Science.gov

Sample records for organ bath experiments

  1. A Complex Organic Slushy Bathing Low-Mass Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous companions of young forming stars. They were first observed in hot cores surrounding high-mass protostars [e.g., 1], but have since also been detected in the environs of several low-mass counterparts [e.g., 2]. Recent studies have shown that colder envelopes and positions with impinging outflows may also glow with emission from complex organic species [e.g., 3, 4]. For this meeting, I would like to present physicochemical modeling results on the synthesis of complex organics in an envelope-cavity system that is subject to non-thermal processing. This includes wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations with RADMC [5] and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network [6]. The results show that the morphology of such a system delineates three distinct regions: the cavity wall layer with time-dependent and species-variant enhancements; a torus rich in complex organic ices, but not reflected in gas-phase abundances; and the remaining outer envelope abundant in simpler solid and gaseous molecules. Within the adopted paradigm, complex organic molecules are demonstrated to have unique lifetimes and be grouped into early and late species [7]. Key chemical processes for forming and destroying complex organic molecules will be discussed. In addition, the results of adding newly experimentally verified routes [8] into the existing chemical networks will be shown.[1] Blake G. A., Sutton E. C., Masson C. R., Phillips T. G., 1987, ApJ, 315, 621[2] Jørgensen J. K., Favre C., Bisschop S. E., Bourke T. L., van Dishoeck E. F., Schmalzl M., 2012, ApJ, 757, L4[3] Arce H. G., Santiago-García J., Jørgensen J. K., Tafalla M., Bachiller R., 2008, ApJ, 681, L21[4] Öberg K. I., Bottinelli S., Jørgensen J. K., van Dishoeck E. F., 2010, ApJ, 716, 825[5] Dullemond C. P., Dominik C., 2004, A&A, 417, 159[6] Walsh C., Millar T. J., Nomura H., Herbst E., Widicus Weaver S., Aikawa Y., Laas J. C., Vasyunin A. I., 2014, A&A, 563, A33[7] Drozdovskaya M. N., Walsh C., Visser R., Harsono D., van Dishoeck E. F., MNRAS, subm.[8] Fedoseev G., Cuppen H. M., Ioppolo S., Lamberts T., Linnartz H., 2015, MNRAS, 448, 128

  2. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    PubMed

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments. PMID:26109238

  3. Isothermal bath and video system for the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. This image shows the isothermal bath and video system for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  4. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material.

    PubMed

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 ?l from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-?l aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics. PMID:26629619

  5. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

  6. "Bath salts" and "plant food" products: the experience of one regional US poison center.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christine M; Dulaney, Anna R; Beuhler, Michael C; Kacinko, Sherri

    2013-03-01

    Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active β-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited studies describing the clinical effects associated with reported "bath salts" exposure in the USA. This study describes the clinical effects associated with "bath salt" and "plant food" exposures as reported to the poison center serving the state of North Carolina (Carolinas Poison Center). We performed a retrospective review of the Carolinas Poison Center database for all cases of reported human exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products from 2010 to 2011 with specific attention to clinical effects and routes of exposure. Additionally, we reviewed therapies used, trended the volume of exposure cases reported over the study period, and evaluated the distribution of calls within state counties using descriptive statistics. Carolinas Poison Center received 485 total calls and 409 reported exposure calls regarding "bath salt" or "plant food" products between January of 2010 and December of 2011. The peak of reported exposures occurred in May of 2011. Clinical effects commonly reported in the exposure cases generated from these calls included tachycardia (53.3 %, n = 218), agitated/irritable (50.4 %, n = 206), hallucination/delusions (26.7 %, n = 109), and hypertension (25.2 %, n = 103). In addition to intravenous fluids, common therapies included benzodiazepines (46.0 %, n = 188), sedation (13.4 %, n = 55), alkalinization (3.90 %, n = 16), antihistamine (4.16 %, n = 17), and intubation (3.67 %, n = 15). Haloperidol was the antipsychotic agent used most often to treat agitation (n = 40). Serious complications associated with reported exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, excited delirium syndrome, and death. While treatments have not been empirically determined, sedation with benzodiazepines, aggressive cooling for hyperthermic patients, and use of small doses of antipsychotics for choreoathetoid movements not controlled with benzodiazepines are not likely to be harmful. PMID:22733603

  7. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other mental health issues continue Other Possible Problems Bath salts can cause heart problems and seizures. Taking too much of the drug ... like amphetamines. People may go through various mood problems such as aggression, anxiety, and intense cravings for ...

  8. Confined compression and torsion experiments on a pHEMA gel in various bath concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Reinder W; Petterson, Rob; Huyghe, Jacques M

    2013-06-01

    The constitutive behaviour of cartilaginous tissue is the result of complex interaction between electrical, chemical and mechanical forces. Electrostatic interactions between fixed charges and mobile ions are usually accounted for by means of Donnan osmotic pressure. Recent experimental data show, however, that the shear modulus of articular cartilage depends on ionic concentration even if the strain is kept constant. Poisson-Boltzmann simulations suggest that this dependence is intrinsic to the double-layer around the proteoglycan chains. In order to verify this premise, this study measures whether--at a given strain--this ionic concentration-dependent shear modulus is present in a polymerized hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate gel or not. A combined 1D confined compression and torque experiment is performed on a thin cylindrical hydrogel sample, which is brought in equilibrium with, respectively, 1, 0.1 and 0.03 M NaCl. The sample was placed in a chamber that consists of a stainless steel ring placed on a sintered glass filter, and on top a sintered glass piston. Stepwise ionic loading was cascaded by stepwise 1D compression, measuring the total stress after equilibration of the sample. In addition, a torque experiment was interweaved by applying a harmonic angular displacement and measuring the torque, revealing the relation between aggregate shear modulus and salt concentration at a given strain. PMID:22926832

  9. The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

    1988-01-01

    According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

  10. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    MedlinePlus

    ... Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") DrugFacts: Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Email Facebook Twitter Revised January 2016 What are ... cathinones? Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts," are synthetic (human-made) drugs chemically related to ...

  11. Tripolar-cuff deviation from ideal model: assessment by bioelectric field simulations and saline-bath experiments.

    PubMed

    Triantis, Iasonas F; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    Ideally, interference in neural measurements due to signals from nearby muscles can be completely eliminated with the use of tripolar cuffs, in combination with appropriate amplifier configurations, such as the quasi-tripole (QT) and the true-tripole (TT). The operation of these amplifiers, is based on the theoretical property of the nerve cuff to produce a linear relationship of potential versus distance along its length, internally, when external potentials appear between its ends. Thus, in principle, electroneurogram (ENG) recordings from an ideal tripolar cuff would be free from electromyogram (EMG) interference generated by nearby muscles. However, in practice the cuff exhibits non-ideal behaviour leading to "cuff imbalance". The main focus of this paper is to investigate the causes of cuff imbalance, to demonstrate that it should be incorporated as a main parameter in the theoretical ENG-recording cuff electrode model. In addition to cuff asymmetry and tissue growth, the proximity of the interference source to the cuff is shown to result in cuff imbalance. The influence of proximity imbalance on the performance of the QT and TT amplifiers is also considered. Proximity imbalance is studied using bioelectric field simulations and saline-bath experiments. Variation is observed with both distance (40 mm and 70 mm was examined) and orientation (0-180 degrees), with the latter causing a more severe effect especially when the source dipole and the cuff are vertical to each other. The simulations and measurements are in close agreement. Tissue growth imbalance and asymmetry imbalance are also investigated in vitro. Finally, the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR; ENG/EMG) of the QT and TT amplifiers is examined in the presence of cuff imbalance. It is shown that proximity imbalance results in their SIR to peak only at certain cuff orientation values. This important finding offers an insight as to why in practice ENG recordings using these amplifiers have been widely reported to be degraded by EMG interference. PMID:17689281

  12. Bathing a patient in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Bed bath; Sponge bath ... beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, ... pain, plan to give the patient a bed bath after the person has received pain medicine and ...

  13. Bathing. Pleasure or pain?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Joshua C; Thiru-Chelvam, Brenda; Beck, Charles H M

    2002-11-01

    Bathing creates some of the highest levels of discomfort in the lives of individuals diagnosed with dementia. The present study measured the frequency of 14 agitated behaviors during bathing in 15 elderly residents with dementia residing in a continuing care center. Each resident was observed for four sessions of two different bathing methods, the conventional tub bath and a modification of the bed bath, known as the Thermal bath. The summed frequencies of all agitated behaviors was significantly less for the Thermal bath than the tub bath. This overall effect was greater in men than women and in one particular behavior, shivering. The results suggest that for individuals with dementia the Thermal bath offers a viable alternative to the conventional tub method. Further research may clarify other parameters, such as cost effectiveness and long-term effects of the use of non-rinse cleansers for elderly individuals. PMID:12465197

  14. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  15. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  16. Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings

    PubMed Central

    Brilot, Ben O.; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure. PMID:22250131

  17. Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

  18. Alternatives to hexachlorophene bathing of newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hnatko, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    In controlled trials newborn infants were bathed with Lactacyd, pHisoHex, Hibitane, Lanohex or tap water. Bacteriologic samples were taken from three sites (groin, axilla and cord) immediately after birth, following an initial bath with one of the test agents, and on day 3 or 5 after a water bath. Initial bathing with all agents, including water, reduced the concentration of bacteria on the skin to a similar extent. However, comparisons of bacterial flora at birth versus those on days 3 and 5 indicated differences in the actions of the various agents on pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. Lactacyd and Hibitane appeared to be suitable alternatives to hexachlorophene in the control of pathogenic bacteria on the skin of newborns. However, their absorption and toxicity in the newborn are unknown and, unless use of a skin disinfectant is warranted, routine bathing of newborns with tap water appears to be satisfactory. PMID:328126

  19. To Bathe or Not to Bathe: The Neonatal Question.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Alice

    2015-01-01

    After delivery, newborns go through a series of physiologic changes in an effort to adapt to extrauterine life, with preterm newborns more likely to experience medical problems following this transition. Neonatal hypothermia, defined as a temperature <36.5°C, is a major contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Early bathing may be a contributing factor to hypothermia and interfere with the premature neonate's ability to safely adapt to an extrauterine environment. Skin physiology, the physiologic changes that result from bathing, the importance of maintaining vernix for temperature stability, and how policy change and education-based programs for developmentally supportive care will be discussed in an attempt to improve patient care outcomes for neonates in the NICU. PMID:26802635

  20. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles: Bath Salts Statistics and Trends NIDA: DrugFacts: High School and Youth Trends Monitoring the Future (University of ... 2013 Alaina Sonksen is a senior at Camdenton High School in Missouri. She won the 3rd place 2013 ...

  1. 10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  3. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  4. Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

  5. Using Language to Organize Academic Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Miriam T.

    The specific goal of language instruction at any level is to develop students' communicative abilities by increasing their awareness of necessary linguistic tools. The degree to which instructors in the English classroom are successful in attaining this specific goal is dependent on the ability of students to organize their experiences. College…

  6. Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

  7. Mixed ether bath for electrodeposition of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, K.

    1969-01-01

    Anisole added to the bath mixture improves Brenner aluminum plating bath technique. Mixture has lower bath vapor-pressure and the electro-deposits obtained have greater physical strength than deposits from the Brenner bath.

  8. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Justin C. T.; Blakemore, Andrea L.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2010-06-01

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many industrial processes where uniformity of coating is desirable. We report work on an idealized version of this situation, the drag-out of a single bubble in Landau-Levich-Derjaguin flow. We find that a well-defined critical wall speed exists, separating the two regimes of bubble persistence at the meniscus and bubble deposition on the moving wall. Experiments show that this transition occurs at Ca∗˜Bo0.73. A similar result is obtained theoretically by balancing viscous stresses and gravity.

  9. Occupational health experience with organic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Thiess, A.M.; Wellenreuther, G.

    1984-12-01

    For many decades, interest in occupational medicine has been focused on the wide variety of organic additives, which includes a large number of substances, for example, dyestuffs, pigments, and auxiliaries for the textile, leather, and paper industries. The reason is that, if the recommended precautions are not observed, there is a risk of exposure to most of these substances during both production and use. Moreover, over the years, some additives have caused concern and aroused suspicion regarding adverse effects on health. In order to deal with health problems in this field, it is important to be aware of how, what, and where occupational diseases or accidents arise. Much knowledge has been gained about these, and it would be an impossible task to give a systematic survey of the data that have accumulated, especially since it is necessary to take account of the problem of exposure to more than one substance. Thus an attempt is made to report on occupational health experience in general, and to demonstrate how an industrial hygienist may approach the many and various problems. Some epidemiological studies on organic additives (auramine, anthraquinone dyestuffs, organic dyes, etc.) are discussed.

  10. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  11. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  12. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  13. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  14. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  15. Assisting Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Bathing: Effects of Two Bathing Interventions on Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeffer, Beverly; Talerico, Karen Amann; Rasin, Joyce; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Stewart, Babara J.; McKenzie, Darlene; Barrick, Ann Louise; Rader, Joanne; Sloane, Philip D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: When cognitively impaired nursing home residents exhibit agitated and aggressive behaviors during bathing, nursing home caregivers are in a unique position to improve residents' experience. This report addresses whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) who received training in a person-centered approach with showering and with the…

  16. Environmental geology of Bath, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaway, G. A.

    1995-10-01

    The hot springs of Bath, England, have been of importance to man for hundreds of years. It was a famous spa in Roman times. Subsequently, the springs were used during the 17th through the 20th centuries and extensive urban and commercial properties were developed at Bath using the water for medical and tourist-oriented activities. With urban and commercial development in the area, man's impact on the environment was substantial and typical environmental problems included pollution, land subsidence, or stability that effected construction, drainage, highways, and canals. During the growth of Bath in the 18th and 19th centuries these environmental problems were described by geologist William Smith and Joseph Townsend. Bath and vicinity provides a unique example of environmental geoscience.

  17. Autogenous grinding for bath scraps recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Pinoncely, A.; Podda, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the early 80`s, FCB designed an original process for the recycling of bath scraps in Aluminum smelters, using a single stage fully air-swept autogenous mill. Since then, the 9 industrial references confirmed and even exceeded the expectation in terms of dust-free and easy to run operation, high recovery ratio of bath among the metallic scraps, and low maintenance cost. Problems encountered on conventional processes belong to the old days, and new projects tend to give an increasing importance to classification and storage of crushed products, autogenous grinding being already recognized as the most suitable, simple and reliable process route. The present paper describes this original process and draws up the overall performances of ten years of experience.

  18. Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mocé-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters. PMID:16269717

  19. A Series of Synthetic Organic Experiments Demonstrating Physical Organic Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yousry; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones. Includes concepts on kinetic versus thermodynamic control of reaction, rearrangement of a secondary carbocation to a tertiary cation, and the effect of the size of the base on orientation during elimination. (MVL)

  20. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    PubMed

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary. PMID:19328932

  1. Influenza pandemic planning: one organization's experience.

    PubMed

    Amirov, Chingiz; Howard, Pat; Kohm, Catherine Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights influenza pandemic planning by a geriatric facility in order to ensure preparedness for staff, clients and families. By describing our experience, we hope that other facilities that provide geriatric, long-term care services are able to advance their own pandemic plans. PMID:17521068

  2. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  3. The Organization of Reports of Scientific Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Beginning teachers of scientific technical writing often have little background knowledge in the sciences; thus, they may encounter difficulty in dealing with technical reports. To achieve clear explanations of the effects of scientific experiments, scientific writers need to know the following general principles: (1) the function of all the…

  4. The Australian experience in organ donation--2003.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Australian performance in deceased donor organ donation continues to languish near the bottom of the International ladder. This is despite a national expenditure on health 10% more than the average OECD country (dollars per capita) and the presence of active transplantation programs (heart, kidney, liver, lung and pancreas) with excellent success rates. The deceased donor rate has fallen from 14 donors pmp in 1989 to 9 at the present time and appears to be still falling. Living donors now outnumber deceased donors as a source of kidney transplants. Causes of the low deceased donor rate appear to include variable management of severe brain injury, shortage of ICU beds, lack of ICU priority to potential donors when beds are restricted, and a low family consent rate (50%) despite 83% of the public being willing to donate. Programs aimed at addressing these issues are planned and include additional funding for beds, improved identification of donors and a standard pathway for managing severe brain injury. PMID:15478885

  5. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  10. Solvent Selection for Recrystallization: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jacob B.

    1979-01-01

    This experiment develops the students' ability to carry out a simple recrystallization effectively, and demonstrates how a solvent may be selected or rejected for the recrystallization of a specific organic compound. (Author/BB)

  11. Bath-induced paroxysmal disorders in infancy.

    PubMed

    Nechay, Alla; Stephenson, John B P

    2009-05-01

    We reviewed those paroxysmal disorders of infancy and of the newborn in which the normal process of bathing may be an important trigger. We focused on infant bathing in normal temperature water (37 degrees C, range 36-38 degrees C) rather than in hot water that is above body temperature. Four principal diagnostic categories emerged: bathing epilepsy, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, hyperekplexia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. Bathing or water immersion epilepsy was the best studied and is arguably distinct from hot water epilepsy. The paroxysmal episodes previously attributed to aquagenic urticaria may have been examples of bathing epilepsy with a genetic component. Despite suggestions in the literature to the contrary, no convincing reports of bath-induced infantile syncope have been found. The underlying mechanisms of bath-induced paroxysmal disorders in infancy remain poorly understood, but all have autonomic manifestations and some if not all may be channelopathies. PMID:18571948

  12. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  13. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  14. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an

  15. Displacement of an Electrically Charged Drop on a Vibrating Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenbourger, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the manipulation of an electrically charged droplet bouncing on a vertically vibrated bath is investigated. When a horizontal, uniform, and static electric field is applied to it, a motion is induced. The droplet is accelerated when the droplet is small. On the other hand, large droplets appear to move with a constant speed that depends linearly on the applied electrical field. In the latter regime, high-speed imaging of one bounce reveals that the droplet experiences an acceleration due to the electrical force during the flight and decelerates to 0 when interacting with the surface of the bath. Thus, the droplet moves with a constant average speed on a large time scale. We propose a criterion based on the force necessary to move a charged droplet at the surface of the bath to discriminate between constant speed and accelerated droplet regimes.

  16. Organic crystal growth experiment facility (13-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbayashi, Akio

    1992-01-01

    The interesting nature of metal-like organic compounds composed of charge transfer complexes has been recently realized. Crystals of these complexes can usually be grown by the solution crystallization method. It is difficult to grow such organic crystals on Earth, especially from the chemical reactions through diffusion controlled process in the solutions, because of gravitational disturbances, or sedimentation. The International Microgravity Lab. (IML-1) Organic Crystal Growth with G-Gitter Preventive Measure (OCGP) experiment is expected to grow a single crystal large enough to allow its intrinsic physical properties to be measured and its detailed crystal structure to be determined. This experiment also attempts to assess the experimental conditions including the microgravity environment for further study of the fundamental process of solution crystallization, nucleation, and growth from supersaturated phases including chemical reactions. Microgravity disturbances, G-jitter, may be an important environmental factor in the experimental method to assess. The vibration damping effects on organic crystal growth can be carefully studied.

  17. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  18. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  19. Finite-Size Bath in Qubit Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the above qubit plus finite-size bath, but now the latter is coupled to a practically infinite bath of the same nature of oscillators or two-level systems.

  20. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing

  1. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  2. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

  3. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  4. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  5. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up

  6. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy

  7. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm. PMID:24010505

  8. Ozonation of exhausted dark shade reactive dye bath for reuse.

    PubMed

    Sundrarajan, M; Vishnu, G; Joseph, Kurian

    2006-10-01

    Exhausted reactive dye bath of dark shades were collected from cotton knit wear dyeing units in Tirupur. Ozonation was conducted in a column reactor system fed with ozone at the rate of 0.16 g/min to assess its efficiency in reducing the color, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. The potential of the decolorized dye bath for its repeated reuse was also analyzed. The results from the reusability studies indicate that the dyeing quality was not affected by the reuse of decolorized dye bath for two successive cycles. Complete decolorization of the effluent was achieved in 60 minutes contact time at an ozone consumption of 183 mg/L for Red, 175 for Navy Blue and 192 for Green shades respectively. The corresponding COD removal was 60%, 54% and 63% for the three shades while TOC removal efficiency was 59%, 55% and 62% respectively. It is concluded that ozonation is efficient in decolorization of exhausted dye bath effluents containing conventional reactive dyes. However, the corresponding removal of COD from the textile effluent was not significant. PMID:18179124

  9. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  13. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  14. Chaucer's Wife of Bath [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This lesson introduces students to one of the most admired characterizations in Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," the Wife of Bath. Students read Chaucer's description of the Wife in the "General Prologue" to consider how he represents her, both as the poet of "The Canterbury Tales" and as a character in his own poem, then read the "Wife of Bath's…

  15. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  16. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing... INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths... physicians only if the bath is administered in accordance with the bath directions prescribed by...

  17. [Experience in organizing competition of school health education teams].

