Sample records for organ bath experiments

  1. Bathing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips At some point, people with Alzheimer’s disease will need help bathing. Because this is a private activity, people may not want help. They may ...

  2. Silk suture used in standard organ bath studies contracts upon exposure to Krebs buffer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Tazzeo; Jianmin Zuo; Russ Ellis; Luke J. Janssen

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Muscles of all types are routinely excised and studied under isometric conditions using force transducers in standard organ baths. In such studies, the muscle is stretched or “preloaded,” as the magnitudes of the contractions evoked by various stimuli can vary markedly depending on this baseline parameter: many such studies refer to an optimal length and\\/or preload tension. While calibrating

  3. Isothermal bath and video system for the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. This image shows the isothermal bath and video system for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  4. An electrochemical approach to total organic carbon control in printed circuit board copper sulfate plating baths Part I: Anode performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gattrell; B. MacDougall; Y. M. Henuset; J. Fournier

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical approach to decreasing high levels of total organic carbon (TOC) in printed circuit board (PCB) copper sulfate plating baths has been investigated. The organic contaminants build-up over the course of pattern plating of PCBs, and at high concentrations they interfere with the quality of the plated copper. The electrochemical approach involves destroying the organic contaminants using electrochemical oxidation.

  5. An electrochemical approach to total organic carbon control in printed circuit board copper sulfate plating baths Part II: Overall system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gattrell; B. MacDougall; Y. M. Henuset; J. Fournier

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical system for oxidative removal of high levels of total organic carbon (TOC) in printed circuit board (PCB) copper sulfate plating baths has been developed. These organic contaminants build-up over the course of pattern plating of PCBs, and at high concentrations they interfere with the quality of the plated copper. The chemistry of the electrochemical oxidation of the plating

  6. Metal article passivated by a bath having an organic activator and a film-forming element

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greene

    1984-01-01

    Substrates, especially those having plated metal surfaces, are subjected to passivation treatments in baths that incorporate one or more film-forming agents at least one of which does not require chromium and includes anions or cations of elements other than chromium. Typically, the anions or cations are introduced as bath-soluble salts which react with the plated surface of the substrate to

  7. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Lare; A. Godoy; L. Cattin; K. Jondo; T. Abachi; F. R. Diaz; M. Morsli; K. Napo; M. A. del Valle; J. C. Bernède

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300°C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used

  8. Metal article passivated by a bath having an organic activator and a film-forming element

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.L.

    1984-04-24

    Substrates, especially those having plated metal surfaces, are subjected to passivation treatments in baths that incorporate one or more film-forming agents at least one of which does not require chromium and includes anions or cations of elements other than chromium. Typically, the anions or cations are introduced as bath-soluble salts which react with the plated surface of the substrate to form an adherent, coherent passivation surface film. Also present within these baths are a source of hydrogen ions and a bath-soluble carboxylic acid or derivative activator for enhancing the rate of the passivation reaction. Articles passivated in baths incorporating these film-forming agents have a hydrophobic surface that exhibits corrosion resistance and that typically has a bright finish.

  9. A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives. PMID:20117791

  10. Bath Salts

    MedlinePLUS

    Synthetic cathinones, often called “bath salts,” are powerful, illegal, and can cause hallucinations and violent behavior, among other dangerous effects. Twitter Facebook RSS 582 Exposures Jan. 1, ...

  11. The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

    1988-01-01

    According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

  12. Modeling and experiment of dye-sensitized solar cell with vertically aligned ZnO nanorods through chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Risanti, Doty D.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model based on electron diffusion differential equation and Schottky barrier model was developed to determine the current-voltage characteristics of DSSC. To verify the model DSSC with ZnO nanorods photoelectrode which was chemically bath deposited onto the TCO was fabricated. According to modeling results, increasing of recombination current density J at these interfaces results in a decrease in Schottky barrier height ?b and therefore improves the photovoltage under the open-circuit condition. It is found that the open-circuit voltage remains constant when the TCO/ZnO Schottky barrier height was varied in the range of 0.45 - 0.6 eV. This theoretical model consistents with the experimental result in which the fabricated DSSCs can produce conversion efficiency in the range of 0.98 - 1.16%. The trend in photovoltage calculated in the theoretical model basically agrees with the experimental result, although the calculated photocurrent is somewhat over estimated compared to the experimental results. The model presents that the ideality factor for ZnO nanorods, which also contributes to the enhancement of photovoltage, increases in the range of 2.75 - 3.0 as the annealing temperature is increased in the experiment.

  13. Confined compression and torsion experiments on a pHEMA gel in various bath concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Reinder W; Petterson, Rob; Huyghe, Jacques M

    2013-06-01

    The constitutive behaviour of cartilaginous tissue is the result of complex interaction between electrical, chemical and mechanical forces. Electrostatic interactions between fixed charges and mobile ions are usually accounted for by means of Donnan osmotic pressure. Recent experimental data show, however, that the shear modulus of articular cartilage depends on ionic concentration even if the strain is kept constant. Poisson-Boltzmann simulations suggest that this dependence is intrinsic to the double-layer around the proteoglycan chains. In order to verify this premise, this study measures whether--at a given strain--this ionic concentration-dependent shear modulus is present in a polymerized hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate gel or not. A combined 1D confined compression and torque experiment is performed on a thin cylindrical hydrogel sample, which is brought in equilibrium with, respectively, 1, 0.1 and 0.03 M NaCl. The sample was placed in a chamber that consists of a stainless steel ring placed on a sintered glass filter, and on top a sintered glass piston. Stepwise ionic loading was cascaded by stepwise 1D compression, measuring the total stress after equilibration of the sample. In addition, a torque experiment was interweaved by applying a harmonic angular displacement and measuring the torque, revealing the relation between aggregate shear modulus and salt concentration at a given strain. PMID:22926832

  14. The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bum Jin Park; Yuko Tsunetsugu; Tamami Kasetani; Takahide Kagawa; Yoshifumi Miyazaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews previous research on the physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing), and presents new results from field experiments conducted in 24 forests\\u000a across Japan. The term Shinrin-yoku was coined by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries in 1982, and can be defined as making contact\\u000a with and taking in the

  15. Chemical bath method for ZnS thin films preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Iván Oliva; I. Gonza?lez-Chan; V. Rejo?n; J. Rojas; R. Patiño; D. Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    We report a chemical bath method to prepare ZnS thin films on glass substrates for solar applications. The proposed method is based on the experience to deposit CdS thin films by chemical bath but replacing some chemical reagents. The bath is composed of zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide, ammonium nitrate, and thiourea. During films deposition, the chemical bath is agitated with

  16. Self-Organized Criticality: Theory and Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Boettcher

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments regarding driven dissipative systems that exhibit self-organized criticality (SOC) will be reviewed. While the concept of SOC has been proposed a decade ago to explain scale-free fluctuations found in many natural phenomena (such as earth quakes), it has been established in controlled experiments only recently. These experiments study granular motion in rice piles. We can show that these

  17. Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings

    PubMed Central

    Brilot, Ben O.; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure. PMID:22250131

  18. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  19. [New rules of the bathing water quality management].

    PubMed

    Skotak, Krzysztof; Bratkowski, Jakub; Maziarka, Dorota; Jamsheer-Bratkowska, Ma?gorzata

    2012-01-01

    Directive 2006/7/EC concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing directive 76/160/ EEC, adopted in 2006, resulted in changes polish laws and regulations of this topic, which were necessary to comply with the new Directive. These included Water Act and three regulations: on bathing water quality surveillance, on bathing waters register and on bathing water profile. The main changes in the sanitary surveillance on bathing waters quality and their consequences for bathers has been discussed in the article. According to new regulations conducting bathing water quality monitoring was handed over to organizers of bathing sites and local government. Bathing water supervision and water quality assessment is in Polish Sanitary Inspection competence. Unique solution of polish law is division of bathing places into two categories: bathing sites and places used for bathing. In a consequence regulations "create" another category of such objects like places used according to custom for bathing by neighbourhood people, which will be left without any supervision. There is significant threat that new formal aspects combined with organisers burdened with supervision and finance responsibilities, will lead to decrease number of bathing sites in favour of growing number of places used for bathing. This can in consequence diminish bathers health safety. PMID:23101231

  20. Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

  1. Modelling microwave cooking; theory and experiment C.J. Budd, Centre for Nonlinear Mechanics, University of Bath, UK,

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    field patterns in turntable microwave ovens and the research team at the University of Greenwich has cou potato) at different heating times in various types of microwave oven: mode-stirred ovens rated at 650WModelling microwave cooking; theory and experiment C.J. Budd, Centre for Nonlinear Mechanics

  2. UAF LIVE Leadership Involvement and Volunteer Experience UAF Student Organization

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    UAF LIVE Leadership Involvement and Volunteer Experience UAF Student Organization Advisor Handbook Organization UAF LIVE Program Student Organizations Phone: 907-474-1959 Fax: 907-474-5508 E-mail: fystuorg.....................................10 #12;3 Dear UAF Student Organization Advisors, On behalf of the UAF LIVE program, thank you for all

  3. 10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

  5. Integrated management systems: experiences in Italian organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Salomone

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Management Systems (IMS) are becoming more and more important, but experiences may differ across regions and companies of different size and sectors. The study reported in this paper has been developed using a sample of Italian companies to investigate the potential for integration starting from an analysis of the common aspects in terms of real motivations (company image, costs

  6. The Organization of Reports of Scientific Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Beginning teachers of scientific technical writing often have little background knowledge in the sciences; thus, they may encounter difficulty in dealing with technical reports. To achieve clear explanations of the effects of scientific experiments, scientific writers need to know the following general principles: (1) the function of all the…

  7. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  8. Solvent Selection for Recrystallization: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jacob B.

    1979-01-01

    This experiment develops the students' ability to carry out a simple recrystallization effectively, and demonstrates how a solvent may be selected or rejected for the recrystallization of a specific organic compound. (Author/BB)

  9. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  10. Organ yield from deceased donors: initial experience of an organ procurement unit in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kazemeyni, Seyed-Mohammad; Sorosh, Ahmad-Reza; Afzali, Ahmad

    2009-03-01

    To promote organ transplantation in Iran, organ procurement from deceased donors should be supported. For this policy, some organ procurement units have been established in university hospitals. Further researches in these activities are warranted to better elucidate the role of cadaveric organ transplantation in Iran.We retrospectively studied deceased organ donation from June 2005 through December 2007 in Organ Procurement Unit of Shariati Hospital in Tehran. We analyzed a total of 141 organs that were retrieved from 46 brain-dead organ donors.The median age of all donors was 29 years (min: six, max: 63). Two third of them were males. The average of harvested organs was 3.06 per donor and four organs per month. The main cause of brain death was head trauma (n=33, 72%). Organ yield per donor was correlated to the time of the organ procurement unit activity and increased during the three years (r=0.261, P=0.017). Other variables were not changed during this period. Donor characteristics such as age, sex, blood group, and causes of brain death impacted on the organ yield. This study showed that organ procurement units can improve organ yield and both experience and donor characteristics influence on the number of harvested organs. PMID:19249888

  11. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

  12. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a) Location. The following...the Bath Iron Works Facility in Bath, Maine to a deployed position in the...

  13. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a) Location. The following...the Bath Iron Works Facility in Bath, Maine to a deployed position in the...

  14. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a) Location. The following...the Bath Iron Works Facility in Bath, Maine to a deployed position in the...

  15. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation...Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a) Location. The following...the Bath Iron Works Facility in Bath, Maine to a deployed position in the...

  16. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  17. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  18. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

  19. Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths.

    PubMed

    Nehmann, Julia B; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2012-01-01

    : Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF. PMID:22805742

  20. Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF. PMID:22805742

  1. Organ procurement: experience from a southern Italian region.

    PubMed

    Roncone, A; Vantaggiato, M D; Benvenuto, A; Nino, A; Iannello, A; De Giacomo, E; Verre, P; Formisani, P; Milano, G A; Burza, F; Caporale, S; Cirillo, S; Bonofiglio, R; Risoli, V; Petrassi, A

    1996-02-01

    The authors report their experience of organ procurement during the last 5 years to evaluate a program that began in 1988 to improve organ retrieval in Calabria. In this region only two donations were reported up to 1988, one each in 1980 and 1985. Because of the large population on dialysis and the willingness of a group of surgeons and anesthesiologists, this program was undertaken in 1988 under the supervision of C.C.S.T. (Co-ordination of Centre and South Italy for Transplantation). This program was designed to act on two levels: to create a large group of people directly involved in health care (physicians and nurses) motivated in organ procurement and transplantation, and to diffuse the "culture" of organ donation among lay people. This was achieved by means of scientific meetings inside the hospital and with conventions and TV programs, supported by an Association of Volunteers, where ethical and scientific problems of organ donation and transplantation were discussed in simple language. Various meetings were also held with high school students. During these meetings a questionnaire was distributed among students. Results of this questionnaire show that the main obstacles to organ donation are the "unclear" concept of "brain death" and religious feelings, but after the concept of brain death was explained, a significant number of students showed a different attitude toward organ procurement and transplantation. Results of this program are extremely encouraging (23 organ donations during the last 3 years). We hope to improve our results in the near future, and we do believe that a further and significant increase to our preliminary good results could be achieved by the possibility of performing at least kidney transplantation in our institution. PMID:8644199

  2. The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) Experiment on the Organisms\\/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O\\/OREOS) Nanosatellite Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Quinn; P. Ehrenfreund; A. Mattioda; A. Ricco; N. Bramall; K. Bryson; J. Chittenden; C. Conley

    2010-01-01

    The organism\\/organic exposure to orbital stresses nanosatellite has been developed as the first flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program. The satellite includes the SEVO experiment, which investigates the stability of organics.

  3. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sociability and sex drive, but some users experience paranoia, agitation, and hallucinatory delirium; some even display psychotic ... pressure, and chest pains) and psychiatric symptoms including paranoia, hallucinations, and panic attacks. Patients with the syndrome ...

  4. The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

    2012-05-01

    Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the International Space Station. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples in space environment. EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, two control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center (MUSC) at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

  5. Organization and Analysis of Data from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, Dan; Spayde, Damon

    2013-04-01

    The Qweak experiment, which was conducted at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in a collaboration consisting of over twenty institutions, measured the small parity violating asymmetry occurring in elastic e-p scattering at low four-momentum transfer. This asymmetry will be used to calculate a precise value for the proton's weak charge. The Standard Model firmly predicts this weak charge based on the running of the weak mixing angle from the Z0 pole (where it is anchored by precise measurements) down to low energies. Through testing this prediction the Qweak experiment hopes to either constrain or reveal possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. Because of the small size of the predicted asymmetry and the precise nature of the measurement, over 2000 hours of data were taken. In order to help organize and store this data, a database has been implemented containing averages over sets of this data. It must be organized in such a way as to allow the quick and easy retrieval of data by collaborators with minimal knowledge of the database language. Tools for aggregating and expanding parts of this database as well as data analysis will be discussed.

  6. Shower bath economizer test program

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.A.

    1987-10-01

    The shower bath economizer (SBE) is a simple counterflow heat exchanger which transfers heat from warm exiting shower drain water to cold incoming water. This report describes a comprehensive test program conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the SBE. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    E-print Network

    Kao, Justin C. T.

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many ...

  8. Effectiveness of starch removal in a Bath-Substrate-Flow (BSF) device using surfactants and ?-amylase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Encarnación Jurado Alameda; Vicente Bravo Rodríguez; Deisi Altmajer Vaz; Rita de Cassia Siqueira Curto Valle

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of the removal process of starch from different surfaces was studied using a laboratory device called Bath-Substrate-Flow. To do this, experiments were performed using the following solutions as washing bath: (a) the commercial nonionic surfactant Glucopon® 650; (b) the commercial anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate LAS, and (c) the enzyme ?-amylase (obtained from the microorganism Bacillus licheniformis). The

  9. Conditions Entrance Bath 1 Bath 2 Kitchen Bdrm. 1 Bdrm. 2 Bdrm. 3 Bdrm. 4

    E-print Network

    ;Conditions Entrance Living Room Dining Room Bath 1 Bath 2 Kitchen Bdrm. 1 Bdrm. 2 Bdrm. 3 Bdrm. 4 CleanConditions Entrance Living Room Dining Room Bath 1 Bath 2 Kitchen Bdrm. 1 Bdrm. 2 Bdrm. 3 Bdrm. 4 Clean Ceiling Clean Woodwork Clean Walls Ceiling/Walls Cracks Ceiling/Walls Holes Ceiling/Walls Paint

  10. EFFICIENCY OF ELECTROPOLISHING VERSUS BATH COMPOSITION AND AGING: FIRST RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Eozenou; C. Antoine; A. Aspart; S. Berry; J. F. Denis; B. Malki

    Electropolishing experiments on niobium samples are carried out in Saclay: - to study the bath aging, its origins and the consequences on the polishing performances, - to highlight the influence of parameters such as temperature and acids concentrations (hydrofluoric and sulfuric). Some mixtures with different concentrations have already been investigated. Intensity as a function of time, surface states and polishing

  11. Prediction of human thermophysiological responses during shower bathing.

    PubMed

    Munir, Abdul; Takada, Satoru; Matsushita, Takayuki; Kubo, Hiroko

    2010-03-01

    This study develops a model to predict the thermophysiological response of the human body during shower bathing. Despite the needs for the quantitative evaluation of human body response during bathing for thermal comfort and safety, the complicated mechanisms of heat transfer at the skin surface, especially during shower bathing, have disturbed the development of adequate models. In this study, an initial modeling approach is proposed by developing a simple heat transfer model at the skin surface during shower bathing applied to Stolwijk's human thermal model. The main feature of the model is the division of the skin surface into three parts: a dry part, a wet part without water flow, and a wet part with water flow. The area ratio of each part is decided by a simple formula developed from a geometrical approach based on the shape of the Stolwijk's human thermal model. At the same time, the convective heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the flowing water is determined experimentally. The proposed model is validated by a comparison with the results of human subject experiments under controlled and free shower conditions. The model predicts the mean skin temperature during shower fairly well both for controlled and free shower bathing styles. PMID:19798515

  12. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism\\/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O\\/OREOS) satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan E. Bramall; Richard Quinn; Andrew Mattioda; Kathryn Bryson; Julie D. Chittenden; Amanda Cook; Cindy Taylor; Giovanni Minelli; Pascale Ehrenfreund; Antonio J. Ricco; David Squires; Orlando Santos; Charles Friedericks; David Landis; Nykola C. Jones; Farid Salama; Louis J. Allamandola; Søren V. Hoffmann

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism\\/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O\\/OREOS). O\\/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic

  13. The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Jessberger, E. K.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

    2013-06-01

    Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the ISS. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples. EXPOSE-R was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, 2 control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results.

  14. Oil Formation: An "Unexpected" Difficulty in an Elementary Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dennis A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment involving the separation of an unknown solid organic acid and an unknown solid organic base. The experiment is designed to present the student with an unexpected difficulty, namely, the formation of a separable viscous liquid, to see how the student handles this difficulty. (MLH)

  15. Differences in Developmental Experiences for Commonly Used Categories of Organized Youth Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Skorupski, William P.; Arrington, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The coherence of adolescents' self-reported learning experiences between subgroups of organized youth activities within five commonly used categories was evaluated. Data for the present study come from a representative sample of eleventh grade adolescents' reports on learning experiences in an organized youth activity using the Youth Experience

  16. Gene set analyses for interpreting microarray experiments on prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Tintle, Nathan; Best, Aaron; Dejongh, Matthew; VanBruggen, Dirk; Heffron, Fred; Porwollik, Steffen; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2008-11-05

    Background: Recent advances in microarray technology have brought with them the need for enhanced methods of biologically interpreting gene expression data. Recently, methods like Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and variants of Fisher’s exact test have been proposed which utilize a priori biological information. Typically, these methods are demonstrated with a priori biological information from the Gene Ontology. Results: Alternative gene set definitions are presented based on gene sets inferred from the SEED: open-source software environment for comparative genome annotation and analysis of microbial organisms. Many of these gene sets are then shown to provide consistent expression across a series of experiments involving Salmonella Typhimurium. Implementation of the gene sets in an analysis of microarray data is then presented for the Salmonella Typhimurium data. Conclusions: SEED inferred gene sets can be naturally defined based on subsystems in the SEED. The consistent expression values of these SEED inferred gene sets suggest their utility for statistical analyses of gene expression data based on a priori biological information

  17. Bath impregnation of carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Perruchoud, R.C.; Meier, M.W.; Fischer, W.K. [R and D Carbon Ltd., Sierre (Switzerland)

    1996-10-01

    A rapid bath impregnation in anode butts set in contact with the cathodic metal has been observed. The sodium content of the butts is raised by 0.2% per minute of contact. Slower rates of impregnation have been measured in cases of pot current interruptions. The impact of the impregnated butts on the anode reactivity is so dramatic that sorting of these butts is absolutely needed. Critical electrolysis conditions which may lead to impregnation are reviewed and the mechanism of impregnation is examined.

