 275C, cleavage of -S-S- and -S-C- linkages within the kerogen is believed to occur, resulting in substantial production of polar sulfur-rich bitumen; (3) above 275C total bitumen yields as well as the proportion of bitumen sulfur decrease, while C-C bond scission leads to increased yields of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The results from this study clearly and quantitatively establish a link between organically-bound sulfur, and more specifically, organic polysulfides, and the low-temperature evolution of soluble petroleum-like products (bitumen) from sulfur-rich source rocks.

Nelson, B.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Seewald, J.S. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry; Vairavamurthy, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Miknis, F.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1995-04-01

186

Hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids synthesized by water-bath microwave: synthesis and desulfurization.  

PubMed

Water-bath microwave method was used for hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) synthesis to study the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) from the flue gas. The results showed that the water-bath microwave method has some advantages of short reaction time and good yields. The synthesis of ethanolamine lactate ILs was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design (L(9)(3(4))). Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the molar ratio of ammonium/acid is the most significant variable, and the optimized preparation conditions are under 338 K, wave power of 300 W for 30 min with the molar ratio 1:1.1 (ethanolamine vs. lactic acid). At the same condition, the yield of the other ILs was over 90% except dimethyl ethanolamine-based ILs. Results showed that the solubility of SO(2) in ethanolamine lactate ILs was 0.51 (mole fraction), higher than others. Ethanolamine lactate ILs was a better absorbent for SO(2). The optimal temperature for the absorption and desorption process were 298 and 363 K, respectively. The optimal desorption time was 60 min. It was also found that water-bath microwave can improve the release of the absorbed SO(2) from ILs. PMID:20092942

Zhai, Linzhi; Zhong, Qin; He, Chuan; Wang, Juan

2010-05-15

187

Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics  

E-print Network

Small-scale heat exchanges have recently been modeled with resource theories intended to extend thermodynamics to the nanoscale and quantum regimes. We generalize these theories to exchanges of quantities other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d-majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from, and we bound the work cost of creating, a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

Nicole Yunger Halpern; Joseph M. Renes

2014-09-13

188

Column experiment to study isotope fractionation of volatile organic contaminants in porous media under unsaturated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents is common in industrialized countries. The use of stable isotope analysis is increasingly recognized as a powerful technique for investigating the behaviour of organic or inorganic contaminants. Recently, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven to be an effective tool to confirm and quantify in-situ biodegradation by indigenous microbial populations in groundwater.In contrast, only few studies have investigated the use of CSIA in the unsaturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the main potential applications of CSIA include the assessment of biodegradation and the fingerprinting of different sources of petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvents vapours. However, it has to be taken into account that isotope ratios in the unsaturated zone can vary due to diffusion and volatilization in addition to biodegradation. For application of isotope methods in the unsaturated zone, it is crucial to quantify isotopic fractionation resulting from physico-chemical and transport processes. The study is focused on laboratory experiments that investigate the effect of vaporization and diffusion on isotope ratios. The effect of diffusion is carried out using a column experiment setup that can be considered to represent VOC transport from a floating NAPL towards the atmosphere. Furthermore, additional column and batch experiments will be conducted to better understand the effect of biodegradation. Volatilization is studied with an other experimental setup. In addition, a mathematical framework was developed to simulate the isotope evolution in the column study. Since the initial experiments aimed at investigating the effect of vaporization and diffusion only, the column is filled with dry quartz sand in order to avoid perturbations of concentration profiles by humidity or adsorption on organic matter. An activated sand will later be used for the biodegradation experiments. A mixture of nine contaminants (pentane, MTBE, hexane, benzene, isooctane, methylcyclohexane, toluene, octane and xylene) that represents a wide range of hydrocarbons is emplaced in the column. Periodical measurements of concentrations and ?13C values were carried out in the source chamber and at different distances along the column. A depletion of 13C with distance is observed, which is due to faster diffusion of substances enriched in 12C. The shift of ?13C values towards more negative values is more significant during the first hours of the experiment. After some hours, the value stabilizes when a steady state is reached. These results fit well the analytical models. These results demonstrate that stable isotope profiles are reached under steady state conditions even though molecules with light isotopes only diffuse faster than molecules with heavy isotopes. This is an important finding for the application of isotope analysis to link VOC vapours to contaminant sources and to demonstrate reactive processes based on shifts in isotope ratios. Further experiments will be conducted to study the isotopic response to diffusion, vaporization and biodegradation of chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE) using quite a similar column setup. Stable hydrogen and chlorine isotopes will also be measured during the same experiments in order to better constrain the different processes and fingerprinting sources of contaminations.

Jeannottat, Simon; Hunkeler, Daniel; Breider, Florian

2010-05-01

189

Absence/presence calling in microarray-based CGH experiments with non-model organisms  

PubMed Central

Structural variations in genomes are commonly studied by (micro)array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The data analysis methods to infer copy number variation in model organisms (human, mouse) are established. In principle, the procedures are based on signal ratios between test and reference samples and the order of the probe targets in the genome. These procedures are less applicable to experiments with non-model organisms, which frequently comprise non-sequenced genomes with an unknown order of probe targets. We therefore present an additional analysis approach, which does not depend on the structural information of a reference genome, and quantifies the presence or absence of a probe target in an unknown genome. The principle is that intensity values of target probes are compared with the intensities of negative-control probes and positive-control probes from a control hybridization, to determine if a probe target is absent or present. In a test, analyzing the genome content of a known bacterial strain: Staphylococcus aureus MRSA252, this approach proved to be successful, demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values larger than 0.9995. We show its usability in various applications, such as comparing genome content and validating next-generation sequencing reads from eukaryotic non-model organisms. PMID:24771343

Jonker, Martijs J.; de Leeuw, Wim C.; Marinkovic, Marino; Wittink, Floyd R. A.; Rauwerda, Han; Bruning, Oskar; Ensink, Wim A.; Fluit, Ad C.; Boel, C. H.; de Jong, Mark; Breit, Timo M.

2014-01-01

190

Beyond SARS: ethnic community organization's role in public health -- a Toronto experience.  

PubMed

The SARS outbreak in Toronto was a public health crisis. It was particularly frightening to the Chinese-Canadians, because of the origin of the deadly disease. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations launched various activities to help the Chinese-Canadians as well as other Asian-Canadian communities to fight against SARS and its social side-effects. From launching the SARS Supporting Line, distributing health promotional material, disseminating SARS related information, paying tribute to frontline health workers, and promoting local business, to fundraising for SARS related research; they played an active role in easing the public's anxiety, especially for the Chinese-Canadians in the great Toronto area. The culturally diverse population brought problems as well as solutions. Ethnic groups have expertise in almost all areas, including people with leadership skills. The Toronto Chinese community's experience in combating SARS is a good example. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations' activities during the SARS outbreak demonstrate that ethnic minority organizations can play an important role in public health, especially in a public health crisis, and beyond. PMID:19066240

Weizhen Dong

2008-12-01

191

The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.  

PubMed

The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations. PMID:22680688

Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André

2012-05-01

192

Changing Acid Bath Solution (10% HCl) Two people should perform this procedure in order to safely lift the acid bath out from the  

E-print Network

Changing Acid Bath Solution (10% HCl) Two people should perform this procedure in order to safely if the bath appears dirty and/or contains any debris. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): When preparing, using, or changing the acid bath; long pants, closed toed-shoes, lab coat, safety glasses, and gloves

Paytan, Adina

193

T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12  

SciTech Connect

This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; /Indiana U.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

2012-02-11

194

A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine soil organic models were evaluated using twelve datasets from seven long-term experiments. Datasets represented three different land-uses (grassland, arable cropping and woodland) and a range of climatic conditions within the temperate region. Different treatments (inorganic fertilizer, organic manures and different rotations) at the same site allowed the effects of differing land management to be explored. Model simulations were evaluated

P. Smith; J. U. Smith; D. S. Powlson; W. B. McGill; J. R. M. Arah; O. G. Chertov; K. Coleman; U. Franko; S. Frolking; D. S. Jenkinson; L. S. Jensen; R. H. Kelly; H. Klein-Gunnewiek; A. S. Komarov; C. Li; J. A. E. Molina; T. Mueller; W. J. Parton; J. H. M. Thornley; A. P. Whitmore

1997-01-01

195

Assessment of chemical and biochemical stabilization of organic C in soils from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and chemical stabilization of organic C was assessed in soils sampled from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK), representing a wide range of carbon inputs and managements by extracting labile, non-humified organic matter (NH) and humic substances (HS). Four sequentially extracted humic substances fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) were extracted and characterized before and after a 215-day laboratory

M. De Nobili; M. Contin; N. Mahieu; E. W. Randall; P. C. Brookes

2008-01-01

196

Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath  

PubMed Central

A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50?nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs. PMID:22839598

2012-01-01

197

Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath.  

PubMed

A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet-visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50?nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs. PMID:22839598

Lee, Ji-Hwan; Choi, Stephen U S; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Seoung Youn

2012-01-01

198

Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath  

SciTech Connect

The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects result in an irreversible spreading of free electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible spreading produces a detectable effect on the electron interference.

Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V., E-mail: markiz4@yandex.ru

2012-12-15

199

Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

2014-04-01

200

Microwave activated chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) of zinc oxide: Influence of bath composition and substrate characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO films have been deposited using microwave activated chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) technique. In this procedure, a substrate is immersed in an aqueous chemical bath containing soluble ZnO precursors and irradiated with microwaves. Deposits produced by this method are crystalline and strongly adhered. The use of water-ethanol 1:1 (v/v) mixtures instead of water as a solvent and the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a Zn 2+ complexing agent, are factors that have been explored in this work. The influence of the chemical bath composition on the crystal habit of the deposited crystal has been analysed. Scanning electron microscopic characterization suggested that both the shape of the crystals and the texture of the films were highly influenced by the chemical bath composition. The observed morphological changes suggested a shift from kinetic to thermodynamic control in the crystal growth process, as a result of the addition of either ethanol or EDTA to the deposition bath. Moreover, comparison of films grown on bare glass or fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:F) showed that heterogeneous deposition was favoured on conducting substrates due to their localized heating, as a consequence of the interaction of the substrate with the microwave irradiation.

Peiró, Ana M.; Ayllón, José A.; Peral, José; Domènech, Xavier; Domingo, Concepción

2005-11-01

201

Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes.  

PubMed

We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime. PMID:24712779

Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

2014-04-01

202

Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.  

PubMed

Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

2013-01-01

203

Quantum energy and coherence exchange with discrete baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherence and quantum average energy exchange are studied for a system particle as a function of the number N of constituents of a discrete bath model. The time evolution of the energy and coherence, determined via the system purity (proportional to the linear entropy of the quantum statistical ensemble), are obtained solving numerically the Schrödinger equation. A new simplified stochastic Schrödinger equation is derived which takes into account the discreteness of the bath. The environment (bath) is composed of a finite number N of uncoupled harmonic oscillators (HOs), characterizing a structured bath, for which a non-Markovian behavior is expected. Two distinct physical situations are assumed for the system particle: the HO and the Morse potential. In the limit N?? the bath is assumed to have an ohmic, sub-ohmic or super-ohmic spectral density. In the case of the HO, for very low values of N (?10) the mean energy and purity oscillate between HO and bath indefinitely in time, while for intermediate and larger values (N?10?500) they start to decay with two distinct time regimes: exponential for relatively short times and power-law for larger times. In the case of the Morse potential we only observe an exponential decay for large values of N while for small N’s, due to the anharmonicity of the potential, no recurrences of the mean energy and coherences are observed. Wave packet dynamics is used to determine the evolution of the particle inside the system potentials. For both systems the time behavior of a non-Markovianity measure is analyzed as a function of N and is shown to be directly related to the time behavior of the purity.

Galiceanu, M.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

2014-12-01

204

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

205

The Synthesis of 1-Phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines: An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment and Class Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment (requiring three/four 3-hour laboratory sessions) involving a four-stage synthesis of 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via the Pictet-Spengler route. In addition, the experiment allows students to study the spectra and properties of aklaloid-like materials while completing several…

Letcher, R. M.; Sammes, M. P.

1985-01-01

206

Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

2007-01-01

207

Some final conclusions and supporting experiments related to the search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking molecular analysis experiment has demonstrated the absence (within the detection limits which range from levels of parts per million to below parts per billion) of organic substances in the Martian surface soil at the two Viking landing sites. Laboratory experiments with sterile and nonsterile antarctic samples further demonstrate the capability and reliability of the instrument. The circumstances under which organic components could have escaped detection, such as inaccessibility or extreme thermal stability of organic polymers, are discussed but are found to be unlikely. The inability of the instrument to detect free oxygen evolved from soil samples is pointed out.

Biemann, K.; Lavoie, J. M., Jr.

1979-01-01

208

HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during the Matroshka 2B experiment than in the previous phase it was not possible to attribute this observation to the lower Sun activity in 2008, since the locations inside the ISS were different. The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EUs Seventh Frame-work Programme (FP7) under Project Nr: 218817 and coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) http://www-fp7-hamlet.eu

Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

209

Environmental factors and the development of Bath Spa, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal water springs at Bristol and Bath in west England have come under close scrutiny since the closure of Bath Spa in 1978. In order to protect the hot springs from dewatering and loss of pressure due to largescale quarrying and deep drilling, it is necessary to identify the sources and routes whereby the thermal water travels to its resurgences in the Avon valley. Control over deep water movements is exercised by the structure and size of the aquifers and aquicludes, modified by zones of Quaternary—Recent fracturing along which water movements have not been restricted or blocked by mineralization.

Kellaway, G. A.

1994-10-01

210

Are Roots the Source of All Soil Organic Matter? Results From Isotopic Experiments in Temperate Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants produce organic detritus through roots and aboveground senescence, mainly litterfall. In soil science and biogeochemistry, the main source of soil carbon (C) inputs has been assumed to be litter. For example, litterfall is used as a measure of primary productivity relevant to belowground processes and decomposition, and properties of litter decay have been used to parameterize soil C models. There is little empirical evidence, however, that aboveground C inputs make a quantitatively important contribution to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). In a series of experiments in Mediterranean conifer and eastern deciduous forests, we used 13-C and 14-C analysis to quantify the contribution of leaf /needle C versus root C into soil organic matter pools (separated by density, physical, and chemical fractionation). Because dissolved organic C (DOC) leaching into soil may be rapidly decomposed by microbes, we also examine incorporation of isotopic tracers into microbial biomass (using chloroform-fumigation extraction, 13-C PLFA, and handpicked ectomycorrhizal fungi). We have found that aboveground inputs make almost no contribution to soil organic matter or microbial biomass in the mineral soil of these forests, at least within five years of substrate deposition. A new model of the litter layer might have the litter layer accumulating and decaying in relative isolation from the mineral soil. In that case, DOC leaching from the litter layer may be providing energy but not biomass to microbes, be mineralized in abiotic reactions with soil minerals, or be moving rapidly in macro pores. We note that these sites have low earth worm populations; sites with more bioturbation might have more surface C input to SOM. We have found that fine root lifetimes are much longer than typical leaf or needle lifespan, such that the two sources must be treated differently in biogeochemical models. It also means that the stock of SOM in these forests is derived from a much smaller flux of C inputs than previously assumed, implying that the efficiency of stabilization (or residence time) of root inputs as SOM is much higher than previously assumed.

Torn, M. S.

2005-12-01

211

The Influences of Dissolved Organic Matter on Mercury Biogeochemistry in Mesocosm Experiments in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of mercury (Hg) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) play important roles in controlling reactivity, bioavailability and transport of Hg in aquatic systems. Laboratory experiments using a variety of organic matter isolates from surface waters in the Florida Everglades indicate that DOM binds Hg very strongly and is the dominant ligand for Hg in the absence of sulfide. These experiments have also shown that the presence of DOM influences the geochemical behavior of cinnabar (HgS) through the stabilization of nanocolloidal HgS resulting in relatively high Hg concentrations under supersaturated conditions with respect to HgS, a common condition in waters containing measurable sulfide concentrations. In this paper, the results of in-situ mesocosm experiments designed to directly measure the effects of DOM -Hg interactions on Hg biogeochemistry will be described. In these experiments, mesocosms (wetland enclosures), located in the central Everglades region of Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA 3A15), were amended with isotopically enriched Hg (200Hg, 202Hg), sulfate (SO4=) and the hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction of DOM from a site (F1) in the eutrophic northern Everglades. The use of stable isotope spikes in these studies allowed us to examine the delivery of Hg to surface soils (which are the predominant zones of methylation); partitioning of Hg and MeHg among phases (which impacts bioavailability); net MeHg production; loss of Hg and MeHg through photodemethylation, reduction and volatization; and bioaccumulation. The F1 HPOA isolate, obtained using XAD resins, was more aromatic, had a greater specific ultra-violet absorbance and had previously been shown to be more reactive with Hg than the DOM present at the 3A15 site. The F1 HPOA isolate formed strong DOM-Hg complexes (KDOM') = 1023.2 L kg-1 at pH = 7.0 and I = 0.1) and effectively inhibited the precipitation of HgS in laboratory experiments. Select mesocosms were amended with either F1-HPOA or SO4= resulting in a range of concentrations for each constituent. For the DOM amended mesocosms, DOC concentrations increased from 50-100% and the overall SUVA increased from 2.9 to 3.7 L mg C-1 m-1 relative to control mesocosms, indicating that both the concentration and overall reactivity of the DOM in the amended mesocosms had been altered substantially. In these mesocosms, the concentrations of both ambient and isotopically enriched dissolved Hg increased significantly compared to controls. Greater concentrations of both dissolved ambient and labeled methylmercury were also observed in the DOM amended mesocosms indicating that the added DOM increased Hg bioavailabilty of both Hg pools for methylation. In addition, DOM shielded Hg and MeHg from photodemethylation and volatilization, however, it inhibited subsequent MeHg bioaccumulation. Overall, the addition of DOM resulted in increased concentrations of labeled methylmercury comparable to those measured in mesocosms amended with SO4= suggesting that DOM is an important constituent influencing the methylation of Hg. This effect is likely due to increased concentrations of dissolved Hg in the DOM amended mesocosms.

Aiken, G. R.; Gilmour, C. A.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Orem, W.

2007-12-01

212

Adsorption of gases in metal organic materials: comparison of simulations and experiments.  