    PubMed

    Tsurikov, V T; Gavriushenko, V V

    1991-01-01

    One of the main tasks of Soviet medicine--the healthy lifestyle formation among population can be accomplished with the help of school health education teams. The training of school health education teams is one of the forms of out-of-school hours activities in hygienic education and training of pupils and can easily be accomplished through organizational plans of activities at any school or industrial training school. The organization of school health education teams should unite the efforts of teachers, specialists from the service of healthy lifestyle formation, cultural institutions, young communist league and youth organizations and other departments and public agencies concerned. Using various active publicity media school health education teams should become active healthy lifestyle promotion organizations and their performance can be conducted before any audiences. The working experience of school health education teams is in need of investigation, improvement and dissemination. PMID:1876903

  18. Organ procurement: experience from a southern Italian region.

    PubMed

    Roncone, A; Vantaggiato, M D; Benvenuto, A; Nino, A; Iannello, A; De Giacomo, E; Verre, P; Formisani, P; Milano, G A; Burza, F; Caporale, S; Cirillo, S; Bonofiglio, R; Risoli, V; Petrassi, A

    1996-02-01

    The authors report their experience of organ procurement during the last 5 years to evaluate a program that began in 1988 to improve organ retrieval in Calabria. In this region only two donations were reported up to 1988, one each in 1980 and 1985. Because of the large population on dialysis and the willingness of a group of surgeons and anesthesiologists, this program was undertaken in 1988 under the supervision of C.C.S.T. (Co-ordination of Centre and South Italy for Transplantation). This program was designed to act on two levels: to create a large group of people directly involved in health care (physicians and nurses) motivated in organ procurement and transplantation, and to diffuse the "culture" of organ donation among lay people. This was achieved by means of scientific meetings inside the hospital and with conventions and TV programs, supported by an Association of Volunteers, where ethical and scientific problems of organ donation and transplantation were discussed in simple language. Various meetings were also held with high school students. During these meetings a questionnaire was distributed among students. Results of this questionnaire show that the main obstacles to organ donation are the "unclear" concept of "brain death" and religious feelings, but after the concept of brain death was explained, a significant number of students showed a different attitude toward organ procurement and transplantation. Results of this program are extremely encouraging (23 organ donations during the last 3 years). We hope to improve our results in the near future, and we do believe that a further and significant increase to our preliminary good results could be achieved by the possibility of performing at least kidney transplantation in our institution. PMID:8644199

  19. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide-ochre-tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out why: ochre is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. There is consequently a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud and this explains why prehistoric people included ochre use into their habits and rituals. Abstract Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals. PMID:26784238

  20. Chlorhexidine Bathing and Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Michael J.; Domenico, Henry J.; Byrne, Daniel W.; Talbot, Tom; Rice, Todd W.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Wheeler, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Daily bathing of critically ill patients with the broad spectrum, topical antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine is widely performed and may reduce healthcare-associated infections. Objective To determine if daily bathing of critically ill patients with chlorhexidine decreases the incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Design, setting, and participants A pragmatic cluster-randomized, cross-over study of 9,340 patients admitted to five adult intensive care units of a tertiary medical center in Nashville, Tennessee Intervention Units performed once-daily bathing of all patients with disposable cloths impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine or non-antimicrobial cloths as a control. Bathing treatments were performed for a 10-week period followed by a two-week washout period during which patients were bathed with non-antimicrobial disposable cloths, before crossover to the alternate bathing treatment for 10 weeks. Each unit crossed over between bathing assignments three times during the study Main Outcome and Measures The primary prespecified outcome was a composite of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and Clostridium difficile infections. Secondary outcomes included rates of clinical cultures positive for multi-drug resistant organisms, blood culture contamination, healthcare-associated bloodstream infections, and rates of the primary outcome by ICU. Results A total of 55 and 60 infections occurred during chlorhexidine and control bathing periods, respectively (4 and 4 CLABSI, 21 and 32 CAUTI, 17 and 8 VAP, 13 and 16 C. difficile infections, respectively, between chlorhexidine and control bathing periods). The primary outcome rate was 2.86 per 1000 patient-days and 2.90 per 1000 patient-days during chlorhexidine and control bathing periods, respectively (rate difference, −0.04; 95% CI, −1.09 to 1.01; P=0.95). After adjusting for baseline variables, no difference between groups in the rate of the primary outcome was detected. Chlorhexidine bathing did not change rates of infection-related secondary outcomes including hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, blood culture contamination, or clinical cultures yielding multi-drug resistant organisms. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, no difference in the primary outcome was detected in any individual ICU. Conclusion and Relevance In this pragmatic trial, daily bathing with chlorhexidine did not reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infections including central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, or C. difficile. These findings do not support daily bathing of critically ill patients with chlorhexidine. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02033187 PMID:25602496

  1. Risk factors of sudden death in the Japanese hot bath in the senior population.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takashi; Yamauchi, Misa; Nishida, Naoki; Kaneko, Taeko; Yoshizaki, Katsuaki; Yoshioka, Naofumi

    2005-05-10

    A series of experiments were carried out to clarify the cause of death and the risk factors related to sudden death in the Japanese senior population while bathing in a Japanese style "hot bath." The biodynamic changes while bathing were carefully monitored under actual bathing situations occurring in both the winter and summer seasons. We observed double product (DP), total peripheral blood vessel resistance (TPR), cardiac output (CO), and blood vessel compliance (COMP) by measuring blood pressure, heart rate, pulse wave, and electrocardiogram (ECG). The finding of a high level of DP in the elderly suggests that more myocardial oxygen consumption is needed than for young adults, particularly in subjects with arrhythmia. Although the values for TPR and CO changed somewhat during bathing, the changes were considered normal and to be expected. However, more significant and substantial changes were observed during the winter experiment than during the summer experiment, no doubt owing to lower temperature of the bathing room. The value of COMP did not vary significantly between winter and summer subjects. Twelve subjects in the elderly developed ECG changes while bathing such as supraventricular extrasystole or ventricular tachycardia. No clinical significance was found in the biochemical analyses of the blood obtained before and after bathing. In conclusion, some subjects in the elderly showed risky changes in the above parameters and ECG, factors which may partially explain some of the causes of the many reported cases of lapse of consciousness and unexpected sudden death in the elderly while bathing especially in the winter season. Cold climate, hot water immersion, and hydrostatic pressure may affect their physiological compensation along with existing of coronary stenosis or weakness of respiratory function as a normal consequence of advanced age. PMID:15749356

  2. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae in it; and 3) Inadequate disinfection and washing for whole circulation system prior the experience bathing. The Hiuga City Committee directed 24 measures to improve the sanitary condition of the facility including following 5 items. 1) Fix the manual for maintenance and management of the bath. 2) Keep sufficient overflow of bath water. 3) Put disinfection of filters into practice. 4) Precise measurement and control of the residual chlorine concentration in bath water. 5) Replacement of filtrating material from crushed porous ceramic into natural sand. PMID:15103899

  3. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

  4. Waste recycling plant uses molten metal baths

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, S.

    1993-09-01

    A $15 million 36,000-sq-ft development facility employing a new waste-recycling technology officially opened last week in Fall River, Mass. Molten Metal Technologies will use the facility to demonstrate its catalytic extraction processing (CEP) technology to potential customers and to continue research on the process. The method uses baths of molten iron (3200F) or other metals to convert wastes, including hazardous wastes, into synthesis gas, inorganic oxides, and recoverable metals. The new technology promises a combination of benefits. It processes the organic and inorganic components of a wide variety of wastes. It closes the loop by completely destroying hazardous substances and producing usable materials rather than merely altered forms of waste. And it can be installed at users' plants to obviate any transportation of hazardous wastes. The company's aim is to sell and install the on-site recycling units, that cost $8 million to $25 million each, at chemical, petroleum, metal, and waste-processing plants and government facilities. The technology may even find applications in treating radioactive wastes.

  5. Protective coating for salt-bath brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, A. C.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Ceramic coating, consisting of graphite, enameler's clay, and algin binder, applied to materials prior to salt bath brazing facilitates brazing process and results in superior joints. Alternate coating materials and their various proportions are given.

  6. Adelard of Bath (1075-1160)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Bath, England, a teacher and translator of scientific work from the Arabic, Adelard traveled in France, Italy, Syria and Palestine. On returning to Bath, he translated Euclid's Elements from Arabic, and his translation became for centuries the chief geometry textbook in the West. He also translated the zij (astronomical table) of Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi. He wrote works on the abacu...

  7. Motion of two micro-wedges in a turbulent bacterial bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, A.; Sokolov, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Lwen, H.

    2015-07-01

    The motion of a pair of micro-wedges ("carriers") in a turbulent bacterial bath is explored using computer simulations with explicit modeling of the bacteria and experiments. The orientation of the two micro-wedges is fixed by an external magnetic field but the translational coordinates can move freely as induced by the bacterial bath. As a result, two carriers of same orientation move such that their mutual distance decreases, while they drift apart for an anti-parallel orientation. Eventually the two carriers stack on each other with no intervening bacteria exhibiting a stable dynamical mode where the two micro-wedges follow each other with the same velocity. These findings are in qualitative agreement with experiment on two micro-wedges in a bacterial bath. Our results provide insight into understanding self-assembly of many micro-wedges in an active bath.

  8. Experience with organic Rankine cycles in heat recovery power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Elovic, A.; Rettger, P.

    1996-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have been increasingly employed to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not feasible or economical. These power plants have logged a total of over 100 million turbine hours of experience demonstrating the maturity and field proven technology of the ORC cycle. The cycle is well adapted to low to moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used to recover energy from geothermal resources. The above cycle technology is well established and applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles.

  9. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  10. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. PMID:24103364

  11. Organization and Analysis of Data from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, Dan; Spayde, Damon

    2013-04-01

    The Qweak experiment, which was conducted at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in a collaboration consisting of over twenty institutions, measured the small parity violating asymmetry occurring in elastic e-p scattering at low four-momentum transfer. This asymmetry will be used to calculate a precise value for the proton's weak charge. The Standard Model firmly predicts this weak charge based on the running of the weak mixing angle from the Z0 pole (where it is anchored by precise measurements) down to low energies. Through testing this prediction the Qweak experiment hopes to either constrain or reveal possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. Because of the small size of the predicted asymmetry and the precise nature of the measurement, over 2000 hours of data were taken. In order to help organize and store this data, a database has been implemented containing averages over sets of this data. It must be organized in such a way as to allow the quick and easy retrieval of data by collaborators with minimal knowledge of the database language. Tools for aggregating and expanding parts of this database as well as data analysis will be discussed.

  12. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the physiological strains during H-bath and showering were smaller than during W-bath. However, colder room temperatures made it more difficult to retain body warmth after H-bath and created thermal discomfort after showering. It is particularly important for H-bath and showering to maintain an acceptable temperature in the dressing room and bathroom, in order to bathe comfortably and ensure warmth. PMID:12612399

  13. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  14. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  15. Changes in Patients’ Experiences in Medicare Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Landon, Bruce E.; Chernew, Michael E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Incentives for accountable care organizations (ACOs) to limit health care use and improve quality may enhance or hurt patients’ experiences with care. METHODS Using Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey data covering 3 years before and 1 year after the start of Medicare ACO contracts in 2012 as well as linked Medicare claims, we compared patients’ experiences in a group of 32,334 fee-for-service beneficiaries attributed to ACOs (ACO group) with those in a group of 251,593 beneficiaries attributed to other providers (control group), before and after the start of ACO contracts. We used linear regression and a difference-in-differences analysis to estimate changes in patients’ experiences in the ACO group that differed from concurrent changes in the control group, with adjustment for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. RESULTS After ACO contracts began, patients’ reports of timely access to care and their primary physicians’ being informed about specialty care differentially improved in the ACO group, as compared with the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.006, respectively), whereas patients’ ratings of physicians, interactions with physicians, and overall care did not differentially change. Among patients with multiple chronic conditions and high predicted Medicare spending, overall ratings of care differentially improved in the ACO group as compared with the control group (P = 0.02). Differential improvements in timely access to care and overall ratings were equivalent to moving from average performance among ACOs to the 86th to 98th percentile (timely access to care) and to the 82nd to 96th percentile (overall ratings) and were robust to adjustment for group differences in trends during the preintervention period. CONCLUSIONS In the first year, ACO contracts were associated with meaningful improvements in some measures of patients’ experience and with unchanged performance in others. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging and others.) PMID:25354105

  16. Understanding of Bath Surface Wave in Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Nguyen, Anh V.; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-02-01

    The waves formed on bath surface play an important role in the bottom blown copper smelting furnace operations. Simulation experiments have been carried out on model of the bottom blown furnace to investigate features of the waves formed on bath surface. It was found that the ripples, the 1st asymmetric standing wave and the 1st symmetric standing wave were able to occur in this model, and empirical occurrence boundaries have been determined. The amplitude and frequency of the standing waves have been systematically investigated. It was found that the amplitude of the 1st asymmetric standing wave is much greater than the 1st symmetric standing wave and the ripples; and the amplitude is found to increase with increasing bath height and flowrate but decrease with blowing angle. The frequency of the 1st asymmetric standing wave is found increasing with bath height but independent of flowrate and blowing angle.

  17. A Continuous 4He Refrigerator for Use in a Superfluid Helium Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suwen; Avaloff, D.; Nissen, J. A.; Stricker, D. A.; Lipa, J. A.

    2006-09-07

    In cryogenic applications in space, the base temperature, Tmin of the helium bath in the dewar is typically determined by the design of the porous plug and the associated plumbing. For certain experiments, the required operating temperature of the instrument is lower than the bath temperature. In the laboratory, temperatures below 1.2 K require very large pumps or the use of 3He systems. We have demonstrated a modified 4He refrigerator with a continuous fill from a superfluid helium bath with a base temperature more than 0.5 K below the bath temperature. We describe the operation as well as the mechanism of such a refrigerator. For operation in space the refrigerator would need to be equipped with a porous plug to retain the fluid.

  18. Pig Organ Energy Loss Comparison Experiments Using BBs.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Musgrave, Ian; Fisk, Wesley; Byard, Roger W

    2016-05-01

    Torso models for ballistics research require that the mechanical properties of simulant materials must match the heterogeneous nature of tissues/organs within the human thorax/abdomen. A series of energy loss experiments were conducted on fresh porcine organs/tissues at room temperature and 37°C, using steel 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) brand air rifle. They were compared to FBI and NATO specification ordnance gelatin and a candidate surrogate material called Simulant "A". Two CED M2 chronographs measured BB velocity. The resulting energy loss was established using KE = 1/2 mv² before and after target perforation. The combined results at room temperature and 37°C were as follows: FBI specification gelatin was similar (p > 0.05) to heart and lung, spleen was similar to NATO specification gelatin, Simulant "A" was similar to hindquarter muscle, and hindquarter muscle, kidney, and spleen were similar to each other regarding energy retardation. These results can be used as a basis for the development of simulant materials to create an anatomically correct heterogeneous model. PMID:27122406

  19. Positronium signature in organic liquid scintillators for neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, D.; Consolati, G.; Trezzi, D.

    2011-01-15

    Electron antineutrinos are commonly detected in liquid scintillator experiments via inverse {beta} decay by looking at the coincidence between the reaction products: neutrons and positrons. Prior to positron annihilation, an electron-positron pair may form an orthopositronium (o-Ps) state, with a mean lifetime of a few nanoseconds. Even if the o-Ps decay is speeded up by spin-flip or pick-off effects, it may introduce distortions in the photon emission time distribution, crucial for position reconstruction and pulse shape discrimination algorithms in antineutrino experiments. Reversing the problem, the o-Ps-induced time distortion represents a new signature for tagging antineutrinos in liquid scintillator. In this article, we report the results of measurements of the o-Ps formation probability and lifetime for the most used solvents for organic liquid scintillators in neutrino physics (pseudocumene, linear alkyl benzene, phenylxylylethane, and dodecane). We characterize also a mixture of pseudocumene +1.5 g/l of 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a fluor acting as wavelength shifter. In the second part of the article, we demonstrate that the o-Ps-induced distortion of the scintillation photon emission time distributions represent an optimal signature for tagging positrons on an event by event basis, potentially enhancing the antineutrino detection.

  20. Localized systems coupled to small baths: From Anderson to Zeno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, David A.; Nandkishore, Rahul; Pietracaprina, Francesca; Ros, Valentina; Scardicchio, Antonello

    2015-07-01

    We investigate what happens if an Anderson localized system is coupled to a small bath, with a discrete spectrum, when the coupling between system and bath is specially chosen so as to never localize the bath. We find that the effect of the bath on localization in the system is a nonmonotonic function of the coupling between system and bath. At weak couplings, the bath facilitates transport by allowing the system to "borrow" energy from the bath. But, above a certain coupling the bath produces localization because of an orthogonality catastrophe, whereby the bath "dresses" the system and hence suppresses the hopping matrix element. We call this last regime the regime of "Zeno localization" since the physics of this regime is akin to the quantum Zeno effect, where frequent measurements of the position of a particle impede its motion. We confirm our results by numerical exact diagonalization.

  1. Properties of a nonequilibrium heat bath.

    PubMed

    Simha, Aditi; Evans, R M L; Baule, A

    2008-03-01

    At equilibrium, a fluid element, within a larger heat bath, receives random impulses from the bath. Those impulses, which induce stochastic transitions in the system (the fluid element), respect the principle of detailed balance, because the bath is also at equilibrium. Under continuous shear, the fluid element adopts a nonequilibrium steady state. Because the surrounding bath of fluid under shear is also in a nonequilibrium steady state, the system receives stochastic impulses with a nonequilibrium distribution. Those impulses no longer respect detailed balance, but are nevertheless constrained by rules. The rules in question, which are applicable to a wide subclass of driven steady states, were recently derived [R. M. L. Evans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 150601 (2004); J. Phys A 38, 293 (2005)] using information-theoretic arguments. In the present paper, we provide a more fundamental derivation, based on the uncontroversial, non-Bayesian interpretation of probabilities as simple ratios of countable quantities. We apply the results to some simple models of interacting particles, to investigate the nature of forces that are mediated by a nonequilibrium noise source such as a fluid under shear. PMID:18517339

  2. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT...

  5. Bath salts intoxication: a case series.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Imam SF; Patel H; Mahmoud M; Prakash NA; King MS; Fremont RD

    2013-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Bath salts commonly contain multiple synthetic drugs, and their toxic effects are largely the same as those seen in patients who have taken large doses of amphetamines. Bath salts can be ingested, smoked, or administered intravenously. Their use is on the rise and is responsible for a large number of emergency department visits.CASE REPORT: Our case series involved five patients (six hospital courses) who presented after ingesting bath salts. The presentations involved signs and symptoms of intense sympathetic response. All patients had a history of drug abuse, and most had psychiatric disorders as well. Treatments included benzodiazepines, mechanical ventilation, and intravenous hydration.CONCLUSION: Bath salts are available for approximately $20 (USD) in packets at truck stops and on the Internet, usually marketed with the disclaimer, "not for human consumption." Their presentation mimics other sympathetic drugs and causes a significant amount of delirium, hallucinogenic-delusional symptoms, extreme agitation, combativeness, and rhabdomyolysis, often leading to hospitalizations and intensive care unit (ICU) stays. Management is largely supportive and includes aggressive intravenous hydration, dampening of the excessive sympathetic outflow with benzodiazepines, and close monitoring in the ICU setting. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) recently invoked its emergency scheduling authority to control these synthetic stimulants. The DEA plans to make possessing and selling these chemicals, or products that contain them, illegal in the United States.

  6. Gene set analyses for interpreting microarray experiments on prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Tintle, Nathan; Best, Aaron; Dejongh, Matthew; VanBruggen, Dirk; Heffron, Fred; Porwollik, Steffen; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2008-11-05

    Background: Recent advances in microarray technology have brought with them the need for enhanced methods of biologically interpreting gene expression data. Recently, methods like Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and variants of Fisher’s exact test have been proposed which utilize a priori biological information. Typically, these methods are demonstrated with a priori biological information from the Gene Ontology. Results: Alternative gene set definitions are presented based on gene sets inferred from the SEED: open-source software environment for comparative genome annotation and analysis of microbial organisms. Many of these gene sets are then shown to provide consistent expression across a series of experiments involving Salmonella Typhimurium. Implementation of the gene sets in an analysis of microarray data is then presented for the Salmonella Typhimurium data. Conclusions: SEED inferred gene sets can be naturally defined based on subsystems in the SEED. The consistent expression values of these SEED inferred gene sets suggest their utility for statistical analyses of gene expression data based on a priori biological information

  7. General systems theory, brain organization, and early experiences.

    PubMed

    Denenberg, V H

    1980-01-01

    Three hypothetical brain processes--interhemispheric coupling, hemispheric activation, and interhemispheric inhibition--are derived from an equation characterizing general systems theory. To investigate these processes, experimental rats were reared under differing early experience conditions. When adult, they had their right or left neocortex lesioned, had a sham operation, or were left undisturbed. Interhemispheric coupling was measured by means of a correlation coefficient between the right and left hemispheres. The presence of a significant positive correlation is taken as evidence of a negative feedback loop between the hemispheres. In one experimental population, in which rats did not receive any extra stimulation in infancy, the correlation was not significantly different from zero, thus implying that the two hemispheres were operating independently. In another population, in which rats had received handling stimulation in infancy, the correlation coefficient was significant (0.543), indicating that the hemispheres were coupled in a systems arrangement. The processes of hemispheric activation and interhemispheric inhibition were assessed by comparing the mean performance of the two unilateral lesion groups and the group with intact brain. The two rat populations had different forms of brain organizations as measured by these processes. These analyses show that the behavior of the isolated hemisphere cannot be directly extrapolated to the behavior of the connected hemisphere. If there is hemispheric coupling via a negative feedback loop or if there is interhemispheric inhibition, then the disconnected hemisphere may show behaviors that are not evident in the normal connected condition. PMID:7356045

  8. Organizing Science Popularization and Teacher Training Workshops : A Nigerian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpala, Kingsley; Okere, Bonaventure

    Funding for science popularization has become a huge challenge in recent times especially for developing countries like Nigeria. However, a change in the school system from the 6-3-3-4 system (6 years primary, 3 years Junior secondary, 3year senior secondary, and 4 years tertiary education) to the 9-3-4 system ( 9 years junior basic, 3 years secondary, and 4 tertiary education) has made it even more convenient to strategically target the students through their teachers to attain the desired quality of education since the introduction of space science into the curriculum at the primary and secondary levels. Considering the size of Nigeria, there Is need for a shift in paradigm for sourcing resources to tackle this deficiency in a sustainable manner. Recently a teacher training and science popularization workshop was organized as a first in a series of subsequent workshops geared towards having a sustainable means of popularizing Science in Nigeria. Principally, the key lies in the partnership with the colleges of education which produce the teachers for primary schools in addition to the usual governmental actions. Experiences from this workshop will be enumerated with the hope of inspiring the same success in similar societies.