  18. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  19. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The area. The waters within a coffin shaped...the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, USN Bath Maine or his authorized representative...

  5. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The area. The waters within a coffin shaped...the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, USN Bath Maine or his authorized representative...

  6. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The area. The waters within a coffin shaped...the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, USN Bath Maine or his authorized representative...

  7. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation...Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The area. The waters within a coffin shaped...the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, USN Bath Maine or his authorized representative...

  8. Experience in designing and using a flat structure in a multi-project research organization

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; Gardner, E.J.; Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In early 1986, the organization of the Management Systems Laboratories (MSL) was changed from a standard matrix to a flat organization. The flat organization contributed more negative influences on the organization and its goals than positive ones. One year later, the flat organization was changed to a standard hierarchy and most negative influences were overcome. Before, during, and after the flat organization, MSL saw significant growth in funding and in its resource needs. This paper is an account of an experience with a type of flat organization, why we changed to that organization, what worked and what didn't, why we changed away from that organization, what we learned from the experience, and what we would recommend for research organizations considering flat organizations. The authors include the founder and director of MSL, a senior manager during the experience who informally served as historian, and a manager in the organization that sponsored much of MSL's research during MSL's experience with a flat organization. 1 fig.

  9. Could Communication Form Impact Organizations' Experience with Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Diane Susan; Richard, Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that cultural diversity can be advantageous or detrimental for organizations depending on organization members' communication. Introduces three forms of communication (ethnocentric, modernistic and cosmopolitan) explored by W. Barnett Pearce, each of which differs in deeply held assumptions. Overviews the implications of cosmopolitan…

  10. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm. PMID:24010505

  11. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  12. Temperature control of a cryogenic bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  14. Total organic carbon and its composition in long-term field experiments in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaromír Kubát; Dana Cerhanová; Jitka Nováková; Jan Lipavský

    2006-01-01

    Total organic carbon content and its composition have been evaluated in the topsoil in the selected plots of 13 long-term field experiments conducted in different soil and climate conditions. The altitude of the sites ranged from 225 – 670 m above sea level. Four variants of the organic and mineral fertilization were selected in each experiment: Nil, which did not receive any organic

  15. Irreversibility and self-organization in hydrodynamic echo experiments.

    PubMed

    Düring, Gustavo; Bartolo, Denis; Kurchan, Jorge

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the reversible-irreversible transition in low-Reynolds hydrodynamic systems driven by external cycling actuation. We introduce a set of models with no auto-organization, and show that a sharp crossover is obtained between a Lyapunov regime in which any noise source, such as thermal noise, is amplified exponentially, and a diffusive regime where this no longer holds. In the latter regime, groups of particles are seen to move cooperatively, yet no spatial organization occurs. PMID:19391877

  16. Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia: an Italian experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. CAZZATO; M. ZOMPATORI; G. BARUZZI; M. L. SCHIATTONE; M. BURZI; A. ROSSI; L. RATTA; G. TERZUOLO; F. FALCONE; V. POLETTI

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features at onset and outcome and the diagnostic approach in subjects with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Over a 7-year period we observed 78 cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia, in which well documented clinical and radiographic data were available. The final diagnosis of BOOP was validated when patients presented: (i)

  17. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae in it; and 3) Inadequate disinfection and washing for whole circulation system prior the experience bathing. The Hiuga City Committee directed 24 measures to improve the sanitary condition of the facility including following 5 items. 1) Fix the manual for maintenance and management of the bath. 2) Keep sufficient overflow of bath water. 3) Put disinfection of filters into practice. 4) Precise measurement and control of the residual chlorine concentration in bath water. 5) Replacement of filtrating material from crushed porous ceramic into natural sand. PMID:15103899

  18. Effects of bathing solution on tensile properties of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol

    2014-03-01

    The cornea is a transparent tissue with the major functions of protecting the inner contents of the eye and refracting incoming light. The biomechanical properties of the cornea strongly depend on the microstructure and composition of the stromal layer, a hydrated bio-gel. The uniaxial strip testing is a convenient and well-accepted experimental technique for characterizing corneal material parameters. It is known that the water content of specimens in this method depends on the osmolality of the bathing solution. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of different bathing solutions on uniaxial tensile material properties of the cornea. The tensile behavior of bovine corneal samples was measured in six different bathing solutions, i.e., hypertonic solution (12% NaCl solution), common preserving isotonic solutions (e.g., phosphate buffer saline, ophthalmic balanced salt solution, and 0.9% NaCl solution), hypotonic solution (distilled water), and neutral solution (mineral oil). It was observed that the bathing solution had significant influence on the tensile behavior of the corneal samples. In particular, the specimens tested in bathing solutions causing less swelling had significantly stiffer tensile properties. Furthermore, a simple mathematical model based on Voigt composite material model was developed to represent the measured solution-dependent tensile properties. The present study suggests that extra attention should be paid to corneal thickness (hydration) in uniaxial tensile experiments. It also provides important data on tensile properties of the cornea; such information could significantly contribute to improving the accuracy of numerical predictions of corneal biomechanics. PMID:24333541

  19. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product...

  20. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as...

  1. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as...

  2. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as...

  3. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as...

  4. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as...

  5. Supporting Aphasics for Capturing, Organizing and Sharing Personal Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Mahmud, Abdullah

    When a person, due to brain injury or another disease, suffers in his or her ability to speak, it becomes inherently cumbersome to share needs, emotions, and experiences through personal stories and social interaction. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author’s dissertation, which focuses on designing a support system to share daily experiences for people suffering from expressive aphasia.

  6. Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ned H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer…

  7. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  8. Will recently proposed experiments be able to demonstrate quantum behavior of entire living organisms?

    E-print Network

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2009-12-12

    Recently proposed experiments consider creating and observing the quantum superposition of small living organisms. Those proposed experiments are examined here for feasibility on the basis of results of earlier studies identifying a boundary separating obligatory classical behavior from quantum behavior. It appears that the proposed experiments may be expected to succeed for the case of viruses, but most probably fail for the case of the appreciably larger organisms that are also considered.

  9. Organ Donation and Transplantation—The Chennai Experience in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shroff; S. Rao; G. Kurian; S. Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the “Transplantation of Human Organ Act” of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed

  10. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

  11. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

  12. Survey of IT Outsourcing Experiences in US and UK Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C. Lacity; Leslie P. Willcocks

    2000-01-01

    The global IT outsourcing market is estimated to exceed $121 billion by the year 2001. To assess current market practices and experiences, a survey was distributed to 600 US and UK CIOs. The 101 US and UK respondents are generally pleased with information technology (IT) outsourcing. In particular, respondents rated overall supplier performance as \\

  13. Drops bouncing on a vibrating bath

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of millimetric droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrating fluid bath. We first characterize the system experimentally, deducing the dependence ...

  14. Our plumbing, ourselves : a public bath house

    E-print Network

    Merceret, Honor

    1993-01-01

    Cleansing for being well Cleansing for well being. This thesis will consider: --how developments in plumbing and sewage and their related fixtures, kitchens and baths, parallel cultural changes throughout history. Though ...

  15. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 ?M) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 ?M). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 ?M) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 ?M) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  16. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the physiological strains during H-bath and showering were smaller than during W-bath. However, colder room temperatures made it more difficult to retain body warmth after H-bath and created thermal discomfort after showering. It is particularly important for H-bath and showering to maintain an acceptable temperature in the dressing room and bathroom, in order to bathe comfortably and ensure warmth. PMID:12612399

  17. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

  18. Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma of the characteristics associated with SOC: (1) existence of f -1 power-law dependence in the frequency spectrum, (2

  19. India ink pinprick experiments on surface organization of cricoarytenoid joints.

    PubMed

    Kahane, J C; Kahn, A R

    1986-12-01

    Collagen fiber organization in the articular surfaces of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) was studied using a pinpricking technique used in biomechanical research in orthopedics. Four male human formalin preserved specimens (3 months to 20 years) and 6 male freshly autopsied specimens (19 to 30 yrs) were studied. Specimens were dissected using the stereomicroscope. Distinctive patterns of articular cartilage slits reflect the orientation of collagen fibers in the cricoid and arytenoid articular surfaces. The orientation of the collagen fibers reinforces the articular surfaces along the principle path of CAJ motion. No age related differences were found. This suggests that the orientation of collagen fibers in the CAJ articular surfaces is prenatally determined rather than significantly influenced by postnatal mechanical factors. PMID:3795896

  20. Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling with Spins: Review and Prospects

    E-print Network

    Daniel K. Park; Nayeli A. Rodriguez-Briones; Guanru Feng; Robabeh R. Darabad; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2015-01-05

    Application of multiple rounds of Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is an essential milestone towards the construction of scalable quantum information processing devices. However, experimental realizations of it are still in their infancy. The requirements for multiple round QEC are high control fidelity and the ability to extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based quantum devices have demonstrated high control fidelity with up to 12 qubits. On the other hand, the major challenge in the NMR QEC experiment is to efficiently supply ancilla qubits in highly pure states at the beginning of each round of QEC. Purification of qubits in NMR, or in other ensemble based quantum systems can be accomplished through Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling (HBAC). It is an efficient method for extracting entropy from qubits that interact with a heat bath, allowing cooling below the bath temperature. For practical HBAC, coupled electron-nuclear spin systems are more promising than conventional NMR quantum processors, since electron spin polarization is about $10^3$ times greater than that of a proton under the same experimental conditions. We provide an overview on both theoretical and experimental aspects of HBAC focusing on spin and magnetic resonance based systems, and discuss the prospects of exploiting electron-nuclear coupled systems for the realization of HBAC and multiple round QEC.

  1. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  2. University of Bath -Student Records & Examinations Office -Student numbers -1 Dec 1996 University of Bath

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Records & Examinations Office - Student numbers - 1 Dec 1996 University of Bath Student Records & Examinations Office 1 Dec 1996 student numbers: explanatory notes as the primary order is new for this year's data. The analyses of student numbers by School of the University

  3. University of Bath -Student Records & Examinations Office -Student numbers -1 Dec 1995 University of Bath

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Records & Examinations Office - Student numbers - 1 Dec 1995 University of Bath Student Records & Examinations Office 1 Dec 1995 student numbers: explanatory notes by School of the University only show the administrative location of student registrations. Some courses

  4. University of Bath -Student Records & Examinations Office -Student numbers -1 Dec 1997 University of Bath

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Records & Examinations Office - Student numbers - 1 Dec 1997 University of Bath Student Records & Examinations Office 1 Dec 97 student numbers: explanatory notes & routes students on EU exchange programmes such as SOCRATES, LEONARDO, ERASMUS or TEMPUS; staff are University

  5. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  6. Analysis Of The Returned Samples From A Space Exposure Experiment: The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Zan; Salama, Farid; Foing, Bernard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ricco, Antonio; Jessberger, Elmar K; Schmidt, Werner; Robert, François

    2014-06-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R on the International Space Station investigated the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes in space. Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features.Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment.EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS for 682 days starting in 2009. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA ARC (Bryson et al. 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1980). The UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic measurements were collected for the returned flight samples.We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and returned flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

  7. Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the CANDY model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Franko; G. J. Crocker; P. R. Grace; J. Klír; M. Körschens; P. R. Poulton; D. D. Richter

    1997-01-01

    CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen DYnamics) is a simulation system based on long-term experiments of organic matter turnover and nitrogen dynamics at Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Key driving variables are soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information. The main application of the CANDY model is the calculation of short-term dynamics of nitrogen transformation and long-term dynamics of organic matter turnover in

  8. The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

  9. The Synthesis, Identification, and Kinetic Characterization of the Photoaffinity Label: 3-Azidopyridine Adenosine Dinucleotide: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Appropriate for Organic, Biochemistry, or Bio-organic Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLAN A. GAHR; YUZHUO LI

    1997-01-01

    We present here a complete photochemical experiment suitable for biochemistry, bioorganic, and organic chemistry laboratories. It provides experiences in chemical and enzymatic syntheses, spectroscopy (IR, NMR, UV), chromatography (TLC, GC-MS), and a simple enzyme kinetic study utilizing UV spectroscopy. The application of light energy to produce chemical changes has recently expanded beyond photography, lithography, and organic synthesis to include use

  10. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.

    2009-04-01

    Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These "Classical Field Experiments" included studies on winter wheat (Broadbalk 1843), spring barley (Hoos Barley 1852) and permanent grassland (Park Grass 1856). Additional experiments were established in the 20th century to examine the value of ley-arable cropping, including the Highfield and Fosters Ley-arable experiments (1948) and the Woburn Ley-arable experiment (1938). More recently, the effects of incorporating organic manures and cereal straw have been examined. Early results quickly showed the benefits of inorganic N and P fertilisers on crop production, but the effects of contrasting land uses and management practices on soil properties emerged more slowly. Measurements of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soils taken at intervals from the long-term experiments indicate that the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation is controlled largely by the balance between the rate of organic matter inputs and its oxidation rate, and that these are strongly influenced by land use and management, soil texture (especially clay content) and climate. A recent examination of soil organic C data from two long-term grassland experiments in the UK (including Park Grass) indicates that any changes observed in soil organic C under long-term grasslands over the past 40 years are more likely to be due to changes in land use and management rather than climate change. Data from the Rothamsted Long-term experiments have been used to develop and test biogeochemical models of C and N dynamics. In particular, the Roth-C model has successfully simulated soil C dynamics in the long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere. This model uses several organic matter pools, including decomposable and resistant plant material, soil microbial biomass, humified organic matter and inert organic matter and was one of the 31 models included in the GCTE SOMNET network. The Rothamsted Long-term Experiments together with their archived samples and data have proven especially useful for examining the impact of land use and management on soil organic matter dynamics. They continue to yield important information and are an increasingly valuable experimental resource for today's scientists. Whilst their future long-term uses cannot be predicted, provided they are well maintained, the application of new scientific techniques to examine both fresh and archived samples will continue to provide information of environmental and ecological significance to future generations. Rothamsted Research receives grant-aided support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and additional support from the Lawes Agricultural Trust. Presentation of this work forms part of the ANAEE EC design study (www.anaee.com).

  11. UNIVERSITY OF BATH STUDENT COMPLAINTS PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    APPENDIX 1 UNIVERSITY OF BATH STUDENT COMPLAINTS PROCEDURE Introduction 1.1 The University welcomes of ensuring the University provides the highest possible academic and service standards. Students should feel stage process the University has adopted for dealing with students' complaints, which is intended

  12. INSTRUCnONS FISHER DRY BATH INCUBATORS

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    . In cases where shipping damage is observed, keep the unit and carton intact, including the packaging-718-8 12.6in X llin X 3.5in 7.4 lbs , Unpacking These Dry Bath Incubators are shipped in a sin^e carton

  13. Photovoltaic windows by chemical bath deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Herrero; M. T. Gutiérrez; C. Guillén; J. M. Doña; M. A. Mart??nez; A. M. Chaparro; R. Bayón

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a scope of different studies performed on thin-film materials, commonly used as window layers in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells, and prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The presented studies try to offer an approach to some key points of the chemical preparation that are directly related to the final quality and properties of the films.

  14. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Karouby, Johanna, E-mail: karoubyj@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  15. Psychoactive “bath salts”: not so soothing

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Lehner, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called “bath salts” products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

  16. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered...

  17. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered...

  18. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered...

  19. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered...

  20. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered...

  1. Sorption kinetics during macropore transport of organic contaminants in soils: Laboratory experiments and analytical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mokhlesur Rahman; Rudolf Liedl; Peter Grathwohl

    2004-01-01

    Preferential solute transport coupled with diffusion into the surrounding matrix region has been examined in a silty loam soil by conducting macropore column experiments for various hydrophobic organic compounds (phenanthrene, 1, 2-DCB, TCE, carbofuran) representing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. A new and ready-to-use analytical solution was developed for this setting to model the breakthrough curves.

  2. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  3. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  4. What Makes an Evaluation Useful? Reflections from Experience in Large Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Patrick G.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation units found in large organizations confront a number of impediments to the use of their findings and recommendations. These derive from both the formal roles they play and their own operating styles and processes. Drawing on experience at the U.S. General Accounting Office and the World Bank, this paper suggests that to improve the…

  5. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

  6. Photochemical alkene formation in seawater from dissolved organic carbon: Results from laboratory experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ratte; O. Bujok; A. Spitzy; J. Rudolph

    1998-01-01

    The production mechanism of light alkenes, alkanes, and isoprene was investigated in laboratory experiments by measuring their concentrations in natural seawater as a function of spectral range, exposure time and origin, and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The production mechanism of alkanes and of isoprene could not be clarified. Ethene and propene are produced photochemically from DOC. The relevant

  7. The Photochemical Synthesis, Kinetics, and Reactions of Nitrosomethane Dimer: A Physical-Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information procedures, and results for the photochemical synthesis and reactions of nitrosomethane dimer. The experiments described have shown a high degree of reliability with student use and are suggested to illustrate some problems of physical and organic photochemistry. (Author/JN)

  8. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  9. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  10. Effect of Early Bathing on Temperature of Normal Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Alizadeh Taheri; H Fakhraee; K Sotoudeh

    Background: Nowadays there is a strong tendency for early bathing of healthy newborns but little is known about the ther- mal stability of newborns in response to early bathing. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal effect of bathing on healthy newborn within 1-2 h of life versus 4-6 h after birth. Methods: In this randomized comparative

  11. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Station (ISS) external platform. OREOcube is packaged as an identical pair of 10-cm cube instruments, each weighing < 2 kg and containing a highly capable UV-Visible-NIR spectrometer, a 24-sample carousel, and integral optics enabling use of the Sun as light source for spectroscopy, along with the electronics, microcontroller, and data storage to make each cube an autonomous stand-alone instrument package requiring only a standard power and data interface. We have characterized the influence of mineralogically relevant inorganic materials on the stability, modification, and degradation of the organic molecules under ground laboratory experimental conditions. The results of our laboratory experiments will be used as the basis for the selection of samples for further investigations on the OREOcube ISS experiment. OREOcube is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University partners.

  12. The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

    2014-03-01

    The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters. PMID:24642437

  13. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically preserved before being returned to Earth for analyses. Our results suggest that with protocol modifications and future verification testing we can utilize the versatile EMCS to conduct tightly controlled experiments inside our culture cassettes for a wide variety of organisms. These physiological experiments would be designed to answer questions at the molecular level about the specific stress responses of space flight.