PubMed

Molecular simulations using standard force fields have been carried out to model the adsorption of various light gases on a number of different metal organic framework-type materials. The results have been compared with the available experimental data to test the validity of the model potentials. We observe good agreement between simulations and experiments for a number of different cases and very poor agreement in other cases. Possible reasons for the discrepancy in simulated and measured isotherms are discussed. We predict hydrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 and 298 K in a number of different metal organic framework materials. The importance of quantum diffraction effects and framework charges on the adsorption of hydrogen at 77 K is discussed. Our calculations indicate that at room temperature none of the materials that we have tested is able to meet the requirements for on-board hydrogen storage for fuel cell vehicles. We have calculated the volume available in a given sorbent at a specified adsorption energy (density of states). We discuss how this density of states can be used to assess the effectiveness of a sorbent material for hydrogen storage. PMID:16852629

Garberoglio, Giovanni; Skoulidas, Anastasios I; Johnson, J Karl

2005-07-14

213

Diffusion and solubility coefficients determined by permeation and immersion experiments for organic solvents in HDPE geomembrane.  

PubMed

The chemical resistance of eight organic solvents in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane has been investigated using the ASTM F739 permeation method and the immersion test at different temperatures. The diffusion of the experimental organic solvents in HDPE geomembrane was non-Fickian kinetic, and the solubility coefficients can be consistent with the solubility parameter theory. The diffusion coefficients and solubility coefficients determined by the ASTM F739 method were significantly correlated to the immersion tests (p<0.001). The steady state permeation rates also showed a good agreement between ASTM F739 and immersion experiments (r(2)=0.973, p<0.001). Using a one-dimensional diffusion equation based on Fick's second law, the diffusion and solubility coefficients obtained by immersion test resulted in over estimates of the ASTM F739 permeation results. The modeling results indicated that the diffusion and solubility coefficients should be obtained using ASTM F739 method which closely simulates the practical application of HDPE as barriers in the field. PMID:17010510

Chao, Keh-Ping; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya-Ting

2007-04-01

214

CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a substantial decline in SOM with 90% of crop residue removal for 50 years under various rotations at Columbia, MO and Champaign, IL. An increase in SOM following addition of manure was also well simulated. However, the model underestimated SOM for a fertilized treatment at Columbia. We estimated that a minimum of 8.0 Mg/ha/yr of crop residue and organic amendments (4.0 Mg C ha/yr) was required to prevent a decline in SOM at the Morrow Plots in Champaign, IL. More studies are needed to evaluate the CQESTR model's performance in predicting the amount of crop residue required to maintain the SOM concentration in different soils under a wide range of management and climatic conditions. Given the high correlation of simulated and observed SOM changes, CQESTR can be used to consider a wide range of scenarios before making recommendations or implementing proposed changes. CQESTR in conjunction with the local conditions can guide planning and development of sustainable crop and soil management practices.

Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

2009-04-01

215

Composite WO 3–TiO 2 films: Pulsed electrodeposition from a mixed bath versus sequential deposition from twin baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite WO3–TiO2 semiconductor films were cathodically electrodeposited using sequential deposition of WO3 and TiO2 from aqueous baths containing peroxytungstate and titanyl precursor species, respectively. The composite films were prepared by switching the baths for five cycles of deposition at ?0.45V (for WO3) and ?0.95V (for TiO2). These new films were compared and contrasted with composite WO3–TiO2 films prepared by pulsed

Sashikala Somasundaram; C. R. Chenthamarakshan; Norma R. de Tacconi; Nasir A. Basit; Krishnan Rajeshwar

2006-01-01

216

Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments  

PubMed Central

In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

Grabau, Zane J.; Chen, Senyu

2014-01-01

217

Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.  

PubMed

In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

2014-09-01

218

Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

219

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths  

E-print Network

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths Reaches essentially the same temperature as dry ice/acetone (-77°C vs. -78°C), but the lower volatility of isopropanol minimizes vapor but it is immiscible with water, making separations, recycling, and drying easier. See D. F. Aycock , Org. Process Res

Chan, Hue Sun

220

Self-Starting Micromotors in a Bacterial Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micromotors pushed by biological entities, such as motile bacteria, constitute a fascinating way to convert chemical energy into mechanical work at the micrometer scale. Here we show, by using numerical simulations, that a properly designed asymmetric object can be spontaneously set into the desired motion when immersed in a chaotic bacterial bath. Our findings open the way to conceive new

Luca Angelani; Roberto di Leonardo; Giancarlo Ruocco

2009-01-01

221

VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

222

Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

223

MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

224

Brownian motion by Peter Morters (University of Bath)  

E-print Network

Brownian motion by Peter M¨orters (University of Bath) This is a set of lecture notes based on a selection of material from my book with Yuval Peres, entitled Brownian motion, which was published by Cambridge University Press in 2010. 1 L´evy's construction of Brownian motion and modulus of continuity Much

Mörters, Peter

225

Molecular dynamics with coupling to an external bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the need often arises to maintain such parameters as temperature or pressure rather than energy and volume, or to impose gradients for studying transport properties in nonequilibrium MD. A method is described to realize coupling to an external bath with constant temperature or pressure with adjustable time constants for the coupling. The method is easily

H. J. C. Berendsen; J. P. M. Postma; W. F. van Gunsteren; A. DiNola; J. R. Haak

1984-01-01

226

13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

227

9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

228

16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cleaner intended for bath tubs, then wipe the coverage area with alcohol and allow to dry. (C) 7.4.1.3 Using a spray bottle containing a 1:25 mixture of test solution (see table 1) to distilled water, immediately before each...

2011-01-01

229

Recurrent Acute Kidney Injury Following Bath Salts Intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bath salts” are becoming recognized as a frequently abused and highly addictive substance that can be obtained legally in some areas. These agents contain stimulant compounds such as methylenedioxopyrrovalerone and mephedrone, which have been associated with sympathomimetic effects and psychotic features such as paranoia, delusions, agitation, and confusion. They may have a benign course, however, intoxication with these agents may

Adedotun Adebamiro; Mark A. Perazella

230

Low-Temperature Salt Bath Nitriding of Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitriding technology has gone a long way, from the old gas nitriding to the relatively recently developed plasma nitriding. The latter has replaced the process of “soft nitriding” in the automotive industry based on nitrocarburizing in cyanide salt baths. It seemed that the high toxicity of the initially used compositions for soft nitriding (Tufftride or Tenifer) should have eliminated salt

K. Funatani

2004-01-01

231

Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch  

E-print Network

Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch #3; Department of Mathematics@research.bell-labs.com November 25, 2003 Abstract In this paper we analyze the stability of a gyroscopic oscillator interacting a #12;nite gyroscopic oscillator model of a particle on a rotating disc and a particle in a magnetic #12

Bloch, Anthony

232

Creating a Bigger Bath Using the Deferred Tax Valuation Allowance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?The provisions of SFAS No. 109 allow US companies to make an earnings big bath even bigger through the establishment of a deferred tax valuation allowance. At the time a firm recognizes a non-cash charge, it also recognizes a deferred tax asset to represent the future tax benefits of the charge. Recognition of the deferred tax asset partially mitigates the

Theodore E. Christensen; Gyung H. Paik; Earl K. Stice

2008-01-01

233

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies' thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts - the reorganization shift - to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates.

Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-06-01

234

Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

2012-01-01

235

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter during the Mackenzie River spring freshet: Observations and freeze-thaw experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Arctic rivers is characterized by highly seasonal changes in concentrations, fluxes and composition. However, there is still relatively little knowledge of variations in riverine DOM during the spring freshet, when export of DOM is generally highest. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption spectra have been shown to be useful indicators of concentrations and quality of DOM in high-latitude rivers. Here, we present ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of CDOM, collected during the 2011 spring freshet on the Mackenzie River. The Mackenzie River is a major source of DOM to the coastal Beaufort Sea, delivering nearly 500 kilotons of carbon within the two month spring freshet. A high-resolution time series was collected from the East Channel in the Mackenzie River delta, along with lower-resolution time series of small upland rivers, large tributaries, and the Mackenzie main stem upriver of the delta region. CDOM concentrations, reported as a400, ranged from 1.6 to 26.9 m-1 (average 10.06 ± 4.9 m-1). Spectral slopes (S), which can be used to assess sources and molecular weight of CDOM, correlated well with concentrations. S was generally lower and less variable in small upland rivers than in the Mackenzie or its larger tributaries. These results suggest that the quality and composition of DOM vary substantially during the spring freshet period in the Mackenzie River. In addition, freeze-thaw experiments were conducted to determine whether frozen, archived water can provide reliable measurements of CDOM, regardless of initial DOM quantity or quality. Samples from the six largest Arctic rivers have been collected and archived since 2003, yet it is still unknown whether CDOM measurements from thawed samples are comparable to absorbance immediately after sample collection. Initial results from the Mackenzie river indicate that absorbance in the ultra-violet spectrum is not greatly impacted by freezing. In addition, experiments show that sonication of thawed samples can remedy flocculation and improve the reliability of visible spectrum absorbance. After corrections for freeze-thaw cycles, archived samples will be used to develop algorithms estimating DOM concentrations from satellite remote sensing, and produce spatially explicit time series of DOM variations in large arctic rivers.

Griffin, C. G.; McClelland, J. W.; Vonk, J. E.; Holmes, R. M.; Frey, K. E.

2012-04-01

236

Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views  

PubMed Central

Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study). Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment) Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex), mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student's t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations. PMID:23983281

Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Gupta, Babita; Balakrishnan, Ira; Vij, Aarti

2013-01-01

237

Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of soil organic matter (SOM) is a major source of uncertainty in predicting atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. Isolating the stable soil carbon (C) from other, more labile, C fractions in soil is of prime importance for calibrating soil C simulation models, and gaining insights into the mechanisms that lead to soil C stability. Long-term experiments with continuous bare fallow (vegetation-free) treatments in which the decay of soil C is monitored for decades after all inputs of C have stopped, provide a unique opportunity to assess the quantity of stable soil C. We analyzed data from six bare fallow experiments of long-duration (>30 yrs), covering a range of soil types and climate conditions, and sited at Askov (Denmark), Grignon and Versailles (France), Kursk (Russia), Rothamsted (UK), and Ultuna (Sweden). A conceptual three pool model dividing soil C into a labile pool (turnover time of a several years), an intermediate pool (turnover time of a several decades) and a stable pool (turnover time of a several centuries or more) fits well with the long term C decline observed in the bare fallow soils. The estimate of stable C ranged from 2.7 g C kg-1 at Rothamsted to 6.8 g C kg-1 at Grignon. The uncertainty associated with estimates of the stable pool was large due to the short duration of the fallow treatments relative to the turnover time of stable soil C. At Versailles, where there is least uncertainty associated with the determination of a stable pool, the soil contains predominantly stable C after 80 years of continuous bare fallow. Such a site represents a unique research platform for characterization of the nature of stable SOM and its vulnerability to global change.

Barré, P.; Eglin, T.; Christensen, B. T.; Ciais, P.; Houot, S.; Kätterer, T.; van Oort, F.; Peylin, P.; Poulton, P. R.; Romanenkov, V.; Chenu, C.

2010-11-01

238

Hot water extracted organic matter: chemical composition and temporal variations in a long-term field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot water-soluble organic matter was extracted from soil samples collected weekly between April and October in untreated and NPK+farmyard manure-fertilized plots in the 88-year-old Static Experiment (Loess Chernozem) at Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. As shown by solid-state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR) combined with pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry this organic matter fraction was largely composed of carbohydrates and N-containing compounds, in

P. Leinweber; H.-R. Schulten; M. Körschens

1995-01-01

239

Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

2012-11-01

240

Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

1997-01-01

241

Fast neutron spectrometry with organic scintillators applied to magnetic fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron spectrometry with NE213 liquid scintillators is commonly used in thermonuclear fusion experiments to measure the 2.45 and 14.1 MeV neutron flux. We present the unfolded neutron spectrum, which was accumulated during several ohmic deuterium plasma discharges in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade using a 2?×2? NE213 scintillator. In this paper, we review the application of organic scintillator neutron spectrometers to tokamaks, focusing in particular on the comparison between NE213 and stilbene scintillators. Various aspects of the calibration technique and neutron spectra unfolding procedure are considered in the context of their application for fusion neutron spectrometry. Testing and calibration measurements have been carried out using D-D and D-T neutron generator facilities with both NE213 and stilbene scintillators. The main result from these measurements is that stilbene scintillator has better neutron energy resolution than NE213. Our stilbene detector could be used for the determination of the ion temperature ( Ti) from neutron spectrum broadening in tokamak thermonuclear plasmas with Ti=4 keV and higher.

Kaschuck, Yu. A.; Esposito, B.; Trykov, L. A.; Semenov, V. P.

2002-01-01

242

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

243

Landau-Zener population control and dipole measurement of a two-level-system bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunneling two-level systems (TLSs), present in dielectrics at low temperatures, have been recently studied for fundamental understanding and superconducting device development. According to a recent theory by Burin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.157002], the TLS bath of any amorphous dielectric experiences a distribution of Landau-Zener transitions if exposed to simultaneous fields. In this experiment we measure amorphous insulating films at millikelvin temperatures with a microwave field and a swept electric field bias using a superconducting resonator. We find that the maximum dielectric loss per microwave photon with the simultaneous fields is approximately the same as that in the equilibrium state, in agreement with the generic material theory. In addition, we find that the loss depends on the fields in a way which allows for the separate extraction of the TLS bath dipole moment and density of states. This method allows for the study of the TLS dipole moment in a diverse set of disordered films, and provides a technique for continuously inverting their population.

Khalil, M. S.; Gladchenko, S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Burin, A. L.; Osborn, K. D.

2014-09-01

244

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

245

A Randomized Controlled Study of Contrast Baths on Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study DesignRandomized clinical trial. Introduction: Contrast baths are a treatment modality commonly used in hand clinics. Yet the benefits of contrast baths have been poorly substantiated. Contrast baths have been suggested for the purposes of reducing hand volume, alleviating pain, and decreasing stiffness in affected extremities.

Paul F. Velleman; Deborah A. Schwartz

2009-01-01

246

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath  

E-print Network

may lead to non-physical results. In contrast, Langevin heat bath is recommended because it canMolecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath Jie CHEN1, 2010) We investigate systematically the impacts of heat bath used in molecular dynamics simulations

Li, Baowen

247

Carcinogenic Risk of Bath PUVA in Comparison to Oral PUVA Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential carcinogenic risk of bath PUVA therapy was compared to that of systemic (oral) PUVA. An analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer risk following bath PUVA with trimethylpsoralen does not support the conclusion that bath PUVA per se is less carcinogenic than systemic PUVA with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that both the concentration of 8-MOP in the

S. E. Shephard; R. G. Panizzon

1999-01-01

248

Wash and Wean: Bathing Patients Undergoing Weaning Trials During Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Bathing is a fundamental nursing care activity performed for or with the self-assistance of critically ill patients. Few studies address caregiver and/or patient-family perspectives about bathing activity during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE To describe practices and beliefs about bathing patients during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). METHODS Secondary analysis of qualitative data (observational field notes, interviews, and clinical record review) from a larger ethnographic study involving 30 patients weaning from PMV and the clinicians who cared for them using basic qualitative description. RESULTS Bathing, hygiene, and personal care were highly valued and equated with “good” nursing care by families and nurses. Nurses and respiratory therapists reported “working around” bath time and promoted conducting weaning trials before or after bathing. Patients were nevertheless bathed during weaning trials despite clinicians expressed concerns for energy conservation. Clinicians’ recognized individual patient response to bathing during PMV weaning trials. CONCLUSION Bathing is a central care activity for PMV patients and a component of daily work processes in the ICU. Bathing requires assessment of patient condition and activity tolerance and nurse-respiratory therapist negotiation and accommodation with respect to the initiation and/or continuation of PMV weaning trials during bathing. Further study is needed to validate the impact (or lack of impact) of various timing strategies for bathing PMV patients. PMID:20561877

Happ, Mary Beth; Tate, Judith A.; Swigart, Valerie A.; DiVirgilio-Thomas, Dana; Hoffman, Leslie A.

2010-01-01

249

Carburizing and decarburizing activity of salt baths with a graphite crucible  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The rate of attack of a salt bath on the surface of parts being heated in a high-temperature bath with a graphite crucible changes as the bath ages and depends on the chemical composition of the steel, the depth to which the part is immersed and the heating time, the thickness of the graphite film formed on the surface of

E. A. Smol'nikov; A. N. Simonenko

1974-01-01

250

Improving General Knowledge in Agile Software Organizations: Experiences with Job Rotation in Customer Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many organizations the transition to agile methods is problematic due to history of bureaucratization and subsequent extensive specialization of knowledge among people. Specialist knowledge inhibits self-organization and role interchangeability which are key elements of agile development. Knowing that bureaucracies are hard to counteract once established, how can development of general knowledge in software organizations be improved? Job rotation is

Tor Erlend Fægri; SINTEF ICT

2009-01-01

251

Organic geochemical studies of soils from the Rothamsted classical experiments — VI. The occurrence and source of organic acids in an experimental grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lipid extracts (TLEs) of grass (aerial and sub-aerial, Holcus lanatus) from a plot on a long-term grassland experiment, and associated soil, along with the organic fraction of the TLE hydrolysates and the hydrolysates of the solvent extracted vegetation have been separated into fractions containing specific compound classes and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The

Ian D. Bull; Chris J. Nott; Pim F. van Bergen; Paul R. Poulton; Richard P. Evershed

2000-01-01

252

Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

Stanturf, J. A.

1980-01-01

253

Technical note: Environmental regulations and treatment for salt baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers primarily the disposal of salt baths containing cyanide and barium salts and of the rinses or quenching\\u000a waters resulting from those operations. The applicable environmental regulations are presented.\\u000a \\u000a The salts are first dissolved in either water or spent rinses. Well-known, relatively inexpensive treatment processes are\\u000a presented using sodium hypochlorite to oxidize cyanides and sodium sulfate to precipitate

Walter Zabban

1988-01-01

254

Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk soil. Differences in the abundance of lignin monomers, hydroxyl acids, n-alkanols and n-fatty acid methyl esters measured by GC MS before and after the incubation indicated selective degradation and preservation patterns at the molecular scale.

Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

2010-05-01

255

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

256

Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

2014-01-01

257

You Stab My Back, I'll Stab Yours: Management Experience and Perceptions of Organization Political Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a survey of 250 British managers, exploring their experience and perceptions of organization politics. Political behaviour appeared to be common. Most managers viewed political behaviour as ethical and necessary, and aspects of organizational effectiveness, change, resourcing and reputation were attributed to political tactics, although 80% had no training in this area. Tactics experienced frequently

David A. Buchanan

2007-01-01

258

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

259

The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

2014-01-01

260

Fertilization effects on soil organic matter turnover in a long term experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural management practices such as residues application, level and kind of fertilization and amendment, tillage intensity can affect the capacity of soil to sequester and incorporate carbon (C). These practices also influence both above-ground and below-ground plant production and, as a consequence, the amount of C that enters the soil. However, studing the dyamics of C inputs in soils and the effects of the agricultural management practices on C incorporation in soil organic matter (SOM) requires long-term field experiments. The long-term field experiment in Cadriano, at the University of Bologna, Italy, started in 1966 and still in progress, compares two continuous rotations of corn and wheat, interacting with two cattle manure supplies (M0: no manure - M1: 20 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material) and two mineral NP rates (N0P0: no NP fertilizers - N1P1: 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 plus 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 for wheat and maize, respectively). The experimental design is a split-plot replicated twice, with fertilizer sub-plots of 56 m2 of area each. The field is annually ploughed to 40 cm depth. Crop residues are always removed, with the exception of roots and stubbles. By using the delta 13C technique we measured the amount of corn-derived C retained over a 36-years period in total soil organic C (SOC) and in the humic fraction that is referred as the most stable pool of SOC. These amounts were compared with the total inputs of belowground C (roots and rhizodepositions) in order to highlight if the capacity of soil to stabilize the new C inputs can be affected by the different fertilization practices. The results showed that the amount of corn-derived C in SOC increased in the following order: control (20.5%), Mineral (25%) Manure (29.4%), the same trend was observed for the humic fraction. On the contrary the cumulative C input over the same period followed a different order, the highest was obtained for the mineral treatment, than for the manure and the control treatment. The higher C input measured with the mineral fertilization did not imply also a greater C stabilization, probably because the greater availability of nutrients could have stimulated greater mineralization processes. The manure seems to be able to stabilize more C possibly through a greater level of microbial biomass and activity, that in this situation was not probably limited by either nutrients or energy source. In the control (C0) the deficiency of both nutrients and energy source could have slowed down the C mineralization, thus leading more corn-derived C in the soil. Therefore the fertilization management not only affects the plant production and the C input to soil, but also the C mineralization and the capacity of soil to stabilize C, and this must be carefully considered and taken into account since it deeply influences the potentaility of soil for C sequestration. The research was carried out with funds provided by MIUR (PRIN prot. 2007J5Z9LK_003)

Gioacchini, Paola; Giordani, Gianni; Montecchio, Daniela; Nastri, Anna; Triberti, Loretta; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio

2010-05-01

261

Affecting non-Markovian behaviour by changing bath structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many open quantum systems, a master equation approach employing the Markov approximation cannot reliably describe the dynamical behaviour. This is the case, for example, in a number of solid state or biological systems, and it has motivated a line of research aimed at quantifying the amount of non-Markovian behaviour (NMB) in a given model. Within this framework, we investigate the dynamics of a quantum harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a bosonic bath. We focus on Gaussian states, which are suitably treated using a covariance matrix approach. Concentrating on an entanglement based NMB quantifier (NMBQ) proposed by Rivas et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 050403), we consider the role that near resonant and off-resonant modes play in affecting the NMBQ. By using a large but finite bath of oscillators for both Ohmic and super Ohmic spectral densities we find, by systematically increasing the coupling strength, initially the near resonant modes provide the most significant non-Markovian effects, while after a certain threshold of coupling strength the off-resonant modes play the dominant role. We also consider the NMBQ for two other models where we add a single strongly coupled oscillator to the model in extra bath mode and ‘buffer’ configurations, which affects the modes that determine NMB.

Venkataraman, V.; Plato, A. D. K.; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Kim, M. S.

2014-01-01

262

Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

2012-10-01

263

Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

2014-06-01

264

Review Article: Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges.  

PubMed

The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies. The use and associated disposal of POPs have been occurring for over 50 years. Concurrent with the phase-out of some of the most hazardous chemicals, the production of new POPs, such as brominated and fluorinated compounds has increased since the 1990s. These latter compounds are commonly used in a wide range of consumer goods, and as consumer products reach the end of their useful lives, ultimately enter waste recycling and disposal systems, in particular at municipal landfills. Because of their very slow, or lack of degradability, POPs will persist in landfills for many decades and possibly centuries. Over these extended time periods engineered landfill systems and their liners are likely to degrade, thus posing a contemporary and future risk of releasing large contaminant loads to the environment. This review highlights the necessity for alternative disposal methods for POP wastes, including destruction or complete removal from potential environmental release. In addition to such end of pipe solutions a policy change in the use pattern of persistent toxic chemicals is inevitable. In addition, inventories for the location and quantity of POPs in landfills, together with an assessment of their threat to ecosystems, drinking water and food resources are identified as key measures to facilitate appropriate management of risks. Finally the challenges of POP wastes in transition/developing countries, the risk of increased leaching of POPs from landfills due to climate change, and the possible negative impact of natural attenuation processes are considered. PMID:21224404

Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin; Oliaei, Fardin

2011-01-01

265

Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and nucleobases, basic constituents common to life on Earth.

Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

266

Electrodeposited Fe-Ni films prepared from a tartaric-acid-based bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we reported a citric-acid-based plating bath is one of the hopeful plating baths for obtaining Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties. In this report, hydroxylic acid of tartaric acid, which belongs to the same acid group at citric acid, was applied to prepare the films, and the effects of tartaric acid on the magnetic and the structural properties were investigated. Although the overall trend of the effects obtained for tartaric acid resembles our previous results for the citricacid-based bath, the cathode efficiency for the tartaric-acid-based bath shows a slightly higher value as compared with that for the citric-acid-based bath. From these results, we conclude that the tartaric-acid-based bath is also an environmentally friendly plating bath.

Shimokawa, T.; Yanai, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.; Suzuki, K.

2013-06-01

267

Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems  

E-print Network

In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly-coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

Huh, Joonsuk; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-01-01

268

Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond  

E-print Network

Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond at room temperature that is composed of electron spins of substitutional nitrogen impurities. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, by combining spin bath control with dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for fundamental studies on decoherence and enable novel avenues for spin-based magnetometry and quantum information processing.

G. de Lange; T. van der Sar; M. S. Blok; Z. H. Wang; V. V. Dobrovitski; R. Hanson

2011-04-24

269

Exploring Atmospheric Aqueous Chemistry (and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation) through OH Radical Oxidation Experiments, Droplet Evaporation and Chemical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas phase photochemistry fragments and oxidizes organic emissions, making water-soluble organics ubiquitous in the atmosphere. My group and others have found that several water-soluble compounds react further in the aqueous phase forming low volatility products under atmospherically-relevant conditions (i.e., in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols). Thus, secondary organic aerosol can form as a result of gas followed by aqueous chemistry (aqSOA). We have used aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments coupled with product analysis and chemical modeling to validate and refine the aqueous chemistry of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid. The resulting chemical model has provided insights into the differences between oxidation chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. Further, we conducted droplet evaporation experiments to characterize the volatility of the products. Most recently, we have conducted aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments with ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases to identify additional atmospherically-important precursors and products. Specifically, we scrubbed water-soluble gases from the ambient air in the Po Valley, Italy using four mist chambers in parallel, operating at 25-30 L min-1. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments and control experiments were conducted with these mixtures (total organic carbon ? 100 ?M-C). OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were generated by photolyzing H2O2. Precursors and products were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ion chromatography (IC), IC-ESI-MS, and ultra high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chemical modeling suggests that organic acids (e.g., oxalate, pyruvate, glycolate) are major products of OH radical oxidation at cloud-relevant concentrations, whereas organic radical - radical reactions result in the formation of oligomers in wet aerosols. Products of cloud chemistry and droplet evaporation have effective vapor pressures that are orders of magnitude lower when ammonium hydroxide is present (pH 7) than without (at lower pH). In Po Valley experiments, nitrogen-containing organics were prominent precursors and intermediates. Pyruvate and oxalate were among the products. Importantly, formation of aqSOA helps to explain the high O/C ratios found in atmospheric aerosols. While uncertainties remain large, global modeling suggests that aqSOA is comparable in magnitude to SOA formed through gas phase chemistry and vapor pressure driven partitioning (gasSOA).

Turpin, B. J.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Sullivan, A.; Häkkinen, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Tan, Y.; McNeill, V. F.; Collett, J. L.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.; Sareen, N.; Carlton, A. G.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.

2013-12-01

270

Noninteracting classical spins coupled to a heat bath of one-dimensional classical harmonic oscillators: Exact bath variable average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of noninteracting classical spins coupled to the modes of a chain of one-dimensional classical harmonic oscillators via - S z ? c k x k was investigated to see whether the spin-bath coupling could relax the spins toward equilibrium. We considered two different cases for the initial conditions on the classical harmonic oscillator variables when we took the harmonic oscillator bath variable averages for the total spin components. In the first case, the harmonic oscillators were initially in equilibrium while they did not recognize the presence of the spin, whereas in the second case, the spins were in equilibrium and did recognize the presence of the spin. For the first case, the bath variable averages of the x- and the y-components of the total spin showed that the effective angular velocity transiently slowed down after an initial increase; then, it recovered its initial angular velocity continually. In the second case, the effective angular velocity was fixed. For both cases, the z-component of the total spin vector remained constant. If the x- and the y-components of the single spins were randomly distributed, we would get equilibrium values. For the z-components of single spins, unless they are at equilibrium from the beginning, they do not attain equilibrium.

Oh, Suhk Kun

2013-11-01

271

Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments which enable us to characterize the coupling between bismuth donor spin qubits in Si and the surrounding spin bath of 29Si impurities which provides the dominant decoherence mechanism (nuclear spin diffusion) at low temperatures (<16 K). Decoupling from the spin bath is predicted and cluster correlation expansion simulations show near-complete suppression of spin diffusion, at optimal working points. The suppression takes the form of sharply peaked divergences of the spin diffusion coherence time, in contrast with previously identified broader regions of insensitivity to classical fluctuations. ENDOR data suggest that anisotropic contributions are comparatively weak, so the form of the divergences is largely independent of crystal orientation.

Balian, S. J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Mohammady, M. H.; Morley, G. W.; Witzel, W. M.; Kay, C. W. M.; Monteiro, T. S.

2012-09-01

272

Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.  

PubMed

This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPD?) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPD?) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 ?m which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 ?m for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case. PMID:24480601

Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

2014-07-01

273

Effect of alkali and alkaline-earth chloride addition on electrolytic reduction of UO 2 in LiCl salt bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrolytic reduction process of actinide oxides in a LiCl salt bath at 923 K has been developed for nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since some salt-soluble fission products, such as Cs, Sr and Ba, accumulate in the LiCl salt bath, their effect on UO 2 reduction was investigated. In the experiments, UO 2 specimens were reduced by potential- or current-controlled electrolysis in various LiCl salt baths containing up to 30 mol% of KCl, CsCl, SrCl 2 or BaCl 2. The rate of UO 2 reduction in a LiCl salt bath was considerably decreased by the addition of alkali metal chlorides (KCl and CsCl) and slightly decreased by BaCl 2 addition. SrCl 2 addition had no appreciable effect. It was suggested that the diffusion of O 2- ions from the inside of UO 2 specimens to the bulk salt determined the reduction rate during the electrolysis and that the effect of salt composition was related to the solubility of O 2- ions in the salt bath.

Sakamura, Yoshiharu

2011-05-01

274

Yield increases during the organic transition: improving soil quality or increasing experience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported increases in crop yields over the first few years of organic farming (especially during the 3-year “transitional” period established in US law) have been attributed to gradual improvements in soil properties, such as the capacity of the soil microbial community to mineralize N or to suppress disease. To test the hypothesis that yield increases with years of organic farming

Elizabeth A. Martini; Jeffrey S. Buyer; Dennis C. Bryant; Timothy K. Hartz; R. Ford Denison

2004-01-01

275

Can organic farming help to reduce N-losses? Experiences from Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study is in two parts. In the first part, nitrogen (N) losses per unit of milk and meat in Danish conventional and organic pig and dairy farming were compared on the basis of farm data. In the second part, organic and conventional dairy farming were compared in detail, using modelling. N-surpluses at different livestock densities, fodder intensities, and

Tommy Dalgaard; Niels Halberg; Ib Sillebak Kristensen

276

Radiotracer Experiments on Biological Volatilization of Organic Iodine from Coastal Seawaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological volatilization of iodine from seawaters was studied using a radiotracer technique. Seawater samples were incubated aerobically in serum bottles with radioactive iodide tracer (I), and volatile organic and inorganic iodine were collected with activated charcoal and silver wool trap, respectively. Iodine was volatilized mainly as organic iodine, and inorganic iodine volatilization was not observed. Influence of light intensity on

Seigo Amachi; Mizuyo Kasahara; Takaaki Fujii; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Satoshi Hanada; Yoichi Kamagata; Tadaaki Ban-nai; Yasuyuki Muramatsu

2004-01-01

277

Organic geochemistry of deep ground waters and radionuclide-partitioning experiments under hydrothermal conditions  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research on two separate tasks. In the first task, the organic geochemistry of groundwater samples from the Permian Basin of Texas, the Paradox Basin of Utah, and the Nevada Test Site has been characterized. Acidic compounds were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the molecular weight characteristics of the organic constituents present were determined using dialysis and gel filtration chromatography. The total organic carbon contents of the groundwaters from the Permian and Paradox Basins are very high, ranging from 12 to 76 mg/l. Although the specific organic composition varies from aquifer to aquifer, the organic components of these groundwaters appear to be composed principally of low molecular weight polar compounds derived from local hydrocarbon deposits. The total organic carbon contents of the groundwaters from the Nevada Test Site are very low, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 mg/l. Here the principal organic species appear to be humic compounds and low molecular weight fatty acids. In the second task the adsorption of certain radionuclides by geologic substrates has been measured in the presence and absence of organic complexing agents from 25 to 250{sup 0}C. Major findings include the following: (a) in some cases the extent of adsorption of Sr, Co, and U actually increases with increasing temperature; (b) oxalic acid either has little effect on the adsorption or actually increases the adsorption of Cs and Sr by kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite; (c) the thermal degradation of natural organic compounds in the near-field environment may be significant; and (d) the adsorption of U, Co, and Sr, and Cs onto kaolinite and montmorillonite reaches a steady state in less than an hour at 25{sup 0}C, 1 atm. 10 figures, 4 tables.

Means, J.L.; Maest, A.S.; Crear, D.A.

1983-07-01

278

[The influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the functional state of the cardiovascular system of the patients presenting with hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease].  

PubMed

The results of the study on the influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the clinical course of hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease and on various functional systems of the body. The data obtained provide an insight into the role of salt concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) in carbon dioxide bath water (1.2 g/l) applied for the traditional treatment of the patients with hypertensive disease associated with concomitant coronary heart disease and musculoskeletal pathology. Highly mineralized bath water has a greater influence on the functional state of the cardiovascular system by causing a more pronounced decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and hypotensive effect. Baths with a salt concentration of 20 g/l markedly reduced pain and had anti-inflammatory effect in the patients with pathology of support and locomotor organs. PMID:24640650

L'vova, N V; Tupitsyna, Iu Iu; Badalov, N G; Krasnikov, V E; Lebedeva, O D

2013-01-01

279

Who participates in cardiovascular disease risk factor screenings? Experience with a religious organization-based program.  

PubMed Central

Adult members who declined participation in cardiovascular disease risk factor screenings offered at religious organizations were randomly selected and asked to participate in screenings at their homes. Relationships between screening participation and sociodemographic, behavioral, and physiological measures were examined. Age, knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors, body mass index, current smoking status, previous report of elevated blood pressure, current diastolic blood pressure measurement, frequency of worship service attendance, and residential distance from the religious organization screening site were important predictors of screening response. Those with conspicuous risk factors appeared less likely to initially respond to religious organization site screening invitations. PMID:8279596

Wells, B L; Brown, C C; Horm, J W; Carleton, R A; Lasater, T M

1994-01-01

280

On a Simple Nonisothermal Adsorption Experiment with Organic Vapors and an Inertial Microbalance To Study the Surface Properties of Hybrid (Organic/Inorganic) Porous Materials.  

PubMed

A nonisothermal adsorption experiment using a controlled flow of cyclopentane in the 333-313 K range is used to simultaneously estimate the specific surface area and micropore volume of a hybrid (organic/inorganic) alcogel. For reference, the method is also applied to an all-inorganic material with a more rigid structure, namely, a high surface area SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3). The proposed data analysis provides guidelines to determine whether adsorption data on a certain adsorbate/adsorbent system can be modeled effectively as a convolution of BET (meso- and macropore) and Dubinin-Radushkevitch (DR, micropore) contributions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10708512

Larsen; Silva; de Silva RV

2000-04-01

281

Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

2000-01-01

282

The Jumping Ring Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

283

Incidence of Symptoms and Accidents During Baths and Showers Among the Japanese General Public  

PubMed Central

Background Bathing is a deeply ingrained custom among Japanese; however, data on the incidence rate of symptoms and accidents during bathing have not yet been reported for the Japanese general public. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 617 Japanese adults who attended a specialized health checkup. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess weekly frequencies of bathtub bathing and showering and the frequency of symptoms/accidents (falling, loss of consciousness, and other) during these activities in the past year. We calculated the incidence rates of accidents per 10 000 baths/showers and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and compared the clinical characteristics of participants who had symptoms/accidents with those who did not. Results The incidence rates of accidents per 10 000 bathtub baths and showers were 0.43 (95% CI: 0.22–0.84) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.04–1.37). Although these rates are low, there were 740 000 bathtub bathing-related accidents in Japan, due to the fact that bathing is an almost-daily habit. There was no significant difference in clinical characteristics between groups Conclusions We collected basic information on the incidence of bathing-related accidents in Japan. Falls and loss of consciousness during bathing or showering can potentially lead to a serious accident, so the general public should be educated about the possibility of such accidents during bathing. PMID:21478641

Hayasaka, Shinya; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Goto, Yasuaki; Ojima, Toshiyuki

2011-01-01

284

Generalized energy equipartition in harmonic oscillators driven by active baths  

E-print Network

We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

Claudio Maggi; Matteo Paoluzzi; Nicola Pellicciotta; Alessia Lepore; Luca Angelani; Roberto Di Leonardo

2014-09-13

285

Sphaleron-Like Processes in a Realistic Heat Bath  

E-print Network

We measure the diffusion rate of Chern-Simons number in the (1+1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model interacting with a realistic heat bath for temperatures between 1/13 and 2/3 times the sphaleron energy. It is found that the measured rate is close to that predicted by the sphaleron approximation at the lower end of the temperature range considered but falls at least an order of magnitude short of the sphaleron estimate at the upper end of that range. We show numerically that the sphaleron approximation breaks down as soon as the gauge-invariant two-point function yields correlation length close to the sphaleron size.

A. Krasnitz; R. Potting

1993-12-16

286

Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

1973-01-01

287

Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2.5 bar) to avoid uncontrolled calcite precipitation, and accordingly the pipeline path was designed. Non-linear phenomena that may originate calcite precipitation, such as phase separation and pressure waves, were discussed. The pipeline and the thermal bath are planned to be built next year.

Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

2013-04-01

288

Small helium bath cryopump for electron optical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small helium bath cryopump for electron optical devices has been designed and manufactured. The filling volumes of LHe and LN2 are 2.5 and 3.6 l, respectively. Special electron beam welding methods were utilised for the pump structure. The heat loads of the cryogens were minimised using numerical methods. An LHe refill interval of 30 days was reached, whereas that of LN2 is 6 days. Good agreement between the calculated and measured values has been found. An ultimate pressure of 3×10 -7 Pa and a pumping speed better than that of a comparable ion pump were reached during a preliminary testing of pumping properties.

Hanzelka, Pavel; Dupák, Jan; Musilová, V?ra

2002-01-01

289

Langevin description of gauged scalar fields in a thermal bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of the oscillating gauged scalar field in a thermal bath. A Langevin-type equation of motion of the scalar field, which contains both dissipation and fluctuation terms, is derived by using the real-time finite-temperature effective action approach. The existence of the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation between the nonlocal dissipation term and the Gaussian stochastic noise terms is verified. We find that the noise variables are anticorrelated at equal time. The dissipation rate for each mode is also studied, which turns out to depend on the wave number.

Miyamoto, Yuhei; Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

2014-04-01

290

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

291

Microcosm experiments to control anaerobic redox conditions when studying the fate of organic micropollutants in aquifer material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural processes occurring in subsurface environments have proven to effectively remove a number of organic pollutants from water. The predominant redox conditions revealed to be one of the controlling factors. However, in the case of organic micropollutants the knowledge on this potential redox-dependent behavior is still limited. Motivated by managed aquifer recharge practices microcosm experiments involving aquifer material, settings potentially feasible in field applications, and organic micropollutants at environmental concentrations were carried out. Different anaerobic redox conditions were promoted and sustained in each set of microcosms by adding adequate quantities of electron donors and acceptors. Whereas denitrification and sulfate-reducing conditions are easily achieved and maintained, Fe- and Mn-reduction are strongly constrained by the slower dissolution of the solid phases commonly present in aquifers. The thorough description and numerical modeling of the evolution of the experiments, including major and trace solutes and dissolution/precipitation of solid phases, have been proven necessary to the understanding of the processes and closing the mass balance. As an example of micropollutant results, the ubiquitous beta-blocker atenolol is completely removed in the experiments, the removal occurring faster under more advanced redox conditions. This suggests that aquifers constitute a potentially efficient alternative water treatment for atenolol, especially if adequate redox conditions are promoted during recharge and long enough residence times are ensured.

Barbieri, Manuela; Carrera, Jesús; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Ayora, Carlos; Cama, Jordi; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Tobella Brunet, Joana; Hernández García, Marta

2011-11-01

292

Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

Cleveland, C. C.; Neff, J. C.; Townsend, A. R.; Hood, E.

2004-01-01

293

The Effects of a Warm Whirlpool Bath on Pain and Stiffness of Patients with Chronic Stroke Induced Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study set out to investigate the effects of leg immersion in warm water on pain, and stiffness of patients with stroke-induced chronic osteoarthritis. [Subjects] Forty-four patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to either the whirlpool group (n=24) or the control group (n=20). [Methods] Subjects in the whirlpool group immersed their legs in a whirlpool bath at 40?°C for 40 minutes 5 times a week for 8 weeks. The control group of patients was instructed to perform activities as usual without using a whirlpool bath. Pre-immersion and post-immersion measurements of the Western Ontario and McMaster University arthritis index (WOMAC)-pain and stiffness indexes were compared to determine the effects of the intervention. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences before and after the experiment. The independent t-test was conducted in order to test the significance of differences between the whirlpool and control groups. Statistical significance was accepted for values of p<0.05. [Results] The WOMAC-pain score, and stiffness index were significantly lower after the intervention. [Conclusion] Immersion of the lower extremities in a whirlpool bath was beneficial for patients with chronic stroke-induced knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24259873

Lim, Kun-Ok; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Shin, Won-Seob

2013-01-01

294

Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

1977-01-01

295

Qubit interference at avoided crossings: The role of driving shape and bath coupling  

E-print Network

We derive the structure of the Landau-Zener-St\\"uckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) interference pattern for a qubit that experiences quantum dissipation and is additionally subjected to time-periodic but otherwise general driving. A spin-boson Hamiltonian serves as model which we treat with a Bloch-Redfield master equation in Floquet basis. It predicts a peak structure that depends sensitively on the operator through which the qubit couples to the bath. The Fourier transforms of the LZSM patterns exhibit arc structures which reflect the shape of the driving. These features are captured by an effective time-independent Bloch equation which provides an analytical solution. Moreover, we determine the decay of these arcs as a function of dissipation strength and temperature.

Ralf Blattmann; Sigmund Kohler; Peter Hänggi

2014-09-18

296

Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, ³°NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and

B. C. Nelson; T. I. Eglinton; J. S. Seewald; M. A. Vairavamurthy; F. P. Miknis

1995-01-01

297

Molten salt bath heating of uranium and its alloys  

SciTech Connect

In the fabrication of uranium and its alloys, the workpiece is commonly preheated and postheated in a molten salt bath. In this report, past and present uranium salt bath technology is reviewed and critiqued. This critical review points out two distinct fruitful development areas: (1) need for a salt for warm working of uranium and (2) need for a hot working salt that will reduce the hydrogen content of the uranium workpiece. This report recommends that a nitrate salt be developed for warm working of uranium; it also recommends that a chloride-containing salt with a relative low melting point and capability to outgas uranium be developed for hot alpha-phase working and recrystallization of uranium. In selecting new heat-treating salts, two important considerations are: (1) the corrosive nature of the salt with the workpiece and (2) the corrosive nature of the salt with its container and workpiece carrier. These subjects are discussed as well as the ability of the new salt to be washed easily from the workpiece. 45 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs.

Jackson, R.J.

1989-05-10

298

Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

2001-01-01

299

Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction. PMID:24550123

Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

2014-02-01

300

[Germanism and medicinal bathing in the early days of health resorts in Rio Grande do Sul.  

PubMed

In the early days of bathing resorts some German immigrants were found not only among the bathers, but also among the entrepreneurs of the incipient branch of 'curism-tourism'. It was a small group of immigrants of urban origin who, in general, already knew the curative or reinvigorating advantages of the baths in European bathing resorts. Among them, doctors were prominent, important emissaries of a scientific discourse in favor of bathing resorts. The therapeutic practices of bathing in the sea arrived to meridional Brazil with the European immigration of the second half of the nineteenth century, although its diffusion only took place in the first half of the following century, when the first bathing beaches in Rio Grande do Sul were developed. PMID:21461501

Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

2010-03-01

301

Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this presentation, Burton and Bailey, discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing knowledge sharing systems in organizations. Bailey provides a tool using imagery and collage for identifying and utilizing the diverse values and beliefs of individuals and groups. Burton reveals findings from a business research study that examines how social construction influences knowledge sharing among task oriented groups.

Burton, Y. C.; Bailey, T.

2000-01-01

302

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

Berkvens, Jan

2012-01-01

303

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn From International Adult Learning: Experiences From Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in Cambodia. This intervention aimed at developing a training approach to be used within the local ministry

Jan Berkvens

2012-01-01

304

Fluxes of Primary and Secondary Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) During the BEWA Field Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a crucial role in the formation of photo-oxidants and particles through the diverse BVOC degradation pathways. Yet, current estimations about temporal and spatial BVOC emissions, including the specific BVOC mix are rather vague. This paper reports results from the determination of BVOC net emission rates that were obtained within the frame of the BEWA

R. Steinbrecher; B. Rappenglück; D. Steigner; A. Hansel; M. Graus; C. Lindinger

2003-01-01

305

Solid organ transplant patients experience high rates of infection and other complications after total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Survival after solid organ transplants in the United States is increasing, and there is a need to understand the complications in knee arthroplasty patients who underwent organ transplantation. A retrospective study was conducted from 1993-2008 on 19 patients (23 knee arthroplasties) with previous successful solid organ transplants. Eleven knee arthroplasties were performed after renal transplantation, and 12 after nonrenal solid organ transplant (seven liver, four heart, one lung). Complications occurred in 9/23 patients (39.1%) and infections occurred in 4/23 patients (17.3%). Of the infected knees, two had MRSA, one had MSSA, and one Escherichia coli. Noninfectious complications (5/24, 21.7%) include aseptic loosening, quadriceps rupture, femoral fracture, hemarthrosis, and arthrofibrosis. All patients with complications were on immunosuppressant medications at the time of arthroplasty. There was a significantly higher rate of infection in the renal group compared to the non-renal group (P = 0.022). There was also a higher overall complication rate in the renal group however this did not reach significance. PMID:23558242

Klatt, Brian A; Steele, G Daxton; Fedorka, Catherine J; Sánchez, Alvaro I; Chen, Antonia F; Crossett, Lawrence S

2013-06-01

306

Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

2007-01-01

307

Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

Hollister, William G.; And Others

308

The Experience and Expression of Emotion in the Workplace: An Exploratory Study of a Corrections Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the role of emotion in organizational life (specifically, in a corrections organization) to determine the communicative circumstances and effects associated with emotional communication events. A detailed questionnaire administered to 105 employees of a state Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation provided data on the nature…

Waldron, Vincent R.; Krone, Kathleen J.

309

Contradictory Aspects of Organized Youth Sport: Challenging and Fostering Sibling Relationships and Participation Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from an interpretive study that sought to understand how organized sport at the community level influences sibling relationships and interactions. The meanings of the participants' sport involvement, in relation to their siblings', was also examined using a constructivist approach to grounded theory.…

Trussell, Dawn E.

2014-01-01

310

Do Civil Society Organizations Promote Equity in Community Forestry? A Reflection from Nepal's Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Equity issues in Nepal's community forestry are dynamic, with many dimensions and occurring at different levels. These issues are deepened ,in Nepalese society as a result of historically and culturally constructed unequal power relations based on caste, class, gender and regional settlement. Civil society organizations (CSOs), with an aim to create a more just society, attempt to influence these

Harisharan Luintel

311

H 2O 2 and organic peroxide measurements in an orographic cloud: The FEBUKO experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H 2O 2 and organic peroxides are known to be important oxidants in cloud-water, influencing the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere. Measurements of H 2O 2 in cloud-water have shown a wide range of concentrations depending on the season and measuring site. Moreover, organic peroxide measurements are scarce in spite of their importance. Measurements of peroxides were carried out in the Thuringian Forest, Germany, during the FEBUKO research cluster in the Fall 2001. The measuring stations were located at three sites: upwind (gas phase), summit (cloud-water and gas phase) and downwind (gas phase). Analysis was achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (enzymatic method). From the different peroxides only H 2O 2 was detected in the gas phase at the upwind site with mixing ratios <130 ppt. In the cloud-water, besides hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), hydroxymethylhydroperoxide (HMHP), 1-hydroxyethylhydroperoxide (1-HEHP) and methylhydroperoxide (MHP) were also detected with concentrations normalised with the liquid water content up to 1.30, 0.075, 0.065 and 0.015 nmol m -3, respectively. Organic peroxides (HMHP+1-HEHP+MHP) constitute up to 80% of the total peroxides during nighttime while during daytime they accounted for about 14%. Consequently, organic peroxides might play an important role in nighttime cloud chemistry.

Valverde-Canossa, J.; Wieprecht, W.; Acker, K.; Moortgat, G. K.

312

Relationships between organic nitrates and surface ozone destruction during Polar Sunrise Experiment 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the measurements of reactive nitrogen species and organic nitrates, in the Arctic winter, in an effort to study the observed ozone depletion near surface altitudes following sunrise. They monitored a series of Câ - Câ alkyl nitrates. The distribution of these alkyl nitrates during the arctic winter was found to be similar to those observed at lower

K. Muthuramu; B. T. Jobson; H. Niki; K. G. Anlauf

1994-01-01

313

Skin Tolerance of a New Bath Oil Containing St. John’s Wort Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. Objective: To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. Methods: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective

J. Reuter; C. Huyke; H. Scheuvens; M. Ploch; K. Neumann; T. Jakob; C. M. Schempp

2008-01-01

314

Teleportation in the presence of common bath decoherence at the transmitting station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of common bath decoherence on the qubits of Alice\\u000ain the usual teleportation protocol. The system bath interaction is studied\\u000aunder the central spin model, where the qubits are coupled to the bath spins\\u000athrough isotropic Heisenberg interaction. We have given a more generalized\\u000arepresentation of the protocol in terms of density matrices and calculated the

D. D. Bhaktavatsala Rao; P. K. Panigrahi; Chiranjib Mitra

2008-01-01

315

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate systematically the impacts of heat bath used in molecular dynamics simulations on heat conduction in nanostructures exemplified by silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon\\/germanium nano junction. It is found that multiple layers of Nosé-Hoover heat bath are required to reduce the temperature jump at the boundary, while only a single layer of Langevin heat bath is sufficient to generate

Jie Chen; Gang Zhang; Baowen Li

2010-01-01

316

Effect of cooling baths on EVOH microporous membrane structures in thermally induced phase separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of cooling bath on the membrane preparation of crystalline polymer\\/diluent system via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS), when the cooling bath is compatible with the diluent. In this work, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)\\/PEG300 system with water and methanol as the cooling baths was proposed. Results showed that when water was used

Jing Zhou; Heng Zhang; Haitao Wang; Qiangguo Du

2009-01-01

317

Decarburizing activity of fused salts and the service life of salt baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Chemically pure magnesium fluoride is the most effective deoxidizing agent for salt baths operating at 1200–1300o.2.It is expedient to deoxidize the bath only once per shift.3.The use of a chromomagnesite lining and electrodes of steel 10 increases the service life of the bath to 25 days and reduces the decarburizing activity.4.The use of electrodes made of heat resistant alloy and

E. A. Smol'nikov; I. P. Kandalovskii; Yu. A. Evtyushkin

1976-01-01

318

Whirlpool baths in nursing homes: use, maintenance, and contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection was associated with the use of a whirlpool bath in a nursing home. The nursing home inspection unit asked for guidance on whirlpool baths in nursing homes and advice for proprietors about their use, cleaning, disinfection, and maintenance. Seventeen whirlpool baths in 16 nursing homes in two health districts were examined for the presence of P. aeruginosa. A survey was made of the use made of whirlpool baths, methods used to clean and disinfect them, and the occurrence of P. aeruginosa wound infection in users. P. aeruginosa were found in large numbers in water samples from all whirlpool baths after agitation. Only one of the 253 residents who used whirlpool baths was known to have a P. aeruginosa wound infection. The local nursing home inspection unit was advised that whirlpool baths could continue to be used in nursing homes but only by continent residents with intact skin. The bath should be cleaned and disinfected, preferably with hypochlorite, after each use; the bath should be more thoroughly cleaned and disinfected daily and the bath should be fully serviced at least once a year. Suspected or confirmed cases of P. aeruginosa infection in residents of nursing homes should be reported to the consultant in communicable disease control. The prevalence of known infection with P. aeruginosa was low in the residents of the nursing homes, but the unguided and unregulated use of whirlpool baths in nursing homes may present an infection hazard to residents who use the bath and to hospitals that admit residents from such nursing homes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7613584

Hollyoak, V; Boyd, P; Freeman, R

1995-06-23

319

Searching for life on Mars: degradation of surfactant solutions used in organic extraction experiments.  

PubMed

Life-detection instruments on future Mars missions may use surfactant solutions to extract organic matter from samples of martian rocks. The thermal and radiation environments of space and Mars are capable of degrading these solutions, thereby reducing their ability to dissolve organic species. Successful extraction and detection of biosignatures on Mars requires an understanding of how degradation in extraterrestrial environments can affect surfactant performance. We exposed solutions of the surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80), Zonyl FS-300, and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-[3-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)propyl]methylsiloxane] (PDMSHEPMS) to elevated radiation and heat levels, combined with prolonged storage. Degradation was investigated by measuring changes in pH and electrical conductivity and by using the degraded solutions to extract a suite of organic compounds spiked onto grains of the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Results indicate that the proton fluences expected during a mission to Mars do not cause significant degradation of surfactant compounds. Solutions of PS80 or PDMSHEPMS stored at -20 °C are able to extract the spiked standards with acceptable recovery efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies for spiked standards decrease progressively with increasing temperature, and prolonged storage at 60°C renders the surfactant solutions ineffective. Neither the presence of ascorbic acid nor the choice of solvent unequivocally alters the efficiency of extraction of the spiked standards. Since degradation of polysorbates has the potential to produce organic compounds that could be mistaken for indigenous martian organic matter, the polysiloxane PDMSHEPMS may be a superior choice of surfactant for the exploration of Mars. PMID:25192400

Court, Richard W; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C; Sephton, Mark A

2014-09-01

320

Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.  

PubMed

A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA. PMID:18961226

Pribil, R; Veselý, V

1972-12-01

321

Gauging a quantum heat bath with dissipative Landau-Zener transitions  

E-print Network

We calculate the exact Landau-Zener transitions probabilities for a qubit with arbitrary linear coupling to a bath at zero temperature. The final quantum state exhibits a peculiar entanglement between the qubit and the bath. In the special case of a diagonal coupling, the bath does not influence the transition probability, whatever the speed of the Landau-Zener sweep. It is proposed to use Landau-Zener transitions to determine both the reorganization energy and the integrated spectral density of the bath. Possible applications include circuit QED and molecular nanomagnets.

Martijn Wubs; Keiji Saito; Sigmund Kohler; Peter Hänggi; Yosuke Kayanuma

2006-08-15

322

Gauging a Quantum Heat Bath with Dissipative Landau-Zener Transitions  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the exact Landau-Zener transition probabilities for a qubit with an arbitrary linear coupling to a bath at zero temperature. The final quantum state exhibits a peculiar entanglement between the qubit and the bath. In the special case of diagonal coupling, the bath does not influence the transition probability, whatever the speed of the Landau-Zener sweep. It is proposed to use Landau-Zener transitions to determine both the reorganization energy and the integrated spectral density of the bath. Possible applications include circuit QED and molecular nanomagnets.

Wubs, Martijn; Kohler, Sigmund; Haenggi, Peter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Saito, Keiji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kayanuma, Yosuke [Department of Mathematical Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

2006-11-17

323

Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

Zarea, Mehdi; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

2014-01-01

324

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

325

Quantitation of Organics in Supercritical Fluid Aging Experiments Using FTIR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Aging is a natural process in which hydrophobic organic contaminants slowly accumulate in the mineral pores and organic matter of soils and sediments. Contaminants in aged soils exhibit decreased bioavailability and slow release to the environment. Therefore, aging may have a significant influence on the applicability and effectiveness of remediation strategies (e.g., bioremediation and natural attenuation) and the accuracy of numerical transport models. Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that circulating supercritical carbon dioxide can be used to rapidly prepare artificially aged materials for studying slow-release behavior. In this investigation, FTIR spectroscopy was evaluated as a means of monitoring the progress of the aging process in real time. Solvent interferences, measurement sensitivity for selected halocarbons and the influence of temperature and pressure on the FTIR spectra were assessed. Application of this methodology to monitoring the incorporation of carbon tetrachloride into natural soils will be discussed.