  9. Organic weed management in vegetables: Research, experiences, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farmers in a national survey ranked weed management as their greatest research need for organic crop production. Scientists from the Agriculture Research Service and Oklahoma State University have combined their efforts to conduct not only organic weed control research, but research involvi...

  10. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... facilities, supplied with hot and cold water under pressure, shall be provided for the use of all...

  11. Oil Formation: An "Unexpected" Difficulty in an Elementary Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dennis A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment involving the separation of an unknown solid organic acid and an unknown solid organic base. The experiment is designed to present the student with an unexpected difficulty, namely, the formation of a separable viscous liquid, to see how the student handles this difficulty. (MLH)

  12. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  13. 16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar... that is used in a bath tub, sink, or similar bathing enclosure and that provides support, at a minimum, to the front and back of a seated infant during bathing by a caregiver. This does not...

  14. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing...

  15. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing...

  16. 16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar... that is used in a bath tub, sink, or similar bathing enclosure and that provides support, at a minimum, to the front and back of a seated infant during bathing by a caregiver. This does not...

  17. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing...

  18. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing...

  19. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing...

  20. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  1. Astronaut Jack Lousma taking hot bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A closeup view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In deploying the shower facility, the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  2. Pion string evolving in a thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fan; Chen, Qichang; Mao, Hong

    2015-10-01

    By using the symmetry improved Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective formalism, we study a pion string of the O (4 ) linear sigma model at finite temperature in chiral limit. In terms of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism we reconsider the production and evolution of the pion string in a thermal bath. Finally, we estimate the pion string density and its possible signal during the chiral phase transition.

  3. Quantum impurities in channel mixing baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Guo; Wang, Da; Wang, Qiang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We propose a versatile strategy for numerical renormalization group (NRG) solution of general channel-mixing Kondo and Anderson impurity models beyond previous reach. We illustrate the strategy by investigating the quantum phase transitions in models of Anderson impurities coupled to s - and d -wave superconducting baths. We discuss the effects of nontrivial channel-mixing in such models. Our strategy opens the door toward broad applications of NRG as impurity solver in cluster dynamical mean field theory for strongly correlated electron systems.

  4. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  5. The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2004-01-01

    Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

  6. Could Communication Form Impact Organizations' Experience with Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Diane Susan; Richard, Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that cultural diversity can be advantageous or detrimental for organizations depending on organization members' communication. Introduces three forms of communication (ethnocentric, modernistic and cosmopolitan) explored by W. Barnett Pearce, each of which differs in deeply held assumptions. Overviews the implications of cosmopolitan…

  7. Leidenfrost drops on liquid baths: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexei; Maquet, Laurent; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Duchesne, Alexis; Brandenbourger, Martin; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that a liquid drop released over a very hot surface generally does not contact the surface nor boils but rather levitates over a thin vapor film generated by its own evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). In particular, the case of a hot (and flat) solid substrate has been extensively studied in recent years. In contrast, we here focus on Leidenfrost drops over a superheated liquid bath, addressing the problem theoretically and comparing our predictions with experimental results, detailed in a separate talk. We predict the geometry of the drop and of the liquid bath, based on the hydrostatic Young-Laplace and lubrication equations. A good agreement is observed with the available experimental data concerning the deformation of the liquid bath. The modeling also yields a rather complete insight into the shape of the drop. As in the case of a solid substrate, the vapor layer generally appears to be composed of a vapor pocket surrounded by a circular neck. The influences of the superheat and of the drop size are parametrically investigated. A number of scaling laws are established. Unlike the case of a solid substrate, no chimney instability was found in the range of drop size studied.

  8. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-05-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  9. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  10. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  11. Construction of a leftover bath water model for microbial testing.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Shirai, Akihiro; Maeda, Takuya; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kourai, Hiroki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, in order to construct a model of leftover bath water, we analyzed one hundred samples of used bath water samples which were provided by twenty-eight volunteer families. It appeared that the number of detected bacteria from such bath water was correlated closely with the number of bathers. Moreover, the pH, acidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ion, protein content of the leftover bath water were measured. The number of bathers had no connection with the pH, acidity, COD, and ion content of the leftover bath water. However, the protein content of the bath water correlated with the number of detected bacteria. Based on these results, the model of leftover bath water was constructed. Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated with the model bath water as indices of bath water contamination. The number of incubated viable cells in the model bath water increased with increasing concentrations of casamino acid. Consequently, it was suggested that varying the concentration of casamino acid based on family size or contamination would be necessary in the efficient use of the constructed model of leftover bath water for microbial testing. PMID:17017128

  12. Role of initial system-bath correlation on coherence trapping

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Yu, Yan-Mei; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study the coherence trapping of a qubit correlated initially with a non-Markovian bath in a pure dephasing channel. By considering the initial qubit-bath correlation and the bath spectral density, we find that the initial qubit-bath correlation can lead to a more efficient coherence trapping than that of the initially separable qubit-bath state. The stationary coherence in the long time limit can be maximized by optimizing the parameters of the initially correlated qubit-bath state and the bath spectral density. In addition, the effects of this initial correlation on the maximal evolution speed for the qubit trapped to its stationary coherence state are also explored. PMID:26303160

  13. Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ned H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer…

  14. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  15. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical

  16. Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ned H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer

  17. Water-bath method for sonographic evaluation of superficial structures of the extremities in children.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Thapa, Mahesh; Callahan, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution sonography using a stand-off pad or a gel mound is a standard technique for the evaluation of soft-tissue structures of the hands and feet in children. However, the complex curved surfaces of the hands and feet often yield suboptimal contact between the transducer and the skin. Additionally, the small field of view, relative compressibility of the soft-tissue structures by the transducer, patient motion and discomfort from contact of the transducer with the pathology often limit conventional US evaluation. A water-bath technique overcomes these limitations. We present our experience of water-bath technique of superficial sonography in 23 children. Water-bath technique was performed with good patient cooperation and was superior to the standard technique for depiction of shallow skin ulcers, subcutaneous masses, vascular malformations, osteomyelitis and foreign bodies. PMID:23478918

  18. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  19. Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Sheila

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

  20. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health.

    PubMed

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture's habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals. PMID:26784238

  1. Taxonomic Organization Scaffolds Young Children's Learning from Storybooks: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test and iteratively design a set of taxonomically-organized storybooks that served to scaffold young children's word learning and concept development. Specifically, Phase 1 of the design experiment asked: (1) What are the effects of taxonomic organization on children's ability to acquire…

  2. Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

  3. Differences in Developmental Experiences for Commonly Used Categories of Organized Youth Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Skorupski, William P.; Arrington, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The coherence of adolescents' self-reported learning experiences between subgroups of organized youth activities within five commonly used categories was evaluated. Data for the present study come from a representative sample of eleventh grade adolescents' reports on learning experiences in an organized youth activity using the Youth Experience…

  4. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

  5. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate

  6. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  7. Measurement of Smooth Muscle Function in the Isolated Tissue Bath-applications to Pharmacology Research

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Watts, Stephanie W.; Cobbett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum – if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  8. Vial OrganicTM-Organic Chemistry Labs for High School and Junior College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Thomas J.; Meszaros, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Vial Organic is the most economical, safe, and time-effective method of performing organic chemistry experiments. Activities are carried out in low-cost, sealed vials. Vial Organic is extremely safe because only micro quantities of reactants are used, reactants are contained in tightly sealed vials, and only water baths are used for temperature control. Vial Organic laboratory activities are easily performed within one 50-minute class period. When heat is required, a simple hot-water bath is prepared from a beaker of water and an inexpensive immersion heater. The low cost, ease of use, and relatively short time requirement will allow organic chemistry to be experienced by more students with less confusion and intimidation.

  9. Cannabinoid hyperemesis relieved by compulsive bathing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has identified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. We report 2 cases of cannabinoid hyperemesis that demonstrate this unusual adverse effect of marijuana use. PMID:19121257

  10. Bath salts and other emerging toxins.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Matthew D; Baum, Carl R

    2014-01-01

    Novel classes of synthetic drugs, including synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("spice" or "K2"), have recently emerged as popular drugs of abuse. Salvia divinorum, a naturally occurring herb, has gained popularity in the last decade as a hallucinogenic as well. The legal status of these substances has been undergoing rapid changes and has been confusing to lawmakers and medical practitioners alike. We present an up-to-date information about the legality of these substances. We also discuss the historical background, chemical composition, patterns of abuse, clinical presentations, laboratory analysis, and management strategies for these drugs, with an emphasis on synthetic cathinones. PMID:24378862

  11. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  12. Preparing your Offshore Organization for Agility: Experiences in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Jayakanth

    Two strategies that have significantly changed the way we conventionally think about managing software development and sustainment are the family of development approaches collectively referred to as agile methods, and the distribution of development efforts on a global scale. When you combine the two strategies, organizations have to address not only the technical challenges that arise from introducing new ways of working, but more importantly have to manage the 'soft' factors that if ignored lead to hard challenges. Using two case studies of distributed agile software development in India we illustrate the areas that organizations need to be aware of when transitioning work to India. The key issues that we emphasize are the need to recruit and retain personnel; the importance of teaching, mentoring and coaching; the need to manage customer expectations; the criticality of well-articulated senior leadership vision and commitment; and the reality of operating in a heterogeneous process environment.

  13. Solvent-Free Reductive Amination: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.; Cross, Amely V.

    2015-01-01

    The reductive amination reaction between an amine and an aldehyde or ketone is an important method to add an additional alkyl group to an amine nitrogen. In this experiment, students react a selection of benzylamines with aldehydes to form the corresponding imines. These imines are reduced with a mixture of "p"-toluenesulfonic acid…

  14. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  15. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  16. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  17. On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.

  18. [Bathing and the colonization of the preterm newborn skin].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2006-06-01

    This article aims at determining the bathing role in skin colonization of preterm newborn by reviewing the literature from MEDLINE database. Clinical researches have demonstrated that bathing with soap triggers pH increase interfering with the skin physiological protection and provoking changes in the cutaneous microflora composition. Preterm neonates in NICU tend to acquire nosocomial skin flora from the action of bathing with cleansing products on the epidermal barrier function with direct consequences on the skin colonization. PMID:17025037

  19. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  20. Dry-Ice Bath Based on Ethylene Glycol Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Do W.; Jensen, Craig M.

    2000-05-01

    Bath mixtures of ethanol and ethylene glycol in dry ice produce sustainable constant temperatures over the range from -12 to -78 °C, which show a linear relationship between the bath temperature and the volume fraction of ethylene glycol. Our bath is less toxic than previously reported mixtures of ortho- and meta-xylene, and our mixture does not intractably solidify as will dry ice slurries of xylenes. Moreover, the cost of this mixture is less than that of the xylene mixtures.

  1. [Experience of medical support organization of the tank biathlon competition].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Kuvshinov, K É; Iakovlev, S V

    2013-11-01

    Authors presented information about medical support of the tank biathlon competition taking part on 12-17 August 2013 at the Alabino. Crews from Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia (The Collective Security Treaty Organization) were invited for the contest. On the basis of the idea of the contest and location of the Alabino, the Main military-medical board of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation developed and passed the Programme of medical support of the contest, gave the word to medical service of the Western Military District and central military-medical facilities about appropriation of funds. Personnel, providing the contest, was training every day during the period of preparation. Over a period of field ambulance station 73 people sought medical advice, 12 of them were sent to hospital. Authors came to conclusion the set tasks were completely fulfilled. PMID:24611301

  2. Temperature and bath size in exact diagonalization dynamical mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Ansgar; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), combined with finite-temperature exact diagonalization, is one of the methods used to describe electronic properties of strongly correlated materials. Because of the rapid growth of the Hilbert space, the size of the finite bath used to represent the infinite lattice is severely limited. In view of the increasing interest in the effect of multi-orbital and multi-site Coulomb correlations in transition metal oxides, high-Tc cuprates, iron-based pnictides, organic crystals, etc, it is appropriate to explore the range of temperatures and bath sizes in which exact diagonalization provides accurate results for various system properties. On the one hand, the bath must be large enough to achieve a sufficiently dense level spacing, so that useful spectral information can be derived, especially close to the Fermi level. On the other hand, for an adequate projection of the lattice Green’s function onto a finite bath, the choice of the temperature is crucial. The role of these two key ingredients in exact diagonalization DMFT is discussed for a wide variety of systems in order to establish the domain of applicability of this approach. Three criteria are used to illustrate the accuracy of the results: (i) the convergence of the self-energy with the bath size, (ii) the quality of the discretization of the bath Green’s function, and (iii) comparisons with complementary results obtained via continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo DMFT. The materials comprise a variety of three-orbital and five-orbital systems, as well as single-band Hubbard models for two-dimensional triangular, square and honeycomb lattices, where non-local Coulomb correlations are important. The main conclusion from these examples is that a larger number of correlated orbitals or sites requires a smaller number of bath levels. Down to temperatures of 5-10 meV (for typical bandwidths W ≈ 2 eV) two bath levels per correlated impurity orbital or site are usually adequate.

  3. Bath and Shower Effect in Spinal Cord: The Effect of Time Interval

    SciTech Connect

    Philippens, Marielle E.P. Pop, Lucas A.M.; Visser, Andries G.; Peeters, Wenny J.M.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the time dependency of the sensitizing effect of a large low-dose field on a small high-dose field in the rat cervical spinal cord. Methods and materials: Irradiation experiments with a relatively low dose to a large volume (bath, 2 cm, 4 Gy) were combined with high doses to a small volume (shower, 4.7 mm, 26-43 Gy) at intervals of 8 minutes and 3, 12, and 24 hours. Both a functional score defined as motor impairment and a histologic score characterized as white matter necrosis were used as end points. Results: Application of the 4-Gy bath dose resulted in a significant decrease in 50% isoeffective dose (ED{sub 50}) from 48.7 Gy (small field) to 40.8 Gy. If the interval was extended, the ED{sub 50} increased to 44.4 (3 hours) and 44.8 Gy (12 hours), whereas a 24-hour interval resulted in a significant increase to 51.9 Gy. If the histologic end point was considered, the ED{sub 50} for all dose-response curves decreased slightly with 0.2 to 2.6 Gy without significantly changing the kinetics. Conclusions: The bath effect as applied in the bath-and-shower experiment lasted for at least 12 hours and disappeared in the 24-hour interval. This time scale clearly deviates from the repair kinetics in spinal cord derived from low-dose-rate and fractionated irradiations.

  4. Transitioning to a new nursing home: one organization's experience.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kelli; Welsh, Darlene; Lundrigan, Elaine; Doyle, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Restructuring of long-term care in Western Health, a regional health authority within Newfoundland and Labrador, created a unique opportunity to study the widespread impacts of the transition. Staff and long-term-care residents were relocated from a variety of settings to a newly constructed facility. A plan was developed to assess the impact of relocation on staff, residents, and families. Indicators included fall rates, medication errors, complaints, media database, sick leave, overtime, injuries, and staff and family satisfaction. This article reports on the findings and lessons learned from an organizational perspective with such a large-scale transition. Some of the key findings included the necessity of premove and postmove strategies to minimize negative impacts, ongoing communication and involvement in decision making during transitions, tracking of key indicators, recognition from management regarding increased workload and stress experienced by staff, engagement of residents and families throughout the transition, and assessing the timing of large-scale relocations. These findings would be of interest to health care managers and leadership team in organizations planning large-scale changes. PMID:23903936

  5. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-08-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  6. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  7. [Implementation of the new EU Bathing Water Directive in Germany].

    PubMed

    Szewzyk, R; Knobling, A

    2007-03-01

    A revised version of the Bathing Water Directive 76/160/EWG has been elaborated to include scientific progress in risk assessment of bathing-related illness. The new Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC came into force on March 24, 2006, and will have to be implemented in the federal states within two years. The new bathing water directive contains several positive innovations which will improve a protection of the bathers namely i) health related indicators, ii) uniform detection methods, iii) requirements for active bathing water management, and iv) stricter standards for coastal waters. In Germany, the 16 federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany - the Länder - are responsible for monitoring bathing waters and for implementing the new bathing water directive into national law. A common master directive is being written by a joint working-group to ensure comparable implementation in all parts of Germany. An immediate application of the new directive is not possible since the parameter "intestinal enterococci" is currently not routinely monitored. It was decided to start monitoring according to the new directive in Germany in 2008. This will allow the first classification of bathing waters according to the new directive in 2011. PMID:17334884

  8. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  11. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  12. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  13. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  14. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  15. 5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  17. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  18. [Construction hygiene in the area of bathing and recreation].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, H G

    1992-08-01

    Construction hygiene in the bathing and recreation areas underwent many changes during the decades. In each case it was accomplished very intensively and defined by the actual needs of the population or by those responsible for the population. With regard to the development of bathing since the Romans, the bathing habits of the Roman times, during the Middle Ages, at the 18th century, at the beginning of the 19th century and of today are characterized broadly. The respective constructional as well as the hygienic measures are also shown and discussed in this context. Whereas the Roman thermals created prerequisites for physical activity as well as possibilities for spare time, and in the early Middle Ages, sexual excesses and the risk factors connected thereby led to the transfer of infectious diseases and consequently to the elimination of the public baths. At the beginning of the 18th century first the cleaning of the body and at the beginning of the 20th century physical activity became very important. With the help of the construction plans for baths and shower-baths and swimming pools of 1906 the aims and purposes of the baths are discussed and the respective constructional changes are shown the example of warm water baths (swimming pools) in Hamburg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1392278

  19. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  20. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  1. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  2. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  3. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  4. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  5. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  6. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  7. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  8. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  9. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  10. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  11. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  12. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  13. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses and toilet facilities. The Secretary...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  16. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

  17. Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

  18. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different

  19. Restoring Coherence Lost to a Slow Interacting Mesoscopic Spin Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wang; Liu, Ren-Bao; Sham, L. J.

    2007-02-01

    For a two-state quantum object interacting with a slow mesoscopic interacting spin bath, we show that a many-body solution of the bath dynamics conditioned on the quantum-object state leads to an efficient control scheme to recover the lost quantum-object coherence through disentanglement. We demonstrate the theory with the realistic problem of one electron spin in a bath of many interacting nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot. The spin language can be easily generalized to a quantum object in contact with a bath of interacting multilevel quantum units with the caveat that the bath is mesoscopic and its dynamics is slow compared with the quantum object.

  20. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy.

  1. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity. PMID:25977851

  2. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  3. The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)

  4. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  5. The DuPont Experience: Strategic Planning for Information Design and Development Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuninger, Charles L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategic planning experience of the Information Design and Development organization (then called Technical Publications) in DuPont's External Affairs division. Describes why strategic planning was undertaken, the process used, logistics involved in preparing for and carrying out the process, and results. Shows that the experience can…

  6. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yu-Min; Wang, Jih-Wen; Liue, Chun-Ying; Yeh, Shinn-Horng

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  7. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs.

  8. Analysis Of The Returned Samples From A Space Exposure Experiment: The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Zan; Salama, Farid; Foing, Bernard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ricco, Antonio; Jessberger, Elmar K; Schmidt, Werner; Robert, François

    2014-06-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R on the International Space Station investigated the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes in space. Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features.Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment.EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS for 682 days starting in 2009. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA ARC (Bryson et al. 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1980). The UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic measurements were collected for the returned flight samples.We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and returned flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

  9. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  10. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  11. Effects of the non-commensal Methylococcus capsulatus Bath on mammalian immune cells.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Olsen Hult, Lene Therese; Solberg, Henriette; Bakke, Anne; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Huseby, Eirin; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad

    2015-08-01

    Dietary inclusions of a bacterial meal consisting mainly of the non-commensal, methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus Bath have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of intestinal inflammation in different animal models. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms causing these effects, we have studied the influence of this strain on different immune cells central for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Effects were compared to those induced by the closely related strain M. capsulatus Texas and the well-described probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype, but not to the extent observed after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917. Likewise, dose-dependent abilities to activate NF-κB transcription in U937 cells were observed, with E. coli Nissle 1917 being most potent. High levels of CD141 on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were only detected after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917, which collectively indicate a superior capacity to induce Th1 cell responses for this strain. On the other hand, the M. capsulatus strains were more potent in increasing the expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83 and CD86 than E. coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced the highest levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells, suggesting that this strain generally the post potent inducer of cytokine secretion. These results show that M. capsulatus Bath exhibit immunogenic properties in mammalian in vitro systems which diverge from that of E. coli Nissle 1917. This may provide clues to how M. capsulatus Bath influence the adaptive immune system in vivo. However, further in vivo experiments are required for a complete understanding of how this strain ameliorates intestinal inflammation in animal models. PMID:25771177

  12. Molluscum contagiosum, swimming and bathing: a clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Choong, K Y; Roberts, L J

    1999-05-01

    The link between swimming and bathing behaviour, and molluscum contagiosum (MC), in a sample of 198 patients with clinically confirmed MC was investigated. Results show that of all the swimming behaviour variables tested, only one (swimming in a school swimming pool) was significant. In relation to the bathing variables tested, only two (sharing a bath sponge with a MC-infected person, and sharing a bath towel with a MC-infected person), were significant. No relationship was found between MC and swimming in a private (home) pool, swimming in a public pool, swimming at the beach, sharing a bath tub with a MC-infected person, and using a private (home) spa. The Relative Risk (RR) ratio of a person sharing a bath sponge with an infected person is three times more at risk of procuring a severe case of MC infection (i.e. > 26 lesions) than a person who does not share a bath sponge with an infected person (r = 0.5; P < 0.01). There was a correlation found between the mode of MC acquisition by site location (r = 0.63; P < 0.05). The anatomical position of MC lesions was shown to be highly dependent on the way the patient was primarily infected. There was also an additive effect with the mode of transmission in that patients who were in the upper extremes in terms of the total number of lesions (average, 124 lesions; mean diameter size, 4.2 mm; n = 42), were those patients who shared a number of fomites (bath sponge, bath towel) with a known MC-infected person, and also swam at the school swimming pool. PMID:10333619

  13. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN84102309. PMID:26525422

  14. Quantum Spin Baths Induced Transition of Decoherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pochung; Lai Chengyan; Hung, J.-T.; Mou Chungyu

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the reduced dynamics of single or two qubits coupled to an interacting quantum spin bath modeled by a XXZ spin chain. By using the method of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG), we evaluate nonperturbatively the induced decoherence and entanglement. We find that the behavior of both decoherence and entanglement strongly depend on the phase of the underlying spin bath. We show that spin baths can induce entanglement for an initially disentangled pair of qubits. We observe that entanglement sudden death only occurs in paramagnetic phase and discuss the effect of the coupling range.