  14. Evolution of organics on the Mars surface: laboratory studies with the MOMIE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé; Raulin, Francois

    The question of life on Mars remains open today, despite the negative results obtained with the Viking landers. Indeed, recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate the existence of a past environment of Mars with liquid water and mild temperatures favourable for life. Among the tracers which could indicate the presence of life on Mars, the organic molecules are of primary importance because they are necessary for the emergence of life as we know it. However, such molecules (except methane recently discovered in the atmosphere) have never been detected on Mars. A key question is therefore to know if organic molecules are indeed present, in which concentration and under which form. Indeed, even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized, those brought by exogenous sources, like interplanetary dust particles, should be present in detectable amounts. Moreover, the search for endogenous organic molecules should not be abandoned because on Earth, there are known examples of organic molecules capable to resist over periods of several billion years without any degradation. It thus appears that organic molecules could be present at the surface of Mars, even if they have significant probabilities to undergo a partial or total chemical evolution. Within the framework of the search for organic molecules by present or future space experiments on Mars, we are developing the MOMIE 1 and the MOMIE 2 projects (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to determine how the organic species could evolve at the Martian surface. We thus propose to implement this type of research by using laboratory experimental setups specifically designed to study the behaviour of organic molecules under experimental conditions simulating as close as possible the environmental conditions at the surface of Mars as we know them today. Trough the MOMIE 1 project, we present here the influence of the UV solar radiations reaching the Mars surface on various amino acids, carboxylic acids and hopanoids of astrobiological interest for Mars. The obtained results indicate that glycine, serine, the benzoic and oxalic acids do not resist a long time if they are directly exposed to UV radiations. But the mellitic acid is shown to generate organics resistant to UV radiations. This demonstrates than even if UV radiations seem destructive for most of the organics, a few ones could be transformed in such a way that their products of reaction could be present at the Mars surface. Trough the MOMIE 2 project, we will present first results of the evolution of these organics under oxidation processes which could occur at the Mars surface, due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide detected in the atmosphere.

  15. Measurement of Smooth Muscle Function in the Isolated Tissue Bath-applications to Pharmacology Research

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Watts, Stephanie W.; Cobbett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum – if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  16. Dissipative quantum dynamics in a boson bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Liverani, C.

    1989-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum particle coupled to a boson heat bath. Using a real-time path-integral formalism, we obtain the Wigner distribution of the particle in the form of a power series in the strength of the anharmonicity V0. This series is shown to converge for all V0 when t is fixed and for small V0 uniformly in t. The latter proves the convergence to equilibrium for small anharmonicities. The effects of initial conditions on the evolution are studied by explicitly considering two types of initial states: product states and mixed Gibbs states. We show that in certain cases the evolution of the mixed states which avoid many pathologies of the product states, arising from the removal of the cutoff on the frequency distribution of the bath, can be related to that of product states when the latter are started at t=-?. We also solve exactly a simple stationary nonequilibrium model, a harmonic system in contact with two thermal baths, and derive an alternative criterion for a practically useful quasiclassical approximation. Finally, some connections to the Josephson junction are discussed. These include (a) the Green-Kubo-Einstein relation between the mobility and the diffusion constant of the washboard potential and (b) the time evolution of a rf superconducting quantum interference device.

  17. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas

    E-print Network

    Lee, Shan-Hu

    /Manipulatives, Atmospheric Chemistry, Equilibrium, Thermodynamics Henry's law constant represents the solubility of a soluteA Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas

  18. Does Shelf-Labeling of Organic Foods Increase Sales? Results from a Natural Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven-Olov Daunfeldt; Niklas Rudholm

    2010-01-01

    Can a simple point-of-purchase (POP) shelf-label increase sales of organic foods? We use a random-effects, random-coefficients model, including a time adjustment variable, to test data from a natural experiment in a hypermarket in Gävle, Sweden. Our model incorporates both product specific heterogeneity in the effects of labeling and consumer adjustment to the labels over time. The introduction of POP displays

  19. The Official Roman Baths Museum Web Site in the City of Bath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There are baths all over the world, and then there are the very unique baths in Bath, England. As the official site for these marvelous edifices proclaims, they are "the best preserved Roman religious spa from the ancient world." For first-time visitors, the best place to start is "The site today", which is a section that will take visitors around the different parts of this World Heritage Site. In the "Curator's Comments" area, visitors can read comments from Stephen Clews about the ongoing work being done at the site. The site also includes helpful sections on planning a visit and the various collections that are available for use by both the general public and scholars.

  20. Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1--The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2--The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3--Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4--The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid) for all SOM models containing a cavity. For models without a cavity, SAA binds to carboxylic acid stronger than to naphthalene. PMID:25486638

  1. Effects of complex experience on somatic growth and organ development in rats.

    PubMed

    Black, J E; Sirevaag, A M; Wallace, C S; Savin, M H; Greenough, W T

    1989-11-01

    Rats kept in complex environments (EC) show an array of brain changes relative to animals housed individually (IC). These effects have been explained as due to (a) information storage, (b) chronic stress that causes brain damage, or (c) neuroendocrine effects on brain maturation. Complex experience also affects somatic growth and organ development, and these may be related to the EC/IC brain differences. We have compared somatic growth and internal organs of 315 weanling and adult rats with various histories. (a) Young EC rats showed slower skeletal and visceral growth, while many brain components expand. (b) Although thymus and spleen were lighter in young ECs, immunocompetence was nonsignificantly (p less than .07) higher than in ICs. (c) Somatic growth of adult rats was slow and not very responsive to experience, whereas studies have shown EC/IC brain effects similar to those in young rats. (d) Males had slightly greater EC/IC somatic and visceral differences. (e) The stress index, adrenal weight, varied across age and experience, so chronic stress can not explain EC/IC brain differences. Training paradigms show brain changes similar to those from complex experience, occurring specifically with learning and in brain regions using the information. Learning and memory, therefore remain the best explanation of the EC brain effects. PMID:2680685

  2. The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: Flight sample preparation and ground control spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Bryson; Z. Peeters; F. Salama; B. Foing; P. Ehrenfreund; A. J. Ricco; E. Jessberger; A. Bischoff; M. Breitfellner; W. Schmidt; F. Robert

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2009, the ORGANIC experiment integrated into the European multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, containing experiments dedicated to Astrobiology, was mounted through Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) externally on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment exposed organic samples of astronomical interest for a duration of 97weeks (?22months) to the space environment. The samples that were returned to Earth in spring

  3. Long-term effect of straw and farmyard manure on soil organic matter in field experiment in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomáš Šimon; Olga Mikanová; Dana Cerhanová

    2012-01-01

    The effect of long-term (45 years) mineral and organic fertilization on soil organic matter (SOM) quantity (organic C and N content) and quality (hot-water-soluble C content, microbial biomass C content, hydrophobic organic components of SOM, soil enzyme activities) was determined in a field experiment established in Trutnov (North Bohemia, sandy loam, Eutric Cambisol). Six treatments were chosen for investigation: unfertilized

  4. Bath and Shower Effect in Spinal Cord: The Effect of Time Interval

    SciTech Connect

    Philippens, Marielle E.P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegan (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.philippens@umcutrecht.nl; Pop, Lucas A.M.; Visser, Andries G.; Peeters, Wenny J.M.; Kogel, Albert J. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegan (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the time dependency of the sensitizing effect of a large low-dose field on a small high-dose field in the rat cervical spinal cord. Methods and materials: Irradiation experiments with a relatively low dose to a large volume (bath, 2 cm, 4 Gy) were combined with high doses to a small volume (shower, 4.7 mm, 26-43 Gy) at intervals of 8 minutes and 3, 12, and 24 hours. Both a functional score defined as motor impairment and a histologic score characterized as white matter necrosis were used as end points. Results: Application of the 4-Gy bath dose resulted in a significant decrease in 50% isoeffective dose (ED{sub 50}) from 48.7 Gy (small field) to 40.8 Gy. If the interval was extended, the ED{sub 50} increased to 44.4 (3 hours) and 44.8 Gy (12 hours), whereas a 24-hour interval resulted in a significant increase to 51.9 Gy. If the histologic end point was considered, the ED{sub 50} for all dose-response curves decreased slightly with 0.2 to 2.6 Gy without significantly changing the kinetics. Conclusions: The bath effect as applied in the bath-and-shower experiment lasted for at least 12 hours and disappeared in the 24-hour interval. This time scale clearly deviates from the repair kinetics in spinal cord derived from low-dose-rate and fractionated irradiations.

  5. Temperature and bath size in exact diagonalization dynamical mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Ansgar; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), combined with finite-temperature exact diagonalization, is one of the methods used to describe electronic properties of strongly correlated materials. Because of the rapid growth of the Hilbert space, the size of the finite bath used to represent the infinite lattice is severely limited. In view of the increasing interest in the effect of multi-orbital and multi-site Coulomb correlations in transition metal oxides, high-Tc cuprates, iron-based pnictides, organic crystals, etc, it is appropriate to explore the range of temperatures and bath sizes in which exact diagonalization provides accurate results for various system properties. On the one hand, the bath must be large enough to achieve a sufficiently dense level spacing, so that useful spectral information can be derived, especially close to the Fermi level. On the other hand, for an adequate projection of the lattice Green’s function onto a finite bath, the choice of the temperature is crucial. The role of these two key ingredients in exact diagonalization DMFT is discussed for a wide variety of systems in order to establish the domain of applicability of this approach. Three criteria are used to illustrate the accuracy of the results: (i) the convergence of the self-energy with the bath size, (ii) the quality of the discretization of the bath Green’s function, and (iii) comparisons with complementary results obtained via continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo DMFT. The materials comprise a variety of three-orbital and five-orbital systems, as well as single-band Hubbard models for two-dimensional triangular, square and honeycomb lattices, where non-local Coulomb correlations are important. The main conclusion from these examples is that a larger number of correlated orbitals or sites requires a smaller number of bath levels. Down to temperatures of 5-10 meV (for typical bandwidths W ? 2 eV) two bath levels per correlated impurity orbital or site are usually adequate.

  6. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Relieved by Compulsive Bathing

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has indentified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. We report 2 cases of cannabinoid hyperemesis that demonstrate this unusual adverse effect of marijuana use. PMID:19121257

  7. The Holburne Museum of Art, Bath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At present, the only way you can visit the Holburne Museum of Art in Bath is online, since they have closed for refurbishing till 2010. You can read about the plans for the improvements and check out floor plans and the development schedule from a link on the homepage. Visitors will be able to check out the history of the museum's beginnings, the highlights of the fine art and decorative art collections, or search through the collection. Users may also view the museum's exhibitions, learn more about workshops, school programs and more.

  8. Bath salts and other emerging toxins.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Matthew D; Baum, Carl R

    2014-01-01

    Novel classes of synthetic drugs, including synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("spice" or "K2"), have recently emerged as popular drugs of abuse. Salvia divinorum, a naturally occurring herb, has gained popularity in the last decade as a hallucinogenic as well. The legal status of these substances has been undergoing rapid changes and has been confusing to lawmakers and medical practitioners alike. We present an up-to-date information about the legality of these substances. We also discuss the historical background, chemical composition, patterns of abuse, clinical presentations, laboratory analysis, and management strategies for these drugs, with an emphasis on synthetic cathinones. PMID:24378862

  9. Tsallis power laws and finite baths with negative heat capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Oikonomou, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    It is often stated that heat baths with finite degrees of freedom i.e., finite baths, are sources of Tsallis distributions for classical Hamiltonian systems. By using well-known fundamental statistical mechanics expressions, we rigorously show that Tsallis distributions with fat tails are possible only for finite baths with constant negative heat capacity, while constant positive heat capacity finite baths yield decays with sharp cutoff with no fat tails. However, the correspondence between Tsallis distributions and finite baths holds at the expense of violating the equipartition theorem for finite classical systems at equilibrium. We comment on the implications of the finite bath for the recent attempts towards a q-generalized central limit theorem.

  10. Tsallis power laws and finite baths with negative heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Bagci, G Baris; Oikonomou, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    It is often stated that heat baths with finite degrees of freedom i.e., finite baths, are sources of Tsallis distributions for classical Hamiltonian systems. By using well-known fundamental statistical mechanics expressions, we rigorously show that Tsallis distributions with fat tails are possible only for finite baths with constant negative heat capacity, while constant positive heat capacity finite baths yield decays with sharp cutoff with no fat tails. However, the correspondence between Tsallis distributions and finite baths holds at the expense of violating the equipartition theorem for finite classical systems at equilibrium. We comment on the implications of the finite bath for the recent attempts towards a q-generalized central limit theorem. PMID:24229135

  11. Non-Markoffian effects of a simple nonlinear bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Hanno; Marquardt, Florian; Bruder, C.

    2002-10-01

    We analyze a model of a nonlinear bath consisting of a single two-level system coupled to a linear bath (a classical noise force in the limit considered here). This allows us to study the effects of a nonlinear, non-Markoffian bath in a particularly simple situation. We analyze the effects of this bath onto the dynamics of a spin by calculating the decay of the equilibrium correlator of the z-component of the spin. The exact results are compared with those obtained using three commonly used approximations: a Markoffian master equation for the spin dynamics, a weak-coupling approximation, and the substitution of a linear bath for the original nonlinear bath.

  12. Flume Experiments on the Co-Deposition of Organic Matter and Clays in Muddy Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.; Schimmelmann, A.; Bennett, R.; Douglas, J.; Curry, K.

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of mudstone sedimentology has entered a period of rapid change, largely driven by recent experimental studies and the boom in shale gas exploration. A key milestone was the recognition that many seemingly quiet deposited mudstones may actually have been deposited by currents that carried flocculated clays in bedload. Multiple ancient black shales show sedimentary features that indicate accumulation from bottom currents rather than simply settling of organic matter and detritus from the water column, and many contain organic-rich sand-size mixed aggregates of clays and organic matter. The latter have previously been interpreted as marine snow aggregates that settled rapidly through the water column and enhanced rapid delivery of organic matter to the sediment water interface. An alternative formative process is the mingling of organic marine matter (degrading organic debris) with flocculating clays in muddy bottom currents. We are conducting flume experiments to compare organo-clay textures in bottom current and still-water settling mode, in order to evaluate the impact of these competing processes on organic matter preservation. Initial results show that degrading organic particles form sand-size aggregates with clays in muddy flows, and that these aggregates form ripples and accrete into laminated appearing deposits. Still-water settled muds generally show a more "open" pore structure with dispersed clumps of OM and clays, whereas flow deposited OM-clay mixtures show indications of roll-aggregation, small scale OM-bridges between clay particles, and "coatings" of OM and/or clays. These fabric differences are also reflected in the water contents of the accumulating sediments and suggest a fundamentally different pore structure. Roll-aggregated material dewaters more rapidly upon burial than still-water settled material, even though roll-aggregated surface sediments (top 2 cm) have higher initial water contents than comparable still-water settled sediments. Our observations suggest that there is likely a pronounced difference in carbon preservation potential between still water vs flow deposited marine organic-rich muds.

  13. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury. PMID:25538517

  14. First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

  15. Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

  16. Dry-Ice Bath Based on Ethylene Glycol Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Do W.; Jensen, Craig M.

    2000-05-01

    Bath mixtures of ethanol and ethylene glycol in dry ice produce sustainable constant temperatures over the range from -12 to -78 °C, which show a linear relationship between the bath temperature and the volume fraction of ethylene glycol. Our bath is less toxic than previously reported mixtures of ortho- and meta-xylene, and our mixture does not intractably solidify as will dry ice slurries of xylenes. Moreover, the cost of this mixture is less than that of the xylene mixtures.

  17. Manipulating decoherence of a single solid-state spin by quantum control of its spin bath environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Gijs; van der Sar, Toeno; Blok, Machiel; Wang, Zhihui; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-03-01

    The coherence of solid-state spins is limited by uncontrolled interactions with their spin environment. High-fidelity single-spin control can be used to prolong the coherence by dynamically decoupling the spin from the environment [see De Lange et al., Science 330, 60 (2010)]. Here, we demonstrate a new approach towards decoherence control based on coherent manipulation of the spin bath environment itself. Our system consists of a single NV center spin in diamond, surrounded by a bath of electronic spins belonging to nitrogen impurities. By driving the bath spins resonantly and using the NV spin as a sensor, we are able to detect all transitions of the bath spins and demonstrate independent quantum control of each of them. This newly gained control opens the door to a number of exciting experiments such as measurement of the spin bath dynamics, manipulation of the spin bath correlation time, decoherence editing, and protection of NV spin coherence by suppressing the dynamics in its spin environment. In this talk we will present our latest results towards these goals.

  18. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  4. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  5. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  6. Investigating the use of secondary organic aerosol as seed particles in simulation chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Wyche, K. P.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Good, N.; Monks, P. S.; Carr, T.; White, I. R.; Purvis, R. M.

    2011-06-01

    The use of ?-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol particles as seeds for smog chamber simulations has been investigated. A series of experiments were carried out in the Manchester photochemical chamber as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project to study the effect of seed particles on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from limonene photo-oxidation. Rather than use a conventional seed aerosol containing ammonium sulfate or diesel particles, a method was developed to use in-situ chamber generated seed particles from ?-caryophyllene photo-oxidation, which were then diluted to a desired mass loading (in this case 4-13 ?g m-3). Limonene was then introduced into the chamber and oxidised, with the formation of SOA seen as a growth in the size of oxidised organic seed particles from 150 to 325 nm mean diameter. The effect of the partitioning of limonene oxidation products onto the seed aerosol was assessed using aerosol mass spectrometry during the experiment and the percentage of m/z 44, an indicator of degree of oxidation, increased from around 5 to 8 %. The hygroscopicity of the aerosol also changed, with the growth factor for 200 nm particles increasing from less than 1.05 to 1.25 at 90 % RH. The detailed chemical composition of the limonene SOA could be extracted from the complex ?-caryophyllene matrix using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. High resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS) was used to determine exact molecular formulae of the seed and the limonene modified aerosol. The average O:C ratio was seen to increase from 0.32 to 0.37 after limonene oxidation products had condensed onto the organic seed.

  7. Investigating the use of secondary organic aerosol as seed particles in simulation chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Wyche, K. P.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Good, N.; Monks, P. S.; Carr, T.; White, I. R.; Purvis, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    The use of ?-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol particles as seeds for smog chamber simulations has been investigated. A series of experiments were carried out in the Manchester photochemical chamber as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project to study the effect of seed particles on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from limonene photo-oxidation. Rather than use a conventional seed aerosol containing ammonium sulphate or diesel particles, a method was developed to use in situ chamber generated seed particles from ?-caryophyllene photo-oxidation, which were then diluted to a desired mass loading (in this case 4-13 ?g m-3). Limonene was then introduced into the chamber and oxidised, with the formation of SOA seen as a growth in the size of oxidised organic seed particles from 150 to 325 nm mean diameter. The effect of the partitioning of limonene oxidation products onto the seed aerosol was assessed using aerosol mass spectrometry during the experiment and the percentage of m/z 44, an indicator of degree of oxidation, increased from around 5 to 8%. The hygroscopicity of the aerosol also changed, with the growth factor for 200 nm particles increasing from less than 1.05 to 1.25 at 90% RH. The detailed chemical composition of the limonene SOA could be extracted from the complex ?-caryophyllene matrix using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. High resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS) was used to determine exact molecular formulae of the seed and the limonene modified aerosol. The average O:C ratio was seen to increase from 0.32 to 0.37 after limonene oxidation products had condensed onto the organic seed.

  8. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  9. A global experiment to improve observations of snow: The World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitu, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Hendrikx, J.; Baker, B.; Joe, P.; Yang, D.; Smith, C.; Earle, M. E.; Lanzinger, E.; Kochendorfer, J.; Roulet, Y.; Wolff, M.; Goodison, B. E.; Liang, H.; Vuglinsky, V.; Timofeev, A.; Koldaev, A.; Sabarini, F.; Mrozinski, L.; Bilish, S.; MacDonell, S.; Aulamo, O.; Harper, A.