Thompson, Christopher J.; Riley, Robert G.; Amonette, James E.; Gassman, Paul L.

2004-03-31

326

Adsorption of propane, propylene and isobutane on a metal–organic framework: Molecular simulation and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of propane\\/propylene mixtures is the most energy-intensive operation practiced in the petrochemical industry. Adsorptive processes are currently viewed as a promising alternative to cryogenic distillation for the separation of these mixtures. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using a new metal–organic framework material, CuBTC, in adsorptive separation processes, particularly in a simulated moving bed (SMB) context

Nabil Lamia; Miguel Jorge; Miguel A. Granato; Filipe A. Almeida Paz; Hubert Chevreau; Alírio E. Rodrigues

2009-01-01

327

Detrital Controls on Soil Solution N and Dissolved Organic Matter in Soils: A Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established a long-term field study in an old growth coniferous forest at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA,\\u000a to address how detrital quality and quantity control soil organic matter accumulation and stabilization. The Detritus Input\\u000a and Removal Treatments (DIRT) plots consist of treatments that double leaf litter, double woody debris inputs, exclude litter\\u000a inputs, or remove root inputs

K. Lajtha; S. E. Crow; Y. Yano; S. S. Kaushal; E. Sulzman; P. Sollins; J. D. H. Spears

2005-01-01

328

The dissection room experience: A factor in the choice of organ and whole body donation--a Nigerian survey.  

PubMed

The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to body and organ donation were studied. The participants were broken into categories according to degree of exposure to human dissection. Participants who were never exposed to the dissection experience showed more willingness to donate their bodies than those who were exposed. With the exception of the physiotherapy department, the students and professionals from the health science departments who were exposed to the dissection room but never engaged in dissection showed the most unwillingness to donate their bodies (P < 0.001). An unwillingness to donate oneself was noted as one of the negative impacts associated with exposure to the dissection room. Willingness to donate an organ correlated positively with the level of exposure to the dissection room (P < 0.001). Most of the reasons for unwillingness were traceable to negative perceptions of the dissection room as a result of poor and disrespectful management of the human cadavers. PMID:23650046

Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N; Agu, Augustine U

2014-01-01

329

Genomic Insights into Methanotrophy: The Complete Genome Sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

PubMed Central

Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15383840

2004-01-01

330

Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).  

PubMed

Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15383840

Ward, Naomi; Larsen, Øivind; Sakwa, James; Bruseth, Live; Khouri, Hoda; Durkin, A Scott; Dimitrov, George; Jiang, Lingxia; Scanlan, David; Kang, Katherine H; Lewis, Matt; Nelson, Karen E; Methé, Barbara; Wu, Martin; Heidelberg, John F; Paulsen, Ian T; Fouts, Derrick; Ravel, Jacques; Tettelin, Hervé; Ren, Qinghu; Read, Tim; DeBoy, Robert T; Seshadri, Rekha; Salzberg, Steven L; Jensen, Harald B; Birkeland, Nils Kåre; Nelson, William C; Dodson, Robert J; Grindhaug, Svenn H; Holt, Ingeborg; Eidhammer, Ingvar; Jonasen, Inge; Vanaken, Susan; Utterback, Terry; Feldblyum, Tamara V; Fraser, Claire M; Lillehaug, Johan R; Eisen, Jonathan A

2004-10-01

331

Category-Specific Organization in the Human Brain Does Not Require Visual Experience  

E-print Network

and differential BOLD responses in lateral occipital cortex for animal stimuli compared to nonliving stimuli does not require visual experience in order to develop and suggest the operation of innately determined-temporal cortex. It is known that ventral and lateral occipital- temporal cortex, or the ``ventral stream

Mahon, Bradford Z.

332

Nearby-fluids equilibria. II. Zonal flows in a high-, self-organized plasma experiment  

E-print Network

is the separatrix radius. This strong inward shift of the peak cannot be explained by static equilibrium theory, and sustainment TCS experiment are modeled using the newly developed nearby-fluids equilibrium model equilibrium model as an interpretive tool. The poloidal flows explain the unusual toroidal field structure

Washington at Seattle, University of

333

Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have…

Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

334

Pseudogap and singlet formation in organic and cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudogap phase occurring in cuprate and organic superconductors is analyzed based on the dynamical cluster approximation approach to the Hubbard model. In this method a cluster embedded in a self-consistent bath is studied. With increasing Coulomb repulsion, U, the antinodal point [k =(?,0)] displays a gradual suppression of spectral density of states around the Fermi energy which is not observed at the nodal point [k =(?/2,?/2)]. The opening of the antinodal pseudogap is found to be related to the internal structure of the cluster and the much weaker bath-cluster couplings at the antinodal than nodal point. The role played by internal cluster correlations is elucidated from a simple four-level model. For small U, the cluster levels form Kondo singlets with their baths leading to a peak in the spectral density. As U is increased a localized state is formed localizing the electrons in the cluster. If this cluster localized state is nondegenerate, the Kondo effect is destroyed and a pseudogap opens up in the spectra at the antinodal point. The pseudogap can be understood in terms of destructive interference between different paths for electrons hopping between the cluster and the bath. However, electrons at the nodal points remain in Kondo states up to larger U since they are more strongly coupled to the bath. The strong correlation between the (?,0) and the (0,?) cluster levels in the localized state leads to a large correlation energy gain, which is important for localizing electrons and opening up a pseudogap at the antinodal point. Such a scenario is in contrast with two independent Mott transitions found in two-band systems with different bandwidths in which the localized cluster electron does not correlate strongly with any other cluster electron for intermediate U. The important intracluster sector correlations are associated with the resonating valence bond character of the cluster ground state containing d-wave singlet pairs. The low-energy excitations determining the pseudogap have suppressed d-wave pairing, indicating that the pseudogap can be related to breaking very short-range d-wave pairs. Geometrical frustration on the anisotropic triangular lattice relevant to ?-(BEDT-TTF)2X leads to a switch in the character of the ground state of the cluster at intermediate hopping ratios t'/t˜0.7. Electron doping of the frustrated square lattice destroys the pseudogap, in agreement with photoemission experiments on cuprates, due to a larger Schrieffer-Wolff exchange coupling, JK, and a stronger cluster-bath coupling for the antinodal point.

Merino, J.; Gunnarsson, O.

2014-06-01

335

Determination of oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosol from isoprene and toluene smog chamber experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of multifunctional oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) usually requires a derivatisation protocol prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Our proposed protocol, a combination of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) plus diluted N-methyl-N-trimethyl-silyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) without catalyst, has improved the determination of carbonyls, polyhydroxyl-compounds, hydroxyl-carbonyls, hydroxyl-carboxylic acids and di-carboxylic acids. The optimised derivatisation protocol has been successfully used for

Esther Borrás; Luis Antonio Tortajada-Genaro

2011-01-01

336

Determination of oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosol from isoprene and toluene smog chamber experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of multifunctional oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) usually requires a derivatisation protocol prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Our proposed protocol, a combination of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) plus diluted N-methyl-N-trimethyl-silyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) without catalyst, has improved the determination of carbonyls, polyhydroxyl-compounds, hydroxyl-carbonyls, hydroxyl-carboxylic acids and di-carboxylic acids. The optimised derivatisation protocol has been successfully used for

Esther Borrás; Luis Antonio Tortajada-Genaro

2012-01-01

337

Resonator-Assisted Quantum Bath Engineering of a Flux Qubit  

E-print Network

We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We have investigated the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction of the pseudo angular momentum space, and obtained an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99.9\\% and the required time on the order of magnitude of microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal is available to generalize to any other systems with spin-based qubits.

Xian-Peng Zhang; Li-Tuo Shen; Zhang-Qi Yin; Huai-Zhi Wu; Zhen-Biao Yang

2014-07-12

338

Strong-field spatial interference in a tailored electromagnetic bath  

E-print Network

Light scattered by a regular structure of atoms can exhibit interference signatures, similar to the classical double-slit. These first-order interferences, however, vanish for strong light intensities, restricting potential applications. Here, we show how to overcome these limitations to quantum interference in strong fields. First, we recover the first-order interference in strong fields via a tailored electromagnetic bath with a suitable frequency dependence. At strong driving, the optical properties for different spectral bands are distinct, thus extending the set of observables. We further show that for a two-photon detector as, e.g., in lithography, increasing the field intensity leads to twice the spatial resolution of the second-order interference pattern compared to the weak-field case.

M. Macovei; J. Evers; G. -x. Li; C. H. Keitel

2006-06-19

339

Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past\\/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site

R. Bonaccorsi; C. R. Stoker

2006-01-01

340

Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

2014-07-01

341

Transport and attenuation of metal(loid)s in mine tailings amended with organic carbon: Column experiments.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale column experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic carbon amendments on the mobility of As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in mine tailings. Three columns were packed with sulfide- and carbonate-rich tailings, which were amended with a 1:1 (vol.) mixture of peat and spent brewing grain at proportions of 0, 2 and 5vol.%. A simulated input solution characterized by circumneutral pH and elevated concentrations of SO(4) and S(2)O(3) was passed through the columns for 540 days. The input solution contained low concentrations of metal(loid)s during the initial 300 days and elevated concentrations thereafter. Decreases in mass transport of S(2)O(3) were observed in all columns; with increased attenuation observed at 5 vol. % organic carbon content. Removal of Mn, Ni, Cu, Sb and Mo was observed in all columns during the initial 300 days. However, during this time, mobilization of Fe, As, Zn and Pb was observed, with the greatest increases in concentration observed at the higher organic carbon content. During the final 240 days, S(2)O(3) removal was enhanced in columns containing organic carbon, and Fe, Mn, Ni, Tl, As and Sb removal also was observed. This study demonstrates the influence of organic carbon amendments on metal(loid) mobility in mine tailings. Decreases in mass discharge of metal(loid)s may be achieved using this technique; however, site-specific geochemical conditions must be considered before field-scale implementation. PMID:21592616

Lindsay, Matthew B J; Blowes, David W; Ptacek, Carol J; Condon, Peter D

2011-07-01

342

[Experience in organizing surgical care during the combat operations in the Chechen Republic].  

PubMed

In the article the final analysis of organization of surgical care during the local military conflict in northern Caucasus was presented. The real possibilities of different medical units such as single medical company and medical squadron of special assignment was described. Also concrete contents of emergency specialized surgical care and its role in improvement of outcomes in patients with combined combat injuries was reflected. Mortality in this patients was decreased from 25.2 to 12.8%. The defects of surgical care were analyzed and the main ways of improvement of surgical care in local military conflict were presented. In the result of using the principle of moving the medical care closer to the wounded in the whole system of consecutive care the mortality was decreased up to 1.3%. PMID:9412060

Briusov, P G; Khrupkin, V I

1997-06-01

343

Relationships between organic nitrates and surface ozone destruction during Polar Sunrise Experiment 1992  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the measurements of reactive nitrogen species and organic nitrates, in the Arctic winter, in an effort to study the observed ozone depletion near surface altitudes following sunrise. They monitored a series of C{sub 3} - C{sub 7} alkyl nitrates. The distribution of these alkyl nitrates during the arctic winter was found to be similar to those observed at lower latitudes. During periods of ozone depletion, there were was a positive correlation between the ozone and heavier alkyl nitrate concentrations. The large changes observed in the alkyl nitrate concentrations during these events means that there had to be a mechanism which processed large air volumes though some reaction which consumed the nitrates. This could be processing due to OH reactions of Cl chemistry.

Muthuramu, K.; Jobson, B.T.; Niki, H. [York Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others] [York Univ., Ontario (Canada); and others

1994-12-20

344

Rabi oscillations, decoherence, and disentanglement in a qubit-spin-bath system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the influence of environmental interactions on simple quantum systems by obtaining the exact reduced dynamics of a qubit coupled to a one-dimensional spin bath. In contrast to previous studies, both the qubit-bath coupling and the nearest-neighbor intrabath couplings are taken as the spin-flip XX type. We first study the Rabi oscillations of a single qubit with the spin bath prepared in a spin coherent state, finding that nonresonance and finite intrabath interactions have significant effects on the qubit dynamics. Then we discuss the bath-induced decoherence of the qubit when the bath is initially in the ground state and show that the decoherence properties depend on the internal phases of the spin bath. By considering two independent copies of the qubit-bath system, we finally probe the disentanglement dynamics of two noninteracting entangled qubits. We find that entanglement sudden death appears when the spin bath is in its critical phase. We show that the single-qubit decoherence factor is an upper bound for the two-qubit concurrence.

Wu, Ning; Nanduri, Arun; Rabitz, Herschel

2014-06-01

345

Classification of bathing water quality based on the parametric calculation of percentiles is unsound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of Irish bathing water quality data sets are reported to investigate whether the parametric calculations proposed in the draft Bathing Water Directive are valid. Faecal coliforms (assumed to be Escherichia coli) and faecal streptococci (assumed to be intestinal enterococci) have been analysed separately. It was noted that classifications based on the parametric 95th percentile calculations disagreed with those based

Raymond Chawla; Paul R. Hunter

2005-01-01

346

Rabi oscillations, decoherence, and disentanglement in a qubit-spin-bath system: exact dynamics  

E-print Network

We examine the influence of environmental interactions on simple quantum systems by obtaining the exact reduced dynamics of a qubit coupled to a one-dimensional spin bath. In contrast to previous studies, both the qubit-bath coupling and the nearest neighbor intrabath couplings are taken as the spin-flip XX-type. We first study the Rabi oscillations of a single qubit with the spin bath prepared in a spin coherent state, finding that nonresonance and finite intrabath interactions have significant effects on the qubit dynamics. Next, we discuss the bath-induced decoherence of the qubit when the bath is initially in the ground state, and show that the decoherence properties depend on the internal phases of the spin bath. By considering two independent copies of the qubit-bath system, we finally probe the disentanglement dynamics of two noninteracting entangled qubits. We find that entanglement sudden death appears when the spin bath is in its critical phase. We show that the single-qubit decoherence factor is an upper bound for the two-qubit concurrence.

Ning Wu; Arun Nanduri; Herschel Rabitz

2014-03-19

347

Heat Transport in Quantum Spin Chains Stochastic Baths vs Quantum Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the problem of heat conduction in quantum spin chain mod- els. To investigate this problem it is necessary to consider the finite open system connected to heat baths. We describe two different procedures to couple the system with the reservoirs: a model of stochastic heat baths and the quantum trajecto- ries solution of the quantum master equation. The

Carlos Mejia-Monasterio; Hannu Wichterich

348

Morphological and stoichiometric study of chemical bath deposited CdS films by varying ammonia concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ammonia concentration on stoichiometric, surface morphological, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films has been studied systemically. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films was carried out via using cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, thiourea as the sulphur source and ammonia as the complexing agent. Ammonia concentration was changed from

Q. Q. Liu; J. H. Shi; Z. Q. Li; D. W. Zhang; X. D. Li; Z. Sun; L. Y. Zhang; S. M. Huang

2010-01-01

349

Bath, October 28th 2005 1 High Frequency Scattering by Convex Polygons  

E-print Network

noise · Defence applications · Identifying objects via radar / sonar #12;Bath, October 28th 2005 6 of numerical wave modelling #12;Bath, October 28th 2005 10 Second difficulty - pollution errors Additional error caused by innacurate modelling of wavelength - can "build up" across numerical model. Figure 2

Langdon, Stephen

350

[Interference therapy and radon baths in the combined treatment of patients with reflex cervicobrachial syndromes].  

PubMed

Patients with cervicobrachialgic syndromes on interference therapy, exercise treatment, massage of the cervical collar region received balneotherapy. 42 of them took water baths, 39 took dry air radon baths. These complexes proved effective in cervicobrachialgic syndromes, the effect being slightly dependent on the clinical symptoms of the disease. PMID:9987978

Gorbunov, F E; Semenistaia, S V

1998-01-01

351

Viscosity study in the reaction bath of the radical copolymerization of styrene divinylbenzene  

E-print Network

L-539 Viscosity study in the reaction bath of the radical copolymerization of styrene measurements taken during the copolymerization of Styrene Divinylbenzene in the reaction bath, near the gel the copolymerization of Styrene and Divinyl- benzene (DVB) at 60 oC, using AZO-2,2' isobutyro- nitrile (AIBN

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Existence of an independent phonon bath in a quantum device L. M. A. Pascal,1  

E-print Network

Existence of an independent phonon bath in a quantum device L. M. A. Pascal,1 A. Fay,1 C. B generally believed that a mesoscopic device operating at low temperature does not carry an individual phonon in a mesoscopic quantum device from its substrate phonon heat bath at a sub-Kelvin temperature. A simple heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Sulphur bath and mud pack treatment for rheumatoid arthritis at the Dead Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis in a stage of active disease were treated for two weeks at a spa hotel. The patients were divided into four groups of 10. Group I was treated with daily mud packs, group II with daily hot sulphur baths, group III with a combination of mud packs and hot sulphur baths, and

S Sukenik; D Buskila; L Neumann; A Kleiner-Baumgarten; S Zimlichman; J Horowitz

1990-01-01

354

Observation of zero-point quantum fluctuations of a single-molecule magnet through the relaxation of its nuclear spin bath.  

PubMed

A single-molecule magnet placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to its anisotropy axis can be truncated to an effective two-level system, with easily tunable energy splitting. The quantum coherence of the molecular spin is largely determined by the dynamics of the surrounding nuclear spin bath. Here we report the measurement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1n in a single crystal of the single-molecule magnet Mn12-ac, at T ? 30 mK in perpendicular fields B? up to 9 T. The relaxation channel at B ? 0 is dominated by incoherent quantum tunneling of the Mn12-ac spin S, aided by the nuclear bath itself. However for B?>5 T we observe an increase of 1/T1n by several orders of magnitude up to the highest field, despite the fact that the molecular spin is in its quantum mechanical ground state. This striking observation is a consequence of the zero-point quantum fluctuations of S, which allow it to mediate the transfer of energy from the excited nuclear spin bath to the crystal lattice at much higher rates. Our experiment highlights the importance of quantum fluctuations in the interaction between an "effective two-level system" and its surrounding spin bath. PMID:24702408

Morello, A; Millán, A; de Jongh, L J

2014-03-21

355

Structural, morphological and optical properties of cadmium sulphide thin films grown using chemical bath deposition technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Aqueous baths of cadmium sulphate and thiourea were used as sources of cadmium (Cd+2) and sulphur (S-2) ions, respectively. The influence of the varied bath temperature from 65°C to 85°C in a step of 10°C on the crystallographic structure, morphology as well as optical properties of as-deposited films were investigated in detail. Increasing bath temperature can promote phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal and improvement of crystallinity in CdS films. CdS film deposited at 85° C shows compact and smooth surface, and excellent transmission in visible light range. The band gaps are found to decrease from 2.52 eV to 2.36 eV with the increase of bath temperature.