  15. Hyperthermic effects of hand bathing: benefits of incorporating finger flexion-extension exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ohshige, Tadasu; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kiyama, Ryoji; Nishi, Hiroaki; Takamori, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of hand bathing using plain water and water supplemented with inorganic salt and carbonated gas and to assess the hyperthermic effects of performing finger flexion-extension exercise while bathing in water with carbonated gas and inorganic salt and without water. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy, young males were subjected to plain water bathing, CO2 bathing, kineto-CO2 bathing, or no bathing. CO2 bathing involved bathing in a solution of artificial bath additives including inorganic salts and carbon dioxide. Partial bathing of the hand was implemented for 20 minutes at 41 °C. The concentration of carbonic gas was set at 33 ppm. In the kineto-CO2 bathing condition, finger flexion-extension exercise was performed at 60 laps per minute in the same solution used in CO2 bathing. The control group engaged in the same exercise as those in the kineto-CO2 bathing group, but without bathing. [Results] A significant increase in deep-body temperature was observed in the CO2 bathing and kineto-CO2 bathing conditions compared with both the plain water bathing and control condition. [Conclusion] Significantly heightened hyperthermic effects were observed when finger flexion-extension exercise was performed during CO2 bathing. PMID:26834351

  16. Hyperthermic effects of hand bathing: benefits of incorporating finger flexion-extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Ohshige, Tadasu; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kiyama, Ryoji; Nishi, Hiroaki; Takamori, Akihisa

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of hand bathing using plain water and water supplemented with inorganic salt and carbonated gas and to assess the hyperthermic effects of performing finger flexion-extension exercise while bathing in water with carbonated gas and inorganic salt and without water. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy, young males were subjected to plain water bathing, CO2 bathing, kineto-CO2 bathing, or no bathing. CO2 bathing involved bathing in a solution of artificial bath additives including inorganic salts and carbon dioxide. Partial bathing of the hand was implemented for 20 minutes at 41 °C. The concentration of carbonic gas was set at 33 ppm. In the kineto-CO2 bathing condition, finger flexion-extension exercise was performed at 60 laps per minute in the same solution used in CO2 bathing. The control group engaged in the same exercise as those in the kineto-CO2 bathing group, but without bathing. [Results] A significant increase in deep-body temperature was observed in the CO2 bathing and kineto-CO2 bathing conditions compared with both the plain water bathing and control condition. [Conclusion] Significantly heightened hyperthermic effects were observed when finger flexion-extension exercise was performed during CO2 bathing. PMID:26834351

  17. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its measurements are described.

  18. In Situ Analysis of Organic Compounds on Mars by Gas Chromatography : Application to the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Sternberg, R.; Freissinet, C.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P.; Garnier, C.; Rodier, C.; Phillipon, C.; El bekri, J.; Stambouli, M.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; MOMA GC-team

    2009-09-01

    The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of the future Mars exploratory missions. With this aim the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars 2016 next coming European Space Agency mission is designed to the in situ analysis of organic molecules of exobiological interest in the Martian soil such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With the aim to extract from the soil, separate and detect organic compounds we have developed a sample processing system allowing the Gas Chromatographic analysis, within space compatible operating conditions, of the refractory organic compounds able to be contained at trace level in the Martian soil. The sample processing is performed in the oven dedicated to the MOMA experiment containing the solid sample ( 200mg). The internal temperature can be ranged from 20 to 1000 °C. The extraction step is achieved by using thermodesorption in the range of 100 to 300°C for 5 to 20 min. Then, the chemical derivatization or thermochemolysis of the extracted compounds is achieved directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA-DMF, TMAH or DMF-DMA solution when enantiomeric separation is required. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the target volatile molecules are trapped in a cold or chemical trap and promptly desorbed in the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. Organic compounds such as amino and carboxylic acids contained in Martian analogue soil (Atacama) have been detected by using our sample processing system.

  19. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant1

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. Method this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. Results the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. Final considerations knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation. PMID:26107829

  20. Psychoactive "bath salts" intoxication with methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A

    2012-09-01

    Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. PMID:22682791

  1. The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

  2. Vibro-acoustics of organ pipes--revisiting the Miller experiment (L).

    PubMed

    Gautier, F; Nief, G; Gilbert, J; Dalmont, J P

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, Science published a spectacular experimental study on the physics of organ pipes. Dayton C. Miller observed experimentally that the sound produced by an organ pipe can depend on the vibration of its walls, in addition to its internal geometry and the interaction between the air jet and the labium. The Miller experiment has been repeated and an interpretation is now proposed in terms of vibroacoustic coupling mechanisms between walls and internal fluid, which can lead to "pathological" behavior. PMID:22280696

  3. Seeking organic compounds on Mars : in situ analysis of organic compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry on MOMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Pinnick, V.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Rodier, C.; Garnier, C.; Steininger, H.; Moma Team

    2010-12-01

    The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of future Mars exploratory missions. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars mission (set to launch 2016-2018) is a joint venture by the European Space Agency and NASA to develop a sensitive detector for organics on Mars. MOMA will be one of the main analytical instruments aboard the ExoMars Rover aimed at characterizing possible “signs-of-life molecules” in the Martian environment such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With the aim to separate and detect organic compounds from Martian soil, the French MOMA team has built a gas chromatograph able to work in standalone mode by using a TCD detector. The gas chromatograph can also be coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer developed by the US MOMA team. Moreover, a GC-MS compatible sample processing system (SPS) allowing the extraction and the chemical transformation of the organic compounds from the soil, that fits within space flight conditions, has also been developed. The sample processing is performed in an oven, dedicated to the MOMA experiment containing the solid sample (50-100mg). The internal temperature of oven can be ranged from 20 to 1000 °C which allows for pyrolysis, thermochemolysis or derivatization. The organic extraction step is achieved by using thermodesorption in the range of 100 to 300°C for 0.5 to 5 min. Then, the chemical derivatization and/or thermochemolysis of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA-DMF, TMAH or DMF-DMA solution when enantiomeric separation is required. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows for their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the volatile target molecules are trapped in a cold chemical trap and promptly desorbed into the gas chromatograph coupled to the mass spectrometer. Preliminary tests, performed on several analogue soils such as Atacama soil, with the MOMA SPS-GC/MS experiment demonstrated the capability to detect organic compounds such as amino and carboxylic acids with sensitivities below the ppm level.

  4. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. PMID:27128352

  5. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic assessment of tetrachlorethylene in groundwater for a bathing and showering determination

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, H.V.; Brown, D.R. )

    1993-02-01

    A two-step methodology is described to make a health-based determination for the bathing and showering use of the water from a private well contiminated with volatile organic chemicals. The chemical perchloroethylene (PERC) is utilized to illustrate the approach. First, a chemical-specific exposure model is used to predict the concentration of PERC in the shower air, shower water, and in the air above the bathtub. Second, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is used to predict the concentration of PERC delivered to the target tissue, the brain, since the focus is on neurological endpoints. The simulation exercise includes concurrent dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. A reference target tissue level (RTTL) in the brain is estimated using the PBPK model. A hazard index based on this benchmark guideline is used to make a regulatory determination for bathing and showering use of the contaminated water.

  6. Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Barbara A.

    2001-12-01

    This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group performed all hands-on experiments. Students in the treatment group performed hands-on experiments for the first and last part of the semester but performed computer simulations for a five-week period in the middle of the semester. Prior to treatment, groups were equivalent with respect to academic orientation, motivation, formal reasoning ability, and spatial visualization ability. Fifteen common misconceptions held by beginning organic chemistry students were identified from the Covalent Bonding and Structures Test. At the end of the semester, thirteen of these misconceptions persisted. Molecular geometry was the only category of misconceptions that significantly improved as a result of computer simulations, F(1,58) = 6.309, p = .015. No significant differential change was observed in misconceptions about bond polarity, molecular polarity, intermolecular forces, lattice structures, or the octet rule. Computer simulations were found to result in significantly greater conceptual understanding of organic chemistry reactions on two of the experiments, Stereochemistry, F(1,55) = 6.174, p = .016, and Nucleophilic Substitution, F(1,57) = 6.093, p = .017. The other three experiments, Infrared Spectroscopy, Elimination, and Oxymercuration, did not show a significant differential effect between types of laboratory experiences. No significant differences were observed on long-term retention of concepts. Overall conclusions from the study are that neither computer simulations nor hands-on laboratory experiments are effective in alleviating misconceptions, but that computer simulations can significantly improve conceptual understanding of organic reaction mechanisms.

  7. 6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. 8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. 83. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, WEST SIDE BATH, VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, WEST SIDE BATH, VIEW OF THE TUB, WITHOUT SCALE - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  11. 82. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, WEST SIDE BATH, VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, WEST SIDE BATH, VIEW OF THE TUB, WITH SCALE - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  12. 85. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER BATH, VIEW FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER BATH, VIEW FROM THE WEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  13. The University of Bath in a National Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The chief planing officer of the University of Bath outlines the demographic and academic reasons for the institution's recent, unpopular planning and policy decisions. This information is presented in the context of current British national higher education policy. (MSE)

  14. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  15. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelton, W. G.

    This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

  19. Fluctuation-dissipation and energy properties of a finite bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcaterra, A.; Akay, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper expands a recent proposal by the authors to rederive the Langevin equation for a test particle in a finite-size thermal bath using a perturbation approach that yields a cascade of Langevin-type equations. Such an approach produces a different viewpoint for the fluctuation-dissipation duality by expressing them on similar scales. General properties of energy sharing between the test particle and the bath are outlined, investigating the resonant and nonresonant conditions.

  20. [Peer support in a patient organization in psychiatry. Experience and practices].

    PubMed

    Beetlestone, Emma; Loubières, Céline; Caria, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Mental health patient organizations have only recently found a place among mental health stakeholders. Their activities at an individual level are based on a range of activities involving peer support, including mutual help groups or MHGs (similar to consumer-run organizations). A qualitative study based on an ethnographic approach was conducted in a patient organization at the Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, where volunteers working in patient organizations receive visitors. The study examines the experiences and practices of patient organization members acting as peer helpers in order to reflect on what patient organizations are able to contribute to people receiving psychiatric treatment. The results show that peer helpers in the patient organization or mutual help groups share the experience of recovery and promote peer support. These practices are in line with the demands of people with mental disorders expressed at different stages of their treatment. Four main components of the process of peer-support were identified. This study shows the specificity of this kind of practice in relation to the current range of resources in mental health. PMID:22370079

  1. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.

    2009-04-01

    Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These "Classical Field Experiments" included studies on winter wheat (Broadbalk 1843), spring barley (Hoos Barley 1852) and permanent grassland (Park Grass 1856). Additional experiments were established in the 20th century to examine the value of ley-arable cropping, including the Highfield and Fosters Ley-arable experiments (1948) and the Woburn Ley-arable experiment (1938). More recently, the effects of incorporating organic manures and cereal straw have been examined. Early results quickly showed the benefits of inorganic N and P fertilisers on crop production, but the effects of contrasting land uses and management practices on soil properties emerged more slowly. Measurements of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soils taken at intervals from the long-term experiments indicate that the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation is controlled largely by the balance between the rate of organic matter inputs and its oxidation rate, and that these are strongly influenced by land use and management, soil texture (especially clay content) and climate. A recent examination of soil organic C data from two long-term grassland experiments in the UK (including Park Grass) indicates that any changes observed in soil organic C under long-term grasslands over the past 40 years are more likely to be due to changes in land use and management rather than climate change. Data from the Rothamsted Long-term experiments have been used to develop and test biogeochemical models of C and N dynamics. In particular, the Roth-C model has successfully simulated soil C dynamics in the long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere. This model uses several organic matter pools, including decomposable and resistant plant material, soil microbial biomass, humified organic matter and inert organic matter and was one of the 31 models included in the GCTE SOMNET network. The Rothamsted Long-term Experiments together with their archived samples and data have proven especially useful for examining the impact of land use and management on soil organic matter dynamics. They continue to yield important information and are an increasingly valuable experimental resource for today's scientists. Whilst their future long-term uses cannot be predicted, provided they are well maintained, the application of new scientific techniques to examine both fresh and archived samples will continue to provide information of environmental and ecological significance to future generations. Rothamsted Research receives grant-aided support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and additional support from the Lawes Agricultural Trust. Presentation of this work forms part of the ANAEE EC design study (www.anaee.com).

  2. Effect of hyperthermic water bath on parameters of cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Blazícková, S; Rovenský, J; Koska, J; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Effects of hyperthermic water bath on selected immune parameters (lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell counts and their activity) were studied in a group of 10 volunteers. Application of hyperthermic water bath (both topical and whole-body) was followed by a significant reduction of relative B lymphocyte counts. Whole-body hyperthermic water bath reduced relative total T lymphocyte counts, increased relative CD8+ T lymphocyte and NK cell counts and increased NK activity. Whole-body hyperthermic bath increased somatotropic hormone (STH) activity in eight out of 10 volunteers; higher relative counts of CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells were observed compared with the group of volunteers not responding to hyperthermic water bath by STH secretion. In five volunteers STH was released in response to local hyperthermic water bath and the NK activity of lymphocytes also increased but their relative counts did not. The results suggest that these increases in CD8+ lymphocyte and NK cell counts are probably dependent on increased STH production. PMID:11146901

  3. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  4. Infant's physiological response to short heat stress during sauna bath.

    PubMed

    Rissmann, A; Al-Karawi, J; Jorch, G

    2002-01-01

    Thermoregulatory response to Finnish sauna bath was investigated in 47 infants (age 3 - 14 month). Before taking a short sauna bath lasting 3 min, the infants stayed in a swimming pool for 15 min. Under these conditions sauna bathing did not increase the rectal temperature. Unexpectedly rectal temperature even decreased by 0.2 degrees C (p < 0.05) probably due to redistribution of cold peripheral blood into the core of the body. Mean systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure and mean heart rate remained unchanged after sauna bathing. The blood pressure amplitude decreased significantly after the swimming period from 47 mm Hg to 38 mm Hg (p < 0.05) and rose again after sauna bathing to 42 mm Hg. All infants tolerated short heat exposure in the sauna without side effects. The circulatory adjustment was efficient. Even young infants were able to cope with the acute circulatory changes imposed by heat stress. Adequate thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptive responses to sauna bathing could be shown for the first time in infants between 3 and 14 months of age. PMID:12015647

  5. Asymmetric gears in a bacterial bath: Crossover between equilibrium and active motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duzgun, Ayhan; Selinger, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental distinction between active matter and equilibrium systems is that active matter is not governed by the conventional laws of thermodynamics. As a specific example, recent experiments have put asymmetric gears into a ``bacterial bath,'' in which bacteria consume food, propel themselves forward, collide into the gears, and induce asymmetric rotation, thus converting chemical energy into mechanical work (Sokolov et al, 2010). By comparison, the same gears would not rotate in a thermal bath, because the second law of thermodynamics prohibits converting equilibrium thermal energy into mechanical work. This experiment leads to the basic question of what makes the difference between self-propelled motion and equilibrium thermal motion. To address this question, we perform simulations of a gear in a bacterial bath, following the approach of Angelani et al (2009); these simulations confirm that bacterial motion leads asymmetric rotation. We then modify the equations of motion, interpolating between bacteria and equilibrium Brownian particles, and determine the motion of the gear. These results help to identify what features of active bacterial motion are necessary to violate the laws of thermodynamics and generate rotation, and how these features can be controlled. This work was supported by NSF DMR-1106014.

  6. Emergence and properties of spice and bath salts: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Anita H; Seltzman, Herbert H; Carroll, F Ivy; Mascarella, S Wayne; Reddy, P Anantha

    2014-02-27

    Over the past five years the number of internet sites advertising "legal highs" has literally exploded, as have user reports of experiences (both pleasurable and frightening) with these substances and the number of emergency room visits by users. Although the majority of these "legal highs" have been described as bath salts and herbal extracts, most contain neither plant derived compounds nor components of personal hygiene products. So-called "bath salts" largely contain synthetic analogs of the natural compound Khat; spice-related materials, claimed to be "legal marijuana," are mostly synthetic analogs of cannabinoid receptor ligands that were developed as research tools. This review describes the emergence and properties of these two groups of "legal highs" from a medicinal chemist's perspective. PMID:24113072

  7. INTERPRETING ORGANIC SOLUTE TRANSPORT DATA FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT USING PHYSICAL NONEQUILIBRIUM MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a field experiment, two inorganic tracers and five organic solutes were injected into an unconfined sand aquifer. Breakthrough response curves were obtained at several points downgradient of the injection zone. These response curves are analyzed using a model which assumes equ...

  8. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  9. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

  10. An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

    2004-01-01

    Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

  11. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  12. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  13. Alternative Conceptions about Micro-Organisms Are Influenced by Experiences with Disease in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana; Krajcovicová, Adriána

    2016-01-01

    Children's ideas concerning natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists, and these ideas are termed as alternative conceptions. The prevalence of alternative conceptions is highest among young children who possess less experience with the natural world as compared with adults. Children's ideas about micro-organisms are of special…

  14. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses

  15. Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

  16. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was

  17. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR

  18. The Photochemical Synthesis, Kinetics, and Reactions of Nitrosomethane Dimer: A Physical-Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information procedures, and results for the photochemical synthesis and reactions of nitrosomethane dimer. The experiments described have shown a high degree of reliability with student use and are suggested to illustrate some problems of physical and organic photochemistry. (Author/JN)

  19. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  20. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into

  1. The Role of Oxidized Organics in the Formation of New Particles - Results from the CLOUD Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltensperger, U.; Riccobono, F.; Schobesberger, S.

    2012-12-01

    While hydrated sulfuric acid is considered to be the main responsible vapor for nucleation under atmospheric conditions a number of field studies report observations indicating that organic compounds may be important contributors as well. However, laboratory studies have provided conflicting results on the role of organics, especially concerning the size where organics start to be important. This paper reports results from the CLOUD experiment at CERN, where we studied new particle formation in the presence of sulfuric acid and oxidation products of pinanediol, a model compound for monoterpenes and their oxidation products. Experiments were performed with and without a pion beam to simulate galactic cosmic rays. A suite of state of the art instrumentation was used to determine the size of clusters and newly formed particles. In addition, the chemical composition of the growing charged clusters was followed. Results of the nucleation rates will be shown along with corresponding dependences on the mixing ratios of sulfuric acid and oxidation products of pinanediol.

  2. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath. This work was supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF CUHK402207, CUHK402209, and CUHK402410. The author acknowledges collaboration with Nan Zhao, Jian-Liang Hu, Sai Wah Ho, Jones T. K. Wan, and Jiangfeng Du.

  3. Photochemistry of organic molecules in the Solar System : Experiments in Terrestrial orbit and laboratory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Coll, Patrice; Coscia, David; Fray, Nicolas; Macari, Frederique; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Chaput, Didier; Viso, Michel; Bertrand, Marylene; Chabin, Annie; Thirkell, Laurent; Westall, Frances; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Vergne, Jacques; Brack, André

    Photochemistry is leading the chemical evolution in the Solar System. The VUV photolysis of organic compounds is easy to study in the laboratory, with monochromatic sources, but it is difficult to simulate the whole range of wavelengths corresponding to the most energetic part of the Solar radiation (<190nm). This is why the results obtained in laboratory are difficult to extrapolate to the extraterrestrial environments. Space is the only laboratory allowing the exposure of samples to all the space parameters simultaneously. We present the preparation and follow-up of experiments with exobiological interest, in Terrestrial orbit, (AMINO, PRO- CESS, and UV-olution) organized by the European Space Agency (ESA). The experiments are carried out on a FOTON capsule, using the BIOPAN facility (UVolution Sept.2007), and on the International Space Station, using the EXPOSE facilities on the COLUMBUS European module (PROCESS - beginning Feb 2008) and the Russian module ZARYA (AMINO) (beginning expected by the end of 2008). In this project, organic molecules related to the study of the chemistry of Mars, Titan, meteorites or Comets are exposed in space between 10 days and 18 months (according to the experiment). The evolution of the samples can be studied when the samples are returned to Earth, and compared to the results of ground experiments. Preliminary results of the Uvolution experiment will be presented.