    2012-12-01

    The measurement of solid precipitation has been the subject of extensive investigations, including international collaborative studies. These investigations have focused primarily on manual measurement methods and have revealed significant challenges in the measurement of snowfall and snow on the ground. Since these studies were conducted, an increasing percentage of precipitation and snow depth measurements around the world have been obtained using a broad range of automatic instruments, many operated unattended for extensive periods of time. At the same time, new non-catchment type instruments and systems have been introduced for the measurement of solid precipitation. In the context of the transition from manual methods to automatic instruments and with the introduction of new technologies in measurement networks worldwide, there is an acute need for an internationally-coordinated study to understand and characterize the errors in precipitation measurement of in-situ automatic instruments, and their capabilities for measuring solid precipitation. WMO-SPICE has been initiated to focus on the performance of modern automatic instruments measuring solid precipitation and snow depth. In this regard, the key goals are to investigate and report on the measurement of precipitation amount as a function of precipitation type (liquid, solid, mixed), and of snow on the ground (i.e. snow depth). An important outcome will be to develop correction methods and adjustments for measurements from the various automatic gauge and wind shield combinations used in different countries, to enable the provision of better estimates of regional snowfall. WMO-SPICE will begin in November 2012 and will last for two to three winter seasons The paper will present the organization of the experiment, an overview of the participating sites and the instruments selected for inclusion in the intercomparison. The presentation will also include findings from our Pre-SPICE experiments

  10. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  11. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Waltz, Florian; Schwarz, Hans-Christoph; Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie; Behrens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity. PMID:25977851

  12. Organic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative characterization of soil organic matter in the long-term fallow experiment with different fertilization and tillage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomáš Šimon

    2007-01-01

    Changes of soil organic matter under different tillage and fertilization system of the long-term fallow experiment established in 1958 in Prague were evaluated in the period of 1972 – 2004. This experiment consists of seven variants (control [no tillage, no manuring]; farmyard manure compost [FYM]; 2FYM; mineral fertilization [NPK]; 2NPK; reduced tillage [RT] and conventional tillage [CT]). Content of aliphatic compounds, organic

  14. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  15. Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows that the methylphenanthrenes do react on short timescales, even at temperatures below what would be reached during a large earthquake. These results provide a more accurate picture of temperature rise on previously studied faults. The Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada, the Champlain thrust in Vermont, the Punchbowl fault in Southern California, and the proto-decollement on Sitkinak Island, Alaska, all show no difference in MPI-1 values between on- and off-fault samples, suggesting a lack of differential heating. Our experiments allow us to more accurately estimate the maximum temperature rise that could have occurred during fault slip without significantly altering the methylphenanthrene thermal maturity.

  16. VARIABILITY OF AQUIFER SORPTION PROPERTIES IN A FIELD EXPERIMENT ON GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC SOLUTES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to characterize the organic solute sorption distribution coefficient, organic carbon content, and specific surface area of aquifer solids from the site of a field experiment on solute transport in groundwater were refined for application to small subsamples of 10-cm depth...

  17. Avalanche dynamics, surface roughening, and self-organized criticality: Experiments on a three-dimensional pile of rice

    E-print Network

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    Avalanche dynamics, surface roughening, and self-organized criticality: Experiments on a three-organized criticality. The avalanches that occur on the surface of a pile of rice are found to exhibit finite size scaling in their probability distribution. The critical exponents are 1.21(2) for the avalanche size

  18. Self-organized criticality induced by quenched disorder: Experiments on flux avalanches in NbHx films

    E-print Network

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    Self-organized criticality induced by quenched disorder: Experiments on flux avalanches in Nb, the avalanche sizes are power- law distributed and show finite-size scaling, as expected from self-organized criticality SOC . Furthermore, the shape of the avalanches is observed to be fractal. In the absence

  19. New experiment to model self-organized critical transport and accumulation of melt and hydrocarbons from their source rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Bons; Boudewijn P. van Milligen

    2001-01-01

    A new, simple, and easily reproducible experiment was designed to simulate the pro- duction, accumulation, and transport of melt within rock. The transport was found to be of the self-organized critical type. The emergence of self-organized criticality is explained by the availability of hydrofracture propagation as a rapid or ballistic transport mecha- nism. This mechanism also serves as a mechanism

  20. Organ Donation and Transplantation From Medical Students' Perspective: Introducing the Experience From an Academic League in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. M. Almeida; C. Quireze; W. M. L. de Faria; D. F. dos Santos; R. V. Dias; I. G. Maynarde

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionMedical education is an important factor to decrease the waiting list for transplantation. Reports in the medical literature reveal limited notification of potential organ donors by general physicians. Appropriate information is also needed to increase the availability of potential donors and minimize the waiting list. This article describes the acquired experience with an extracurricular program of education on organ and

  1. A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Smith; J. U. Smith; D. S. Powlson; W. B. McGill; J. R. M. Arah; O. G. Chertov; K. Coleman; U. Franko; S. Frolking; D. S. Jenkinson; L. S. Jensen; R. H. Kelly; H. Klein-Gunnewiek; A. S. Komarov; C. Li; J. A. E. Molina; T. Mueller; W. J. Parton; J. H. M. Thornley; A. P. Whitmore

    1997-01-01

    Nine soil organic models were evaluated using twelve datasets from seven long-term experiments. Datasets represented three different land-uses (grassland, arable cropping and woodland) and a range of climatic conditions within the temperate region. Different treatments (inorganic fertilizer, organic manures and different rotations) at the same site allowed the effects of differing land management to be explored. Model simulations were evaluated

  2. Microcosm experiments to control anaerobic redox conditions when studying the fate of organic micropollutants in aquifer material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Barbieri; Jesús Carrera; Xavier Sanchez-Vila; Carlos Ayora; Jordi Cama; Marianne Köck-Schulmeyer; Miren López de Alda; Damià Barceló; Joana Tobella Brunet; Marta Hernández García

    2011-01-01

    The natural processes occurring in subsurface environments have proven to effectively remove a number of organic pollutants from water. The predominant redox conditions revealed to be one of the controlling factors. However, in the case of organic micropollutants the knowledge on this potential redox-dependent behavior is still limited. Motivated by managed aquifer recharge practices microcosm experiments involving aquifer material, settings

  3. Column experiment to study isotope fractionation of volatile organic contaminants in porous media under unsaturated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannottat, Simon; Hunkeler, Daniel; Breider, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Pollution by organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents is common in industrialized countries. The use of stable isotope analysis is increasingly recognized as a powerful technique for investigating the behaviour of organic or inorganic contaminants. Recently, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven to be an effective tool to confirm and quantify in-situ biodegradation by indigenous microbial populations in groundwater.In contrast, only few studies have investigated the use of CSIA in the unsaturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the main potential applications of CSIA include the assessment of biodegradation and the fingerprinting of different sources of petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvents vapours. However, it has to be taken into account that isotope ratios in the unsaturated zone can vary due to diffusion and volatilization in addition to biodegradation. For application of isotope methods in the unsaturated zone, it is crucial to quantify isotopic fractionation resulting from physico-chemical and transport processes. The study is focused on laboratory experiments that investigate the effect of vaporization and diffusion on isotope ratios. The effect of diffusion is carried out using a column experiment setup that can be considered to represent VOC transport from a floating NAPL towards the atmosphere. Furthermore, additional column and batch experiments will be conducted to better understand the effect of biodegradation. Volatilization is studied with an other experimental setup. In addition, a mathematical framework was developed to simulate the isotope evolution in the column study. Since the initial experiments aimed at investigating the effect of vaporization and diffusion only, the column is filled with dry quartz sand in order to avoid perturbations of concentration profiles by humidity or adsorption on organic matter. An activated sand will later be used for the biodegradation experiments. A mixture of nine contaminants (pentane, MTBE, hexane, benzene, isooctane, methylcyclohexane, toluene, octane and xylene) that represents a wide range of hydrocarbons is emplaced in the column. Periodical measurements of concentrations and ?13C values were carried out in the source chamber and at different distances along the column. A depletion of 13C with distance is observed, which is due to faster diffusion of substances enriched in 12C. The shift of ?13C values towards more negative values is more significant during the first hours of the experiment. After some hours, the value stabilizes when a steady state is reached. These results fit well the analytical models. These results demonstrate that stable isotope profiles are reached under steady state conditions even though molecules with light isotopes only diffuse faster than molecules with heavy isotopes. This is an important finding for the application of isotope analysis to link VOC vapours to contaminant sources and to demonstrate reactive processes based on shifts in isotope ratios. Further experiments will be conducted to study the isotopic response to diffusion, vaporization and biodegradation of chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE) using quite a similar column setup. Stable hydrogen and chlorine isotopes will also be measured during the same experiments in order to better constrain the different processes and fingerprinting sources of contaminations.

  4. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08a with certain changes. The...bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08. An introductory phrase in the stability performance requirements in the ASTM standard should have been removed to...

  5. Process of pulse electrodeposition nanocrystalline chromium from trivalent chromium bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QIU Guan-zhou; CHEN Bai-zhen; ZHOU Ning-bo; WU Lu-ye; XU Li-jian

    Nanocrystalline chromium coating was prepared by pulse electrodeposition from trivalent chromium bath containing carboxylate-urea as complexing agent. The effects of electrodeposition parameters such as current density, bath temperature and solution concentration on the thickness and electrodeposition velocity of Cr deposited films were investigated. The crystallographic structures, morphology and chemical composition of Cr deposited films were analyzed by means of XRD,

  6. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  7. Confidential Counselling & Support for University of Bath Staff

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Confidential Counselling & Support for University of Bath Staff © Royal United Hospital Bath NHSEmployee Assistance ProgrammeEmployee Assistance Programme #12;EAP is a free and confidential support service perspectives, strategies and life skills · examine ways to make positive changes in your life Confidentiality

  8. Approved by LMT, November 2006 University of Bath Archives

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Approved by LMT, November 2006 University of Bath Archives Special Collections Archives interests and to preserve an historical record of the University'. In addition to the archives of the institution itself, the University of Bath holds a small collection of archival material donated

  9. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  10. 5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. Ettringite formation in historic bath brick–lime plasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Böke; Sedat Akkurt

    2003-01-01

    Two types of historic hydraulic brick–lime plasters from a selected Ottoman bath are examined to characterize their technology and the appropriateness of their use in bath. The first type of plaster is original and structurally sound, while the historic repair plaster is the second type and is found to have deteriorated despite being exposed to the same environment. This difference

  12. Uncoupling of bacterial and terrigenous dissolved organic matter dynamics in decomposition experiments.

    PubMed

    Herlemann, Daniel P R; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4-16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot efficiently utilize tDOM and that in subarctic estuaries other factors are responsible for the removal of imported tDOM. PMID:24718626

  13. The Synthesis of 1-Phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines: An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment and Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, R. M.; Sammes, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment (requiring three/four 3-hour laboratory sessions) involving a four-stage synthesis of 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via the Pictet-Spengler route. In addition, the experiment allows students to study the spectra and properties of aklaloid-like materials while completing several…

  14. Effects of the non-commensal Methylococcus capsulatus Bath on mammalian immune cells.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Olsen Hult, Lene Therese; Solberg, Henriette; Bakke, Anne; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Huseby, Eirin; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad

    2015-08-01

    Dietary inclusions of a bacterial meal consisting mainly of the non-commensal, methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus Bath have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of intestinal inflammation in different animal models. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms causing these effects, we have studied the influence of this strain on different immune cells central for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Effects were compared to those induced by the closely related strain M. capsulatus Texas and the well-described probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype, but not to the extent observed after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917. Likewise, dose-dependent abilities to activate NF-?B transcription in U937 cells were observed, with E. coli Nissle 1917 being most potent. High levels of CD141 on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were only detected after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917, which collectively indicate a superior capacity to induce Th1 cell responses for this strain. On the other hand, the M. capsulatus strains were more potent in increasing the expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83 and CD86 than E. coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced the highest levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells, suggesting that this strain generally the post potent inducer of cytokine secretion. These results show that M. capsulatus Bath exhibit immunogenic properties in mammalian in vitro systems which diverge from that of E. coli Nissle 1917. This may provide clues to how M. capsulatus Bath influence the adaptive immune system in vivo. However, further in vivo experiments are required for a complete understanding of how this strain ameliorates intestinal inflammation in animal models. PMID:25771177

  15. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  20. Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Tse; S. W. Tsang; S. K. So

    2006-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystrenesulphonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) is used as a hole-injecting anode for small organic hole transporters in current-voltage (JV) and dark injection space-charge-limited current (DI-SCLC) experiments. The hole transporters under investigation are phenylamine-based 4,4',4''-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (MTDATA), N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'diamine (NPB), and N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'diamine (TPD). Clear DI-SCLC transient peaks were observed over a wide range of electric fields in all cases. For MTDATA

  1. Removal of trace organic chemicals in onsite wastewater soil treatment units: a laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Teerlink, Jennifer; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Higgins, Christopher P; Drewes, Jörg E

    2012-10-15

    Onsite wastewater treatment is used by 20% of residences in the United States. The ability of these systems, specifically soil treatment units (STUs), to attenuate trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) is not well understood. TOrCs released by STUs pose a potential risk to downstream groundwater and hydraulically-connected surface water that may be used as a drinking water source. A series of bench-scale experiments were conducted using sand columns to represent STUs and to evaluate the efficacy of TOrC attenuation as a function of hydraulic loading rate (1, 4, 8, 12, and 30 cm/day). Each hydraulic loading rate was examined using triplicate experimental columns. Columns were initially seeded with raw wastewater to establish a microbial community, after which they were fed with synthetic wastewater and spiked with 17 TOrCs, in four equal doses per day, to provide a consistent influent water quality. After an initial start-up phase, effluent from all columns consistently demonstrated >90% reductions in dissolved organic carbon and nearly complete (>85%) oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, comparable to the performance of field STUs. The results of this study suggest STUs are capable of attenuating many TOrCs present in domestic wastewater, but attenuation is compound-specific. A subset of TOrCs exhibited an inverse relationship with hydraulic loading rate and attenuation efficiency. Atenolol, cimetidine, and TCPP were more effectively attenuated over time in each experiment, suggesting that the microbial community evolved to a stage where these TOrCs were more effectively biotransformed. Aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic conditions resulted in more efficient attenuation of acetaminophen and cimetidine. PMID:22871318

  2. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

  3. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  4. Bladder Cancer and Exposure to Water Disinfection By-Products through Ingestion, Bathing, Showering, and Swimming in Pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina M. Villanueva; Kenneth P. Cantor; Joan O. Grimalt; Nuria Malats; Debra Silverman; Adonina Tardon; Reina Garcia-Closas; Alfredo Carrato; Gemma Castano; Ricard Marcos; Nathaniel Rothman; Francisco X. Real; Mustafa Dosemeci; Manolis Kogevinas; Cerdanyola del Valles

    2007-01-01

    Bladder cancer has been associated with exposure to chlorination by-products in drinking water, and experi- mental evidence suggests that exposure also occurs through inhalation and dermal absorption. The authors examined whether bladder cancer risk was associated with exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through ingestion of water and through inhalation and dermal absorption during showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. Lifetime personal

  5. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Grabau, Zane J.; Chen, Senyu

    2014-01-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  6. Emergence and properties of spice and bath salts: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Anita H; Seltzman, Herbert H; Carroll, F Ivy; Mascarella, S Wayne; Reddy, P Anantha

    2014-02-27

    Over the past five years the number of internet sites advertising "legal highs" has literally exploded, as have user reports of experiences (both pleasurable and frightening) with these substances and the number of emergency room visits by users. Although the majority of these "legal highs" have been described as bath salts and herbal extracts, most contain neither plant derived compounds nor components of personal hygiene products. So-called "bath salts" largely contain synthetic analogs of the natural compound Khat; spice-related materials, claimed to be "legal marijuana," are mostly synthetic analogs of cannabinoid receptor ligands that were developed as research tools. This review describes the emergence and properties of these two groups of "legal highs" from a medicinal chemist's perspective. PMID:24113072

  7. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  11. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products....

  12. Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

  13. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  15. 6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed...

  17. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  18. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed...

  19. 9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  1. 8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  3. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed...

  4. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed...

  6. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  7. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed...

  8. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

  9. Effect of forest bathing trips on human immune function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Li

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, a forest bathing trip, called “Shinrinyoku” in Japanese, is a short, leisurely visit to a forest; it is regarded\\u000a as being similar to natural aromatherapy. This review focuses on the effects of forest bathing trips on human immune function.\\u000a Beginning in 2005, adult Japanese individuals, both male and female, participated in a series of studies aimed at investigating

  10. Selective extraction of zinc and iron from passivating baths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mediavilla; I. Ortiz; A. Urtiaga

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the viability study of the removal of zinc and iron from chromium (III) passivating baths is presented. The Emulsion Pertraction Technology (EPT), a liquid–liquid extraction process performed in membrane contactors has been applied. Real passivating baths with the following metal concentrations have been tested: Zn, 7000 mg\\/L; Fe, 30 mg\\/L and Cr, 5500 mg\\/L respectively. After the

  11. Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, P.; Eglin, T.; Christensen, B. T.; Ciais, P.; Houot, S.; Kätterer, T.; van Oort, F.; Peylin, P.; Poulton, P. R.; Romanenkov, V.; Chenu, C.

    2010-11-01

    The stability of soil organic matter (SOM) is a major source of uncertainty in predicting atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. Isolating the stable soil carbon (C) from other, more labile, C fractions in soil is of prime importance for calibrating soil C simulation models, and gaining insights into the mechanisms that lead to soil C stability. Long-term experiments with continuous bare fallow (vegetation-free) treatments in which the decay of soil C is monitored for decades after all inputs of C have stopped, provide a unique opportunity to assess the quantity of stable soil C. We analyzed data from six bare fallow experiments of long-duration (>30 yrs), covering a range of soil types and climate conditions, and sited at Askov (Denmark), Grignon and Versailles (France), Kursk (Russia), Rothamsted (UK), and Ultuna (Sweden). A conceptual three pool model dividing soil C into a labile pool (turnover time of a several years), an intermediate pool (turnover time of a several decades) and a stable pool (turnover time of a several centuries or more) fits well with the long term C decline observed in the bare fallow soils. The estimate of stable C ranged from 2.7 g C kg-1 at Rothamsted to 6.8 g C kg-1 at Grignon. The uncertainty associated with estimates of the stable pool was large due to the short duration of the fallow treatments relative to the turnover time of stable soil C. At Versailles, where there is least uncertainty associated with the determination of a stable pool, the soil contains predominantly stable C after 80 years of continuous bare fallow. Such a site represents a unique research platform for characterization of the nature of stable SOM and its vulnerability to global change.

  12. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  13. Electrodeposition of hard nanocrystalline chrome from aqueous sulfate trivalent chromium bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Protsenko; F. I. Danilov; V. O. Gordiienko; S. C. Kwon; M. Kim; J. Y. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A sulfate trivalent chromium bath is described which contains chromium(III) salt, sodium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, boric acid, formic acid, carbamide and surfactant. The bath is operated using either titanium–manganese dioxide anodes or platinized titanium anodes without separation of anodic and cathodic compartments. Effect of bath composition and electrolysis conditions on current efficiency of chromium electrodeposition was studied. At optimal bath

  14. Stripping of copper coatings from steel in Cr(VI)-free commercial bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Simka; Ginter Nawrat; ?ukasz Nieu?y?a; Agnieszka Krz?ka?a

    2009-01-01

    In this work the electrochemical characteristics of copper and steel in chromate, cyanide, and phosphate baths as well as in a commercial bath (ENSTRIP S-180), in the absence of chromium and cyanides were determined. Average rates of copper coatings stripping from steel in the above mentioned baths and the baths influence on the morphology of steel surfaces were described. It

  15. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

    2012-11-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

  16. Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

  17. Organic geochemical studies of soils from the Rothamsted classical experiments — VI. The occurrence and source of organic acids in an experimental grassland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Bull; Chris J. Nott; Pim F. van Bergen; Paul R. Poulton; Richard P. Evershed

    2000-01-01

    Total lipid extracts (TLEs) of grass (aerial and sub-aerial, Holcus lanatus) from a plot on a long-term grassland experiment, and associated soil, along with the organic fraction of the TLE hydrolysates and the hydrolysates of the solvent extracted vegetation have been separated into fractions containing specific compound classes and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The

  18. Microwave activated chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) of zinc oxide: Influence of bath composition and substrate characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Peiró; José A. Ayllón; José Peral; Xavier Domènech; Concepción Domingo

    2005-01-01

    ZnO films have been deposited using microwave activated chemical bath deposition (MW-CBD) technique. In this procedure, a substrate is immersed in an aqueous chemical bath containing soluble ZnO precursors and irradiated with microwaves. Deposits produced by this method are crystalline and strongly adhered. The use of water–ethanol 1:1 (v\\/v) mixtures instead of water as a solvent and the addition of

  19. Physical separation of carbon and bath constituents of spent anode residues

    SciTech Connect

    Plumpton, A.J.; Cotnoir, D. [Centre de Recherches Minerales, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The constituent mineral and metallic phases contained within certain waste products and by-products of aluminum smelting are observed to be sufficiently liberated, permitting their separation and recovery using physical techniques. CRM studied both dry and wet mineral processing methods for the recovery of pure carbon and so-called bath products from spent anode shot-peening wastes. The experiments were undertaken on composite samples of fine and coarse residues, combined in proportion to their production rates. The composite samples analyzed 30% C and 70% electrolysis bath (cryolite, alumina, aluminum fluoride) and possessed an average particle size of 143 {micro}m with a 16 weight % {minus}45 {micro}m fraction. Test results are presented for two dry processing methods of high tension/electrostatic separation and pneumatic tabling, as well as two wet methods of gravity tabling and froth flotation. Each wet mineral separation method yielded two clean products following a limited number of cleaning and scavenging operations; one product graded 95 to 98% C, the other, 97 to 99% bath. Although similar high purity products could be obtained using dry separation approaches, their yields were significantly lower and the feed material required desliming or division into narrow particle size fractions prior to separation. After dry processing including multiple scavenging and cleaning steps, an important middling fraction remained, corresponding to about 40--50 weight % of the feed. Predesign cost estimation was undertaken for the most efficient processing scheme.