Shah, N. M.

2013-06-01

356

Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

2011-09-01

357

Organizing national responses for rare blood disorders: the Italian experience with sickle cell disease in childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent hemoglobinopathy worldwide but remains a rare blood disorder in most western countries. Recommendations for standard of care have been produced in the United States, the United Kingdom and France, where this disease is relatively frequent because of earlier immigration from Africa. These recommendations have changed the clinical course of SCD but can be difficult to apply in other contexts. The Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology (AIEOP) decided to develop a common national response to the rising number of SCD patients in Italy with the following objectives: 1) to create a national working group focused on pediatric SCD, and 2) to develop tailored guidelines for the management of SCD that could be accessed and practiced by those involved in the care of children with SCD in Italy. Methods Guidelines, adapted to the Italian social context and health system, were developed by 22 pediatric hematologists representing 54 AIEOP centers across Italy. The group met five times for a total of 128 hours in 22 months; documents and opinions were circulated via web. Results Recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of the most relevant complications of SCD in childhood adapted to the Italian context and health system were produced. For each topic, a pathway of diagnosis and care is detailed, and a selection of health management issues crucial to Italy or different from other countries is described (i.e., use of alternatives for infection prophylaxis because of the lack of oral penicillin in Italy). Conclusions Creating a network of physicians involved in the day-to-day care of children with SCD is feasible in a country where it remains rare. Providing hematologists, primary and secondary care physicians, and caregivers across the country with web-based guidelines for the management of SCD tailored to the Italian context is the first step in building a sustainable response to a rare but emerging childhood blood disorder and in implementing the World Health Organization’s suggestion “to design (and) implement … comprehensive national integrated programs for the prevention and management of SCD". PMID:24139596

2013-01-01

358

Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

Meer, Sneer

2002-06-01

359

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

360

Sub-bandgap absorption in organic solar cells: experiment and theory.  

PubMed

Most high-performance organic solar cells involve bulk-heterojunctions in order to increase the active donor-acceptor interface area. The power conversion efficiency depends critically on the nano-morphology of the blend and the interface. Spectroscopy of the sub-bandgap region, i.e., below the bulk absorption of the individual components, provides unique opportunities to study interface-related properties. We present absorption measurements in the sub-bandgap region of bulk heterojunctions made of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) as an electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as an electron acceptor and compare them with quantum-chemical calculations and recently published data on the external quantum efficiency (EQE). The very weak absorption of the deep sub-bandgap region measured by the ultra-sensitive Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) features Urbach tails, polaronic transitions, conventional excitons, and possibly charge-transfer states. The quantum-chemical calculations allow characterizing some of the unsettled spectral features. PMID:23929440

Beenken, Wichard J D; Herrmann, Felix; Presselt, Martin; Hoppe, Harald; Shokhovets, Sviatoslav; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich

2013-10-21

361

Immediate dissemination of student discoveries to a model organism database enhances classroom-based research experiences.  

PubMed

Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately "publish" their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students' efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course. PMID:24591511

Wiley, Emily A; Stover, Nicholas A

2014-01-01

362

Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences  

PubMed Central

Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately “publish” their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students’ efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course. PMID:24591511

Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

363

Microbial and nutrient pollution of coastal bathing waters in Mauritius.  

PubMed

The coastal pollution problem in Mauritius is exacerbated by the hydrogeology of the volcanic substratum. Bacterial contamination of bathing waters and nutrients, water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at three different spatial and temporal scales along the coastline of Mauritius during 1997-1998. Standard techniques for water sample collection and analysis set by the American Public Health Association [APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Washington, DC: APHA, 1995.] were used at: (a) 16 sites around the island over a period of 7 months; (b) 12 stations along a recreational beach over an 18-month period; and (c) at an underground freshwater seepage point over 1 day. Total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), and faecal streptococci (FS) contamination reported during all surveys varied randomly (e.g., with maximum densities in the ranges of 346-2020 TC, 130-2000 FC, and 180-1040 FS at one site) and at times exceeded the established EEC and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) standards for bathing water (e.g., in >90% of samples) to qualify for beach closure. Computed FC:FS ratios were used to pinpoint human faecal matter as the main source of contamination. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations in seepage water were high (3600-9485, 38-105, and 9950-24,775 microg l(-1), respectively) and a cause for concern when compared with levels (5-845, 5-72, and 35-6570 microg l(-1), respectively) in cleaner lagoon water samples. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (for TC and NO3: r=.75, P<.02; for TC and PO4: r=.779, P<.02; for TC and SiO4: r=.731, P<.05; for FC and NO3: r=.773, P<.02; for FC and SiO4: r=.727, P<.05; for FS and SiO4: r=.801 P<.01) between microbial densities and nutrients recorded, confirming the pathogen-contaminated water to be highly eutrophic. There is an urgency for Mauritius to properly address the issue of sewage treatment and wastewater discharge to safeguard its coastal environment, public health, and tourism expansion. PMID:11868664

Daby, D; Turner, J; Jago, C

2002-02-01

364

Exposure assessment for swimmers in bathing waters and swimming pools.  

PubMed

Bathing water compliant with bathing water legislation may nevertheless contain pathogens to such a level that they pose unacceptable health risks for swimmers. Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) can provide a proper basis for protective measures, but the required data on swimmer exposure are currently limited or lacking. The objective of this study was to collect exposure data for swimmers in fresh water, seawater and swimming pools, i.e. volume of water swallowed and frequency and duration of swimming events. The study related to swimming in 2007, but since the summer of 2007 was wet and this might have biased the results regarding surface water exposure, the study was repeated relating to swimming in 2009, which had a dry and sunny summer. Exposure data were collected through questionnaires administered to approximately 19 000 persons representing the general Dutch population. Questionnaires were completed by 8000 adults of whom 1924 additionally answered the questions for their eldest child (< 15 years). The collected data did not differ significantly between 2007 and 2009. The frequency of swimming and the duration of swimming were different for men, women and children and between water types. Differences between men and women were small, but children behaved differently: they swam more often, stayed in the water longer, submerged their heads more often and swallowed more water. Swimming pools were visited most frequently (on average 13-24 times/year) with longest duration of swimming (on average 67-81 min). On average, fresh and seawater sites were visited 6-8 times/year and visits lasted 41-79 min. Dependent on the water type, men swallowed on average 27-34 ml per swimming event, women 18-23 ml, and children 31-51 ml. Data on exposure of swimmers to recreational waters could be obtained by using a questionnaire approach in combination with a test to measure mouthfuls of water for transformation of categorical data to numerical data of swallowed volumes of water. Previous assumptions on swimmer exposure were replaced with estimates of exposure parameters, thus reducing uncertainty in assessing the risk of infection with waterborne pathogens and enabling identification of risk groups. QMRA for Cryptosporidium and Giardia was demonstrated based on data from previous studies on the occurrence of these pathogens in recreational lakes and a swimming pool. PMID:21371734

Schets, Franciska M; Schijven, Jack F; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2011-03-01

365

33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area. 334.782 Section 334...REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted...

2010-07-01

366

Microalbuminuria in patients with essential hypertension and its relationship to target organ damage: an Indian experience.  

PubMed

Persistent microalbuminuria (MA) is the earliest indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients with MA have high risk for target organ damage (TOD) resulting in stroke, retinopathy and adverse cardiovascular events. Though the prevalence of hypertension is high in India, the relationship between MA and TOD in hypertension is not well studied. To address this issue, this study was conducted at the Kottayam Medical College, Kerala, South India, between May 2005 and October 2006. The principal aim was to find out the prevalence of MA and its relationship to TOD in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 150 hypertensives without diabetes mellitus and/or other conditions causing MA were studied. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was assessed and MA was defined as albumin excretion between 30-300 mg/day. The relationship of MA with the duration, severity and previous treatment of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and TOD's like left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), hypertensive retinopathy and stroke was assessed by univariate analysis. Forty patients (26.67%) were found to have MA of whom 24 were males and 16 were females. MA was significantly higher in those with longer duration and greater severity of hypertension (p < 0.001 in each). Older age (p < 0.001), adverse lipid profile (p < 0.01) and higher BMI (p < 0.04) were the other identifiable risk factors for MA. Gender and history of smoking did not pose higher risk for MA. Stroke (OR=3.8), echocardiography-proven LVH (OR=9.42) and hypertensive retinopathy (OR=9.7) were significantly higher in those with MA. In conclusion, the prevalence of MA in essential hypertension is high and patients with MA have high odds for developing TOD like stroke, LVH and hypertensive retinopathy. Early screening of hypertensives for MA and prompt treatment of positive cases might reduce the burden of CKD and cardiovascular disease in the community. PMID:18445902

Hitha, B; Pappachan, J M; Pillai, H Balachandran; Sujathan, P; Ramakrishna, C D; Jayaprakash, K; Raihanathul Misiriya, K J

2008-05-01

367

Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Successful application of the 187Re–187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re–Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re–Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re–Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental abundance data reveal limited transfer of Re and Os into the bitumen from a Type III kerogen in comparison to Type II-S kerogen (0.02% vs. 3.7%), suggesting that these metals are very tightly bound in Type III kerogen structure. The 187Os/188Os data from the pyrolysis generated Phosphoria bitumens display minor variation (4%) across the experimental temperatures, with values similar to that of the source rock. This indicates that the isotopic composition of the bitumen reflects the isotopic composition of the source rock at the time of petroleum generation. These data further support the premise that the Os isotopic composition of oils and bitumens can be used to fingerprint petroleum deposits to specific source rocks. Oil generated through the hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not contain appreciable quantities of Re or Os (~120 and ~3 ppt, respectively), in contrast to natural oils (2–50 ppb and 34–288 ppt for Re and Os, respectively), which may suggest that kinetic parameters are fundamental to the transfer of Re and Os from source rocks to oils. From this we hypothesise that, at the temperatures employed in hydrous pyrolysis, Re and Os are assimilated into the extracted rock as a result of cross-linking reactions.

Rooney, A. D.; Selby, D.; Lewan, M. D.; Lillis, P. G.; Houzay, J. -P.

2012-01-01

368

Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful application of the 187Re-187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re-Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re-Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re-Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental abundance data reveal limited transfer of Re and Os into the bitumen from a Type III kerogen in comparison to Type II-S kerogen (0.02% vs. 3.7%), suggesting that these metals are very tightly bound in Type III kerogen structure. The 187Os/188Os data from the pyrolysis generated Phosphoria bitumens display minor variation (4%) across the experimental temperatures, with values similar to that of the source rock. This indicates that the isotopic composition of the bitumen reflects the isotopic composition of the source rock at the time of petroleum generation. These data further support the premise that the Os isotopic composition of oils and bitumens can be used to fingerprint petroleum deposits to specific source rocks. Oil generated through the hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not contain appreciable quantities of Re or Os (?120 and ?3 ppt, respectively), in contrast to natural oils (2-50 ppb and 34-288 ppt for Re and Os, respectively), which may suggest that kinetic parameters are fundamental to the transfer of Re and Os from source rocks to oils. From this we hypothesise that, at the temperatures employed in hydrous pyrolysis, Re and Os are assimilated into the extracted rock as a result of cross-linking reactions.

Rooney, Alan D.; Selby, David; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Houzay, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

369

Toward a Full Simulation of the Basic Oxygen Furnace: Deformation of the Bath Free Surface and Coupled Transfer Processes Associated with the Post-Combustion in the Gas Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article treats different phenomena taking place in a steelmaking converter through the development of two separate models. The first model describes the cavity produced at the free surface of the metal bath by the high-speed impinging oxygen jet. The model is based on a zonal approach, where gas compressibility effects are taken into account only in the high velocity jet region, while elsewhere the gas is treated as incompressible. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to follow the deformation of the bath free surface. Calculations are presented for two- and three-phase systems and compared against experimental data obtained in a cold model experiment presented in the literature. The influence on the size and shape of the cavity of various parameters and models (including the jet inlet boundary conditions, the VOF advection scheme, and the turbulence model) is studied. Next, the model is used to simulate the interaction of a supersonic oxygen jet with the surface of a liquid steel bath in a pilot-scale converter. The second model concentrates on fluid flow, heat transfer, and the post-combustion reaction in the gas phase above the metal bath. The model uses the simple chemical reaction scheme approach to describe the transport of the chemical species and takes into account the consumption of oxygen by the bath and thermal radiative transfer. The model predictions are in reasonable agreement with measurements collected in a laboratory experiment and in a pilot-scale furnace.

Doh, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Djambazov, G.; Pericleous, K.; Ghazal, G.; Gardin, P.

2013-06-01

370

Mechanisms of carrier transport induced by a microswimmer bath  

E-print Network

Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

Andreas Kaiser; Andrey Sokolov; Igor S. Aranson; Hartmut Löwen

2014-08-08

371

Heat current characteristics in nanojunctions with superconducting baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a fundamental requisite for thermotronics, controlling heat flow has been a longstanding quest in solid state physics. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in nanoscale hybrid systems as possible candidates for thermal devices. In this context, we study the heat current in the simplest hybrid device of a two level system weakly coupled to two heat baths. We use the reduced density matrix approach together with a simple Born-Markov approximation to calculate the heat current in the steady state. We consider different kinds of reservoirs and show that the nature of the reservoir plays a very important role in determining the thermal characteristics of the device. In particular, we investigate the effectiveness of a conventional superconductor as a reservoir with regard to manipulating the heat current. In the emergent temperature characteristics, we find that superconductivity in the reservoirs leads to enhanced thermal currents and that the superconducting phase transition is clearly visible in the heat current. We observe negative differential thermal conductance and a pronounced rectification of the heat current, making this a good building block for a quantum thermal diode.

Oettinger, David; Chitra, R.; Restrepo, Juliana

2014-10-01

372

Investigation of "bath salts" use patterns within an online sample of users in the United States.  

PubMed

Abstract "Bath salts" are synthetic stimulant "legal highs" that have recently been banned in the US. Epidemiological data regarding bath salts use are limited. In the present study, 113 individuals in the US reporting use of bath salts completed an anonymous, online survey characterizing demographic, experiential, and psychological variables. Respondents were more often male, 18-24 years old, and Caucasian/White with some college education. Past-year use was typically low (? 10 days), but marked by repeated dosing. Intranasal was the most frequently reported administration route and subjective effects were similar to other stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines). Bath salts use was associated with increased sexual desire and sexual HIV risk behavior, and met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for disordered use in more than half of respondents. Bath salts use persists in the US despite federal bans of cathinone-like constituents. Self-reported stimulant-like effects of bath salts suggest their use as substitutes for traditional illicit stimulants. Data revealed more normative outcomes vis-à-vis extreme accounts by media and medical case reports. However, indications of product abuse potential and sexual risk remain, suggesting bath salts pose potential public health harm. PMID:25364987

Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

2014-01-01

373

Internal Marketing, Negative Experiences, and Volunteers'Commitment to Providing High-Quality Services in a UK Helping and Caring Charitable Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study examined the effects of “negative'' contact experiences with beneficiaries on charity volunteers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment within a helping and caring charitable organization that for 3.5 years had operated an internal marketing program. It was hypothesized that negative experiences downwardly moderated (i) the impact of the charity's internal market activities on satisfaction and commitment, and (ii)

Roger Bennett; Anna Barkensjo

2005-01-01

374

Synthesis and Resolution of the Atropisomeric 1,1'-Bi-2-Naphthol: An Experiment in Organic Synthesis and 2-D NMR Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NMR spectroscopy is presented. It is seen that the experiment regarding the synthesis and resolution of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphtol presents a good experiment for teaching organic synthesis and NMR spectroscopy and provides a strategy for obtaining enantiopure compounds from achiral starting materials.

Mak, Kendrew K. W.

2004-01-01

375

Coherence and control of quantum registers based on electronic spin in a nuclear spin bath.  

PubMed

We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as building blocks for a potentially scalable quantum information processor. We describe how coherent control techniques based on magnetic resonance methods can be adapted to these solid-state spin systems, to provide not only efficient, high fidelity manipulation but also decoupling from the spin bath. As an example, we analyze feasible performances and practical limitations in the realistic setting of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. PMID:19519089

Cappellaro, P; Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Lukin, M D

2009-05-29

376

Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

SciTech Connect

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-12-01

377

Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the "nonshear" discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in "sandpile" transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field Er and thus of Er×B flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the Er×B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y. H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R. R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U.

2004-12-01

378

The dependence of exciton transport efficiency on spatial patterns of correlation within the spectral bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial correlations in spectral bath motions have been proposed to explain long-lived coherence in exciton transport. Systems of interest, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to organic photovoltaics, contain inhomogeneous environments. We consider the possibility that the degree of spatial correlation varies throughout an exciton transport system. We model exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex (FMO), a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex. Although it remains unclear whether significant spatial correlations exist in FMO, its very high exciton transport efficiency makes it an interesting case for studies of exciton transport. We also simulate a highly symmetric ten-site model system. We use an extension of the environment-assisted quantum transport model to simulate transport, allowing the spatial correlation function to vary throughout the system. We demonstrate both via analysis and via simulation that exciton transport efficiency is most sensitive to changes in correlation between the site coupled to the trap and its neighboring sites. This asymmetry in sensitivity is highly robust and appears irrespective of changes in parameters such as transition dipole orientations and initial conditions. Our results suggest that in the design of exciton transport systems, efforts to increase efficiency by controlling spatial correlation should be focused on the region near the site of exciton trapping.

Pelzer, Kenley M.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Griffin, Graham B.; Gray, Stephen K.; Engel, Gregory S.

2013-09-01

379

Bacteriological and virological quality of seawater bathing areas along the Tyrrhenian coast.  