  4. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

  5. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors. PMID:25761524

  6. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Station (ISS) external platform. OREOcube is packaged as an identical pair of 10-cm cube instruments, each weighing < 2 kg and containing a highly capable UV-Visible-NIR spectrometer, a 24-sample carousel, and integral optics enabling use of the Sun as light source for spectroscopy, along with the electronics, microcontroller, and data storage to make each cube an autonomous stand-alone instrument package requiring only a standard power and data interface. We have characterized the influence of mineralogically relevant inorganic materials on the stability, modification, and degradation of the organic molecules under ground laboratory experimental conditions. The results of our laboratory experiments will be used as the basis for the selection of samples for further investigations on the OREOcube ISS experiment. OREOcube is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University partners.

  7. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  8. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  9. Physical separation of carbon and bath constituents of spent anode residues

    SciTech Connect

    Plumpton, A.J.; Cotnoir, D.

    1996-10-01

    The constituent mineral and metallic phases contained within certain waste products and by-products of aluminum smelting are observed to be sufficiently liberated, permitting their separation and recovery using physical techniques. CRM studied both dry and wet mineral processing methods for the recovery of pure carbon and so-called bath products from spent anode shot-peening wastes. The experiments were undertaken on composite samples of fine and coarse residues, combined in proportion to their production rates. The composite samples analyzed 30% C and 70% electrolysis bath (cryolite, alumina, aluminum fluoride) and possessed an average particle size of 143 {micro}m with a 16 weight % {minus}45 {micro}m fraction. Test results are presented for two dry processing methods of high tension/electrostatic separation and pneumatic tabling, as well as two wet methods of gravity tabling and froth flotation. Each wet mineral separation method yielded two clean products following a limited number of cleaning and scavenging operations; one product graded 95 to 98% C, the other, 97 to 99% bath. Although similar high purity products could be obtained using dry separation approaches, their yields were significantly lower and the feed material required desliming or division into narrow particle size fractions prior to separation. After dry processing including multiple scavenging and cleaning steps, an important middling fraction remained, corresponding to about 40--50 weight % of the feed. Predesign cost estimation was undertaken for the most efficient processing scheme.

  10. Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M.

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from—and we bound the work cost of creating—a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

  11. Bath salts: they are not what you think.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M; Halter, Margaret J; Levine, Ciara

    2012-02-01

    Psychoactive bath salts are a relatively new group of designer drugs sold as tablets, capsules, or powder and pur-chased in places such as tobacco and convenience stores, gas stations, head shops, and the Internet. Bath salts are stimulant agents that mimic cocaine,lysergic acid diethylamide, methamphetamine, or methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy). The most common bath salts are the cathinone derivatives 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone(MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone(mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone). The drugs cause intense stimulation, eu-phoria, elevated mood, and a pleasurable "rush" Tachycardia, hypertension,peripheral constriction, chest pain, hallucinations, paranoia, erratic behavior,inattention, lack of memory of substance use, and psychosis have been observed in those who have used bath salts. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration recently exercised an emergency authority to name three key ingredients in bath salts as Schedule I, thereby making them illegal to possess or sell in the United States. Nursing implications related to both clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:22439144

  12. System-reservoir theory with anharmonic baths: a perturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Chitrak; Banerjee, Dhruba

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we develop the formalism of a general system coupled to a reservoir (the words ‘bath’ and ‘reservoir’ will be used interchangeably) consisting of nonlinear oscillators, based on perturbation theory at the classical level, by extending the standard Zwanzig approach of elimination of bath degrees of freedom order by order in perturbation. We observe that the fluctuation dissipation relation (FDR) of the second kind in its standard form for harmonic baths gets modified due to the nonlinearity and this is manifested through higher powers of {{k}\\text{B}}T in the expression for two-time noise correlation. On the flip side, this very modification allows us to define a dressed (renormalized) system-bath coupling that depends on the temperature and the nonlinear parameters of the bath in such a way that the structure of the FDR (of the second kind) is maintained. As an aside, we also observe that the first moment of the noise arising from a nonlinear bath can be non-zero, even in the absence of any external drive, if the reservoir potential is asymmetric with respect to one of its minima, about which one builds up the perturbation theory.

  13. Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25˚C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an intermediate product of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the formation of a specific clay mineral (proto-kaolinite) occurs in the presence of a specific organic compound (succinic acid). This implies that microbial species capable of excreting succinate among their EPS may promote authigenic kaolinite formation at low temperature and neutral pH. This biological degradation process might play a crucial role for the formation of authigenic kaolinite, which is a widespread clay mineral in sedimentary environments. Fiore, S., Dumontet, S., Huertas, F.J., and Pasquale, V., 2011. Bacteria-induced crystallization of kaolinite. Applied Clay Science, 53:566-571. Linares, J., and Huertas, F., 1971. Kaolinite: Synthesis at room temperature. Science 171: 896-897.

  14. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically preserved before being returned to Earth for analyses. Our results suggest that with protocol modifications and future verification testing we can utilize the versatile EMCS to conduct tightly controlled experiments inside our culture cassettes for a wide variety of organisms. These physiological experiments would be designed to answer questions at the molecular level about the specific stress responses of space flight.

  15. Growth experiment of organic metal crystal in low gravity (M-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzai, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to grow large, high-quality single crystals of the organic metal (TMTTF-TCNQ) by the diffusion method without thermal fluctuation due to convection and gravitational sedimentation, and to evaluate the difference in properties between such crystals grown in low gravity and the ones obtained on Earth. The expected results may fix several physical properties of TMTTF-TCNQ, lead to the discovery of new phenomena, and enable us to analyze diffusion processes in a precise way. The result will contribute to the development of research on organic metals and, generally, on crystal growth.

  16. Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Baugh, J; Moussa, O; Ryan, C A; Nayak, A; Laflamme, R

    2005-11-24

    The counter-intuitive properties of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information processing by enabling the development of efficient algorithms with no known classical counterparts. Harnessing this power requires the development of a set of building blocks, one of which is a method to initialize the set of quantum bits (qubits) to a known state. Additionally, fresh ancillary qubits must be available during the course of computation to achieve fault tolerance. In any physical system used to implement quantum computation, one must therefore be able to selectively and dynamically remove entropy from the part of the system that is to be mapped to qubits. One such method is an 'open-system' cooling protocol in which a subset of qubits can be brought into contact with an external system of large heat capacity. Theoretical efforts have led to an implementation-independent cooling procedure, namely heat-bath algorithmic cooling. These efforts have culminated with the proposal of an optimal algorithm, the partner-pairing algorithm, which was used to compute the physical limits of heat-bath algorithmic cooling. Here we report the experimental realization of multi-step cooling of a quantum system via heat-bath algorithmic cooling. The experiment was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance of a solid-state ensemble three-qubit system. We demonstrate the repeated repolarization of a particular qubit to an effective spin-bath temperature, and alternating logical operations within the three-qubit subspace to ultimately cool a second qubit below this temperature. Demonstration of the control necessary for these operations represents an important step forward in the manipulation of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance qubits. PMID:16306986

  17. Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-03-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000-40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  18. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  19. Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Abiotic Organics from Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Summers, David P.; Kubo, Mike; Yassar, Saima

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes can be powerful biogeochemical markers in the study of life's origins. Biogenic carbon fixation produces organics that are depleted in C-13 by about -20 to -30%0. Less attention has been paid to the isotopic signatures of abiotic processes. The possibility of abiotic processes producing organics with morphologies and isotopic signatures in the biogenic range has been at the center of recent debate over the Earth's earliest microfossils. The abiotic synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal environments is one possible source of endogenous organic matter to the prebiotic earth. Simulated hydrothermal settings have been shown to synthesize, among other things, single chain amphiphiles and simple lipids from a mix of CO, CO2, and H2. A key characteristic of these amphiphilic molecules is the ability to self-assemble in aqueous phases into more organized structures called vesicles, which form a selectively permeable boundary and serve the function of containing and concentrating other organic molecules. The ability to form cell like structures also makes these compounds more likely to be mistaken for biogenic. Hydrothermal simulation experiments were conducted from oxalic or formic acid in water at 175 C for 72 hr. The molecular and isotopic composition of the products of these reactions were determined and compared to biogenic fractionations . Preliminary results indicate isotopic fractionation during abiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in hydrothermal environments is on par with biological carbon fixation.

  20. [A sudden death case in the bath with peculiar scald].

    PubMed

    Hosoe, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, H; Nishiyama, N; Ogura, T; Hirasawa, T; Fukunaga, T

    1999-06-01

    A 60-year-old man was found dead in the bathtub of his house on the 2nd of February. Erythema with a clear border was observed on the right side of the face, trunk and around the knees, though the left side of the face, the hips and the feet were normal. The water heater was set outside of the bath, and the heated water flowed from the heater to the bath through the upper pipe. In order to determine the mechanism of the peculiar scalding, changes in the water temperature in the bathtub were measured under the same conditions. An hour after turning on the water heater, the surface water temperature of the bath was 73 degrees C. Zonal gradation of the temperature was observed. At the level of the opening for the lower intake pipe, it was 50 degrees C. The border of the scalding was consistent with the water layer above 50 degrees C. PMID:10536442

  1. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

  2. Insights Into Atmospheric Aqueous Organic Chemistry Through Controlled Experiments with Cloud Water Surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Ramos, A.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Seitzinger, S.

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable laboratory and field-based evidence that chemical processing in clouds and wet aerosols alters organic composition and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Single-compound laboratory experiments have played an important role in developing aqueous-phase chemical mechanisms that aid prediction of SOA formation through multiphase chemistry. In this work we conduct similar experiments with cloud/fog water surrogates, to 1) evaluate to what extent the previously studied chemistry is observed in these more realistic atmospheric waters, and 2) to identify additional atmospherically-relevant precursors and products that require further study. We used filtered Camden and Pinelands, NJ rainwater as a surrogate for cloud water. OH radical (~10-12 M) was formed by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and samples were analyzed in real-time by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Discrete samples were also analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and ESI-MS after IC separation. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Standards of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde and their major aqueous oxidation products were also analyzed, and control experiments performed. Decreases in the ion abundance of many positive mode compounds and increases in the ion abundance of many negative mode compounds (e.g., organic acids) suggest that precursors are predominantly aldehydes, organic peroxides and/or alcohols. Real-time ESI mass spectra were consistent with the expected loss of methylglyoxal and subsequent formation of pyruvate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. New insights regarding other potential precursors and products will be provided.

  3. Substituting water for chlorofluorocarbon liquid in density measuring baths for nuclear weapon components on non-fissile alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beitscher, S.; Palachek, A.D.

    1991-09-23

    This project was part of a Rocky Flats Plant and Department of Energy weapons complex effort to reduce release of hazardous materials to the atmosphere. Experiments were performed to determine whether deionized water could be substituted for trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113) in the bath of a density measuring system. In the first experiment, 14 parts of seven types were tested: They included shells of beryllium, vanadium, titanium, stainless steel, uranium, a uranium alloy, and casting feed strips of a uranium alloy. Each part was measured for density five times in each medium. The entire experiment was repeated -- the only change being addition of a wetting agent to the water. Two additional experiments were confided to the uranium alloy casting feed strips. As a result of this study, it is recommended that CFC be discontinued as a bath medium for the part types studied in this investigation and that deionized water be substituted.

  4. Quantum energy and coherence exchange with discrete baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiceanu, M.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Coherence and quantum average energy exchange are studied for a system particle as a function of the number N of constituents of a discrete bath model. The time evolution of the energy and coherence, determined via the system purity (proportional to the linear entropy of the quantum statistical ensemble), are obtained solving numerically the Schrödinger equation. A new simplified stochastic Schrödinger equation is derived which takes into account the discreteness of the bath. The environment (bath) is composed of a finite number N of uncoupled harmonic oscillators (HOs), characterizing a structured bath, for which a non-Markovian behavior is expected. Two distinct physical situations are assumed for the system particle: the HO and the Morse potential. In the limit N→∞ the bath is assumed to have an ohmic, sub-ohmic or super-ohmic spectral density. In the case of the HO, for very low values of N (≲10) the mean energy and purity oscillate between HO and bath indefinitely in time, while for intermediate and larger values (N∼10→500) they start to decay with two distinct time regimes: exponential for relatively short times and power-law for larger times. In the case of the Morse potential we only observe an exponential decay for large values of N while for small N’s, due to the anharmonicity of the potential, no recurrences of the mean energy and coherences are observed. Wave packet dynamics is used to determine the evolution of the particle inside the system potentials. For both systems the time behavior of a non-Markovianity measure is analyzed as a function of N and is shown to be directly related to the time behavior of the purity.

  5. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

  6. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  7. Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects result in an irreversible spreading of free electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible spreading produces a detectable effect on the electron interference.

  8. Resting-State Retinotopic Organization in the Absence of Retinal Input and Visual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola; Benson, Noah C.; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    Early visual areas have neuronal receptive fields that form a sampling mosaic of visual space, resulting in a series of retinotopic maps in which the same region of space is represented in multiple visual areas. It is not clear to what extent the development and maintenance of this retinotopic organization in humans depend on retinal waves and/or visual experience. We examined the corticocortical receptive field organization of resting-state BOLD data in normally sighted, early blind, and anophthalmic (in which both eyes fail to develop) individuals and found that resting-state correlations between V1 and V2/V3 were retinotopically organized for all subject groups. These results show that the gross retinotopic pattern of resting-state connectivity across V1-V3 requires neither retinal waves nor visual experience to develop and persist into adulthood. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Evidence from resting-state BOLD data suggests that the connections between early visual areas develop and are maintained even in the absence of retinal waves and visual experience. PMID:26354906

  9. Hygiene for the newborn--to bath or to wash?

    PubMed Central

    Hylén, A. M.; Karlsson, E.; Svanberg, L.; Walder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Appropriate skin care of newborns is performed partly to prevent infection but also for aesthetic and cleansing purposes. Skin care should involve cleansing with a non-toxic, non-abrasive neutral material. This study compared the relative risks and benefits of washing versus bathing with regard to bacterial colonization rate, clinical infection rate, body temperature and crying. The results confirm our clinical impression that bathing and washing routines do not differ with regard to signs of infection or other clinical complications. However, the washing routine does increase the babies heat loss and make them less comfortable. PMID:6663065

  10. Quantum nonunital dynamics of spin-bath-assisted Fisher information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiang; Wu, Yinzhong

    2016-04-01

    The nonunital non-Markovian dynamics of qubits immersed in a spin bath is studied without any Markovian approximation. The environmental effects on the precisions of quantum parameter estimation are taken into account. The time-dependent transfer matrix and inhomogeneity vector are obtained for the description of the open dynamical process. The dynamical behaviour of one qubit coupled to a spin bath is geometrically described by the Bloch vector. It is found out that the nonunital non-Markovian effects can engender the improvement of the precision of quantum parameter estimation. This result contributes to the environment-assisted quantum information theory.

  11. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  12. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column

  13. Effect of precursor concentration and bath temperature on the growth of chemical bath deposited tin sulphide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasree, Y.; Chalapathi, U.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

    2012-01-01

    SnS is a promising candidate for a low-cost, non-toxic solar cell absorber layer. Tin sulphide thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a solution containing stannous chloride, thioacetamide, ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA). The effects of concentration of tin salt, triethanolamine and bath temperature on the growth of tin sulphide films have been investigated in order to optimize the growth conditions to obtain tin monosulphide (SnS) films. SnS films obtained under optimized conditions were found to be polycrystalline in nature with orthorhombic structure. The optical band gap of these films was found to be 1.5 eV.

  14. Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

    The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

  15. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES NEXT TO THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  1. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  6. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  7. A to Stirred-Liquid-Bath-Based Blackbody Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yuan, Z.; Hao, X.; Wang, T.; Duan, Y.

    2015-08-01

    At the national facility for blackbody source radiance temperature calibration of the National Institute of Metrology, China, a stirred liquid bath blackbody was developed for use as a radiance temperature reference source, which has a temperature range from to . This blackbody source consists of a stirred liquid bath, a blackbody cavity, a standard capsule platinum resistance thermometer, and a dry-air purging system. The cavity is cylindrical with grooves on the inner wall. The cavity is 80 mm in diameter, with a depth of 520 mm, and is immersed in a bath filled with a water-ethylene glycol mixture. The average normal emissivity of the cavity is calculated to be better than 0.9999 with V grooves and when painted with Nextel 811-21 coating. The temperature stability of the blackbody source is over a period of 20 min, and the temperature uniformity of the cavity bottom is . The standard uncertainty of the radiance temperature of the stirred liquid bath blackbody source is estimated to be.

  8. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. NOTE THE WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  11. VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

  13. First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

  14. Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

  15. The large-scale organization of "visual" streams emerges without visual experience.

    PubMed

    Striem-Amit, Ella; Dakwar, Ornella; Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir

    2012-07-01

    A key question in sensory perception is the role of experience in shaping the functional architecture of the sensory neural systems. Here we studied dependence on visual experience in shaping the most fundamental division of labor in vision, namely between the ventral "what" and the dorsal "where and how" processing streams. We scanned 11 fully congenitally blind (CB) and 9 sighted individuals performing location versus form identification tasks following brief training on a sensory substitution device used for artificial vision. We show that the dorsal/ventral visual pathway division of labor can be revealed in the adult CB when perceiving sounds that convey the relevant visual information. This suggests that the most important large-scale organization of the visual system into the 2 streams can develop even without any visual experience and can be attributed at least partially to innately determined constraints and later to cross-modal plasticity. These results support the view that the brain is organized into task-specific but sensory modality-independent operators. PMID:21940707

  16. Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

    2006-01-01

    One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials. PMID:18681201

  17. Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

  18. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takatoshi E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu

    2014-06-28

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies’ thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts – the reorganization shift – to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates.

  19. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-06-28

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies' thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts - the reorganization shift - to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates. PMID:24985614

  20. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies' thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts - the reorganization shift - to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates.

  1. Effects of organic enrichment on nematode assemblages in a microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Maickel; Prez-Garca, Jos Andrs; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei; Daz-Asencio, Lisbet; Helguera, Yusmila; Vincx, Magda; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2010-12-01

    Marine nematodes from subtidal tropical sediments of Cienfuegos Bay were subjected to organic enrichment in a microcosm experiment for 32 days. Nematode abundance and diversity decreased, and the taxonomic and trophic structure was altered. The results suggested that the nematodes were not food limited in the microcosms or in their natural environment. Chemical stressors such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide derived from reduced conditions in sediments may be important factors affecting the assemblages. Hypoxic conditions occurred in all experimental units, as well as in the field, suggesting a nematode assemblage adapted to naturally enriched sediments. However, tolerant species showed a grade of sensitivity to reduced conditions. In agreement with the model by Pearson and Rosenberg (1978), we predict that further organic enrichment in sediments from Cienfuegos Bay may cause a phase shift into a strongly depleted benthic fauna and reduced conditions in water and sediments. PMID:20828806

  2. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  3. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hebig, Klaus H; Ndler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott J

    2014-03-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed, silicone, NBR70, Tygon, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and observed mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies. PMID:24365588

  4. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  5. Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

  6. Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

  7. Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 μM. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 μM [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

  8. Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows that the methylphenanthrenes do react on short timescales, even at temperatures below what would be reached during a large earthquake. These results provide a more accurate picture of temperature rise on previously studied faults. The Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada, the Champlain thrust in Vermont, the Punchbowl fault in Southern California, and the proto-decollement on Sitkinak Island, Alaska, all show no difference in MPI-1 values between on- and off-fault samples, suggesting a lack of differential heating. Our experiments allow us to more accurately estimate the maximum temperature rise that could have occurred during fault slip without significantly altering the methylphenanthrene thermal maturity.

  9. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  10. Beyond SARS: ethnic community organization's role in public health -- a Toronto experience.