  20. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath. This work was supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF CUHK402207, CUHK402209, and CUHK402410. The author acknowledges collaboration with Nan Zhao, Jian-Liang Hu, Sai Wah Ho, Jones T. K. Wan, and Jiangfeng Du.

  1. A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

  2. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  3. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

  4. Planetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space exposure

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    ) on the EXPOSE facility on the International Space Station (ISS). For the small fluence that was collected during; International Space Station; Photo-stability 1. Introduction Carbon chemistry in space occurs most efficientlyPlanetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383­400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space

  5. Inside the Black Box: Exploring the Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.; Aragon, Steven R.; Stone, James R., III

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that Career Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) provide a variety of experiences that either directly or indirectly affect three important outcomes of secondary education: achievement, transition to postsecondary education and training, and employability. A pre-post-test comparison study of high school…

  6. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

  7. Investigating citizens' preferences for recycling Residual Organic Products in agriculture: a choice experiment approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Investigating citizens' preferences for recycling Residual Organic Products in agriculture and societal issue. Used in agriculture as a fertilizer, Residual Organic Products (ROP) may have some positive at estimating the economic value of using Residual Organic Products (ROPs) as fertilizers, compared

  8. Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Baugh, J; Moussa, O; Ryan, C A; Nayak, A; Laflamme, R

    2005-11-24

    The counter-intuitive properties of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information processing by enabling the development of efficient algorithms with no known classical counterparts. Harnessing this power requires the development of a set of building blocks, one of which is a method to initialize the set of quantum bits (qubits) to a known state. Additionally, fresh ancillary qubits must be available during the course of computation to achieve fault tolerance. In any physical system used to implement quantum computation, one must therefore be able to selectively and dynamically remove entropy from the part of the system that is to be mapped to qubits. One such method is an 'open-system' cooling protocol in which a subset of qubits can be brought into contact with an external system of large heat capacity. Theoretical efforts have led to an implementation-independent cooling procedure, namely heat-bath algorithmic cooling. These efforts have culminated with the proposal of an optimal algorithm, the partner-pairing algorithm, which was used to compute the physical limits of heat-bath algorithmic cooling. Here we report the experimental realization of multi-step cooling of a quantum system via heat-bath algorithmic cooling. The experiment was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance of a solid-state ensemble three-qubit system. We demonstrate the repeated repolarization of a particular qubit to an effective spin-bath temperature, and alternating logical operations within the three-qubit subspace to ultimately cool a second qubit below this temperature. Demonstration of the control necessary for these operations represents an important step forward in the manipulation of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance qubits. PMID:16306986

  9. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  10. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; /Indiana U.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  11. The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: Flight sample preparation and ground control spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2009, the ORGANIC experiment integrated into the European multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, containing experiments dedicated to Astrobiology, was mounted through Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) externally on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment exposed organic samples of astronomical interest for a duration of 97 weeks (˜22 months) to the space environment. The samples that were returned to Earth in spring 2011, received a total UV radiation dose during their exposure including direct solar irradiation of >2500 h, exceeding the limits of laboratory simulations. We report flight sample preparation and pre-flight ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) characterization of the ORGANIC samples, which include 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The corresponding time-dependent ground control monitoring experiments for ORGANIC measured over ˜19 months are presented and the results anticipated upon return of the samples are discussed. We present the first UV-Vis spectrum of solid circobiphenyl (C 38H 16). Further, we present the first published UV-Vis spectra of diphenanthro[9,10-b',10'-d]thiophene (C 28H 16S), dinaphtho[8,1,2-abc,2',1',8'-klm]coronene (C 36H 16), tetrabenzo[de,no,st,c'd']heptacene (C 42H 22), and dibenzo[jk,a'b']octacene (C 40H 22) in solid phase and in solution. The results of the ORGANIC experiment are expected to enhance our knowledge of the evolution and degradation of large carbon-containing molecules in space environments.

  12. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk soil. Differences in the abundance of lignin monomers, hydroxyl acids, n-alkanols and n-fatty acid methyl esters measured by GC MS before and after the incubation indicated selective degradation and preservation patterns at the molecular scale.

  13. Exploring Atmospheric Aqueous Chemistry (and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation) through OH Radical Oxidation Experiments, Droplet Evaporation and Chemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Sullivan, A.; Häkkinen, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Tan, Y.; McNeill, V. F.; Collett, J. L.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.; Sareen, N.; Carlton, A. G.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gas phase photochemistry fragments and oxidizes organic emissions, making water-soluble organics ubiquitous in the atmosphere. My group and others have found that several water-soluble compounds react further in the aqueous phase forming low volatility products under atmospherically-relevant conditions (i.e., in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols). Thus, secondary organic aerosol can form as a result of gas followed by aqueous chemistry (aqSOA). We have used aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments coupled with product analysis and chemical modeling to validate and refine the aqueous chemistry of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid. The resulting chemical model has provided insights into the differences between oxidation chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. Further, we conducted droplet evaporation experiments to characterize the volatility of the products. Most recently, we have conducted aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments with ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases to identify additional atmospherically-important precursors and products. Specifically, we scrubbed water-soluble gases from the ambient air in the Po Valley, Italy using four mist chambers in parallel, operating at 25-30 L min-1. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments and control experiments were conducted with these mixtures (total organic carbon ? 100 ?M-C). OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were generated by photolyzing H2O2. Precursors and products were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ion chromatography (IC), IC-ESI-MS, and ultra high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chemical modeling suggests that organic acids (e.g., oxalate, pyruvate, glycolate) are major products of OH radical oxidation at cloud-relevant concentrations, whereas organic radical - radical reactions result in the formation of oligomers in wet aerosols. Products of cloud chemistry and droplet evaporation have effective vapor pressures that are orders of magnitude lower when ammonium hydroxide is present (pH 7) than without (at lower pH). In Po Valley experiments, nitrogen-containing organics were prominent precursors and intermediates. Pyruvate and oxalate were among the products. Importantly, formation of aqSOA helps to explain the high O/C ratios found in atmospheric aerosols. While uncertainties remain large, global modeling suggests that aqSOA is comparable in magnitude to SOA formed through gas phase chemistry and vapor pressure driven partitioning (gasSOA).

  14. Organ donation from brain-dead and circulatory-dead donors: single-institution experiences.

    PubMed

    Kenmochi, T; Nishiyama, S; Hayashi, M; Ito, T; Kato, Y; Hoshinaga, K

    2014-05-01

    Although the number of organ donations is extremely small in Japan, organ donation from brain dead (DBD) donors is increasing since the revised Law for Organ Transplantation was enacted on July 17, 2010. In our institution, organ donations had so far been performed from 247 donors (DCD 242, DBD 5), which is the largest number in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the status of organ donation before and after the enforcement of the revised law. After the enforcement of the revised law, the option of organ donation was shown to the more families of potential donors by the doctors or donor coordinators. However, the final number of donors was almost the same. The frequency of DBD donors of all donors increased (33.3%) as compared to 9.1% before the enforcement of the revised law. Reasons for rejection of donation from donor families were mainly based on the lack of understanding of brain death. To increase organ donation, we should promote social recognition of brain death, having the Organ Donation Card, and discussion of organ donation in each family. PMID:24815125

  15. Optical alteration of complex organics induced by ion irradiation:. 1. Laboratory experiments suggest unusual space weathering trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Lyuba; Baratta, Giuseppe; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Starukhina, Larissa; Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Arnold, Gabriele; Distefano, Elisa

    2004-07-01

    Most ion irradiation experiments relevant to primitive outer Solar System objects have been performed on ice and silicate targets. Here we present the first ion irradiation experiments performed on natural complex hydrocarbons (asphaltite and kerite). These materials are very dark in the visible and have red-sloped spectra in the visible and near-infrared. They may be comparable in composition and structure to refractory organic solids on the surfaces of primitive outer Solar System objects. We irradiated the samples with 15-400 keV H +, N +, Ar ++, and He + ions and measured their reflectance spectra in the range of 0.3-2.5 ?m before ion implantation and after each irradiation step. The results show that irradiation-induced carbonization gradually neutralizes the spectral slopes of these red organic solids. This implies a similar space weathering trend for the surfaces of airless bodies optically dominated by spectrally red organic components. The reduction of spectral slope was observed in all experiments. Irradiation with 30 keV protons, which transfers energy to the target mostly via electronic (inelastic) collisions, showed lower efficiency than the heavier ions. We found that spectral alteration in our experiments increased with increasing contribution of nuclear versus electronic energy loss. This implies that nuclear (elastic) energy deposition plays an important role in changing the optical properties of irradiated refractory complex hydrocarbon materials. Finally, our results indicated that temperature variations from 40 K to room temperature did not influence the spectral properties of these complex hydrocarbon solids.

  16. Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V., E-mail: markiz4@yandex.ru

    2012-12-15

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects result in an irreversible spreading of free electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible spreading produces a detectable effect on the electron interference.

  17. Modeling SOA formation from alkanes and alkenes in chamber experiments: effect of gas/wall partitioning of organic vapors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéphanie La, Yuyi; Camredon, Marie; Ziemann, Paul; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hodzic, Alma; Aumont, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Oxidation products of Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) are expected to be the major precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Laboratory experiments were conducted this last decade in the Riverside APRC chamber to study IVOC oxidative mechanisms and SOA formation processes for a large set of linear, branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons (Ziemann, 2011). This dataset are used here to assess the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) (Aumont et al., 2005). The simulated SOA yields agree with the general trends observed in the chamber experiments. They are (i) increasing with the increasing carbon number; (ii) decreasing with increasing methyl branch number; and (iii) increasing for cyclic compounds compared to their corresponding linear analogues. However, simulated SOA yields are systematically overestimated regardless of the precursors, suggesting missing processes in the model. In this study, we assess whether gas-to-wall partitioning of organic vapors can explain these model/observation mismatches (Matsunaga and Ziemann, 2010). First results show that GECKO-A outputs better match the observations when wall uptake of organic vapors is taken into account. Effects of gas/wall partitioning on SOA yields and composition will be presented. Preliminary results suggest that wall uptake is a major process influencing SOA production in the Teflon chambers. References Aumont, B., Szopa, S., Madronich, S.: Modelling the evolution of organic carbon during its gas-phase tropospheric oxidation: development of an explicit model based on a self generating approach. Atmos.Chem.Phys., 5, 2497-2517 (2005). P. J. Ziemann: Effects of molecular structure on the chemistry of aerosol formation from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of alkanes and alkenes, Int. Rev.Phys.Chem., 30:2, 161-195 (2011). Matsunaga, A., Ziemann, P. J.: Gas-wall partitioning of organic compounds in a Teflon film chamber and potential effects on reaction product and aerosol yield measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 44:10, 881-892 (2010).

  18. Enhancing the Undergraduate Experience: The Role of a Student Organization for Preservice Agricultural Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a need exists to establish an organization specifically for preservice agricultural science teachers and if so, the attributes of such an organization. Selected peer preservice agricultural education programs were examined and focus groups were conducted with preservice and inservice teachers. Results…

  19. Energetics of metal–organic interfaces: New experiments and assessment of the field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehyung Hwang; Alan Wan; Antoine Kahn

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research and development means have been focused in the past decade on organic semiconductor thin films and devices with applications to full color displays, flexible electronics and photovoltaics. Critical areas of these thin films are their interfaces with electrodes, with other organic films and with dielectrics, as these interfaces control charge injection and transport through the device. Full understanding

  20. Exploring the relationship between commitment, experience, and self-assessed performance in youth sport organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Engelberg; James Skinner; Dwight H. Zakus

    2011-01-01

    Youth sport organizations are dependent on the work of dedicated volunteers to function efficiently. However, these organizations are facing increasingly stringent management and legislative challenges and a closer scrutiny on their performance by sport governing bodies and other regulatory agencies. This study examined the links between organizational commitment, commitment to the volunteer role, and two aspects of volunteer performance (involvement

  1. Ferromagnetic interactions in organic solids: An overview of theory and experiment (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrance, J. B.; Bagus, P. S.; Johannsen, I.; Nazzal, A. I.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Batail, P.

    1988-04-01

    Recent progress in preparing organic solids with ferromagnetic interactions between spins is reviewed. The three principal models are discussed together with relevant materials that have been prepared in Japan, at Columbia University, in Moscow, and at IBM, Almaden. These are compared with the molecular ferromagnets recently developed by Miller and Epstein, which are not strictly organic.

  2. On Organizing Educational Research Communication in Europe: Past Experiences and Possible Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    In this note I will comment on the development of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) as a European educational research organization and the current situation. In doing so I will put forward a few matters concerning the social and intellectual organization of the EERA and the visibility of educational research in Europe.

  3. Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50?nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs. PMID:22839598

  4. Cytokine levels in osteoarthrosis patients undergoing mud bath therapy.

    PubMed

    Bellometti, S; Giannini, S; Sartori, L; Crepaldi, G

    1997-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is an important rheumatic condition characterized by the progressive destruction of cartilage. The pathophysiologic phenomena leading to the pathologic changes in the joint appear to result from biomechanical factors and activation of final common pathways of tissue damage influencing chondrocyte homeostasis and a functional program. Several cytokines and growth factors are reported to be responsible for inflammation and cartilage degradation. Among these, IL-1 and TNF alpha have been suggested as important in promoting cartilage inflammation and tissue destruction, while IGF I has a protective influence on cartilage structure. Chondrocytes and their metabolism have gained interest as targets of drug intervention; the results of this study confirm that mud bath therapy is also able to influence chondrocyte activities. Our data suggest that mud bath therapy influences cytokines related to osteoarthrosis pathomechanism and maintenance, and encourage further investigations to evaluate possible synergism between pharmacological treatment and mud bath therapy. PMID:9526176

  5. To be, or not to be... -instabilities on a liquid jet penetrated into a flowing bath-

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    We conduct a series of experiments with a special interest on a penetration process and instabilities arisen on a liquid jet impinged to a liquid of the same kind flowing in a channel. The impinged jet penetrates into the flowing bath accompanying with entrainment of the ambient immiscible gas, which results in the impinged jet wrapped by the entrained gas as a 'sheath.' This sheath formation enables the impinged jet to survive in the fluid in the channel without coalescing until the entrained-air sheath breaks down. Occasionally a 'cap' of the entrained air is formed at the tip of the penetrated jet, and the jet elongates like a long balloon.

  6. The Martian near surface environment: Analysis of Antarctic soils and laboratory experiments on putative Martian organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    Understanding the physical properties as well as the potential for organic material in the Martian near-surface environment can give us a glimpse into the history of the site with regards to water, soil formation processes, as well as the conditions necessary for life. This work is done to support the interpretation of data from the Phoenix Mars Lander as well as other past and future landed missions. The Antarctic Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid cold polar desert that is the most Mars-like place on Earth. Soils from two different soil and climate regimes are analyzed to determine their physical properties such as mineralogy, particle size, shape, color, and specific surface area. These data are used to describe the sample locations in Antarctica and infer properties of Martian soils by comparison to Antarctic sites. I find that the particle size distribution can be used to determine the water history of the site and that the behavior of soluble species in the soil can also be used to trace the movement of water through the soil and could be instructive in understanding how soil organic material is processed by the environment. Continuing with the theme of soil organic matter, we revisit the Viking conclusions with regards to organics on Mars and look at the Phoenix data on the same subject. First, we assume that Mars receives organic material from meteoritic infall. These organics will be processed by chemical oxidants as well as UV light down to 200 nm. Chemical oxidation is predicted to produce molecules such as mellitic acid, which could preserve up to 10% of the original organic mass. Using mellitic acid and other similar organic molecules, we irradiate these molecules with Mars-like ultraviolet light, analyzing the gases that come off as irradiation takes place. We find that organic molecules can survive Mars-like UV conditions as layers of UV-resistant organics build up, shielding the remaining organic material. Additionally, the gas products of irradiation depend on the composition of the original organic molecule, implying that even irradiated molecules will carry some information about the composition of the original molecule. Finally, we take this irradiated organic/soil stimulant mixture and analyze it via pyrolysis, similar to the Viking GC/MS and TEGA instruments that are the only instruments operated on Mars capable of detecting organics. We find that the pyrolysis of mellitic acid (and other similar) molecules primarily produces inorganic fragments but that the reduced carbon fragments released depend on the composition of the original organic. However, the introduction of perchlorate, discovered on Mars by the Phoenix Lander, complicates the issue by creating the conditions for molecular oxidation. The high-oxygen content and high pyrolysis temperatures lead to organic combustion during thermal analysis, meaning that, regardless of the initial composition, most soil organics will be oxidized to CO2 during the detection process. By assuming that organic material was oxidized to CO2 in the Phoenix and Viking samples. We show that this assumption gives organic concentrations consistent with meteoritic accumulation rates. This finding reopens the possibility for organic molecules in the near-surface environment at the Viking and Phoenix landing sites.

  7. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang, E-mail: qshi@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

  8. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

  9. organism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD E. MICHOD

    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma

  10. Representing Cardiac Bidomain Bath-Loading Effects by an Augmented Monodomain Approach: Application to Complex Ventricular Models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although the cardiac bidomain model has been widely used in the simulation of electrical activation, its relatively computationally expensive nature means that monodomain approaches are generally required for long duration simulations (for example, investigations of arrhythmia mechanisms). However, the presence of a conducting bath surrounding the tissue is known to induce wavefront curvature (surface leading bulk), a phenomena absent in standard monodomain approaches. Here, we investigate the biophysical origin of the bidomain bath-loading induced wavefront curvature and present a novel augmented monodomain equivalent bidomain approach faithfully replicating all aspects of bidomain wavefront morphology and conduction velocity, but with a fraction of the computational cost. Bath-loading effects are shown to be highly dependent upon specific conductivity parameters, but less dependent upon the thickness or conductivity of the surrounding bath, with even relatively thin surrounding fluid layers (~ 0.1 mm) producing significant wavefront curvature in bidomain simulations. We demonstrate that our augmented monodomain approach can be easily adapted for different conductivity sets and applied to anatomically complex models thus facilitating fast and accurate simulation of cardiac wavefront dynamics during long duration simulations, further aiding the faithful comparison of simulations with experiments. PMID:21292591

  11. The effect of site characteristics and farming practices on soil organic matter in long-term field experiments in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomáš Šimon; Dana Cerhanová; Olga Mikanová

    2011-01-01

    Parameters for evaluating both the soil organic matter quantity (total organic C [TOC]) and quality (hot water extractable C [HWC], hydrophobic and hydrophilic components, soil hydrophobicity) were determined in soil samples taken from selected plots of 13 field experiments under different soil and climatic conditions in the period 2004–2008. Four variants were selected in each experiment: non-fertilized control (Nil), mineral

  12. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    PubMed

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies. PMID:17877849

  13. The politics of combating the organ trade: lessons from the Israeli and Pakistani experience.

    PubMed

    Efrat, A

    2013-07-01

    Israel and Pakistan--two major participants in the global organ trade--enacted legislative prohibitions on the trade at roughly the same time. The article highlights three influences that brought about this change of policy in both countries: advocacy by local physicians coupled with media coverage and reinforced by the international medical community. The analysis also explains why the two countries have differed with respect to the enforcement of the organ-trade prohibition. The insights from the Israeli and Pakistani cases will be of use for the transplant community's efforts against organ trafficking. PMID:23675678

  14. Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, C.C.; Neff, J.C.; Townsend, A.R.; Hood, E.