PubMed

Monitoring was carried out during summer 1997 along a selected area of the Tyrrhenian coast near the Tiber river mouth. Fifty-eight seawater samples, collected from 19 stations, were examined for coliforms, streptococci, Enteroviruses, Salmonellae, coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis phages, Pseudomonas, alophilic Vibrios, Aeromonas and yeasts. Salmonellae and coliphages were isolated in 3 and 12 out of 58 samples, respectively. Enteroviruses and Bacteroides fragilis phages were not isolated. Reoviruses were isolated only from 2 out of 58 samples. A limited number of samples of the northern stations located near the Tiber and other river mouths exceeded the guide values for bathing water by the EU Directive. All the southern stations, located near canals, were of very good microbiological quality. Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas and yeasts were isolated from all stations and their values in 100 ml of seawater were 10-10(6), 10-10(6), 0-10(6) and 1-10(3), respectively. An extensive disinfection practice carried out on domestic wastes, which are discharged in rivers and canals, probably brought pollution levels of most stations to values within the bacterial standards. The spread of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, etc. showed that all the coastal area studied was characterized by the presence of organic matter coming from land that can support the presence of opportunistic pathogens and other microbial flora. PMID:11260783

Aulicino, F A; Orsini, P; Carere, M; Mastrantonio, A

2001-03-01

380

BATHING BEACH MONITORING PROTOCOLS/COMMUNICATING SWIMMING ACTIVITY RISK TO THE PUBLIC  

EPA Science Inventory

Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated that five water ...

381

Dissipation and decoherence induced by collective dephasing in coupled-qubit system with a common bath  

E-print Network

The longitudinal coupling of a system to the bath usually induces the pure dephasing of the system. In this paper, we study the collective dephasing induced dissipation and decoherence in a coupled-qubit system with a common bath. It is shown that, compared with the case of the same system with independent baths, the interference between the dephasing processes of different qubits induced by the common bath significantly changes the dissipation of the system. For the system of two coupled qubits, the interference leads to a faster decoherence in the non-single-excitation subspaces and a slower dissipation (and decoherence) in the single-excitation subspace. For the system of multiple coupled qubits, we also find the slower dissipation in the single-excitation subspace and obtain the decay rates of the first excited states for different system sizes numerically. All our results on collective dephasing induced dissipation can be explained based on a simple model with Fermi's golden rule.

Z. H. Wang; Y. J. Ji; Yong Li; D. L. Zhou

2014-08-31

382

Structural and mutagenesis studies of soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

E-print Network

The solution structure for the 27 kDa flavin binding domain of soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was solved by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a two domains, an FAD ...

Chatwood, Lisa L., 1979-

2004-01-01

383

Long time evolution of a spin interacting with a spin bath in arbitrary magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a completely different method to calculate the evolution of a spin interacting with a sufficient large spin bath, especially suitable for treating the central spin model in a quantum dot (QD). With only an approximation on the envelope of central spin, the symmetry can be exploited to reduce a huge Hilbert space which cannot be calculated with computers to many small ones which can be solved exactly. This method can be used to calculate spin-bath evolution for a spin bath containing many (say, 1000) spins, without a perturbative limit such as strong magnetic field condition, and works for long-time regime with sufficient accuracy. As the spin-bath evolution can be calculated for a wide range of time and magnetic field, an optimal dynamic of spin flip-flop can be found, and more sophisticated approaches to achieve extremely high polarization of nuclear spins in a QD could be developed.

Zhao, YuKang; Zhao, MeiSheng; Chen, ZengBing

2014-07-01

384

Bath Institute for Complex Systems Travelling wave solutions for the discrete sine-Gordon  

E-print Network

-Gordon equation with nonlinear pair interaction Carl-Friedrich Kreiner and Johannes Zimmer Bath Institute for the discrete sine-Gordon equation with nonlinear pair interaction Carl-Friedrich Kreiner and Johannes Zimmer

Burton, Geoffrey R.

385

A review of "Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland" by Michael Bath.  

E-print Network

a handsome volume with numerous illustrations. Michael Bath. Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland. Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland Publishing, 2003. ix + 286 pp. + 255 illus. $49.95. Review by WILLIAM E. ENGEL, NASHVILLE... a handsome volume with numerous illustrations. Michael Bath. Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland. Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland Publishing, 2003. ix + 286 pp. + 255 illus. $49.95. Review by WILLIAM E. ENGEL, NASHVILLE...

William E. Engel

2004-01-01

386

Bath Salt Use: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new recreational designer drugs known as “bath salts” are synthetic cathinones (e.g., mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, methylone) that are being abused as stimulants. Bath salts have similar effects as amphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as ecstasy). Cathinone is a naturally occurring phenylalkylamine alkaloid present in the khat plant that has been used for centuries, but in the western countries,

Jacob M. McClean; Ara Anspikian; John W. Tsuang

2012-01-01

387

Determination of additives in an electrolytic zinc bath by q 1 H-NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) for the quantification of additives in an electrolytic Zn bath is reported. A simple and quick method is described\\u000a that does not need any prior sample preparation. Contrary to other analytical methods, the three additives in the bath, benzylidene\\u000a acetone (BDA), benzoic acid (BA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PE400), can be quantified. Two

Ainara Barriola; José I. Miranda; Miren Ostra; Carlos Ubide

2010-01-01

388

REMOVAL OF ALUMINUM FROM PICKLING BATH LIQUIDS BY TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY AMINE EXTRACTANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, several extractants and solvents have been investigated for the selective removal of aluminum from a pickling bath, containing HF and H3PO4 as its main active components, each at a concentration of 0.01–0.30 M. The final aim of the research is to increase the lifetime of the pickling bath, resulting in reduced operating costs, in a decreased environmental

Anke M. Berends; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2001-01-01

389

Electroless Pd membrane deposition on alumina modified porous Hastelloy substrate with EDTA-free bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates palladium membranes can be electrolessly plated on aluminum oxide-modified porous Hastelloy with hydrazine using an EDTA-free bath. The plating bath temperature affected the membrane surface morphology, with the palladium grain size increasing with increasing temperature. A 7.5?m thick membrane plating was obtained at room temperature. Helium leak testing confirmed that the membrane was free of defects. Hydrogen

Shin-Kun Ryi; Nong Xu; Anwu Li; C. Jim Lim; John R. Grace

2010-01-01

390

Kinetics of induction heating of steel parts in a salt bath with a graphite crucible  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Heating of steel parts in a high-temperature induction salt bath with a graphite crucible results not only from the heat from the surrounding fused salts but also from the electromagnetic field that occurs in the crucible.2.The heating curves for steel parts in induction and electrode salt baths are of the same shape in the initial and middle sections. A difference

E. A. Smol'nikov; A. N. Simonenko

1976-01-01

391

Determination of hydrogen contamination of depleted uranium in a triple carbonate salt bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cast Depleted uranium (DU) ingots are placed in a stainless steel rack and submerged into a triple carbonate salt bath at 625\\/degree\\/C. After soaking for 1 to 2 hours (i.e., 1 hr. min., 2 hr. max.), the ingot and rack are removed from the salt bath and taken to the roll table where the ingot is removed from the rack

Hammetter

1987-01-01

392

Microbiological analysis of selected coastal bathing waters in the U.K., Greece, Italy and Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken to assess the performance of a selected range of holiday destinations against the microbiological determinants of the European Union (EU) bathing water Directive [Council directive of 8 December 1975 concerning the quality of bathing waters. Official Journal L,31, 1–7. 76\\/160\\/EEC.]. The destinations were situated in three Mediterranean countries —Greece, Spain and Italy— and in the U.K.

G. Rees; K. Pond; K. Johal; S. Pedley; A. Rickards

1998-01-01

393

Recreation in coastal waters: health risks associated with bathing in sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo find out whether bathing in sewage polluted waters implies a danger to bathers' health and to determine the best microbiological indicator to predict the relation between bathing and the appearance of some symptoms.DESIGNCohort study.SETTINGCity of Santander (north of Spain).PARTICIPANTSFrom the people going to four Santander beaches in the period from 1 July to 16 September 1998, a cohort

M D Prieto; B Lopez; J A Juanes; J A Revilla; J Llorca; M Delgado-Rodríguez

2001-01-01

394

Stabilization of photon collapse and revival dynamics by a non-Markovian phonon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state-based light emitters such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been demonstrated to be versatile candidates to study the fundamentals of light-matter interaction. In contrast to optics with isolated atomic systems, in the solid-state dissipative processes are induced by the inherent coupling to the environment and are typically perceived as a major obstacle toward stable performances in experiments and applications. In this theoretical model study we show that this is not necessarily the case. In fact, in certain parameter regimes, the memory of the solid-state environment can enhance coherent quantum optical effects. In particular, we demonstrate that the non-Markovian coupling to an incoherent phonon bath can exhibit a stabilizing effect on the coherent QD cavity-quantum electrodynamics by inhibiting irregular oscillations and allowing for regular collapse and revival patterns. For self-assembled GaAs/InAs QDs at low photon numbers we predict dynamics that deviate dramatically from the well-known atomic Jaynes-Cummings model. Even if the required sample parameters are not yet available in recent experimental achievements, we believe our proposal opens the way to a systematic and deliberate design of photon quantum effects via specifically engineered solid-state environments.

Carmele, Alexander; Knorr, Andreas; Milde, Frank

2013-10-01

395

Figure S1: Average MAC values observed after evaporation/redissolution of SOA+AS solutions at different rotary evaporator bath temperatures. Despite the weak dependence of the evaporation-induced  

E-print Network

Figure S1: Average MAC values observed after evaporation/redissolution of SOA+AS solutions at different rotary evaporator bath temperatures. Despite the weak dependence of the evaporation-induced increase in MAC on the evaporation temperature, we conducted all of the experiments at 50°C in order

Nizkorodov, Sergey

396

Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (bathing trunk nevus) associated with lipoma and neurofibroma: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are rare and occur in about one out of every 2,00,000 to 5,00,000 births. There is a significant association between bathing trunk nevus and neurofibromatosis and lipomatosis. Apart from this, association of bathing trunk nevus with abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, have been described. We are herewith reporting two cases of bathing trunk nevi. In our first case, an eight-year-old girl presented with a bathing trunk nevus studded with multiple, large nodules. Histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from one nodule revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma. To the best of our knowledge, features of both these hamartomas in one nodule of a single patient are probably not reported in the literature. In our second case, a 12-year-old girl presented with bathing trunk nevus and she had spina bifida occulta. She also had lipoma in the lesion of bathing trunk nevus. Both of our patients had satellite melanocytic nevi over the face, forearm, upper back and legs. Our second patient, in addition, had small melanocytic nevi over the medial canthus and sclerocorneal junction of the right eye. By the time this girl presented to us, the melanocytic nevus started fading in color and it had become brownish. We are reporting these cases for their peculiarities and for their rare features. PMID:19736430

Bhagwat, P V; Tophakhane, R S; Shashikumar, B M; Noronha, Tonita M; Naidu, Varna

2009-01-01

397

The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.  

PubMed

The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. PMID:24524961

Foley, Ronan

2014-04-01

398

Determination of hydrogen contamination of depleted uranium in a triple carbonate salt bath  

SciTech Connect

Cast Depleted uranium (DU) ingots are placed in a stainless steel rack and submerged into a triple carbonate salt bath at 625/degree/C. After soaking for 1 to 2 hours (i.e., 1 hr. min., 2 hr. max.), the ingot and rack are removed from the salt bath and taken to the roll table where the ingot is removed from the rack and rolled. The salt residue on the rack begins to cool and, as it does absorbs moisture from the air which is the source of hydrogen. Another ingot is loaded into the rack, placed into the salt bath and the H/sub 2/ is liberated into the bath. When the H/sub 2/ concentration of the salt bath exceeds the H/sub 2/ concentration of the incoming ingots, diffusion of atomic H/sub 2/ into the DU ingot will occur. The objective of this study is to verify that the existing preheat soak times of 1 hour minimum and 2 hours maximum does not increase the H/sub 2/ content of a 2 inch thick DU ingot, soaking in a triple carbonate salt bath at 625/degree/C to above the specified maximum of 1 ppM. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Hammetter, J.R.

1987-05-29

399

Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment  

PubMed Central

A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2–3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (?14C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO2 efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. ?14C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO2 sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45–55 cm thaw depth), while CO2 from the ambient snow areas was ~100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration ?14C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO2 in the atmosphere. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-009-1556-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20084398

Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

400

Organic contaminant distributions in sediments, polychaetes (Nereis virens) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) from a laboratory food chain experiment.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River, NJ, USA, for 70 days. These polychaetes were then fed to the American lobster, Homarus americanus, for up to 112 days. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzothiophene (TCDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several chlorinated pesticides were accumulated by polychaetes following exposure to the contaminated sediment. Some of these contaminants were also accumulated by lobsters which were exposed to the contaminated sediment and/or fed contaminated polychaetes. Only the lesser chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs (mostly tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners) and 2,4,6,8-TCDT were detected in the polychaetes and lobster. Significant alterations were noted in the PCB patterns found in both species, particularly the lobster. The non-ortho-substituted PCBs (such as congeners 77 and 126) became enriched in the PCB mixtures of the polychaetes and especially the lobsters relative to the sediment, probably because these congeners were not metabolized. These congeners and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalents of the PCB mixtures were enriched by a factor of about six in the lobsters relative to the sediment. Elimination of PCB congeners containing vicinal hydrogens in the meta-para region is consistent with cytochrome P450IIB-type metabolism. Based on the concentration trends for some PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticide ratios measured in the lobsters during this experiment, it appears that this metabolic system is inducible in the American lobster. PMID:11444012

Pruell, R J; Taplin, B K; McGovern, D G; McKinney, R; Norton, S B

2000-02-01

401

[The experience in organizing the medical support of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War on the northern maritime theater].  

PubMed

The medical support of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War had a number of features. The Intensity of power of the fighting, the meteorological conditions, the composition of convoy's forces, the kind of enemy's weapon - had a significant impact on the structure of losses in personnel. The main type of medical care on the ships of 2-3rd rank was predoctor care. On the large and small antisubmarine ships and torpedo boats - it was first aid. The factor which has been affecting the amount of assistance - was a one-time inflow of a significant number of victims. Medical-evacuation provision of the convoys was carried out by the ships medical service without the use of amplification and sanitary ships. The most part of the wounded were taken to the coastal fleet hospitals later than 12 hours after the wound. The war experience has shown that in the distant convoys qualified surgical assistance may be provided in case of organizing it in this convoy and in case of using high-speed vehicles. PMID:25286561

2014-05-01

402

Language organization and temporal correlations in the spiking activity of an excitable laser: Experiments and model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method, based on symbolic analysis, to characterize the temporal correlations of the spiking activity exhibited by excitable systems. The technique is applied to the experimentally observed dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuations regime, where the laser intensity displays irregular trains of sudden dropouts that can be interpreted as excitable pulses. Symbolic analysis transforms the series of interdropout time intervals into sequences of words, which represent the local ordering of a certain (small) number of those intervals. We then focus on the transition probabilities between pairs of words, showing that certain transitions are overrepresented (resulting in others being underrepresented) with respect to the surrogate series, provided the laser injection current is above a critical value. These experimental observations are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of the delay-differential Lang-Kobayashi model that is commonly used to describe this laser system, which supports the fact that the language organization reported here is generic and not a particular feature of the specific laser employed or the experimental time series analyzed. We also present results of simulations of the phenomenological nondelayed Eguia-Mindlin-Giudici(EMG) model and find that in this model the agreement between the experiments and the simulations is good at a qualitative, but not at a quantitative, level.

Rubido, Nicolas; Tiana-Alsina, Jordi; Torrent, M. C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Masoller, Cristina

2011-08-01

403

Language organization and temporal correlations in the spiking activity of an excitable laser: experiments and model comparison.  

PubMed

We introduce a method, based on symbolic analysis, to characterize the temporal correlations of the spiking activity exhibited by excitable systems. The technique is applied to the experimentally observed dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuations regime, where the laser intensity displays irregular trains of sudden dropouts that can be interpreted as excitable pulses. Symbolic analysis transforms the series of interdropout time intervals into sequences of words, which represent the local ordering of a certain (small) number of those intervals. We then focus on the transition probabilities between pairs of words, showing that certain transitions are overrepresented (resulting in others being underrepresented) with respect to the surrogate series, provided the laser injection current is above a critical value. These experimental observations are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of the delay-differential Lang-Kobayashi model that is commonly used to describe this laser system, which supports the fact that the language organization reported here is generic and not a particular feature of the specific laser employed or the experimental time series analyzed. We also present results of simulations of the phenomenological nondelayed Eguia-Mindlin-Giudici(EMG) model and find that in this model the agreement between the experiments and the simulations is good at a qualitative, but not at a quantitative, level. PMID:21929076

Rubido, Nicolas; Tiana-Alsina, Jordi; Torrent, M C; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Masoller, Cristina

2011-08-01

404

The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the Delta9, Delta10, and Delta11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 C cells and the lowest in 50 C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

Jahnke, Linda L.

1992-01-01

405

Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-006-9235-3 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

2013-07-01

406

Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths.  

PubMed

Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations. PMID:23944435

Sääskilahti, K; Oksanen, J; Tulkki, J

2013-07-01

407

Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

2007-01-01

408

Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

2013-01-01

409

Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

410

Influence of a phonon bath in a quantum dot cavity QED system: Dependence of the shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a systematic analysis on the role of the quantum dot (QD) shape in the influence of the phonon bath on the dynamics of a QD cavity QED system. The spectral functions of the phonon bath in three representative QD shapes: spherical, ellipsoidal, and disk, are calculated from the carrier wave functions subjected to the confinement potential provided by the corresponding shape. The obtained spectral functions are used to calculate three main effects brought by the phonon bath, i.e., the coupling renormalization, the off-resonance assisted feeding rate and the pure dephasing rate. It is found that the spectral function of a disk QD has the widest distribution, hence the phonon bath in a disk QD can lead to the smallest renormalization factor, the largest dephasing rate in the short time domains(<= 2 ps), and the off-resonance assisted feeding can support the widest detuning. Except for the pure dephasing rate in the long time domains, all the influences brought by the phonon bath show serious shape dependence.

Wang, Wei-Sheng; Zhang, Ming-Liang; Chen, Zhi-De

2014-09-01

411

Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the electromagnetic field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization."

Silvestri, Luciano; Jacobs, Kurt; Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim

2014-04-01

412

Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems  

E-print Network

There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time-dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the EM field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open-systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady-state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization".