    PubMed

    Weizhen Dong

    2008-12-01

    The SARS outbreak in Toronto was a public health crisis. It was particularly frightening to the Chinese-Canadians, because of the origin of the deadly disease. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations launched various activities to help the Chinese-Canadians as well as other Asian-Canadian communities to fight against SARS and its social side-effects. From launching the SARS Supporting Line, distributing health promotional material, disseminating SARS related information, paying tribute to frontline health workers, and promoting local business, to fundraising for SARS related research; they played an active role in easing the public's anxiety, especially for the Chinese-Canadians in the great Toronto area. The culturally diverse population brought problems as well as solutions. Ethnic groups have expertise in almost all areas, including people with leadership skills. The Toronto Chinese community's experience in combating SARS is a good example. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations' activities during the SARS outbreak demonstrate that ethnic minority organizations can play an important role in public health, especially in a public health crisis, and beyond. PMID:19066240

  11. Absence/presence calling in microarray-based CGH experiments with non-model organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Martijs J.; de Leeuw, Wim C.; Marinković, Marino; Wittink, Floyd R. A.; Rauwerda, Han; Bruning, Oskar; Ensink, Wim A.; Fluit, Ad C.; Boel, C. H.; de Jong, Mark; Breit, Timo M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural variations in genomes are commonly studied by (micro)array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The data analysis methods to infer copy number variation in model organisms (human, mouse) are established. In principle, the procedures are based on signal ratios between test and reference samples and the order of the probe targets in the genome. These procedures are less applicable to experiments with non-model organisms, which frequently comprise non-sequenced genomes with an unknown order of probe targets. We therefore present an additional analysis approach, which does not depend on the structural information of a reference genome, and quantifies the presence or absence of a probe target in an unknown genome. The principle is that intensity values of target probes are compared with the intensities of negative-control probes and positive-control probes from a control hybridization, to determine if a probe target is absent or present. In a test, analyzing the genome content of a known bacterial strain: Staphylococcus aureus MRSA252, this approach proved to be successful, demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values larger than 0.9995. We show its usability in various applications, such as comparing genome content and validating next-generation sequencing reads from eukaryotic non-model organisms. PMID:24771343

  12. A time convolution less density matrix approach to the nonlinear optical response of a coupled system-bath complex

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Marten Knorr, Andreas

    2010-04-15

    Time convolution less density matrix theory (TCL) is a powerful and well established tool to investigate strong system-bath coupling for linear optical spectra. We show that TCL equations can be generalised to the nonlinear optical response up to a chosen order in the optical field. This goal is achieved via an time convolution less perturbation scheme for the reduced density matrices of the electronic system. In our approach, the most important results are the inclusion of a electron-phonon coupling non-diagonal in the electronic states and memory effects of the bath: First, the considered model system is introduced. Second, the time evolution of the statistical operator is expanded with respect to the external optical field. This expansion is the starting point to explain how a TCL theory can treat the response up to in a certain order in the external field. Third, new TCL equations, including bath memory effects, are derived and the problem of information loss in the reduced density matrix is analysed. For this purpose, new dimensions are added to the reduced statistical operator to compensate lack of information in comparison with the full statistical operator. The theory is benchmarked with a two level system and applied to a three level system including non-diagonal phonon coupling. In our analysis of pump-probe experiments, the bath memory is influenced by the system state occupied between pump and probe pulse. In particular, the memory of the bath influences the dephasing process of electronic coherences developing during the time interval between pump and probe pulses.

  13. Wash and Wean: Bathing Patients Undergoing Weaning Trials During Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Tate, Judith A.; Swigart, Valerie A.; DiVirgilio-Thomas, Dana; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bathing is a fundamental nursing care activity performed for or with the self-assistance of critically ill patients. Few studies address caregiver and/or patient-family perspectives about bathing activity during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE To describe practices and beliefs about bathing patients during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). METHODS Secondary analysis of qualitative data (observational field notes, interviews, and clinical record review) from a larger ethnographic study involving 30 patients weaning from PMV and the clinicians who cared for them using basic qualitative description. RESULTS Bathing, hygiene, and personal care were highly valued and equated with “good” nursing care by families and nurses. Nurses and respiratory therapists reported “working around” bath time and promoted conducting weaning trials before or after bathing. Patients were nevertheless bathed during weaning trials despite clinicians expressed concerns for energy conservation. Clinicians’ recognized individual patient response to bathing during PMV weaning trials. CONCLUSION Bathing is a central care activity for PMV patients and a component of daily work processes in the ICU. Bathing requires assessment of patient condition and activity tolerance and nurse-respiratory therapist negotiation and accommodation with respect to the initiation and/or continuation of PMV weaning trials during bathing. Further study is needed to validate the impact (or lack of impact) of various timing strategies for bathing PMV patients. PMID:20561877

  14. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  15. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels may anchor only within the following limits: (1... north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in Woolwich, approximately...

  16. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1712-1 - Availability of surface bathing facilities; change rooms; and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of surface bathing facilities...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-1 Availability of surface bathing facilities; change rooms; and... operator of an underground coal mine shall on and after December 30, 1970, provide bathing...

  18. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush...

  19. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1712-1 - Availability of surface bathing facilities; change rooms; and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of surface bathing facilities...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-1 Availability of surface bathing facilities; change rooms; and... operator of an underground coal mine shall on and after December 30, 1970, provide bathing...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1712-1 - Availability of surface bathing facilities; change rooms; and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of surface bathing facilities...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-1 Availability of surface bathing facilities; change rooms; and... operator of an underground coal mine shall on and after December 30, 1970, provide bathing...

  2. Characteristics of metal fluctuation caused by bath-metal interface oscillation in aluminum electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Naijun; Li, Hesong

    2010-11-01

    Bath-metal interface oscillation reduces the stability and efficiency of Hall-Héroult cells. However, the oscillation characteristics have not been understood in detail. A well-designed probe and an online monitor system were designed for monitoring the metal fluctuation. Experiments and analyses show the metal fluctuation can be captured, and a corresponding relationship between anode-cathode distance (ACD) and anode rod voltage drop (UD) have been found. The stack phenomena of the fluctuation have been found as well. Analysis shows that the wave length (around 8 m in this experiment) is much bigger than the anode size; however, the wave velocity (around 0.27 m/s in this experiment) is relatively low. Because of the waves transmitting, anode current changes periodically but the cell voltage remains near constant when the metal is fluctuating.

  3. Landau-Zener population control and dipole measurement of a two-level-system bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. S.; Gladchenko, S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Burin, A. L.; Osborn, K. D.

    2014-09-01

    Tunneling two-level systems (TLSs), present in dielectrics at low temperatures, have been recently studied for fundamental understanding and superconducting device development. According to a recent theory by Burin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.157002], the TLS bath of any amorphous dielectric experiences a distribution of Landau-Zener transitions if exposed to simultaneous fields. In this experiment we measure amorphous insulating films at millikelvin temperatures with a microwave field and a swept electric field bias using a superconducting resonator. We find that the maximum dielectric loss per microwave photon with the simultaneous fields is approximately the same as that in the equilibrium state, in agreement with the generic material theory. In addition, we find that the loss depends on the fields in a way which allows for the separate extraction of the TLS bath dipole moment and density of states. This method allows for the study of the TLS dipole moment in a diverse set of disordered films, and provides a technique for continuously inverting their population.

  4. Uncoupling of bacterial and terrigenous dissolved organic matter dynamics in decomposition experiments.

    PubMed

    Herlemann, Daniel P R; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4-16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot efficiently utilize tDOM and that in subarctic estuaries other factors are responsible for the removal of imported tDOM. PMID:24718626

  5. Uncoupling of Bacterial and Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Decomposition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4–16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot efficiently utilize tDOM and that in subarctic estuaries other factors are responsible for the removal of imported tDOM. PMID:24718626

  6. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    PubMed

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals. PMID:26673595

  7. The Determination of the Stereochemistry of Erythro-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-Ethanediol: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Alex T.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment designed to illustrate the power of nuclear magnetic reasonance spectroscopy in a determination of the configurations at centers of chirality of various isomers of acyclic systems. Provides a background discussion and experimental procedure. (JM)

  8. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  9. Nonequilibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2009-06-15

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined.

  10. Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanturf, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

  11. Molecular dynamics with coupling to an external bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, H. J. C.; Postma, J. P. M.; van Gunsteren, W. F.; DiNola, A.; Haak, J. R.

    1984-10-01

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the need often arises to maintain such parameters as temperature or pressure rather than energy and volume, or to impose gradients for studying transport properties in nonequilibrium MD. A method is described to realize coupling to an external bath with constant temperature or pressure with adjustable time constants for the coupling. The method is easily extendable to other variables and to gradients, and can be applied also to polyatomic molecules involving internal constraints. The influence of coupling time constants on dynamical variables is evaluated. A leap-frog algorithm is presented for the general case involving constraints with coupling to both a constant temperature and a constant pressure bath.

  12. Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoluzzi, M.; Di Leonardo, R.; Angelani, L.

    2013-10-01

    E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

  13. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  14. Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Kenichiro

    1993-01-01

    Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

  15. Giving a Newborn a Bath in her Parents' Presence.

    PubMed

    Didry, Pascale; Didry, Emmanuelle

    2015-11-01

    Today, Sophie is working on the maternity ward. She is going to give Manon, David and Laura's first born, a bath. Manon was born on the day before. She weighs 3.350kg and is 49cm long. She has already got a lot of fuzzy brown hair. Both parents are looking forward to watching and learning how to care for their new baby. PMID:26548395

  16. Steady cone-jet electrosprays in liquid insulator baths.

    PubMed

    Barrero, A; López-Herrera, J M; Boucard, A; Loscertales, I G; Márquez, M

    2004-04-01

    This study shows that conducting liquids can be electrosprayed in steady cone-jet mode inside liquid insulator baths. Experimental results show that the current emitted from the meniscus fits well the scaling laws given in the literature for electrosprays in air at atmospheric pressure or vacuum. The technique may be of interest in obtaining fine liquid-liquid emulsions of uniformly sized droplets in the nanometric range. PMID:14985028

  17. Silk production in a spider involves acid bath treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vollrath, F.; Knight, D. P.; Hu, X. W.

    1998-01-01

    We studied physiological conditions during the spinning of dragline silk by the garden cross spider, Araneus diadematus. Silk is converted from the liquid feedstock in the gland into a solid thread via a tapering tubular duct and exits at a spigot. The distal part of the tubule appears specialized for ion transport and the management of the pH inside the lumen. Thus, it appears that spider silk in vivo, like some industrial polymers in vitro, is spun through an acid bath.

  18. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-05-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel by Zn-Ti alloys.

  19. Unusual swelling of a polymer in a bacterial bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, A.; Lwen, H.

    2014-07-01

    The equilibrium structure and dynamics of a single polymer chain in a thermal solvent is by now well-understood in terms of scaling laws. Here, we consider a polymer in a bacterial bath, i.e., in a solvent consisting of active particles which bring in nonequilibrium fluctuations. Using computer simulations of a self-avoiding polymer chain in two dimensions which is exposed to a dilute bath of active particles, we show that the Flory-scaling exponent is unaffected by the bath activity provided the chain is very long. Conversely, for shorter chains, there is a nontrivial coupling between the bacteria intruding into the chain which may stiffen and expand the chain in a nonuniversal way. As a function of the molecular weight, the swelling first scales faster than described by the Flory exponent, then an unusual plateau-like behaviour is reached and finally a crossover to the universal Flory behaviour is observed. As a function of bacterial activity, the chain end-to-end distance exhibits a pronounced non-monotonicity. Moreover, the mean-square displacement of the center of mass of the chain shows a ballistic behaviour at intermediate times as induced by the active solvent. Our predictions are verifiable in two-dimensional bacterial suspensions and for colloidal model chains exposed to artificial colloidal microswimmers.

  20. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-07-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation.

  1. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-07-14

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation. PMID:26178090

  2. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  3. Electron spin decoherence in silicon carbide nuclear spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Burk, Christian; Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Zhao, Nan

    2014-12-01

    In this Rapid Communication, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of 29Si (pSi=4.7 % ) is about four times larger than that of 13C (pC=1.1 % ), the electron spin coherence time of defect centers in SiC nuclear spin bath in a strong magnetic field (B >300 G ) is longer than that of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in 13C nuclear spin bath in diamond. In addition to the smaller gyromagnetic ratio of 29Si, and the larger bond length in SiC lattice, a crucial reason for this counterintuitive result is the suppression of the heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in a finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

  4. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment in Iowa: Organic resilience in soil quality and profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological, and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The certified organic systems are designed...

  5. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,

  6. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  7. HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

    The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during the Matroshka 2B experiment than in the previous phase it was not possible to attribute this observation to the lower Sun activity in 2008, since the locations inside the ISS were different. The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EUs Seventh Frame-work Programme (FP7) under Project Nr: 218817 and coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) http://www-fp7-hamlet.eu

  8. The organic builder: a public experiment in artificial chemistries and self-replication.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Tim J

    2009-01-01

    We describe some results submitted by users of the Organic Builder, a Java applet where the rules of an artificial chemistry can be chosen in order to achieve a desired behavior. Though it was initially intended as a set of challenges to be tackled as a game, the users experimented with the system far beyond this and discovered several novel forms of self-replicators. When searching for a system with certain properties such asself-replication, making the system accessible to the public through a Web site is an unusual but effective way of making scientific discoveries, credit for which must go to the users themselves for their tireless experimentation and innovation. PMID:18855569

  9. Organization for a community cardiovascular health program: experiences from the Minnesota Heart Health Program.

    PubMed

    Carlaw, R W; Mittlemark, M B; Bracht, N; Luepker, R

    1984-01-01

    The World Health Organization has emphasized the importance of community participation as a keystone of primary health care and in meeting their goal of health for all. This article reports on the first three years of experience in a community-based approach to cardiovascular health. The project involves three communities totaling almost a quarter of a million inhabitants with matched comparison communities. An extensive volunteer structure provides a dynamic partnership with the education research group in bringing learning opportunities and enabling situations for the practice of heart healthy life styles in the total community. The project goal is to demonstrate reduced mortality and morbidity from educational interventions. The participative intervention model suggests a feasible alternative for future public health practice. PMID:6520005

  10. Category-specific organization in the human brain does not require visual experience.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Bradford Z; Anzellotti, Stefano; Schwarzbach, Jens; Zampini, Massimiliano; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2009-08-13

    Distinct regions within the ventral visual pathway show neural specialization for nonliving and living stimuli (e.g., tools, houses versus animals, faces). The causes of these category preferences are widely debated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we find that the same regions of the ventral stream that show category preferences for nonliving stimuli and animals in sighted adults show the same category preferences in adults who are blind since birth. Both blind and sighted participants had larger blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses in the medial fusiform gyrus for nonliving stimuli compared to animal stimuli and differential BOLD responses in lateral occipital cortex for animal stimuli compared to nonliving stimuli. These findings demonstrate that the medial-to-lateral bias by conceptual domain in the ventral visual pathway does not require visual experience in order to develop and suggest the operation of innately determined domain-specific constraints on the organization of object knowledge. PMID:19679078

  11. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  12. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

  13. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a

  14. Some final conclusions and supporting experiments related to the search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biemann, K.; Lavoie, J. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Viking molecular analysis experiment has demonstrated the absence (within the detection limits which range from levels of parts per million to below parts per billion) of organic substances in the Martian surface soil at the two Viking landing sites. Laboratory experiments with sterile and nonsterile antarctic samples further demonstrate the capability and reliability of the instrument. The circumstances under which organic components could have escaped detection, such as inaccessibility or extreme thermal stability of organic polymers, are discussed but are found to be unlikely. The inability of the instrument to detect free oxygen evolved from soil samples is pointed out.

  15. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

  16. Microbial control on stability of soil organic matter in drought manipulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Schrumpf, M.; Weber, E.; Wutzler, T.; Gleixner, G.; Reichstein, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-04-01

    Extending drought periods as a consequence of global warming affect both the amount and the activity of heterotrophic microorganisms in soil. The studies of drought effect on the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) which is microbially mediated still show controversial results mainly due to separated research approaches which do not consider the soil - plant system as a whole. We would like to discuss the results obtained within the QuaSOM experiment (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena, Germany) where continues 13C- CO2-labeling was applied during vegetation of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under deficit and optimal moisture regimes. The partitioning of plant-originated and SOM-originated carbon in heterotrophic respiration and in microbial biomass will be related to the changes in the microbial growth parameters and enzymes kinetics. The drought effect on temperature sensitivity of the enzymes responsible for the decomposition of SOM-compounds of different availability will be compared in the rhizosphere of peppermint versus bulk soil. The effect of vegetation on cycling of organic matter in soil will be considered for the contrasting moisture regimes. The changes in carbon sequestration potential due to priming effects caused by repeated drying - rewetting events will be evaluated for the short term time scale.

  17. Electrodeposited Fe-Ni films prepared from a tartaric-acid-based bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, T.; Yanai, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, we reported a citric-acid-based plating bath is one of the hopeful plating baths for obtaining Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties. In this report, hydroxylic acid of tartaric acid, which belongs to the same acid group at citric acid, was applied to prepare the films, and the effects of tartaric acid on the magnetic and the structural properties were investigated. Although the overall trend of the effects obtained for tartaric acid resembles our previous results for the citricacid-based bath, the cathode efficiency for the tartaric-acid-based bath shows a slightly higher value as compared with that for the citric-acid-based bath. From these results, we conclude that the tartaric-acid-based bath is also an environmentally friendly plating bath.

  18. Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinić, Ivona; Perry, Mary Jane; Briggs, Nathan T.; Kallin, Emily; D'Asaro, Eric A.; Lee, Craig M.

    2012-06-01

    The co-variability of particulate backscattering (bbp) and attenuation (cp) coefficients and particulate organic carbon (POC) provides a basis for estimating POC on spatial and temporal scales that are impossible to obtain with traditional sampling and chemical analysis methods. However, the use of optical proxies for POC in the open ocean is complicated by variable relationships reported in the literature between POC and cp or bbp. During the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom experiment, we accrued a large data set consisting of >300 POC samples and simultaneously measured cp and bbp. Attention to sampling detail, use of multiple types of POC blanks, cross-calibration of optical instruments, and parallel measurements of other biogeochemical parameters facilitated distinction between natural and methodological-based variability. The POC versuscp slope varied with plankton community composition but not depth; slopes were 11% lower for the diatom versus the recycling community. Analysis of literature POC versus cp slopes indicates that plankton composition is responsible for a large component of that variability. The POC versus bbp slope decreased below the pycnocline by 20%, likely due to changing particle composition associated with remineralization and fewer organic rich particles. The higher bbp/cp ratios below the mixed layer are also indicative of particles of lower organic density. We also observed a peculiar platform effect that resulted in ˜27% higher values for downcast versus upcast bbp measurements. Reduction in uncertainties and improvement of accuracies of POC retrieved from optical measurements is important for autonomous sampling, and requires community consensus for standard protocols for optics and POC.

  19. Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

    1993-02-01

    Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

  20. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure. PMID:26372681

  1. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a substantial decline in SOM with 90% of crop residue removal for 50 years under various rotations at Columbia, MO and Champaign, IL. An increase in SOM following addition of manure was also well simulated. However, the model underestimated SOM for a fertilized treatment at Columbia. We estimated that a minimum of 8.0 Mg/ha/yr of crop residue and organic amendments (4.0 Mg C ha/yr) was required to prevent a decline in SOM at the Morrow Plots in Champaign, IL. More studies are needed to evaluate the CQESTR model's performance in predicting the amount of crop residue required to maintain the SOM concentration in different soils under a wide range of management and climatic conditions. Given the high correlation of simulated and observed SOM changes, CQESTR can be used to consider a wide range of scenarios before making recommendations or implementing proposed changes. CQESTR in conjunction with the local conditions can guide planning and development of sustainable crop and soil management practices.

  2. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

    2014-09-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  3. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-07

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  4. Formation rates of complex organics in UV irradiated CH_3OH-rich ices. I. Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, K. I.; Garrod, R. T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2009-09-01

    Context: Gas-phase complex organic molecules are commonly detected in the warm inner regions of protostellar envelopes, so-called hot cores. Recent models show that photochemistry in ices followed by desorption may explain the observed abundances. There is, however, a general lack of quantitative data on UV-induced complex chemistry in ices. Aims: This study aims to experimentally quantify the UV-induced production rates of complex organics in CH3OH-rich ices under a variety of astrophysically relevant conditions. Methods: The ices are irradiated with a broad-band UV hydrogen microwave-discharge lamp under ultra-high vacuum conditions, at 20-70 K, and then heated to 200 K. The reaction products are identified by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), through comparison with RAIRS and TPD curves of pure complex species, and through the observed effects of isotopic substitution and enhancement of specific functional groups, such as CH3, in the ice. Results: Complex organics are readily formed in all experiments, both during irradiation and during the slow warm-up of the ices after the UV lamp is turned off. The relative abundances of photoproducts depend on the UV fluence, the ice temperature, and whether pure CH3OH ice or CH3OH:CH4/CO ice mixtures are used. C2H6, CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3, HOCH2CHO and (CH2OH)2 are all detected in at least one experiment. Varying the ice thickness and the UV flux does not affect the chemistry. The derived product-formation yields and their dependences on different experimental parameters, such as the initial ice composition, are used to estimate the CH3OH photodissociation branching ratios in ice and the relative diffusion barriers of the formed radicals. At 20 K, the pure CH3OH photodesorption yield is 2.1(±1.0)×10-3 per incident UV photon, the photo-destruction cross section 2.6(±0.9)×10-18 cm^2. Conclusions: Photochemistry in CH3OH ices is efficient enough to explain the observed abundances of complex organics around protostars. Some complex molecules, such as CH3CH2OH and CH3OCH3, form with a constant ratio in our ices and this can can be used to test whether complex gas-phase molecules in astrophysical settings have an ice-photochemistry origin. Other molecular ratios, e.g. HCO-bearing molecules versus (CH2OH)2, depend on the initial ice composition and temperature and can thus be used to investigate when and where complex ice molecules form. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

  6. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2.5 bar) to avoid uncontrolled calcite precipitation, and accordingly the pipeline path was designed. Non-linear phenomena that may originate calcite precipitation, such as phase separation and pressure waves, were discussed. The pipeline and the thermal bath are planned to be built next year.

  7. Decoherence of a single spin coupled to an interacting spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ning; Fröhling, Nina; Xing, Xi; Hackmann, Johannes; Nanduri, Arun; Anders, Frithjof B.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-01-01

    Decoherence of a central spin coupled to an interacting spin bath via inhomogeneous Heisenberg coupling is studied by two different approaches, namely an exact equations of motion (EOMs) method and a Chebyshev expansion technique (CET). By assuming a wheel topology of the bath spins with uniform nearest-neighbor X X -type intrabath coupling, we examine the central spin dynamics with the bath prepared in two different types of bath initial conditions. For fully polarized baths in strong magnetic fields, the polarization dynamics of the central spin exhibits a collapse-revival behavior in the intermediate-time regime. Under an antiferromagnetic bath initial condition, the two methods give excellently consistent central spin decoherence dynamics for finite-size baths of N ≤14 bath spins. The decoherence factor is found to drop off abruptly on a short time scale and approach a finite plateau value which depends on the intrabath coupling strength nonmonotonically. In the ultrastrong intrabath coupling regime, the plateau values show an oscillatory behavior depending on whether N /2 is even or odd. The observed results are interpreted qualitatively within the framework of the EOM and perturbation analysis. The effects of anisotropic spin-bath coupling and inhomogeneous intrabath bath couplings are briefly discussed. Possible experimental realization of the model in a modified quantum corral setup is suggested.