    2004-01-01

    Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

  15. The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

    2008-01-01

    Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

  16. A case study in planning for public health education: the organ and tissue donation experience.

    PubMed Central

    Ganikos, M L; McNeil, C; Braslow, J B; Arkin, E B; Klaus, D; Oberley, E E; White, M F

    1994-01-01

    The chasm between the supply and demand of donated organs and tissues continues to grow despite widespread public awareness of transplantation and numerous efforts to educate the public about organ donation. It is fast becoming a significant public health problem in this country. The need for more effective public education is well documented in the literature on transplantation and is a primary objective of organizations in the transplant field. In response to this need, the Division of Organ Transplantation in the Health Resources and Services Administration of the Public Health Service initiated a project to examine the nature and scope of donation education initiatives throughout the country, to identify shortcomings, and to suggest ways the Federal Government could contribute to the effectiveness of public education in organ and tissue donation. The project resulted in the development of a protocol that also is applicable to other health education programs. Its major steps consisted of assessing the status of donation-related public education in the United States, identifying existing needs in donation education by applying principles learned from other public health education programs, and identifying roles that could be assumed to help strengthen the American public's commitment to organ and tissue donation. These roles, which could be adopted by an transplant-related organization, were as broker of knowledge, producer of educational strategies, energizer through communications research, and catalyst by bringing together other groups. This approach to needs assessment and planning may provide useful insights both for those concerned with transplants and for professionals conducting education campaigns related to other public health issues. PMID:7938382

  17. Campus Life www.bath.ac.uk/accommodation

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Information 15 - Security and CCTV 17 - Immobilise Database 18 - SelectaDNA 18 - Lock-out Procedure and Lost of Practice The University of Bath, along with the majority of Higher Education establishments, has signed up of Practice information 5 Important Information 6 - Action in an Emergency 6 - Useful Contacts 6 Offer

  18. Density matrix negativity for two oscillators in an Agarwal bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhao; G. H. Chen

    2002-01-01

    A system of two harmonic oscillators is placed in an Agarwal bath. The resulting quantum master equations are studied with the help of quantum characteristic functions. The density matrix positivity is investigated in view of the recent interest in searching for a sound quantum dissipation theory. An analytical criterion is derived for density matrix negativity for two uncoupled oscillators. It

  19. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Zinc recovery and waste sludge minimization from chromium passivation baths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazely Diban; Rosa Mediavilla; Ane Urtiaga; Inmaculada Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the feasibility of applying emulsion pertraction technology (EPT) aiming at zinc recovery and waste minimization in the zinc electroplating processes that include Cr (III) passivation. The assessment consists of firstly the lifetime extension of the passivation baths by selective removal of the tramp ions zinc and iron, and secondly, the recovery of zinc for further reuse. Spent

  2. Zinc recovery and waste sludge minimization from chromium passivation baths.

    PubMed

    Diban, Nazely; Mediavilla, Rosa; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the feasibility of applying emulsion pertraction technology (EPT) aiming at zinc recovery and waste minimization in the zinc electroplating processes that include Cr (III) passivation. The assessment consists of firstly the lifetime extension of the passivation baths by selective removal of the tramp ions zinc and iron, and secondly, the recovery of zinc for further reuse. Spent passivation baths from a local industry were tested, being the major metallic content: Cr(3+) 9000mg L(-1), Zn(2+) 12,000mg L(-1), Fe(3+) 100mg L(-1). Working in a Liqui-Cel hollow fiber membrane contactor and using the extractant bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, reduction of zinc and iron concentrations below 60mg L(-1) and 2mg L(-1), respectively were obtained, while trivalent chromium, the active metal that generates the passivation layer, was retained in the baths. Zinc was selectively transferred to an acidic stripping phase that in the experimental time reached a concentration of 157,000mg L(-1). Zinc recovery by electrowinning from the acidic stripping phase without any pretreatment of the electrolyte solution provided a purity of 98.5%, matching the lower commercial zinc grade. As a result of the extension of the life time of the passivation bath, significant environmental advantages are derived such as minimization of the volume of hazardous wastes and savings in the consumption of raw materials. PMID:21704452

  3. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES NEXT TO THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Development of a new protocol for testing bath sponge quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Louden; S. Inderbitzin; Z. Peng; R. de Nys

    2007-01-01

    Due to the diverse morphological variation that occurs in sponges between and within species, protocols for quantitative quality testing are required to select sponges and optimise conditions for the aquaculture of high quality bath sponges. A protocol was developed to assess the quality of sponges using mechanical engineering techniques. It quantified the physical properties of sponges (density, fibre width, fibre

  5. On the second fluctuationdissipation theorem for nonequilibrium baths

    E-print Network

    Maes, Christian

    On the second fluctuation­dissipation theorem for nonequilibrium baths Christian Maes Instituut referred to as the second fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We show what is the proper nonequilibrium, that relation follows the second fluctuation-dissipation theorem, giving a proportionality between the noise

  6. Transport Survey 2008 -University of Bath Executive Summary

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    into staff and students' travel behaviours and their opinions on a variety of transport policies, basedTransport Survey 2008 - University of Bath Executive Summary 1. The Department of Estates on a questionnaire used in a previous Transport Survey (2002). 2. An online survey questionnaire was developed

  7. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaiah Olatunde Oladeji

    1999-01-01

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then

  8. UNIVERSITY OF BATH REGULATIONS FOR STUDENTS 2013/14

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    UNIVERSITY OF BATH REGULATIONS FOR STUDENTS 2013/14 Regulation Page 1 Registration 2 2 Fees 3 3 Disciplinary Regulations for Students 7 8 Disciplinary Procedures for Students 10 9* Reservation of Areas 17 10 Site 20 13 Admissions Regulations for First Degrees 21 14 Admissions Regulations for Diploma

  9. Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

    The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

  10. Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch

    E-print Network

    Bloch, Anthony

    Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch #3; Department of Mathematics@research.bell-labs.com November 25, 2003 Abstract In this paper we analyze the stability of a gyroscopic oscillator interacting a #12;nite gyroscopic oscillator model of a particle on a rotating disc and a particle in a magnetic #12

  11. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Role of VI\\/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. N. Urgessa; O. S. Oluwafemi; J. R. Botha

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH? to Zn2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI\\/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30nm are obtained,

  14. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  15. Use of biodegradable (PGA) fabric for repair of solid organ injury: a combined institution experience.

    PubMed

    Delany, H M; Ivatury, R R; Blau, S A; Gleeson, M; Simon, R; Stahl, W M

    1993-10-01

    A fabric constructed of biodegradable mesh was used in the operative repair of injured intra-abdominal organs in 60 patients at two Level I Trauma Centres. Splenorrhaphy was performed in 44 patients, hepatorrhaphy in eight, renorrhaphy in five and one combined repair of spleen and liver and one kidney and liver. The age range for the patients was 5 to 61 years. Multiple-organ injury occurred in 21 patients. Mean emergency room systolic BP for the patient series was 120 +/- 24 mmHg (SD), Glasgow Coma Scale 14.3 +/- 1.9, haematocrit 37.2 +/- 6.4 per cent, Injury Severity Score (ISS) 28.1 +/- 16.3, Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) 15.5 +/- 7.5. Postoperative complications occurred in 36.7 per cent of patients. Time for the operation averaged 165.1 + 72.1 min and preoperative and operative transfusion volume averaged 2248 ml. There were three deaths (5.4 per cent). The mesh organ repair technique is an alternative to conventional surgical procedures used to control bleeding from injured organ surfaces and to close organ parenchymal defects. PMID:8288375

  16. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

  17. Self-organization of nanoscale multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Hare; Shirato, Nozomi; Yadavali, Sagar; Sachan, Ritesh; Strader, Jeremy; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2011-01-25

    Surfaces made from composite nanostructured materials are potential multifunctional platforms for detection, sensing, and energy harvesting in biological and inorganic systems. However, robust and cost-effective synthesis routes are required to create the required arrays of nanostructures with tailorable size, morphology, and composition. Here we show that self-organization via spontaneous pattern formation in nanometer thick bilayer liquid films could lead to such nanostructure arrays. Experimentally, bilayers of immiscible metallic liquids show different self-organized patterning characteristics based on their order of arrangement on a substrate. Energy rate theory based on equating the rate of free energy change to viscous dissipation was used to explain this result. The different bilayer arrangements change the signs of intermolecular interactions, which changes the mode of coupled deformations and the patterning characteristics. Patterning length scale characteristics from nanosecond pulsed laser induced self-organization of Ag and Co liquids on SiO? substrate were in good agreement with theory. PMID:21175217

  18. Organ transplantation as a transformative experience: anthropological insights into the restructuring of the self.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L A

    1995-09-01

    Transplantation represents in the popular mind the pinnacle of biomedical knowledge and skill. Its feasibility depends upon the management of conflicting cultural values surrounding death and dying, where diverse parties consider bodies and their parts to be personal property, sacred entities, or offerings to the common good. Specifically within the specialized transplant community, viable organs are scarce, socially valuable resources. The ideology that guides transplant professionals, however, is rife with contradictions: close inspection reveals unease over definitions of death and rights to body parts. Ideological disjunction arises from the competing needs to personalize and to objectify organs and bodies. Organ recipients struggle with these contradictory messages as they rebuild their sense of self and self-worth following transplantation. This transformative process is explored by analyzing professional writings and data generated from ethnographic research in the United States. The study ends by examining transformed identity as fictionalized and extended biography. PMID:8542439

  19. Biogeochemistry of Two Types of Permeable Reafctive Barriers, Organic Carbon and Iron-bearing Organic Carbon for Mine Drainage treatment: Column experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Q.; Blowes, D

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are an alternative technology to treat mine drainage containing sulfate and heavy metals. Two column experiments were conducted to assess the suitability of an organic carbon (OC) based reactive mixture and an Fe{sup 0}-bearing organic carbon (FeOC) based reactive mixture, under controlled groundwater flow conditions. The organic carbon mixture contains about 30% (volume) organic carbon (composted leaf mulch) and 70% (volume) sand and gravel. The Fe{sup 0}-bearing organic carbon mixture contains 10% (volume) zero-valent iron, 20% (volume) organic carbon, 10% (volume) limestone, and 60% (volume) sand and gravel. Simulated groundwater containing 380 ppm sulfate, 5 ppm As, and 0.5 ppm Sb was passed through the columns at flow rates of 64 (the OC column) and 62 (the FeOC column) ml d{sup -1}, which are equivalent to 0.79 (the OC column) and 0.78 (the FeOC column) pore volumes (PVs) per week or 0.046 m d{sup -1} for both columns. The OC column showed an initial sulfate reduction rate of 0.4 {mu}mol g (OC){sup -1} d{sup -1} and exhausted its capacity to promote sulfate reduction after 30 PVs, or 9 months of flow. The FeOC column sustained a relatively constant sulfate reduction rate of 0.9 {mu}mol g (OC){sup -1} d{sup -1} for at least 65 PVs (17 months). In the FeOC column, the {delta}34S values increase with the decreasing sulfate concentration. The {delta}34S fractionation follows a Rayleigh fractionation model with an enrichment factor of 21.6%. The performance decline of the OC column was caused by the depletion of substrate or electron donor. The cathodic production of H{sub 2} by anaerobic corrosion of Fe probably sustained a higher level of SRB activity in the FeOC column. These results suggest that zero-valent iron can be used to provide an electron donor in sulfate reducing PRBs. A sharp increase in the {delta}13C value of the dissolved inorganic carbon and a decrease in the concentration of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} indicate that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is occurring in the first 15 cm of the FeOC column.

  20. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  1. Crop productivity under increasing nitrogen rates and different organic fertilization systems in a long-term IOSDV experiment in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Káš; Jan Haberle; Stepanka Mat?jková

    2010-01-01

    The yields of winter wheat, winter barley, and potatoes in a long-term field experiment on one of the international IOSDV network sites, were evaluated. The experiment was set up in 1983 in Lukavec, Czech Republic, within a potato growing region on a sandy-loam soil. The experiment includes three systems of organic fertilization: Without manure; manure added for the potatoes; and

  2. Like Dissolves Like: A Classroom Demonstration and a Guided-Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration supported by the guided-inquiry experience that focuses on separation techniques and other solvent-dependent processes, such as reaction-solvent selection. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  3. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  4. Failure of the Shockley-Haynes Mobility Experiment with organic semiconducting materials

    E-print Network

    Boehme, Hollis Clyde

    1961-01-01

    LIST OF TABLES Table P~ae I. Calculated resistivi ties of perylene-iodine and pyrene-iodine complexes. . . . . , . . . , 9 II. Probe contaot resistance for steady cnrrents. . 22 CHAPTER I IHTRODUCTIOB In this experiment the method of Shockley...

  5. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

  6. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of School Organization: Fundamental Inconsistencies between Expectations and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Preservice teacher-candidates enrolled in teacher education programs across Canada are exposed to the nuances of school organization during their practice-teaching assignments. Although the literature is full of scholarship about the concerns of new teachers, less attention has been given to school organizational factors as sources of dissonance…

  7. Secondary organic aerosol production from aqueous photooxidation of glycolaldehyde: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Mark J.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Turpin, Barbara J.

    Organic particulate matter (PM) formed in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) is a substantial yet poorly understood contributor to atmospheric PM. Aqueous photooxidation in clouds, fogs and aerosols is a newly recognized SOA formation pathway. This study investigates the potential for aqueous glycolaldehyde oxidation to produce low volatility products that contribute SOA mass. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation that aqueous oxidation of glycolaldehyde via the hydroxyl radical forms glyoxal and glycolic acid, as previously assumed. Subsequent reactions form formic acid, glyoxylic acid, and oxalic acid as expected. Unexpected products include malonic acid, succinic acid, and higher molecular weight compounds, including oligomers. Due to (1) the large source strength of glycolaldehyde from precursors such as isoprene and ethene, (2) its water solubility, and (3) the aqueous formation of low volatility products (organic acids and oligomers), we predict that aqueous photooxidation of glycolaldehyde and other aldehydes in cloud, fog, and aerosol water is an important source of SOA and that incorporation of this SOA formation pathway in chemical transport models will help explain the current under-prediction of organic PM concentrations.

  8. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  9. Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

  10. Dissolved Organic Carbon Leaching from a Coniferous Forest Floor -- A Field Manipulation Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats Fröberg; Dan Berggren Kleja; Bo Bergkvist; Edward Tipping; Jan Mulder

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the O layer is important for the carbon cycling of forest soils. Here we study the role of the Oi, Oe and Oa horizons in DOC leaching from the forest floor in field manipulations carried out in a Norway spruce forest stand in southern Sweden. The manipulations involved the addition and removal of

  11. Mineralization of soil organic matter in two elevated CO2 by warming experiments in grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimentally elevated atmospheric CO2 has enhanced carbon (C) allocation belowground, while ecosystem warming has led to losses of soil C due to enhanced mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Few investigations of possible interactions between elevated CO2 and temperature have been reported...

  12. EXPERIENCES OF THE LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR A LARGE SCIENTIFIC MEETING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the history and organization of the combined meeting of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America, the VI International Solanaceae Conference, and the III Solanaceae Genomics Conference. The unifying theme of these three groups is the science of the Solanaceae...

  13. Water bath & air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-06-18

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan.

  14. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

  15. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

  16. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

  17. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

  18. University of Bath -Student Records & Examinations Office -Student numbers -1 Dec 1998 Student Records & Examinations

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Records & Examinations Office - Student numbers - 1 Dec 1998 Student or TEMPUS; staff are University of Bath full-time staff who are also registered as part-time students at the University of Bath arranged in descending order by domicile. Domicile is the country of the student

  19. University of Bath -Student Numbers at 1 December 2001 Student Records & Examinations

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Numbers at 1 December 2001 Student Records & Examinations Office of students studying at, or in association with, the University of Bath in the academic year 2001 countries with the most students at the University of Bath arranged in descending order by domicile

  20. University of Bath -Student Records & Examinations Office -Student numbers -1 Dec 2000 Student Records & Examinations

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Records & Examinations Office - Student numbers - 1 Dec 2000 Student are University of Bath full-time staff who are also registered as part-time students; the rest are core students at the University of Bath arranged in descending order by domicile. Domicile is the country of the student

  1. Dissipation and transport dynamics in a ratchet coupled to a discrete bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a particle in a ratchet potential (the system) coupled to an harmonic bath of N=1-500 degrees of freedom (the discrete bath). The dynamics of the energy exchange between the system and the discrete bath is studied in the transition regime from low to high values of N . First manifestation of dissipation (energy lost by the system) appears

  2. Matthew Evan Thrasher A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Copyright by Matthew Evan Thrasher 2005 #12;A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN August 2005 #12;A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath APPROVED 2005 vi #12;A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath Matthew Evan Thrasher, M

  3. Studying bath exhaustion as a method to apply microcapsules on fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ángeles Bonet; Lucía Capablanca; Pablo Monllor; Pablo Díaz; Ignacio Montava

    2012-01-01

    Textile industry is one of the fields that have increased their consumption of microcapsules. They can be applied to textiles using different methods, such as, padding, bath exhaustion, spraying and foaming. Although the most extended industrial application is by padding, commercial brands also suggest bath exhaustion as a possible procedure. In the research reported herein, bath exhaustion treatments are compared

  4. Studying bath exhaustion as a method to apply microcapsules on fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ángeles Bonet; Lucía Capablanca; Pablo Monllor; Pablo Díaz; Ignacio Montava

    2011-01-01

    Textile industry is one of the fields that have increased their consumption of microcapsules. They can be applied to textiles using different methods, such as, padding, bath exhaustion, spraying and foaming. Although the most extended industrial application is by padding, commercial brands also suggest bath exhaustion as a possible procedure. In the research reported herein, bath exhaustion treatments are compared

  5. Wash and Wean: Bathing Patients Undergoing Weaning Trials During Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Tate, Judith A.; Swigart, Valerie A.; DiVirgilio-Thomas, Dana; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bathing is a fundamental nursing care activity performed for or with the self-assistance of critically ill patients. Few studies address caregiver and/or patient-family perspectives about bathing activity during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE To describe practices and beliefs about bathing patients during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). METHODS Secondary analysis of qualitative data (observational field notes, interviews, and clinical record review) from a larger ethnographic study involving 30 patients weaning from PMV and the clinicians who cared for them using basic qualitative description. RESULTS Bathing, hygiene, and personal care were highly valued and equated with “good” nursing care by families and nurses. Nurses and respiratory therapists reported “working around” bath time and promoted conducting weaning trials before or after bathing. Patients were nevertheless bathed during weaning trials despite clinicians expressed concerns for energy conservation. Clinicians’ recognized individual patient response to bathing during PMV weaning trials. CONCLUSION Bathing is a central care activity for PMV patients and a component of daily work processes in the ICU. Bathing requires assessment of patient condition and activity tolerance and nurse-respiratory therapist negotiation and accommodation with respect to the initiation and/or continuation of PMV weaning trials during bathing. Further study is needed to validate the impact (or lack of impact) of various timing strategies for bathing PMV patients. PMID:20561877

  6. Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artifact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artifact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures which are disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies assessing the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations of blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of the data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models is thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate. It is concluded that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations. PMID:25667570

  7. Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol from aromatic precursors in smog chamber experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kalberer; M. Sax; R. Zenobi; D. Paulsen; M. Steinbacher; A. Prevot; E. Weingartner; U. Baltensperger

    2003-01-01

    In a newly built smog chamber (27m^3 volume) at the Paul Scherrer Institute secondary organic aerosols were produced from photo-oxidation products of aromatic compounds. The aerosol composition as well as gas phase reaction products was analyzed. Aerosol collected on filter samples was analyzed with gas chromatography \\/ mass spectrometry GC\\/MS after derivatization of carbonyl, carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups to

  8. Electrical transport characteristics of single-layer organic devices from theory and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Martin; Alison B. Walker; A. J. Campbell; D. D. C. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    An electrical model based on drift diffusion is described. We have explored systematically how the shape of the current density-voltage (J-V) curves is determined by the input parameters, information that isessential when deducing values of these parameters by fitting to experimental data for an ITO\\/PPV\\/Al organic light-emitting device (OLED), where ITO is shorthand for indium tin oxide and PPV is

  9. Coupling Efficiency Enhancement in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Microlens Array— Theory and Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huajun Peng; Yeuk Lung Ho; Xing-Jie Yu; Man Wong; Hoi-Sing Kwok

    2005-01-01

    Microlens arrays are introduced on glass substrates to improve the out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). The microlenses suppress waveguiding loss in the substrate. A theoretical model, based on electromagnetic wave propagation and geometric ray tracing, is developed to simulate the enhancement effects and optimize the structure parameters of the lens pattern. A simple soft-lithography approach is employed to

  10. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, A.; Novák, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T.; Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U.; Resel, R.