Luciano Silvestri; Kurt Jacobs; Vanja Dunjko; Maxim Olshanii

2009-12-21

413

Comparing the Effects of Swaddled and Conventional Bathing Methods on Body Temperature and Crying Duration in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Maintaining body temperature and reducing stress are important challenges in bathing preterm infants. Swaddle bathing, which includes in itself the principles of developmental care, can be used as a low-stress and appropriate bathing method for premature infants. Given the limitations of the researches carried out on this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on body temperature and crying duration in premature infants. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 50 premature infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) who were eligible for the study were divided by random allocation into two experimental and control groups. The infants in the experimental group were bathed using the swaddle bathing method and the infants in the control group were bathed using the conventional bathing method. Body temperature was measured 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the bath. To record the crying, the infants' faces were filmed during the bath. The data were analyzed using chi-squared test, independent t-test, paired t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean temperature loss was significantly less in the swaddle-bathed newborns compared to the conventionally-bathed newborns. Furthermore, crying time was significantly less in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of swaddled bathing in maintaining body temperature and reducing stress, it can be used as an appropriate bathing method in NICU. PMID:25276751

Edraki, Mitra; Paran, Maryam; Montaseri, Sedigheh; Razavi Nejad, Mostajab; Montaseri, Zohre

2014-01-01

414

Liquid metal corrosion of 316L, Fe 3 Al, and FeCrSi in molten Zn-Al baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion tests of 316L and two intermetallic compounds Fe3Al and FeCrSi in industrial Galvanizing (Zn-0.18Al), GALFAN (Zn-5Al), GALVALUME (Zn-55Al), and Aluminizing (Al-8Si) baths\\u000a and lab-scale static baths were conducted. In on-line tests in industrial hot-dip baths, 316L steel shows better corrosion\\u000a resistance than Fe3Al in Galvanizing, GALFAN, and GALVALUME baths. The corrosion resistance of 316L and Fe3Al is similar in

Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Jing Xu; Matthew Burris; Keh-Minn Chang; Vinod Sikka

2005-01-01

415

Searching for optimal rating scales in the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI).  

PubMed

The comparison of the performance of the numerical rating scale (NRS) versus visual analog scale (VAS) in the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) showed that the 11-point NRS is psychometrically superior to the 10-cm VAS. This finding is in agreement with previous studies and the recommendation by the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society. To illustrate the functioning of the response categories of both BASFI and BASDAI, we analyzed the rating scales (using the Rasch rating scale model) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Our results have shown that the 11 categories available in the 0-10 NRS version of both BASFI and BASDAI exceed the number of levels of a construct that participants can discriminate. This indicates the need for improving the metric quality of both rating scales by appropriately reducing the number of categories. PMID:24212675

Franchignoni, Franco; Salaffi, Fausto; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Giordano, Andrea

2014-02-01

416

Observation of an anomalous decoherence effect in a quantum bath at room temperature  

PubMed Central

The decoherence of quantum objects is a critical issue in quantum science and technology. It is generally believed that stronger noise causes faster decoherence. Strikingly, recent theoretical work suggests that under certain conditions, the opposite is true for spins in quantum baths. Here we report an experimental observation of an anomalous decoherence effect for the electron spin-1 of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in high-purity diamond at room temperature. We demonstrate that, under dynamical decoupling, the double-transition can have longer coherence time than the single-transition even though the former couples to the nuclear spin bath as twice strongly as the latter does. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results confirms the controllability of the weakly coupled nuclear spins in the bath, which is useful in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. PMID:22146389

Huang, Pu; Kong, Xi; Zhao, Nan; Shi, Fazhan; Wang, Pengfei; Rong, Xing; Liu, Ren-Bao; Du, Jiangfeng

2011-01-01

417

Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing citric acid concentration. The lowest coercivity value of 240 A/m was obtained at a citric acid concentration of 100 g/L. The plating bath with this citric acid concentration enabled us to obtain Fe-Co films with high saturation magnetizations and smooth surface morphologies.

Yanai, T.; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.; Suzuki, K.

2013-06-01

418

Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the heat bath for two Brownian particles.  

PubMed

We propose a new look at the heat bath for two Brownian particles, in which the heat bath as a "system" is both perturbed and sensed by the Brownian particles. Nonlocal thermal fluctuations give rise to bath-mediated static forces between the particles. Based on the general sum rule of the linear response theory, we derive an explicit relation linking these forces to the friction kernel describing the particles' dynamics. The relation is analytically confirmed in the case of two solvable models and could be experimentally challenged. Our results point out that the inclusion of the environment as a part of the whole system is important for micron- or nanoscale physics. PMID:24856686

De Bacco, Caterina; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Sekimoto, Ken

2014-05-01

419

Arbitrary spin in a spin bath: Exact dynamics and approximation techniques  

E-print Network

A model of an arbitrary spin coupled to a bath of spins 1/2 in a star configuration is considered. The exact reduced dynamics of the central spin is found for the case of non-correlated initial conditions of the system and the bath. The exact solution is used to test two approximation techniques, namely, the Nakajima-Zwanzig projection operator technique and the time-convolutionless projection operator technique corresponding to the second order of the coupling constant. Two types of projection operators are used for deriving the master equations and the results are compared with the exact solution for a central spin equal to one. It is shown that the approximate master equations reproduce the exact dynamics on time-scales $1/(A\\sqrt{N})$, where A is the coupling constant and N is the number of spins in the bath.

V. Semin; I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione

2014-01-29

420

No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization  

PubMed Central

Ground-state cooling and pure state preparation of a small object that is embedded in a thermal environment is an important challenge and a highly desirable quantum technology. This paper proves, with two different methods, that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption included in numerous tools that treat system-bath dynamics, such as master equation approaches and Kraus operator based methods. Adopting these approaches to address ground state and even approximate ground state cooling dynamics should therefore be done with caution, considering the fundamental theorem exposed in this work. PMID:23661066

Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul

2013-01-01

421

Organic matter production response to CO2 increase in open subarctic plankton communities: Comparison of six microcosm experiments under iron-limited and -enriched bloom conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increase in seawater pCO2 and the corresponding decrease in pH caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (i.e., ocean acidification) may affect organic matter production by phytoplankton communities. Organic matter production forms the basis of marine food webs and plays a crucial role in oceanic CO2 uptake through the biological carbon pump, and hence will potentially affect future marine ecosystem dynamics. However, responses of organic matter production in open ocean plankton ecosystems to CO2 increase have not been fully examined. We conducted on-deck microcosm experiments using high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters in the western subarctic Pacific and oceanic Bering Sea basin in summer 2008 and 2009, respectively, to examine the impacts of elevated CO2 on particulate and dissolved organic matter (i.e., POM and DOM, respectively) production. Iron deficient natural plankton communities were incubated for 7-14 days under multiple CO2 levels with and without iron enrichments (hereafter +Fe and -Fe treatments, respectively). By combining with our previous experiments at two sites, we created a comprehensive dataset on responses of organic matter production to CO2 increase during macronutrient replete conditions in HNLC waters. Significant differences in net particulate organic carbon production among CO2 treatments were observed only in the -Fe treatments, whereas that in net dissolved organic carbon production were mainly observed in the +Fe treatments, suggesting that CO2 may affect different processes depending on the Fe nutritional status. However, impacts of CO2 were not consistent among experiments and were much smaller than the consistent positive effects of Fe enrichment. In contrast, no significant differences among the CO2 treatments were observed for organic carbon partitioning into POM and DOM, and carbon to nitrogen ratio of net produced POM. We conclude that CO2 does not play a primary role, but could have secondary effects on controlling the organic matter production under macronutrient replete conditions in HNLC waters. On the other hand, in a nutrient-depleted, declining phase of the phytoplankton bloom induced by Fe enrichment, carbon overconsumption was found in an experiment with elevated CO2 conditions suggesting that CO2 impacts might become more significant in such environments.

Yoshimura, Takeshi; Sugie, Koji; Endo, Hisashi; Suzuki, Koji; Nishioka, Jun; Ono, Tsuneo

2014-12-01

422

Sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, and acute kidney injury following "bath salts" injection.  

PubMed

"Bath salts" is a well known street drug which can cause several cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, only one case of acute kidney injury has been reported in the literature. We present a case with sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, gustatory and olfactory hallucinations, and acute kidney injury following the use of bath salts. A 37-year-old man with past medical history of hypertension and depression was brought to the emergency center with body shaking. Three days before admission he injected 3 doses of bath salts intravenously and felt eye pain with blurry vision followed by a metallic taste, strange smells, profuse sweating, and body shaking. At presentation he had a sympathomimetic syndrome including high blood pressure, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hyperhydrosis with choreoathetotic movements. Laboratory testing revealed leukocytosis and acute kidney injury with a BUN of 95 mg/ dL and a creatinine of 15.2 mg/dL. Creatine kinase was 4,457 IU/dL. Urine drug screen is negative for amphetamine, cannabinoids, and cocaine; blood alcohol level was zero. During his ICU stay he became disoriented and agitated. Supportive treatment with 7.2 liters of intravenous fluid over 3 days, haloperidol, and lorazepam gradually improved his symptoms and his renal failure. Bath salts contain 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, a psychoactive norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Choreoathetosis in this patient could be explained through dopaminergic effect of bath salts or uremic encephalopathy. The mechanism for acute kidney injury from bath salts may involve direct drug effects though norepinephrine and dopamine-induced vasoconstriction (renal ischemia), rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, and/or volume contraction. PMID:24356039

Sutamtewagul, Grerk; Sood, Vineeta; Nugent, Kenneth

2014-01-01

423

The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine - an integrative review  

PubMed Central

Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future. PMID:19055811

Bussing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhauser, Friedrich; Bornhoft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

2008-01-01

424

A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

2014-07-01

425

Sampling from living organisms: section 3 in Sampling and experiments with biofilms in the environment: chapter 6  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Living organisms, unlike inanimate surfaces, seem to exert some control over their surface microbiota, in many cases maintaining conserved, species-specific microbial communities. Microbial ecologists seek to characterize and identify these microbes to understand the roles they are playing in the larger organism's biology.

Kellogg, Christina A.

2014-01-01

426

A research strategy for using stream microcosms in ecotoxicology: Integrating experiments at different levels of biological organization with field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollutants and other stressors can haveeffects at many different levels of biologicalorganization and a key step in the design ofecotoxicological studies is the formulation ofhypotheses that explicitly state the level(s) ofbiological organization that the study is meant toaddress. For example, single species studies at theindividual organism level can provide key informationon individual growth rates and physiologicalresponses, while multispecies studies

Joseph M. Culp; Cheryl L. Podemski; Kevin J. Cash; Richard B. Lowell

2000-01-01

427

NATURAL GRADIENT EXPERIMENT ON SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A SAND AQUIFER. 3. RETARDATION ESTIMATES AND MASS BALANCES FOR ORGANIC SOLUTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The long-term behavior of five organic solutes during transport over a period of 2 years in ground water under natural gradient conditions was characterized quantitatively by means of moment estimates. Total mass was conserved for two of the organic compounds, carbon tetrachlorid...

428

Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

2011-01-01

429

Assessment of airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in residential showers and baths.  

PubMed

This study evaluates airborne concentrations of common trihalomethane (THM) compounds in bathrooms during showering and bathing in homes supplied with chlorinated tap water. Three homes in an urban area were selected, each having three bedrooms, a full bath, and approximately 1,000 square feet of living area. THMs were concurrently measured in tap water and air in the shower/bath enclosure and the bathroom vanity area using Summa canisters. Chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM) were quantified using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method TO-14. Air samples were collected prior to, during, and after the water-use event for 16 shower and 7 bath events. Flow rate and temperature were measured, but not controlled. The increase in average airborne concentration (+/- standard error) during showers (expressed as microg/m3 in shower enclosure or bathroom air per microg/L in water) was 3.3+/-0.4 for TCM, 1.8+/-0.3 for BDCM, and 0.5+/-0.1 for CDBM (n = 12), and during baths was 1.2+/-0.4 for TCM, 0.59+/-0.21 for BDCM, and 0.15+/-0.05 for CDBM (n = 4). The relative contribution of each chemical to the airborne concentrations was consistent for all shower and bath events, with apparent release of TCM > BDCM > CDBM. The results are therefore consistent with their relative concentration in tap water and their vapor pressures. When the shower findings for TCM are normalized for water concentration, flow rate, shower volume, and duration, the average exposure concentrations in these urban residences are about 30% lower than those reported by other investigators using EPA analytical methods. This difference is likely attributable primarily to greater air exchange rates in residential shower/bath stalls compared to more "airtight" laboratory shower chambers. This appears to be the first field study to thoroughly evaluate THM exposures from residential showers and baths, and can be used to validate previously published models of tap water volatile chemical transfer to indoor air. PMID:11110211

Kerger, B D; Schmidt, C E; Paustenbach, D J

2000-10-01

430

Monte-Carlo simulations of the new LNHB manganese bath facility.  

PubMed

The new manganese bath facility of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel has been modeled by using three Monte-Carlo codes: MCNPX, GEANT4, and FLUKA, in order to determine the correction factors needed in the neutron source calibration process. The most realistic source geometry has been determined, and the most reliable cross sections library has been chosen. The models were compared, and discrepancies between the codes have been pointed out. Potential causes of deviations between results were assessed and discussed using additional models. Finally, an experimental process is proposed to validate the accuracy of the different codes and their abilities in simulating the neutron capture by the manganese bath. PMID:22316586

Ogheard, F; Chartier, J L; Cassette, P

2012-04-01

431

Discovery of the Avon Solent Fracture Zone and its relationship to Bath hot springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot springs of Bristol and Bath and two geothermal wells at Southampton are located on a 155-km-long Avon Solent Fracture Zone extending in a NW SE direction from the Severn Estuary to the English Channel. Initiated during the Variscan earth movements and reactivated in Miocene times, the structure, which extends across the English Channel to France, is still active. With this discovery, it should now be possible to throw fresh light on the origin and movement of the thermal water at Bath and thus to protect the hot springs from derogation by limestone quarrying.

Kellaway, G. A.

1996-07-01

432

Observation of Enhanced Organic Aerosol Concentrations Above Cloudtops in Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE2005) off the Northern California Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of a layer of organic aerosols above marine cloud tops at concentrations that are enhanced relative to levels below cloud and immediately above the ocean surface. These observations were made from two separate aircraft, a De Havilland Twin Otter(CIRPAS) containing an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer(TOF-AMS)and a Gulfstream G1(Battelle, Dept. of Energy) containing an Aerodyne quadrupole AMS. Both aircraft were equipped with an array of complimentary equipment including CCN counters, laser particle measurement systems, meterological instrumentation and particle-into-liquid samplers (PILS). The G1 also contained gas phase ozone and SO2 measurements while the Twin Otter was equipped with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) for exclusively sampling ambient nucleated particles. Data from the AMS instruments on both aircraft clearly indicate the presence of a stable enhanced organic particulate layer, approximately 30-60 m above cloud top and 30-60 m thick. A slight temperature inversion was observed in the enhanced layer. The concentration of organic particles was enhanced by a factor of 4-5 over the concentrations observed below the clouds while the sulfate concentrations decreased slightly. Below cloud the organic and sulfate particle concentrations were almost equal while above cloud the organic levels were over 5 times higher due to the observed enhancement. Particle size distributions for organics and sulfate were almost identical below cloud, peaking at 400 nm, while the above cloud the organics shifted to 250 nm with the sulfates remaining peaked at 400 nm. The shift in size distribution for the organic aerosols suggests that organics and sulfates are heterogeneously mixed above cloud, possibly due to a mechanism for formation of new organic aerosols. Updated results from MASE2005 will be presented, integrating the AMS data with measurements from the complimentary instrumentation and providing possible interpretations of these results.

Alexander, M. L.; Hubbe, J. M.; Lee, Y.; Wang, J.; Senum, G.; Daum, P. H.; Murphy, S.; Flagan, R. C.; Varunbangkul, V.; Rissman, T. A.; Sorooshian, A.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Hudson, J. G.; Jayne, J.

2005-12-01

433

Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.  

PubMed

This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability. PMID:17159469

Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

434

THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAMMAMS OF ALGERIA; ELEMENTS FOR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF BATHS ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algerian medinas (Islamic cities) have several traditional public baths (hammams). However, these hammams are the least known in the Maghreb countries. The first French archaeological surveys carried out on Islamic monuments and sites in Algeria, have found few historic baths in medieval towns. All along the highlands route, from Algiers (capital city of Algeria located in the North) to Tlemcen

Nabila Cherif-Seffadj

435

Constraints in Evolution: On the Baby and the Bath Water Author(s): N. Perrin and J. Travis  

E-print Network

Constraints in Evolution: On the Baby and the Bath Water Author(s): N. Perrin and J. Travis Forum Constraints in evolution: on the baby and the bath water We respond to Perrin& Travis's (1992 to expect given a set of assump- tions on the presence and expression of genetic varia- tion'. Our plea

Antonovics, Janis

436

33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area...SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area...contiguous to the area identified as AUSTAL, USA and the mean high water level within a rectangular...

2011-07-01

437

33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area...SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area...contiguous to the area identified as AUSTAL, USA and the mean high water level within a rectangular...

2012-07-01

438

[Current evaluation of efficacy of radon baths of various concentrations during rehabilitation of patients with seronegative spondylarthritis].  

PubMed

141 patients with seronegative spondylarthritis including ankylosing spondylarthritis (n = 90), reactive arthritis and Reiter's disease (n = 51) took water radon baths (concentration 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kB/l). The baths proved similarly effective in patients with seronegative spondylarthritis. They produced analgetic, anti-inflammatory actions, raised quality of life for such patients. PMID:16149410

Barnatski?, V V; Grigor'eva, V D; Kaliushina, E N

2005-01-01

439

Randomized trial of "bleach baths" plus routine hygienic measures vs. routine hygienic measures alone for prevention of recurrent infections.  

PubMed

Children with probable community-associated Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue or invasive infections were randomized to routine daily hygienic measures with or without "bleach baths" twice a week for 3 months. Within 12 months, a medically attended recurrence occurred in 84 of 495 (17%) children using bleach baths compared to 103 of 492 (21%) of control participants (P = .15). PMID:24265356

Kaplan, Sheldon L; Forbes, Andrea; Hammerman, Wendy A; Lamberth, Linda; Hulten, Kristina G; Minard, Charles G; Mason, Edward O

2014-03-01

440

On the Existence of an Independent Phonon Bath in a Quantum Device L. M. A. Pascal,1  

E-print Network

On the Existence of an Independent Phonon Bath in a Quantum Device L. M. A. Pascal,1 A. Fay,1 C. B generally believed that a mesoscopic device operating at low temperature does not carry an individual phonon in a mesoscopic quantum device from its substrate phonon heat bath at a sub-Kelvin temperature. A simple heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium sources  

E-print Network

Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium January 2008 Abstract A comprehensive study of the effect of cadmium sources on chemical bath deposited to be cubic, regardless of the Cd salt used. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: CdS; Thin

Chow, Lee

442

EQUILIBRIUM THEORY OF PURE FUSED SALTS 27 Furthermore, we may suppose that the coupling with the heat bath  

E-print Network

EQUILIBRIUM THEORY OF PURE FUSED SALTS 27 Furthermore, we may suppose that the coupling with the heat bath is negligibly small, which amounts to insisting that the rate of heat flow in or out of the system for a given temperature difference between bath and system is finite, but insignificantly small

Stillinger, Frank