  8. Experiments on the self-organized critical state of helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatto, Andrew Rosenberg

    When a heat flux is applied downwards through a sample of 4He near the superfluid transition temperature Tlambda the gradient in the temperature self-organizes to the gradient in Tlambda caused by gravity. This creates the Self-Organized Critical (SOC) state. Previous experiments have observed the state, measured the temperature TSOC vs. heat flux, and investigated a remarkable wave that only travels upwards against the flow of the heat flux [1, 2, 3]. We report the first results of the heat capacity of the SOC state, C∇T, for heat fluxes 60nW/cm2 < Q < 13 muW/cm2 and corresponding temperatures 9nK > TSOC, - T lambda > -1.1muK. We find that C ∇T static (i.e., zero beat flux) unrounded (i.e., in zero gravity) heat capacity C0 with two exceptions. The first is that within 250 nK of T lambda, C∇T is depressed relative to C0 and the maximum in C∇T is shifted to 50 nK below Tlambda. The second difference is that at high heat flux, CC∇T is again depressed relative to C0 with the departure starting at about 650 nK below 7lambda. We present the most extensive measurements of the speed and attenuation of the SOC wave to date. We report wave speed measurements taken over our full experimental range 30 nW/cm2 < Q < 13 muM/cm 2 and attenuation results over the limited range that produced enough attenuation to measure. We also report the first accurate calculation of the speed of the SOC wave.

  9. Ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical organisms: Laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Sueitt, A P E; Yamada-Ferraz, T M; Oliveira, A F; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze laboratory and field data to assess the ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical biota. Short-term laboratorial tests resulted in estimated EC₅₀ values of 76.72 (67.32-86.12)mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and 296.46 (277.16-315.76) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. xanthus. Long-term laboratorial tests generated IC₂₅ values of 5.05 (4.35-5.75) and 28.73 (26.30-31.15) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and C. xanthus, respectively. The results from in situ mesocosm experiments performed in the Ibirité reservoir (a tropical eutrophic urban water body located in SE Brazil) indicated that C. silvestrii and C. xanthus were not under severe deleterious acute impact due to the treatment because the higher nitrate concentrations determined were 5.2 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=24 h; sediment-water interface) and 17.5 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=600 h; interstitial water). However, an abrupt decrease in the densities of Cyanophyceae members and other benthic taxa was observed. In summary, the present work contributes greatly to the toxicity data linked to two taxonomically distinct organisms that have never been screened for calcium nitrate sensitivity. Furthermore, considering the problem of the management and restoration of eutrophic environments, our study reports a comprehensive field assessment that allows the elucidation of the possible toxic impacts caused by the addition of calcium nitrate (a remediation technique) on aquatic and benthic organisms as well as the implications on the aquatic ecosystem as a whole, which may greatly allow expanding the current knowledgebase on the topic. PMID:25868152

  10. Fast neutron spectrometry with organic scintillators applied to magnetic fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschuck, Yu. A.; Esposito, B.; Trykov, L. A.; Semenov, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry with NE213 liquid scintillators is commonly used in thermonuclear fusion experiments to measure the 2.45 and 14.1 MeV neutron flux. We present the unfolded neutron spectrum, which was accumulated during several ohmic deuterium plasma discharges in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade using a 2″×2″ NE213 scintillator. In this paper, we review the application of organic scintillator neutron spectrometers to tokamaks, focusing in particular on the comparison between NE213 and stilbene scintillators. Various aspects of the calibration technique and neutron spectra unfolding procedure are considered in the context of their application for fusion neutron spectrometry. Testing and calibration measurements have been carried out using D-D and D-T neutron generator facilities with both NE213 and stilbene scintillators. The main result from these measurements is that stilbene scintillator has better neutron energy resolution than NE213. Our stilbene detector could be used for the determination of the ion temperature ( Ti) from neutron spectrum broadening in tokamak thermonuclear plasmas with Ti=4 keV and higher.

  11. Geochemistry of volatile organic compounds in seawater: Mesocosm experiments with 14C-model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Doering, Peter H.

    1986-06-01

    A series of ten radiotracer experiments were conducted in controlled experimental ecosystems (mesocosms) to investigate the behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in seawater. Time-series measurements of the redistribution of 14C-activity within several major pools - dissolved, particulate, intermediate metabolite, and CO 2 - in the ecosystem made possible an evaluation of the rates of processes - volatilization, biodegradation, Sorption and sedimentation - acting to remove VOC from seawater in summer. The behavior of the model 14C-VOC fell into three categories. Aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, naphthalene) were subject to both volatilization and biodegradation, with mineralization dominating in summer. Chlorinated C 2-hydrocarbons (tetrachloroethylene) and chlorinated benzenes (chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) were affected only by volatilization and were relatively resistant to biodegradation. Of all the model VOC studied, only aliphatic hydrocarbons (decane and octadecane) were sorbed onto suspended paniculate matter; however, the primary route of loss from the water column appeared to be biodegradation rather than sedimentation. The mesocosm-derived removal rate constants were then applied to estimate summer VOC residence times in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island of about 1 day for aromatic hydrocarbons, 1 week for the chlorinated VOC and about 1 day for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Residence times in winter might be on the order of 1 week for all VOC.

  12. Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

  13. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  14. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

    2012-11-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

  15. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (?-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the ?-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the ?-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing. PMID:25388947

  16. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  17. Achievable Polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Briones, Nayeli Azucena; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for quantum algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method to increase the purity of a set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the limit when no more entropy can be extracted from the system. In particular, we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization achievable for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed, and the corresponding steady state of the whole system. It is, however, possible to reach higher polarization while starting with certain states; thus, our result provides an achievable bound. We also give the number of steps needed to get a specific required polarization.

  18. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  19. On the electrospraying of conducting liquids in dielectric liquid baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Marín, Álvaro; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Márquez, Manuel; Barrero, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Steady cone-jets of conducting liquids inside dielectris liquid baths are easily obtained. In particular water and glycerol have been electrosprayed in either heptane or vaseline oil. Experimental results show that the current emitted from the cone-jet depends on the flow rate and the liquid properties in the same way that it does in air. On the contrary, the effects of the bath inertia plays an important role to determine the size of droplets. Also the addition of small amounts of both water-soluble and lipid-soluble surfactants changes appreciably the spray characteristics. The influence of either lipid-soluble or water soluble surfactants at different concentrations on the droplet size of a water electrospray in oil or heptane has been experimentally obtained. In the case of glycerol, the high viscosity of the fluid gives rise to very long jets presenting kink instabilitiy far from the vertex cone. Much more stable jets are obtained by adding small amounts of lipid or water-soluble surfactants. In those cases, the electric field on the very long jet of glycerol is very small and a big droplet is formed at the end of the jet.

  20. Achievable Polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Briones, Nayeli Azucena; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-04-29

    Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for quantum algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method to increase the purity of a set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the limit when no more entropy can be extracted from the system. In particular, we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization achievable for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed, and the corresponding steady state of the whole system. It is, however, possible to reach higher polarization while starting with certain states; thus, our result provides an achievable bound. We also give the number of steps needed to get a specific required polarization. PMID:27176508

  1. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities. PMID:26846444

  2. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-02-01

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities.

  3. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

  5. Aerosol and gas phase organic acids during aging of secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene in smog chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praplan, Arnaud P.; Tritscher, Torsten; Barmet, Peter; Mertes, Peter; Decarlo, Peter F.; Dommen, Josef; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    Organic acids represent an important class of organic compounds in the atmosphere for both the gas and aerosol phase. They are either emitted directly from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources or formed as oxidation products from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and precursors in the aqueous, gaseous and particle phase (Chebbi & Carlier, 1996) Monoterpenes are a prominent class of VOCs with annual emissions of 127 Tg per year (Guenther et al., 1995). Because of their high formation potential of secondary organic aerosols, several compounds of this class, particularly a-pinene, have been investigated extensively in many laboratory studies. Among other acids, cis-pinic and cis-pinonic acid have been found as products of a-pinene ozonolysis. Ma et al. (2007) published evidence that these organic acids are formed in the gas phase via Criegee Intermediates (CIs). Recently, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) was identified by Szmigielski et al. (2007) as a product from a-pinene photooxidation, as well as diaterpenylic acid acetate (Iinuma et al., 2009) and terpenylic acid (Claeys et al., 2009). These compounds could serve as tracers for a-pinene in ambient samples. The present work sets its focus on the fate of a-pinene SOA organic acids under different aging conditions. (1) low NOx concentration (2) high NOx concentration (3) exposure to OH radicals in both dark and lighted environments. a-pinene SOA is produced by ozonolysis without OH scavenger in the PSI smog chamber. It consists of a 27m3 Teflon® bag that can be irradiated by four Xe arc lamps to simulate sunlight (Paulsen et al., 2004). The organic acids are sampled with a wet effluent diffusion denuder (WEDD) and an aerosol collector (AC) for the gas phase and the aerosol particles, respectively. WEDD and AC samples are alternatively concentrated for 30 minutes on a trace anion concentrator (TAC) column (Dionex, Switzerland) and subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (IC/MS). This system is described in more details by Fisseha et al. (2004). The results show that the cis-pinonic acid gas phase concentration increases rapidly in the presence of NOx, while it stays more or less constant upon OH exposure. On the other hand, cis-pinic acid concentration in aerosol decreases in presence of NOx but is nearly constant during OH exposure. 3-Methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) is also formed during ozonolysis and demonstrates a strong concentration increase for all aging conditions. This partially agrees with a recent publication of Szmigielski et al. (2007), where MBTCA is thought to be formed in the presence of NOx, but this gives evidence that MBTCA can also be formed via another mechanism without NOx. Moreover, after exposure of cis-pinonic acid to OH radicals produced in the dark, MBTCA is detected, confirming that cis-pinonic acid is involved in the mechanism formation of MBTCA. The Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) tends to overestimates the amount of organic acids formed. Therefore, inclusion of new reaction mechanisms and species that are not yet included will help to improve the present knowledge of the organic acids formation pathways. Chebbi, A., & Carlier, P. (1996). Atmos. Environ., 30, 4233-4249. Claeys, M., et al. (2009). Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6976-6982. Fisseha, R., et al. (2004). Anal. Chem., 76, 6535-6540. Guenther, A., et al. (1995). J Geophys Res., 100, 8873-8892. Iinuma, Y., et al. (2009). Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 280-285. Jang, M. J., & Kamens, R. M. (1999). Atmos. Environ., 33, 459-474. Lee, S., & Kamens, R. M. (2005). Atmos Environ., 39, 6822-6832. Ma, Y., et al. (2007). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 9, 5084-5087. Paulsen, D., et al. (2005). Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 2668-2678. Szmigielski, R., et al. (2007). Geophys Res. Lett., 34, L24811, doi:10.1029/2007GL031338. Yu, J., et al. (1999). J. Atmos. Chem., 34, 207-258.

  6. [An interdisciplinary approach of the organ donation decision: the Lausanne's experience].

    PubMed

    Bosisio, Francisca; Merminod, Gilles; Burger, Marcel; Pascual, Manuel; Moretti, Dianne; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2013-11-27

    Since 2007, the Interdisciplinary Ethics Platform (Ethos) of the University of Lausanne is leading an interdisciplinary reflection on the organ donation decision. On this basis, the project "Organ transplantation between the rhetoric of the gift and a biomedical view of the body" studies the logics at stake in the organ donation decision-making process. Results highlight many tensions within practices and public discourses in the field of organ donation and transplantation and suggest lines of inquiry for future adjustments. PMID:24383251

  7. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-15

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

  8. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-01

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous. PMID:21456831

  9. Hydrothermal alteration experiments: tracking the path from interstellar to chondrites organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic molecules are detected in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The origin of these organics, whether formed prior the accretion phase, or in-situ on the parent body, is still a matter of debate. We have investigated experimentally the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecules submitted to hydrothermal conditions, mimicking asteroidal alteration (T<200°C). In particular, we want to assess the potential catalytic role of clays minerals in the polymerization/degradation of organics. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, compound of C-N bonds) is used as a plausible interstellar precursors from icy grains. Experimental products reveal a large diversity of molecules, including nitrogen organic molecules similar to those found in chondrites.

  10. Defining bath ratio in the presence of LiF and MgF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Haupin, W.

    1996-10-01

    When Lewis acids other than AlF{sub 3} and Lewis bases other than NaF are present, the ratio of NaF to AlF{sub 3} is no longer a good measure of the Lewis acidity of molten Hall-Heroult bath. The following equivalent bath ratio was derived to give the same Lewis acidity at the same bath ratio as conventional bath ratio does without LiF or MgF{sub 2}: R{sub eq} = 0.5[(NaF)/42 + 0.32(LiF)/25.4] / [(AlF{sub 3})/84 + 0.41 (MgF{sub 2})/62.3]. Equal values of R{sub eq} produce essentially equal values of bath vapor pressure. However, at a specific R{sub eq}, LiF lowers: liquidus temperature, metal solubility, alumina solubility and bath density while raising electrical conductivity. At a specific R{sub eq}, MgF{sub 2} lowers: liquidus temperature, alumina solubility and electrical conductivity but increases bath density. Many important properties of the bath are not related its Lewis acidity. Perhaps bath ratio should be dropped from the vocabulary.

  11. Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath

    SciTech Connect

    Zarea, Mehdi Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2014-01-14

    We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

  12. Fertilization effects on soil organic matter turnover in a long term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioacchini, Paola; Giordani, Gianni; Montecchio, Daniela; Nastri, Anna; Triberti, Loretta; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural management practices such as residues application, level and kind of fertilization and amendment, tillage intensity can affect the capacity of soil to sequester and incorporate carbon (C). These practices also influence both above-ground and below-ground plant production and, as a consequence, the amount of C that enters the soil. However, studing the dyamics of C inputs in soils and the effects of the agricultural management practices on C incorporation in soil organic matter (SOM) requires long-term field experiments. The long-term field experiment in Cadriano, at the University of Bologna, Italy, started in 1966 and still in progress, compares two continuous rotations of corn and wheat, interacting with two cattle manure supplies (M0: no manure - M1: 20 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material) and two mineral NP rates (N0P0: no NP fertilizers - N1P1: 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 plus 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 for wheat and maize, respectively). The experimental design is a split-plot replicated twice, with fertilizer sub-plots of 56 m2 of area each. The field is annually ploughed to 40 cm depth. Crop residues are always removed, with the exception of roots and stubbles. By using the delta 13C technique we measured the amount of corn-derived C retained over a 36-years period in total soil organic C (SOC) and in the humic fraction that is referred as the most stable pool of SOC. These amounts were compared with the total inputs of belowground C (roots and rhizodepositions) in order to highlight if the capacity of soil to stabilize the new C inputs can be affected by the different fertilization practices. The results showed that the amount of corn-derived C in SOC increased in the following order: control (20.5%), Mineral (25%) Manure (29.4%), the same trend was observed for the humic fraction. On the contrary the cumulative C input over the same period followed a different order, the highest was obtained for the mineral treatment, than for the manure and the control treatment. The higher C input measured with the mineral fertilization did not imply also a greater C stabilization, probably because the greater availability of nutrients could have stimulated greater mineralization processes. The manure seems to be able to stabilize more C possibly through a greater level of microbial biomass and activity, that in this situation was not probably limited by either nutrients or energy source. In the control (C0) the deficiency of both nutrients and energy source could have slowed down the C mineralization, thus leading more corn-derived C in the soil. Therefore the fertilization management not only affects the plant production and the C input to soil, but also the C mineralization and the capacity of soil to stabilize C, and this must be carefully considered and taken into account since it deeply influences the potentaility of soil for C sequestration. The research was carried out with funds provided by MIUR (PRIN prot. 2007J5Z9LK_003)

  13. Review Article: Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin; Oliaei, Fardin

    2011-01-01

    The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies. The use and associated disposal of POPs have been occurring for over 50 years. Concurrent with the phase-out of some of the most hazardous chemicals, the production of new POPs, such as brominated and fluorinated compounds has increased since the 1990s. These latter compounds are commonly used in a wide range of consumer goods, and as consumer products reach the end of their useful lives, ultimately enter waste recycling and disposal systems, in particular at municipal landfills. Because of their very slow, or lack of degradability, POPs will persist in landfills for many decades and possibly centuries. Over these extended time periods engineered landfill systems and their liners are likely to degrade, thus posing a contemporary and future risk of releasing large contaminant loads to the environment. This review highlights the necessity for alternative disposal methods for POP wastes, including destruction or complete removal from potential environmental release. In addition to such end of pipe solutions a policy change in the use pattern of persistent toxic chemicals is inevitable. In addition, inventories for the location and quantity of POPs in landfills, together with an assessment of their threat to ecosystems, drinking water and food resources are identified as key measures to facilitate appropriate management of risks. Finally the challenges of POP wastes in transition/developing countries, the risk of increased leaching of POPs from landfills due to climate change, and the possible negative impact of natural attenuation processes are considered. PMID:21224404

  14. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,

  15. Inside the Black Box: Exploring the Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.; Aragon, Steven R.; Stone, James R., III

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that Career Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) provide a variety of experiences that either directly or indirectly affect three important outcomes of secondary education: achievement, transition to postsecondary education and training, and employability. A pre-post-test comparison study of high school…

  16. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  17. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

  18. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top

  19. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

  20. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater

  1. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to

  2. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  3. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using

  4. Inside the Black Box: Exploring the Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.; Aragon, Steven R.; Stone, James R., III

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that Career Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) provide a variety of experiences that either directly or indirectly affect three important outcomes of secondary education: achievement, transition to postsecondary education and training, and employability. A pre-post-test comparison study of high school

  5. A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

  6. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  7. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the

  8. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment supports organic yields, soil quality, and economic performance in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The main goals of the project are to evalua...

  9. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

  10. Genomic Insights into Methanotrophy: The Complete Genome Sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15383840

  11. Density functional theory calculations of dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities for organic molecules in organic solvent: Comparison to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih-I.; Chiu, Cheng-Chang; Wang, Ying-Fung

    2011-10-01

    Against experimental values obtained from solution-phase dc electric field induced second-harmonic generation measurements at a fundamental wavelength of 1910 nm, the performance of 20 exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory in evaluation of solvent modulated dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities of 82 organic molecules in chloroform, 1,4-dioxane, and/or dichloromethane was evaluated. The used exchange-correlation functionals consisted of generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, global hybrids, and range-separated hybrids. The PCM-X/6-311+G(2d,p)//PCM-B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) level of theory was employed. The calculated results showed functionals with the exact asymptote of the exchange potential gave satisfying linear correlation with R2 of 0.95 between experimental data and theoretical values. With a linear correction, these functionals also provided a better accuracy with mean absolute error of 5 × 10-30 esu than other functionals. The solvent effect and solvation scheme on the calculated property were also studied.

  12. Asymptotic bound for heat-bath algorithmic cooling.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-13

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system. PMID:25815911

  13. ''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2007-10-15

    The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}, total discharge current of {approx}3 MA, and rise time of the current of {approx}100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect.

  14. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: an emerging designer drug phenomenon.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-02-27

    Synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as 'bath salts', became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that dysregulation of central monoamine systems is a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  15. Instability arisen on liquid jet penetrated in flowing liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Naoto; Ueno, Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    We carry out an experimental study with a special interest on a penetration process and an instability on a liquid jet impinged to a flowing liquid pool. The impinged jet penetrates into the flowing bath accompanying with an entrainment of the ambient immiscible gas without coalescing with the liquid in the pool until the air wrap around the jet collapses. The wrapping air controls instabilities arisen on the jet. We observe the dynamic behaviors of the penetrated jet and the departure of the bubble of the wrapping gas at the tip of the collapsing jet by use of a high-speed camera in order to categorize the behaviors as functions of the velocities of the jet and flow in the pool. We also evaluate an averaged thickness of the wrapping gas through the observation.

  16. Carbothermic reduction of uranium oxides into solvent metallic baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisard Restivo, Thomaz A.; Capocchi, José D. T.

    2004-09-01

    The carbothermic reduction of UO 2 and U 3O 8 is studied employing tin and silicon solvent metallic baths in thermal analysis equipment, under Ar inert and N 2 reactive atmospheres. The metallic solvents are expected to lower the U activity by several orders of magnitude owing to strong interactions among the metals. The reduction products are composed of the solvent metal matrix and intermetallic U compounds. Silicon is more effective in driving the reduction since there is no residual UO 2 after the reaction. The gaseous product detected by mass spectrometer (MS) during the reduction is CO. A kinetic study for the Si case was accomplished by the stepwise isothermal analysis (SAI) method, leading to the identification of the controlling mechanisms as chemical reaction at the surface and nucleation, for UO 2 and U 3O 8 charges, respectively. One example for another system containing Al 2O 3 is also shown.

  17. Asymptotic Bound for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-01

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system.

  18. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as ‘bath salts’, became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate dysregulation of central monoamine systems are a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  19. Organ donation from brain-dead and circulatory-dead donors: single-institution experiences.