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 1015 and 1016 photons/(s mm2) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  11. Distributions and Partitioning of Dissolved Organic C, N and P During the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J. E.; Smith, W. O.; Keesee, E. E.

    2002-12-01

    Several open ocean experiments have now evaluated the production of particulate organic matter, and the fluxes of particulate and inorganic forms of C, N and P during iron fertilization. However, few, if any, of these studies have measured dissolved organic C, N and P (DOC, DON and DOP, respectively) during Fe fertilization, and incorporated these pools into biogeochemical models of organic matter and biogenic elemental cycling. We present new findings on DOC, DON and DOP distributions during the recent Southern Ocean Fe Experiment (SOFeX) conducted in Jan-Feb 2002. Concentrations of DOC were low, ranging from 30-45 uM in the mixed layer and from 25-35 uM at 50 m, and were at times lowest within the area of Fe fertilization (using SF6 as a proxy tracer). DON ranged from 2.5-5.5 uM N, and while shallow and deep concentrations tracked each other, they showed little depth difference. Concentrations of DOP at all depths were 0.1-0.2 uM P, and showed no relationship with DOC, DON or SF6 concentrations. Ratios of both DOC:DON and DON:DOP were slightly greater than Redfield, and were consistent with DOM elemental ratios measured previously in the Southern Ocean (Loh and Bauer, 2000, Deep-Sea Res. I, vol. 47:2287-2316). The apparent uncoupling between DOC, DON and DOP suggests that the dissolved organic forms of these elements may be produced and recycled to different extents by auto- and heterotrophic populations in these waters over short horizontal and vertical spatial scales. Alternatively, more C-rich (i.e., hydrophobic) components may be removed by mechanisms such as co-metabolism, or via sorption to particles produced during the Fe-stimulated phytoplankton bloom.

  12. Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have…

  13. Prostate Cancer Prior to Solid Organ Transplantation: The Israel Penn International Transplant Tumor Registry Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Woodle; M. Gupta; J. F. Buell; G. W. Neff; T. G. Gross; M. R. First; M. J. Hanaway; J. Trofe

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionProstate adenocarcinoma (PCA) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men, and with routine prostrate specific antigen (PSA) screening, is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. To date, reported experiences with transplantation in men with a history of PCA are limited to only a few patients. This study presents the first series of transplant recipients with a history of

  14. Abstract. Sensory experience alters the functional orga-nization of cortical networks. Previous studies using

    E-print Network

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    the representation of the sensory environment. Different combinations of receptive-field, temporal, and spectro modulated tones altered the maximum cortical following rate. Exposure to complex acoustic sequences led cortex (A1). For the purpose of this review, acoustic experience can be simply thought of as the spatial

  15. Class Matters: The Experiences of Female College Students in a Greek-Letter Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Helen-Grace

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study documents the experiences of 15 women from different social class backgrounds who are members of a women's fraternity/sorority at a large, public, institution located in an urban area in the Mid-West. The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between social class and the nature and impact of the…

  16. Pseudogap and singlet formation in organic and cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, J.; Gunnarsson, O.

    2014-06-01

    The pseudogap phase occurring in cuprate and organic superconductors is analyzed based on the dynamical cluster approximation approach to the Hubbard model. In this method a cluster embedded in a self-consistent bath is studied. With increasing Coulomb repulsion, U, the antinodal point [k =(?,0)] displays a gradual suppression of spectral density of states around the Fermi energy which is not observed at the nodal point [k =(?/2,?/2)]. The opening of the antinodal pseudogap is found to be related to the internal structure of the cluster and the much weaker bath-cluster couplings at the antinodal than nodal point. The role played by internal cluster correlations is elucidated from a simple four-level model. For small U, the cluster levels form Kondo singlets with their baths leading to a peak in the spectral density. As U is increased a localized state is formed localizing the electrons in the cluster. If this cluster localized state is nondegenerate, the Kondo effect is destroyed and a pseudogap opens up in the spectra at the antinodal point. The pseudogap can be understood in terms of destructive interference between different paths for electrons hopping between the cluster and the bath. However, electrons at the nodal points remain in Kondo states up to larger U since they are more strongly coupled to the bath. The strong correlation between the (?,0) and the (0,?) cluster levels in the localized state leads to a large correlation energy gain, which is important for localizing electrons and opening up a pseudogap at the antinodal point. Such a scenario is in contrast with two independent Mott transitions found in two-band systems with different bandwidths in which the localized cluster electron does not correlate strongly with any other cluster electron for intermediate U. The important intracluster sector correlations are associated with the resonating valence bond character of the cluster ground state containing d-wave singlet pairs. The low-energy excitations determining the pseudogap have suppressed d-wave pairing, indicating that the pseudogap can be related to breaking very short-range d-wave pairs. Geometrical frustration on the anisotropic triangular lattice relevant to ?-(BEDT-TTF)2X leads to a switch in the character of the ground state of the cluster at intermediate hopping ratios t'/t˜0.7. Electron doping of the frustrated square lattice destroys the pseudogap, in agreement with photoemission experiments on cuprates, due to a larger Schrieffer-Wolff exchange coupling, JK, and a stronger cluster-bath coupling for the antinodal point.

  17. Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin-bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Balian, S. J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Mohammady, M. H.; Morley, G. W.; Witzel, W. M.; Kay, C. W. M.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments which enable us to characterize the coupling between bismuth donor spin-qubits in Si and the surrounding spin-bath of 29Si impurities which provides the dominant decoherence mechanism (nuclear spin diffusion) at low temperatures (< 16 K). Decoupling from the spin-bath is predicted and cluster correlation expansion simulations show near-complete suppression of spin diffusion, at optimal working points. The suppression takes the form of sharply peaked divergences of the spin diffusion coherence time, in contrast with previously identified broader regions of insensitivity to classical fluctuations. ENDOR data shows anisotropic contributions are comparatively weak, so the form of the divergences is independent of crystal orientation. PMID:23082071

  18. Roles of visual experience and intrinsic mechanism in the activity-dependent self-organization of orientation maps: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Miyashita, Masanobu; Ribot, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that functional maps in the mammalian visual cortex such as ocular dominance columns and orientation columns are formed depending on neural activity. There is still, however, controversy on how much visual experience contributes to the map formation during development. In the present study, we address this issue from mathematical modeling and experimental investigation. Using a model of activity-dependent self-organization of geniculo-cortical afferent inputs, we showed that spontaneous activity in the LGN can produce orientation maps, while the exposure to drifting gratings results in sharply segregated orientation maps as observed in cat visual cortex. The restricted exposure to a single orientation of the grating led to the over-representation of the exposed orientation, which was moderated by the contribution of learning based on the spontaneous activity. These theoretical results were confirmed by intrinsic optical recordings from area 18 of kittens reared under various visual conditions. PMID:15555871

  19. Stripping of copper coatings from steel in Cr(VI)-free commercial bath.

    PubMed

    Simka, Wojciech; Nawrat, Ginter; Nieuzy?a, ?ukasz; Krzaka?a, Agnieszka

    2009-08-30

    In this work the electrochemical characteristics of copper and steel in chromate, cyanide, and phosphate baths as well as in a commercial bath (ENSTRIP S-180), in the absence of chromium and cyanides were determined. Average rates of copper coatings stripping from steel in the above mentioned baths and the baths influence on the morphology of steel surfaces were described. It was found that the commercial bath ENSTRIP S-180 could be successfully used for stripping of copper coatings from steel elements. PMID:19272703

  20. A Modern Apparatus for Performing Flash Chromatography: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Naumiec, Gregory R.; Del Padre, Angela N.; Hooper, Matthew M.; St. Germaine, Alison; DeBoef, Brenton

    2013-01-01

    A modern apparatus for performing flash chromatography using commercially available, prepacked silica cartridges has been developed. The key advantage of this system, when compared to traditional flash chromatography, is its use of commercially available silica cartridges, which obviates the need for students to handle silica gel. The apparatus has been tested for its ability to perform separations that are commonly found in organic chemistry teaching laboratories, and a laboratory module that combines the techniques of thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and flash chromatography is described. The performance of this new chromatography apparatus was comparable to a traditional flash chromatography column. PMID:23504657

  1. A Modern Apparatus for Performing Flash Chromatography: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Naumiec, Gregory R; Del Padre, Angela N; Hooper, Matthew M; St Germaine, Alison; Deboef, Brenton

    2013-03-12

    A modern apparatus for performing flash chromatography using commercially available, prepacked silica cartridges has been developed. The key advantage of this system, when compared to traditional flash chromatography, is its use of commercially available silica cartridges, which obviates the need for students to handle silica gel. The apparatus has been tested for its ability to perform separations that are commonly found in organic chemistry teaching laboratories, and a laboratory module that combines the techniques of thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and flash chromatography is described. The performance of this new chromatography apparatus was comparable to a traditional flash chromatography column. PMID:23504657

  2. Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanturf, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

  3. The effect of correlated bath fluctuations on exciton transfer

    PubMed Central

    Strümpfer, Johan; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Excitation dynamics of various light harvesting systems have been investigated with many theoretical methods including various non-Markovian descriptions of dissipative quantum dynamics. It is typically assumed that each excited state is coupled to an independent thermal environment, i.e., that fluctuations in different environments are uncorrelated. Here the assumption is dropped and the effect of correlated bath fluctuations on excitation transfer is investigated. Using the hierarchy equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics it is shown for models of the B850 bacteriochlorophylls of LH2 that correlated bath fluctuations have a significant effect on the LH2 ? LH2 excitation transfer rate. It is also demonstrated that inclusion of static disorder is crucial for an accurate description of transfer dynamics. PMID:21385000

  4. The Langevin Equation for a Quantum Heat Bath

    E-print Network

    S. Attal; A. Joye

    2006-12-17

    We compute the quantum Langevin equation (or quantum stochastic differential equation) representing the action of a quantum heat bath at thermal equilibrium on a simple quantum system. These equations are obtained by taking the continuous limit of the Hamiltonian description for repeated quantum interactions with a sequence of photons at a given density matrix state. In particular we specialise these equations to the case of thermal equilibrium states. In the process, new quantum noises are appearing: thermal quantum noises. We discuss the mathematical properties of these thermal quantum noises. We compute the Lindblad generator associated with the action of the heat bath on the small system. We exhibit the typical Lindblad generator that provides thermalization of a given quantum system.

  5. [Personal experience in the organization of mass admission of traumatized refugees].

    PubMed

    Pavlovi?, D; Bijedi?, S

    1997-01-01

    Here is showed experience and importance of Emergency Medical Service during mass reception of traumatised displaced persons from Srebrenica in July 1995. During organisation of reception a good willingness and experience of this service with repard a to fast action, examination and selection of more than 15,000 displaced persons. In short time, whole coming persons were examined; medicine treated and in other way cared. There were arranged, 234 doctor teams, 22 stomatologist teams, 42 laboratory teams, 42 hygiene-epidemiologist teams and 18 teams for vaccination of children. In the various pathology of coming displaced persons there were dominated: respiratory disease case and uncared skin infections in children, chronical cardiovascular disease and malnutrition in adults. For successful realisation of this complex tasks, like the organising of reception and medical care of huge number of traumatised displaced persons, it is needed to have well organised, qualified and technical equipped Emergency medical Service. PMID:9601774

  6. Failure of the Shockley-Haynes Mobility Experiment with organic semiconducting materials 

    E-print Network

    Boehme, Hollis Clyde

    1961-01-01

    to measure hole mobility in n-type germanium 2. Sketch of oscilloscope trace obtained in the Shockley-Haynes' experiment. . . . . . . . . . . 4 )a, Resistanoe versus pressure curve for pyrene- iodine complex 10a $b, Resistance versus pressure curve i...~ particularly of n-type germanium 5, 6, 7 Carrier injection was introduced by Bardeen and Brattain to 8 explain the modulation of the collector current in a type A transistor. In this case the emitter and oolleotor contaots are two metal point oontacts...

  7. Membrane-Associated Methane Monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus(Bath)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES A. ZAHN; ANDALAN A. DISPIRITO

    1996-01-01

    An active preparation of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography using dodecyl b-D-maltoside as the detergent. The active preparation consisted of three major polypeptides with molecular masses of 47,000, 27,000, and 25,000 Da. Two of the three polypeptides (those with molecular masses of 47,000 and 27,000 Da) were identified

  8. Small helium bath cryopump for electron optical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Hanzelka; Jan Dupák; V?ra Musilová

    2002-01-01

    A small helium bath cryopump for electron optical devices has been designed and manufactured. The filling volumes of LHe and LN2 are 2.5 and 3.6 l, respectively. Special electron beam welding methods were utilised for the pump structure. The heat loads of the cryogens were minimised using numerical methods. An LHe refill interval of 30 days was reached, whereas that

  9. An Infinite Level Atom coupled to a Heat Bath

    E-print Network

    Martin Könenberg

    2011-01-13

    We consider a $W^*$-dynamical system $(\\Mg,\\taug)$, which models finitely many particles coupled to an infinitely extended heat bath. The energy of the particles can be described by an unbounded operator, which has infinitely many energy levels. We show existence of the dynamics $\\taug$ and existence of a $(\\beta,\\taug)$ -KMS state under very explicit conditions on the strength of the interaction and on the inverse temperature $\\beta$.

  10. Early Life Experience Shapes the Functional Organization of Stress-Responsive Visceral Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits. PMID:21497616

  11. A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.

    1998-05-01

    A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone (5) from benzil (1) and 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone (2). In version (high base concentration) a mixture of 5 and the diastereomeric 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-ones 3 and 4 are produced, while in the other (low base concentration) a mixture of 1, 2, 3, and 4 results. The experiment is typically carried out in conjunction with the previously reported preparation/dehydration of 3, thus the students provide themselves with authentic samples of 3 and 5. Using these, plus authentic samples of 1 and 2 which are made available, students are able to identify all of the components in the equilibrium mixtures, except 4, by TLC analysis. In the case of 4, students are expected to propose a reasonable structure for this compound based on the observed chemistry and the spectroscopic evidence which is provided (i.e., NMR, IR and mass spectra). The experiment lends itself nicely to either the traditional or problem-solving approach, and it also opens up opportunities for collaborative learning.

  12. Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol from aromatic precursors in smog chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalberer, M.; Sax, M.; Zenobi, R.; Paulsen, D.; Steinbacher, M.; Prevot, A.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2003-04-01

    In a newly built smog chamber (27m^3 volume) at the Paul Scherrer Institute secondary organic aerosols were produced from photo-oxidation products of aromatic compounds. The aerosol composition as well as gas phase reaction products was analyzed. Aerosol collected on filter samples was analyzed with gas chromatography / mass spectrometry GC/MS after derivatization of carbonyl, carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups to identify single compounds. In addition, the filters were analyzed with other analytical methods such as matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) to gain insights into the overall mass distribution of the organic aerosol components and with diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy to estimate the importance of the different functional groups (such as carbonyl-, carboxyl-, or nitro-groups) present in the aerosol phase. Along with the aerosol analysis, the gas phase reaction products were analyzed off-line with GC/MS from samples collected on polyuretan foam plugs and on-line with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTRMS) with a high time resolution of about 2 minutes.

  13. Hospitals and Health Maintenance Organizations: An Analysis of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Experience

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Gibson, Geoffrey; Ashby, Cynthia S.

    1983-01-01

    Minneapolis-St. Paul is recognized as a prime example of health care competition. Policymakers and others have been asked to look to the Twin Cities as a model upon which to base new competitive initiatives in the health care sector. Yet little is known about the impact of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) on other health care providers. This study examines the effects of the area's seven health maintenance organizations on the local hospital community. Three questions are addressed. First, is the situation in the Twin Cities unique? A comparison of case study findings and the available literature together with hospital data from similarly HMO-penetrated markets suggests that the Twin Cities' hospital market is indeed different. Second, what is the nature of hospital-HMO interaction? The flexibility of contracting apparently allows hospitals to affiliate successfully with an HMO under a variety of service and reimbursement agreements. Third, what effect has HMO activity had on community-wide utilization? While HMO enrollees clearly use fewer hospital days and the trend in the community is toward fewer days, attributing the change to HMOs is difficult. A large portion of the differences between HMO and community-wide utilization levels is attributable to differences in population. PMID:10309856

  14. Effects of Bath Depth and Eccentricity on Mixing Phenomena in Shaking Ladle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Shanqiang; Wang, Haijuan; Zhang, Jun; Chu, Shaojun

    2015-02-01

    Water modeling experiments were carried out to investigate the mixing time and fluid flow phenomena in a shaking ladle, which is widely used in production of low and medium carbon ferromanganese and ferrochrome and also other metallurgical processes. Mixing time was determined by electrical conductivity probe method. A new concept of CSS-MT (critical shaking speed based on mixing time) was defined, which was different from the previous CSS-WH (critical shaking speed based on wave height). And the influences of bath depth and eccentricity on the CSS-MT were studied. The results showed that the mixing behaviors in shaking ladle can be categorized into shallow water type and deep water type, and the mixing efficiency of the former is poor and should be avoided in the industry practice. For the deep water type, the CSS-MT increases with increasing of bath depth and is approximately 15 rpm greater than the CSS-WH obtained from Ishii's empirical formula. A larger eccentricity is helpful to decrease the critical shaking speed within certain limitations which is 30 mm; however, it is useless for increasing the eccentricity when it is above the limitation.

  15. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100 m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Lance M.

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100 meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as 0.80 +/- 0.04 m-2s-1, the cosmogenic fast neutron flux as (1.5 +/- 1.4) x 10-2 m-2 s-1, and the neutron production rate from muon spallation in liquid scintillator as (3.8 +/- 3.2) x 10-4 n/mu (g/cm2)-1. Additionally, the cosmic muon angular distribution and neutron energy distribution have been measured. These results can be extrapolated to future measurements of fast-neutron backgrounds at other underground facilities. This thesis presents a summary of the physics relevant to underground muons and fast neutrons, the SciBath detector, the analysis methodology that was used for the results presented, and comparisons between our results and those of other experiments and simulations.

  16. Converting a real quantum bath to an effective classical noise

    E-print Network

    Wayne M. Witzel; Kevin Young; Sankar Das Sarma

    2014-09-28

    We present a cluster expansion method for approximating quantum spin-bath dynamics in terms of a classical Gaussian stochastic process. The cluster expansion produces the two-point correlation function of the approximate classical bath, permitting rapid evaluation of noise-mitigating quantum control strategies without resorting to computationally intensive dynamical decoupling models. Our approximation is valid for the wide class of models possessing negligible back-action and nearly-Gaussian noise. We study several instances of the central spin decoherence problem in which the central spin and randomly-located bath spins are alike and dipolarly coupled. For various pulse sequences, we compare the coherence echo decay computed explicitly quantum mechanically versus those computed using our approximate classical model, and obtain agreement in most, but not all, cases. We demonstrate the utility of these classical noise models by efficiently searching for the 4-pulse sequences that maximally mitigate decoherence in each of these cases, a computationally expensive task in the explicit quantum model.