    PubMed

    Kenmochi, T; Nishiyama, S; Hayashi, M; Ito, T; Kato, Y; Hoshinaga, K

    2014-05-01

    Although the number of organ donations is extremely small in Japan, organ donation from brain dead (DBD) donors is increasing since the revised Law for Organ Transplantation was enacted on July 17, 2010. In our institution, organ donations had so far been performed from 247 donors (DCD 242, DBD 5), which is the largest number in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the status of organ donation before and after the enforcement of the revised law. After the enforcement of the revised law, the option of organ donation was shown to the more families of potential donors by the doctors or donor coordinators. However, the final number of donors was almost the same. The frequency of DBD donors of all donors increased (33.3%) as compared to 9.1% before the enforcement of the revised law. Reasons for rejection of donation from donor families were mainly based on the lack of understanding of brain death. To increase organ donation, we should promote social recognition of brain death, having the Organ Donation Card, and discussion of organ donation in each family. PMID:24815125

  20. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are

  1. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  2. Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and nucleobases, basic constituents common to life on Earth.

  3. Exploring Atmospheric Aqueous Chemistry (and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation) through OH Radical Oxidation Experiments, Droplet Evaporation and Chemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Sullivan, A.; Häkkinen, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Tan, Y.; McNeill, V. F.; Collett, J. L.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.; Sareen, N.; Carlton, A. G.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gas phase photochemistry fragments and oxidizes organic emissions, making water-soluble organics ubiquitous in the atmosphere. My group and others have found that several water-soluble compounds react further in the aqueous phase forming low volatility products under atmospherically-relevant conditions (i.e., in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols). Thus, secondary organic aerosol can form as a result of gas followed by aqueous chemistry (aqSOA). We have used aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments coupled with product analysis and chemical modeling to validate and refine the aqueous chemistry of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid. The resulting chemical model has provided insights into the differences between oxidation chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. Further, we conducted droplet evaporation experiments to characterize the volatility of the products. Most recently, we have conducted aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments with ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases to identify additional atmospherically-important precursors and products. Specifically, we scrubbed water-soluble gases from the ambient air in the Po Valley, Italy using four mist chambers in parallel, operating at 25-30 L min-1. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments and control experiments were conducted with these mixtures (total organic carbon ≈ 100 μM-C). OH radicals (3.5E-2 μM [OH] s-1) were generated by photolyzing H2O2. Precursors and products were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ion chromatography (IC), IC-ESI-MS, and ultra high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chemical modeling suggests that organic acids (e.g., oxalate, pyruvate, glycolate) are major products of OH radical oxidation at cloud-relevant concentrations, whereas organic radical - radical reactions result in the formation of oligomers in wet aerosols. Products of cloud chemistry and droplet evaporation have effective vapor pressures that are orders of magnitude lower when ammonium hydroxide is present (pH 7) than without (at lower pH). In Po Valley experiments, nitrogen-containing organics were prominent precursors and intermediates. Pyruvate and oxalate were among the products. Importantly, formation of aqSOA helps to explain the high O/C ratios found in atmospheric aerosols. While uncertainties remain large, global modeling suggests that aqSOA is comparable in magnitude to SOA formed through gas phase chemistry and vapor pressure driven partitioning (gasSOA).

  4. Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of…

  5. On Organizing Educational Research Communication in Europe: Past Experiences and Possible Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    In this note I will comment on the development of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) as a European educational research organization and the current situation. In doing so I will put forward a few matters concerning the social and intellectual organization of the EERA and the visibility of educational research in Europe.

  6. Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of

  7. Organizing for Student Success: The University College Model. The First Year Experience Monograph Series No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenbeck, Scott E.; Jackson, Barbara; Smith, Maggy; Ward, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Organizing for Student Success draws on data from more than 50 institutions to provide insight into how university colleges are organized, the initiatives they house, and the practices in place to ensure their effectiveness. Twenty case studies from 15 different campuses offer an in-depth understanding of institutional practice. Ultimately,…

  8. Dynamics of a qubit in a high-impedance transmission line from a bath perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Soumya; Baranger, Harold U.; Florens, Serge

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a generic model of light-matter interaction in the context of high-impedance waveguides, focusing on the behavior of the photonic states generated in the waveguide. The model treated consists simply of a two-level system coupled to a bosonic bath (the Ohmic spin-boson model). Quantum quenches as well as scattering of an incident coherent pulse are studied using two complementary methods. First, we develop an approximate ansatz for the electromagnetic waves based on a single multimode coherent state wave function; formally, this approach combines in a single framework ideas from adiabatic renormalization, the Born-Markov approximation, and input-output theory. Second, we present numerically exact results for scattering of a weak intensity pulse by using numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations. NRG provides a benchmark for any linear response property throughout the ultrastrong-coupling regime. We find that in a sudden quantum quench, the coherent state approach produces physical artifacts, such as improper relaxation to the steady state. These previously unnoticed problems are related to the simplified form of the ansatz that generates spurious correlations within the bath. In the scattering problem, NRG is used to find the transmission and reflection of a single photon, as well as the inelastic scattering of that single photon. Simple analytical formulas are established and tested against the NRG data that predict quantitatively the transport coefficients for up to moderate environmental impedance. These formulas resolve pending issues regarding the presence of inelastic losses in the spin-boson model near absorption resonances, and could be used for comparison to experiments in Josephson waveguide quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the scattering results using the coherent state wave-function approach are compared favorably to the NRG results for very weak incident intensity. We end our study by presenting results at higher power where the response of the system is nonlinear.

  9. Enantiomeric derivatization on the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard ExoMars 2018: how to unravel martian chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Morisson, M.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of homochirality in life on Earth remains unknown. The answer to this question lies in the study of chirality elsewhere in the Solar System. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment aboard Curiosity established the presence of organic molecules indigenous to a clay-rich sample on Mars [1]. However, SAM does not have the ability to separate between the enantiomers of potential medium- or high- molecular weight organic molecules. One of the wet chemistry experiments to be used in the MOMA instrument of the Exomars mission is designed for the extraction and identification of refractory organic chemical components in solid samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), while keeping the chiral center of the molecules intact [2]. This derivatization technique, using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent, will allow MOMA to separate the enantiomers of molecules of interest for astrobiology, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids. We present here the results of laboratory experiments which display the feasability and limitations of the detection of an enantiomeric excess of complex organic molecules in various analog samples, depending on the mineralogy of the Mars analog solid sample.

  10. Effectiveness of Mailing "Bathing without a Battle" to All US Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleson, Diane C.; Sloane, Philip D.; Cohen, Lauren W.

    2006-01-01

    An educational CD-ROM/video program was developed to educate nursing home staff about two research-based techniques for reducing agitation and aggression during bathing of persons with Alzheimer's disease, including person-centered showering and the towel bath. This educational program was distributed free of charge to all 15,453 US nursing homes

  11. Copper sulfate foot baths on dairies and crop toxicities – What are the risks?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  12. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  13. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-28

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  14. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 30, 2013 (78 FR 53734), the... modifications to reduce further the risk of injury associated with infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77...

  15. Effectiveness of Mailing "Bathing without a Battle" to All US Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleson, Diane C.; Sloane, Philip D.; Cohen, Lauren W.

    2006-01-01

    An educational CD-ROM/video program was developed to educate nursing home staff about two research-based techniques for reducing agitation and aggression during bathing of persons with Alzheimer's disease, including person-centered showering and the towel bath. This educational program was distributed free of charge to all 15,453 US nursing homes…

  16. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities – What are the Risks?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  17. The politics of combating the organ trade: lessons from the Israeli and Pakistani experience.

    PubMed

    Efrat, A

    2013-07-01

    Israel and Pakistan--two major participants in the global organ trade--enacted legislative prohibitions on the trade at roughly the same time. The article highlights three influences that brought about this change of policy in both countries: advocacy by local physicians coupled with media coverage and reinforced by the international medical community. The analysis also explains why the two countries have differed with respect to the enforcement of the organ-trade prohibition. The insights from the Israeli and Pakistani cases will be of use for the transplant community's efforts against organ trafficking. PMID:23675678

  18. Alcohol and sauna bathing: effects on cardiac rhythm, blood pressure, and serum electrolyte and cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roine, R; Luurila, O J; Suokas, A; Heikkonen, E; Koskinen, P; Ylikahri, R; Toivonen, L; Härkönen, M; Salaspuro, M

    1992-04-01

    The effect of heavy drinking and sauna bathing on cardiac rhythm, blood pressure, and serum electrolyte and cortisol concentrations was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers. Sauna bathing induced a comparable, significant increase in heart rate with and without alcohol consumption. During sauna bathing without alcohol, systolic blood pressure remained at the baseline level, whereas sauna and alcohol together decreased systolic blood pressure markedly from 136 +/- 4 to 113 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than 0.01). Neither sauna alone, nor sauna combined with alcohol intake, increased the frequency of premature ventricular complexes. Serum potassium, calcium and cortisol concentrations changed slightly during sauna, but alcohol consumption did not contribute further to this. In conclusion, sauna bathing, even in combination with heavy drinking, does not appear to provoke cardiac arrhythmias in healthy young men. However, the risk of hypotension is increased when sauna bathing is combined with alcohol consumption. PMID:1588256

  19. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of bath salt use: a review of the literature and case reports.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Karen; Striebel, Joan; Cho, Arthur K; Wang, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Bath salts are designer drugs with stimulant properties that are a growing medical and psychiatric concern due to their widespread availability and use. Although the chemical compounds in the mixtures referred to as "bath salts" vary, many are derivatives of cathinone, a monoamine alkaloid. Cathinones have an affinity for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine synapses in the brain. Because of the strong selection for these neurotransmitters, these drugs induce stimulating effects similar to those of methamphetamines, cocaine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA). Much of the emerging information about bath salts is from emergency department evaluation and treatment of severe medical and neuropsychiatric adverse outcomes. This review consists of a compilation of case reports and describes the emergent literature that illustrates the chemical composition of bath salts, patterns of use, administration methods, medical and neuropsychiatric effects, and treatments of patients with bath salt toxicity. PMID:23916320

  20. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

  1. Uptake of atmospheric trace gases by organic films: experiment and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Demou, E.; Visram, H.; Makar, P. A.; Chaudhuri, S. R.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of large mass fractions of organic compounds in atmospheric particles impacts both on the cloud-condensation nucleating abilities of these particle and on the sequesterization of trace atmospheric gases by them. We are using thin (a few micrometers thick) organic films as model laboratory substrates for studying the sequesterization of trace gases in a controlled fashion. I will describe our results on the uptake of water and of trace organic species onto organic films containing a range of functional groups, using a combination of experimental and absorptive partitioning calculations. The uptake of water onto organic films is measured using a quartz crystal microbalance; uptake of trace organics is studied in a newly built Knudsen cell apparatus. Gas-condensed phase modelling using UNIFAC predicts the water uptake curves for some partially oxidized substrates (1-octanol, octanoic acid, 1,5 dipentanol) moderately well, but has much lower accuracy for dodecane, malonic acid or 1,8 dioctanol. Quantitative comparisons of the model with measurements will be presented, and the causes for the differences in accuracy will be discussed.

  2. A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.

    PubMed

    Heyward, P M

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. PMID:21077881

  3. A Summary Report of Work Experience Education Program Effectiveness and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germscheid, R. D.

    A study was designed to gather perceptual data from students, coordinators, and supervisors involved in work experience education in Alberta, Canada. Two questionnaires were designed by the researcher to obtain information on the priorities and the perceived attainment of benefits of work experience and on selected organizational variables (e.g.,…

  4. The Synthesis of 4,6,8-Trimethylazulene: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Michael E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A two-stage synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene was developed for use in the undergraduate experiment, highlighting concepts not usually covered in the laboratory. The experiment requires purification procedures of chromatography and of sublimation and illustrates concepts of aromaticity, molecular orbital theory, and carbodium ion reactivity. (JN)

  5. Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David B.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

  6. John Dewey on Democracy, Education, Experience, and Communication: Implications for Adult Education in Developing Democratic Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    John Dewey's reflections regarding education, experience, and communication remain relevant to all educators, especially educators and trainers in the field of human resource development (HRD). Dewey viewed education as a process of growing in meaning. He stated, "all genuine education comes about through experience." Another essential concept in…

  7. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-04-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability.

  8. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  9. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  10. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. PMID:27033729

  11. Microbial and nutrient pollution of coastal bathing waters in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Daby, D; Turner, J; Jago, C

    2002-02-01

    The coastal pollution problem in Mauritius is exacerbated by the hydrogeology of the volcanic substratum. Bacterial contamination of bathing waters and nutrients, water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at three different spatial and temporal scales along the coastline of Mauritius during 1997-1998. Standard techniques for water sample collection and analysis set by the American Public Health Association [APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Washington, DC: APHA, 1995.] were used at: (a) 16 sites around the island over a period of 7 months; (b) 12 stations along a recreational beach over an 18-month period; and (c) at an underground freshwater seepage point over 1 day. Total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), and faecal streptococci (FS) contamination reported during all surveys varied randomly (e.g., with maximum densities in the ranges of 346-2020 TC, 130-2000 FC, and 180-1040 FS at one site) and at times exceeded the established EEC and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) standards for bathing water (e.g., in >90% of samples) to qualify for beach closure. Computed FC:FS ratios were used to pinpoint human faecal matter as the main source of contamination. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations in seepage water were high (3600-9485, 38-105, and 9950-24,775 microg l(-1), respectively) and a cause for concern when compared with levels (5-845, 5-72, and 35-6570 microg l(-1), respectively) in cleaner lagoon water samples. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (for TC and NO3: r=.75, P<.02; for TC and PO4: r=.779, P<.02; for TC and SiO4: r=.731, P<.05; for FC and NO3: r=.773, P<.02; for FC and SiO4: r=.727, P<.05; for FS and SiO4: r=.801 P<.01) between microbial densities and nutrients recorded, confirming the pathogen-contaminated water to be highly eutrophic. There is an urgency for Mauritius to properly address the issue of sewage treatment and wastewater discharge to safeguard its coastal environment, public health, and tourism expansion. PMID:11868664

  12. Transformation of polymetallic dust in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (field experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with an X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that the ash matter from the organic horizons (after ignition) of control and experimental plots mainly (>85%) consists of different soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (particularly magnetite). From 10% to 15% of particles in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (Albic Rustic Podzol) of the experimental plot were represented by polymetallic ball-shaped dust particles that were preserved in the soil without significant transformation for 14 years after their artificial application. The total contents of Cu, Pb, As, and Ni in the organic horizon on the experimental plot were 22-100 times higher than those in the control; the contents of Zn and Fe were 2-5 times higher. The sequence of chemical elements according to their total contents in the samples of control and experimental plots was different. The portion of available forms of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, and Co) compounds extractable with 1.0 M HCl averaged 20-30% of their total contents in the soil. More than 80% of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals were concentrated in the organic horizon of contaminated podzol soil, which represents the biogeochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants down the soil profile. Durable fixation of heavy metals in the organic horizon and their weak migration into the mineral soil layers significantly hamper the processes of self-purification of contaminated soils.

  13. The formation of organic molecules in solar system environments: The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space preflight overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Martins, Z.; Ricco, A.; Blum, J.; Schraepler, R.; van Dongen, J.; Palmans, A.; Sephton, M.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) will investigate the formation of prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment when it is sent to, and later retrieved from, the International Space Station in 2012. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, electrical discharges, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. Two gas mixture compositions (CH4, NH3, H2 and N2, H2, CO) will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 °C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of initial products, intermediates and their abundances. Conducting the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the low gravity, energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur as planetary systems form.

  14. Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, C.C.; Neff, J.C.; Townsend, A.R.; Hood, E.

    2004-01-01

    Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

  15. Organ transplantation as a transformative experience: anthropological insights into the restructuring of the self.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L A

    1995-09-01

    Transplantation represents in the popular mind the pinnacle of biomedical knowledge and skill. Its feasibility depends upon the management of conflicting cultural values surrounding death and dying, where diverse parties consider bodies and their parts to be personal property, sacred entities, or offerings to the common good. Specifically within the specialized transplant community, viable organs are scarce, socially valuable resources. The ideology that guides transplant professionals, however, is rife with contradictions: close inspection reveals unease over definitions of death and rights to body parts. Ideological disjunction arises from the competing needs to personalize and to objectify organs and bodies. Organ recipients struggle with these contradictory messages as they rebuild their sense of self and self-worth following transplantation. This transformative process is explored by analyzing professional writings and data generated from ethnographic research in the United States. The study ends by examining transformed identity as fictionalized and extended biography. PMID:8542439

  16. Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

  17. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  18. Like Dissolves Like: A Classroom Demonstration and a Guided-Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration supported by the guided-inquiry experience that focuses on separation techniques and other solvent-dependent processes, such as reaction-solvent selection. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  19. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  20. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice. PMID:27131130

  1. Mechanisms of carrier transport induced by a microswimmer bath.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of a V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanism itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modeling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used. PMID:25347885

  2. Heat current characteristics in nanojunctions with superconducting baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettinger, David; Chitra, R.; Restrepo, Juliana

    2014-10-01

    As a fundamental requisite for thermotronics, controlling heat flow has been a longstanding quest in solid state physics. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in nanoscale hybrid systems as possible candidates for thermal devices. In this context, we study the heat current in the simplest hybrid device of a two level system weakly coupled to two heat baths. We use the reduced density matrix approach together with a simple Born-Markov approximation to calculate the heat current in the steady state. We consider different kinds of reservoirs and show that the nature of the reservoir plays a very important role in determining the thermal characteristics of the device. In particular, we investigate the effectiveness of a conventional superconductor as a reservoir with regard to manipulating the heat current. In the emergent temperature characteristics, we find that superconductivity in the reservoirs leads to enhanced thermal currents and that the superconducting phase transition is clearly visible in the heat current. We observe negative differential thermal conductance and a pronounced rectification of the heat current, making this a good building block for a quantum thermal diode.

  3. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  4. Quantum Thermal Bath for Path Integral Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Brieuc, Fabien; Dammak, Hichem; Hayoun, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The quantum thermal bath (QTB) method has been recently developed to account for the quantum nature of the nuclei by using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. QTB-MD is an efficient but approximate method when dealing with strongly anharmonic systems, while path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) gives exact results but in a huge amount of computation time. The QTB and PIMD methods have been combined in order to improve the PIMD convergence or correct the failures of the QTB-MD technique. Therefore, a new power spectral density of the random force within the QTB has been developed. A modified centroid-virial estimator of the kinetic energy, especially adapted to QTB-PIMD, has also been proposed. The method is applied to selected systems: a one-dimensional double-well system, a ferroelectric phase transition, and the position distribution of an hydrogen atom in a fuel cell material. The advantage of the QTB-PIMD method is its ability to give exact results with a more reasonable computation time for strongly anharmonic systems. PMID:26799437

  5. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  6. CdSe nanowires grown by using chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubur, H. Metin; Septekin, F.; Alpdogan, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Cadmium-selenide (CdSe) nanowire thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 70 °C. Cadmium sulfate and sodium selenosulphate were used as Cd2+ and Se2- ion sources, respectively. The CdSe nanowire film was annealed in an air atmosphere at 573 K for 1 hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the nanowire films as-deposited and annealed had mixed cubic and hexagonal phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the CdSe nanowires had lengths ranging from 642 nm to 2.5 μm and diameters ranging from 46 nm to 211 nm. The optical properties of the as-deposited and the annealed nanowire films, an investigated by recording the transmission spectra by using an UV-visible spectrophotometer revealed that the energy band gap decreased (from 1.78 eV to 1.50 eV) upon annealing. The conductivity measurements made by using four-probe methods for both the annealed and the as-deposited films showed that the resistivity, conductivity and activation energy changed upon annealing.

  7. Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

    2005-01-01

    Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

  8. Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

    2005-01-01

    Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular

  9. The Wisconsin Community Care Organization: Preliminary Findings from the Milwaukee Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Community Care Organization-Milwaukee, sought to provide care at less cost and with higher resultant quality of life than nursing home care. Most frequently used services were transportation and nutrition. Much of the cost savings resulted from reduced hospitalization and nursing home utilization. (Author)

  10. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to

  11. Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

  12. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Y. C.; Bailey, T.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation, Burton and Bailey, discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing knowledge sharing systems in organizations. Bailey provides a tool using imagery and collage for identifying and utilizing the diverse values and beliefs of individuals and groups. Burton reveals findings from a business research study that examines how social construction influences knowledge sharing among task oriented groups.

  13. EXPERIENCES OF THE LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR A LARGE SCIENTIFIC MEETING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the history and organization of the combined meeting of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America, the VI International Solanaceae Conference, and the III Solanaceae Genomics Conference. The unifying theme of these three groups is the science of the Solanaceae...

  14. Mineralization of soil organic matter in two elevated CO2 by warming experiments in grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimentally elevated atmospheric CO2 has enhanced carbon (C) allocation belowground, while ecosystem warming has led to losses of soil C due to enhanced mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Few investigations of possible interactions between elevated CO2 and temperature have been reported...

  15. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in

  16. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) f...

  17. Contradictory Aspects of Organized Youth Sport: Challenging and Fostering Sibling Relationships and Participation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an interpretive study that sought to understand how organized sport at the community level influences sibling relationships and interactions. The meanings of the participants' sport involvement, in relation to their siblings', was also examined using a constructivist approach to grounded theory.

  18. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

  19. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  20. Parent Power and Public Education Reform: The Experience of Participation in Grassroots Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mediratta, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of participation in grassroots organizing on the capacity and commitment of public school parents and community members to engage in future activism. The study used a mixed-methods research design, drawing on qualitative and quantitative data collected from individuals involved in seven exemplar…