  17. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-07-14

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation. PMID:26178090

  18. Whipping charged jet instabilities within dielectric liquid baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Marin, Alvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Barrero, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Capillary liquid flows have shown their ability to generate micro and nano structures of interest in several technological fields. Most of these techniques resort to deforming and stretching a liquid thread by applying forces of different nature (hydrodynamic, electrical, etc). Electrospray, employing electrical forces, is the most popular and powerful technique to produce particles in the nanometric range. A charged liquid jet issued from a Taylor cone may develop a special type of nonaxisymmetric instability which manifests itself as a series of fast and violent lashes of the charged jet. Recently, we have found that this instability is also present in electrosprays within a liquid bath which is essentially the same phenomenon as in air. However, within a liquid bath, the jet forms more easily and its oscillations are much slower. Taking advantage of this situation, we have used a high speed camera to experimentally characterize the whipping instability taking place inside liquid baths in terms of the governing parameters: flow rate and applied electric field.

  19. Affecting Non-Markovian behaviour by changing bath structures

    E-print Network

    V. Venkataraman; A. D. K. Plato; Tommaso Tufarelli; M. S. Kim

    2013-12-19

    For many open quantum systems, a master equation approach employing the Markov approximation cannot reliably describe the dynamical behaviour. This is the case, for example, in a number of solid state or biological systems, and it has motivated a line of research aimed at quantifying the amount of non-Markovian behaviour in a given model. Within this framework, we investigate the dynamics of a quantum harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a bosonic bath. We focus on Gaussian states, which are suitably treated using a covariance matrix approach. Concentrating on an entanglement based non-Markovian behaviour quantifier (NMBQ) proposed by Rivas et. al. [1], we consider the role that near resonant and off-resonant modes play in affecting the NMBQ. By using a large but finite bath of oscillators for both Ohmic and super Ohmic spectral densities we find, by systematically increasing the coupling strength, initially the near resonant modes provide the most significant non-Markovian effects, while after a certain threshold of coupling strength the off-resonant modes play the dominant role. We also consider the NMBQ for two other models where we add a single strongly coupled oscillator to the model in extra bath mode and 'buffer' configurations, which affects the modes that determine non-Markovian behaviour.

  20. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  1. Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Gijs; van der Sar, Toeno; Blok, Machiel; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Hanson, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond at room temperature that is composed of electron spins of substitutional nitrogen impurities. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, by combining spin bath control with dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for fundamental studies on decoherence and enable novel avenues for spin-based magnetometry and quantum information processing.

  2. Organizational change for services integration in public human service organizations: experiences in seven counties.

    PubMed

    Packard, Thomas; Patti, Rino; Daly, Donna; Tucker-Tatlow, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of organizational change strategies employed in seven county human service agencies to improve the coordination of services through the structural integration of previously free standing organizations or the development of voluntary interagency collaborative service delivery systems. The central question involves the identification of organizational change tactics which contributed to the success of the organizational change initiatives. The literature on organizational change is reviewed, with particular attention to a framework developed by Fernandez and Rainey based on their extensive review and synthesis of the research on successful change strategies in the public and business sectors. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from over 250 individuals and from agency documents. Findings are compared with the success factors identified by Fernandez and Rainey, and refinements to their propositions are suggested. More precise methods for measuring successful and unsuccessful change initiatives are suggested. Implications for practice and research are presented. PMID:22530287

  3. Computational organic chemistry: bridging theory and experiment in establishing the mechanisms of chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Xu, Liping; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions, especially catalysis, has been an important and active area of computational organic chemistry, and close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists represent a growing trend. This Perspective provides examples of such productive collaborations. The understanding of various reaction mechanisms and the insight gained from these studies are emphasized. The applications of various experimental techniques in elucidation of reaction details as well as the development of various computational techniques to meet the demand of emerging synthetic methods, e.g., C-H activation, organocatalysis, and single electron transfer, are presented along with some conventional developments of mechanistic aspects. Examples of applications are selected to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of these techniques. Some challenges in the mechanistic studies and predictions of reactions are also analyzed. PMID:25568962

  4. Column Experiments Investigating Wetting and Drying of Soil and Consumption of Organic Contaminants for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Schueth, C.; Wefer-Roehl, A.; Kuebeck, C.

    2014-12-01

    The EU FP7 project MARSOL seeks to address water scarcity challenges in arid regions. Within this framework, we conduct a series of experiments to evaluate the potential for water quality improvement and changes in hydraulic conductivity when managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is performed by infiltrating treated wastewater in soils that do not have high potential for sorption. For example, in the Attica (Athens and vicinity) region of Greece, the bedrock is mostly marble, resulting in calcite-rich soils that present little potential for sorption of contaminants to mineral surfaces. This leaves consumption of organic contaminants by microbes as the critical mechanism for water quality improvement, when treated wastewater is infiltrated through such soils. In order to enhance the potential for contaminant consumption by aerobic bacteria in a way that would be realistic to later perform in an infiltration basin, we conduct experiments using a series of wetting and drying cycles. The experimental setup consists of 90-cm long soil columns, fitted with oxygen sensors, time-domain reflectometry sensors (to measure moisture content), sampling ports, oxidation-reduction probes, and head observation tubes. We use the data collected from these sensors and features of the experimental setup to answer the following questions: 1. Does hydraulic conductivity change, from formation of a biofilm or dissolution of calcite (or both)? 2. Are organic contaminants consumed? 3. What effect do wetting and drying cycles have on consumption of organic contaminants? 4. How long can infiltration of treated wastewater last, before oxygen is consumed and conditions become reducing? These questions are investigated by observing the hydraulic head and outflow, performing tracer tests, taking samples from the sampling ports and outflow for chemical analyses, and measuring moisture content and oxygen concentration, in the course of performing multiple wetting and drying cycles. These column experiments will be used to evaluate the potential for new MAR applications in areas facing water scarcity challenges. In the future the experiments will be expanded to test multiple soils and optimize both the soil type and infiltration patterns in order to best obtain water quality improvements through MAR.

  5. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  6. Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen Utilization During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments (SOFeX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochlan, W. P.; Herndon, J.; Roberts, A. E.; Kudela, R. M.

    2002-12-01

    The nitrogen uptake dynamics by natural phytoplankton assemblages were measured during two progressive iron enrichment experiments conducted in High Nitrate, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2002. The experiments were designed to determine if iron enrichment enhances new production in the low silicate waters north (ca. 55°S) and high silicate waters south (ca. 65°S) of the Antarctic Polar Front Zone, along the 170°W meridian of longitude. Absolute uptake rates of nitrate (determined using the N-15 tracer technique) increased ca. ten-fold in the northern patch and ca. 25-fold in the southern patch, but remained relatively constant in the un-enriched (control) waters. Biomass (particulate nitrogen) specific uptake rates of nitrate increased ca. four-fold and up to ten-fold in the northern and southern patches respectively, whereas specific uptake rates of ammonium and urea did not increase as a result of Fe enrichment. Based on progressive sampling of the 47% and 16% light depths, and the results of surface transects conducted across the southern Fe-infused region at the beginning, middle, and end of the southern patch monitoring period (>3 weeks), a clear change in the relative utilization of new and regenerated nitrogen due to Fe enrichment was evident; the daily f-ratio (f-ratio = nitrate uptake/total nitrogen uptake) increased from ca. 0.2-0.3 to 0.5-0.6 (ratio uncorrected for isotopic dilution and DON effects). However, unlike previous mesoscale enrichment experiments conducted here (SOIREE) and in the subarctic (SEEDS and SERIES) and equatorial Pacific (IronEx II), the size-structure of the phytoplankton community did not change in the southern patch following Fe enrichment; it only changed in the northern patch, where larger cells (> 5 ?m) dominated the assemblage following Fe enrichment. Ambient concentrations of ammonium in the surface waters of the northern SOFeX patch declined by 0.1-0.2 ?M as a consequence of Fe enrichment, but ammonium concentrations increased both inside and outside of the southern patch as a function of time; the potential inhibitory effects of ammonium on nitrate uptake will be discussed in the context of alleviation of Fe limitation in HNLC regions of the Southern Ocean.

  7. Synthesis and Resolution of the Atropisomeric 1,1'-Bi-2-Naphthol: An Experiment in Organic Synthesis and 2-D NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kendrew K. W.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is presented. It is seen that the experiment regarding the synthesis and resolution of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphtol presents a good experiment for teaching organic synthesis and NMR spectroscopy and provides a strategy for obtaining enantiopure compounds from achiral starting materials.

  8. Sub-bandgap absorption in organic solar cells: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Wichard J D; Herrmann, Felix; Presselt, Martin; Hoppe, Harald; Shokhovets, Sviatoslav; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich

    2013-10-21

    Most high-performance organic solar cells involve bulk-heterojunctions in order to increase the active donor-acceptor interface area. The power conversion efficiency depends critically on the nano-morphology of the blend and the interface. Spectroscopy of the sub-bandgap region, i.e., below the bulk absorption of the individual components, provides unique opportunities to study interface-related properties. We present absorption measurements in the sub-bandgap region of bulk heterojunctions made of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) as an electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as an electron acceptor and compare them with quantum-chemical calculations and recently published data on the external quantum efficiency (EQE). The very weak absorption of the deep sub-bandgap region measured by the ultra-sensitive Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) features Urbach tails, polaronic transitions, conventional excitons, and possibly charge-transfer states. The quantum-chemical calculations allow characterizing some of the unsettled spectral features. PMID:23929440

  9. Organic solar cells with inverted layer sequence incorporating optical spacers - simulation and experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Birger; Glatthaar, Markus; Niggemann, Michael; Riede, Moritz Kilian; Ziegler, Tobias; Gombert, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we present detailed optical simulations of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells built with inverted layer sequence as compared to the commonly used setup which is based on indium tin oxide (ITO) covered glass or plastic substrates and where the metal electrode is evaporated on top of the active absorber blend. The inverted setup may have production related advantages over the conventional setup, as the metal electrode is first evaporated onto the substrate and afterwards only wet chemical processes are needed. Additionally ITO can be replaced with a suited module concept. The effects of light trapping with an optical spacer, namely a transparent conductive layer between the absorber and the metallic electrode are investigated for the inverted setup. The results show that the insertion of an optical spacer does not increase the maximal obtainable short circuit current density and is only beneficial if a decrease of film thickness of the active absorber results in a higher internal quantum efficiency, open circuit voltage or fill factor. In the experimental section we show that the inversion of the layer sequence can be realised without any loss in device efficiency as compared to devices with the conventional layer sequence.

  10. An overview of organically bound tritium experiments in plants following a short atmospheric HTO exposure.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Strack, S; Atarashi-Andoh, M; Kim, S B

    2013-04-01

    The need for a less conservative, but reliable risk assessment of accidental tritium releases is emphasized in the present debate on the nuclear energy future. The development of a standard conceptual model for accidental tritium releases must be based on the process level analysis and the appropriate experimental database. Tritium transfer from atmosphere to plants and the subsequent conversion into organically bound tritium (OBT) strongly depends on the plant characteristics, seasons, and meteorological conditions, which have a large variability. The present study presents an overview of the relevant experimental data for the short term exposure, including the unpublished information, also. Plenty of experimental data is provided for wheat, rice, and soybean and some for potato, bean, cherry tomato, radish, cabbage, and tangerine as well. Tritiated water (HTO) uptake by plants during the daytime and nighttime has an important role in further OBT synthesis. OBT formation in crops depends on the development stage, length, and condition of exposure. OBT translocation to the edible plant parts differs between the crops analyzed. OBT formation during the nighttime is comparable with that during the daytime. The present study is a preliminary step for the development of a robust model of crop contamination after an HTO accidental release. PMID:23246588

  11. Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport of the respective compounds. Concentrations of almost all micropollutants decreased with increasing soil passage. However, since compounds transported by processes 2 & 3 can be re-mobilized by changing water chemistry, the importance of a diligent characterisation of aquifer material and raw water is apparent for risk assessment. The experiments were conducted within the context of the project GABARDINE, funded by the European Commission.

  12. Direct Observation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation during Cloud Condensation-Evaporation Cycles (SOAaq) in Simulation Chamber Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doussin, J. F.; Bregonzio-Rozier, L.; Giorio, C.; Siekmann, F.; Gratien, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Pangui, E.; Tapparo, A.; Kalberer, M.; Monod, A.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) undergo many reactions in the atmosphere and form a wide range of oxidised and water-soluble compounds. These compounds can partition into atmospheric water droplets, and react within the aqueous phase producing higher molecular weight and/or less volatile compounds which can remain in the particle phase after water evaporation and thus increase the organic aerosol mass (Ervens et al., 2011; Altieri et al., 2008; Couvidat et al., 2013). While this hypothesis is frequently discussed in the literature, so far, almost no direct observations of such a process have been provided.The aim of the present work is to study SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation during cloud condensation-evaporation cycles.The experiments were performed during the CUMULUS project (CloUd MULtiphase chemistry of organic compoUndS in the troposphere), in the CESAM simulation chamber located at LISA. CESAM is a 4.2 m3 stainless steel chamber equipped with realistic irradiation sources and temperature and relative humidity (RH) controls (Wang et al., 2011). In each experiment, isoprene was allowed to oxidize during several hours in the presence on nitrogen oxides under dry conditions. Gas phase compounds were analyzed on-line by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), NOx and O3 analyzers. SOA formation was monitored on-line with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The experimental protocol was optimised to generate cloud events in the simulation chamber, which allowed us to generate clouds lasting for ca. 10 minutes in the presence of light.In all experiments, we observed that during cloud formation, water-soluble gas-phase oxidation products (e.g., methylglyoxal, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and glycolaldehyde) readily partitioned into cloud droplets and new SOA mass was promptly produced which partly persisted after cloud evaporation. Chemical composition, elemental ratios and density of SOA, measured with the HR-ToF-AMS, were compared before, during cloud formation and after cloud evaporation.

  13. How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

    2011-09-01

    PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via "calls for proposals", which are sent out each half year via the "Digital User Office (DUO)" (see http://duo.web.psi.ch). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the "Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)" consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time allocation is handled more directly and in time in order to fulfill the companies' demands. Here, the confidentiality plays a more important role than in scientific studies that are done with the aim of a free publication. It has been possible to earn money regularly from the industrial projects in order to cover the salary cost of some positions within the NIAG group. The permanent improvement of the methodology and performance in neutron imaging is a third major activity of the NIAG team. Running projects in this direction are the permanent insert of a grating interferometry device, improved energy selection with the help of single graphite crystals and utilization of the beam line BOA at SINQ for the energy range between 4 and 15 Å.

  14. Tibetan Medicated-Bath Therapy may Improve Adjuvant Arthritis in Rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huayue; Shoumura, Shizuko; Emura, Shoichi; Isono, Hideo

    2009-06-01

    Tibetan medicated-bath therapy has been applied to patients with rheumatoid arthritis for centuries. However, the detailed action mechanism of Tibetan medicated-bath therapy on the morphology and function of joints remains unknown. We designed our investigation to evaluate the efficacy of Tibetan medicated-bath therapy on adjuvant arthritis (AA) of rats in comparison with water-bath and dexamethasone administration. AA was induced by intradermal injection of Mycobacterium butyricum suspended in sterile mineral oil. The control animals were similarly injected with sterile vehicle. Eight days after injection, rats were treated with fresh-water bath, Tibetan medicated-bath (40 degrees C, 15 min) or intramuscular injection with dexamethasone for 21 consecutive days after which we evaluated the severity of arthritis visually and microscopically and measured serum interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels. While arthritis did not significantly change after water-bath treatment, the Tibetan medicated-bath and dexamethasone groups showed diminished joint swelling and alleviation of, inflammatory cell infiltration and the destruction of bone and cartilage. Serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels significantly decreased. Our results demonstrated that Tibetan medicated-bath therapy exerted a reliable effect on rat adjuvant arthritis, which may be involved in the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Our data provide evidence for clinical use of Tibetan-medicated bath therapy for arthritis patients. PMID:18955278

  15. Tibetan Medicated-Bath Therapy may Improve Adjuvant Arthritis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shoumura, Shizuko; Emura, Shoichi; Isono, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Tibetan medicated-bath therapy has been applied to patients with rheumatoid arthritis for centuries. However, the detailed action mechanism of Tibetan medicated-bath therapy on the morphology and function of joints remains unknown. We designed our investigation to evaluate the efficacy of Tibetan medicated-bath therapy on adjuvant arthritis (AA) of rats in comparison with water-bath and dexamethasone administration. AA was induced by intradermal injection of Mycobacterium butyricum suspended in sterile mineral oil. The control animals were similarly injected with sterile vehicle. Eight days after injection, rats were treated with fresh-water bath, Tibetan medicated-bath (40°C, 15 min) or intramuscular injection with dexamethasone for 21 consecutive days after which we evaluated the severity of arthritis visually and microscopically and measured serum interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels. While arthritis did not significantly change after water-bath treatment, the Tibetan medicated-bath and dexamethasone groups showed diminished joint swelling and alleviation of, inflammatory cell infiltration and the destruction of bone and cartilage. Serum IL-6 and TNF-? levels significantly decreased. Our results demonstrated that Tibetan medicated-bath therapy exerted a reliable effect on rat adjuvant arthritis, which may be involved in the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-?. Our data provide evidence for clinical use of Tibetan-medicated bath therapy for arthritis patients. PMID:18955278

  16. Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately “publish” their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students’ efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course. PMID:24591511

  17. Impact of Ag and Al?O? nanoparticles on soil organisms: in vitro and soil experiments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, C; Saccà, M L; Costa, G; Nande, M; Martin, M

    2014-03-01

    In vitro analyses were conducted to assess the impact of Al2O3 and Ag nanoparticles on two common soil bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Al2O3 nanoparticles did not show significant toxicity at any dose or time assayed, whereas exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Ag nanoparticles for 48 h caused bactericidal effects. Moreover, alterations at the morphological level were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); Ag but not Al2O3 nanoparticles evoked the entrance of B. cereus cells in an early sporulation stage and both nanoparticles penetrated P. stutzeri cells. At the molecular level, a dramatic increase (8.2-fold) in katB gene expression was found in P. stutzeri following Al2O3 nanoparticles exposure, indicative of an oxidative stress-defence system enhancement in this bacterium. In the microcosm experiment, using two different natural soils, Al2O3 or Ag nanoparticles did not affect the Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity endpoints growth, survival, or reproduction. However, differences in microbial phylogenetic compositions were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The use of katB- and pykA-based sequences showed that the microbial transcriptional response to nanoparticle exposure decreased, suggesting a decrease in cellular activity. These changes were attributable to both the nanoparticles treatment and soil characteristics, highlighting the importance of considering the soil matrix on a case by case basis. PMID:24374587

  18. Epitaxy of Rodlike Organic Molecules on Sheet Silicates—A Growth Model Based on Experiments and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the last years, self-assembled organic nanostructures have been recognized as a proper fundament for several electrical and optical applications. In particular, phenylenes deposited on muscovite mica have turned out to be an outstanding material combination. They tend to align parallel to each other forming needlelike structures. In that way, they provide the key for macroscopic highly polarized emission, waveguiding, and lasing. The resulting anisotropy has been interpreted so far by an induced dipole originating from the muscovite mica substrate. Based on a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we present an alternative growth model being able to explain molecular adsorption on sheet silicates in terms of molecule?surface interactions only. By a comprehensive comparison between experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that geometrical changes in the substrate surface or molecule lead to different molecular adsorption geometries and needle directions which can be predicted by our growth model. PMID:21309570

  19. Cost-effective organization of an institutional human cancer biobank in a clinical setting: CRO-Biobank experience toward harmonization.

    PubMed

    Cervo, Silvia; De Paoli, Paolo; Perin, Tiziana; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Steffan, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the organization of the Biobank of the CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano (CRO- Biobank), Italy, implemented as a structured facility dedicated to collecting human biological samples. It describes a particular disease-specific biobank and the integration of a research biobank in a clinical setting. The CRO-Biobank's mission is rooted in supporting and implementing cancer research, with its main focus on optimizing technical and quality processes, while also investigating ethical, legal and IT topics.The CRO-Biobank has implemented processes aimed at guaranteeing the safety of the providers, protecting patient privacy and ensuring both the traceability and quality of its samples. Our 8 years of experience allow us to offer insights and useful suggestions that may solve theoretical and practical issues that can arise when starting up new biobanks or developing existing biobanks further. PMID:25744364

  20. Optimization of Chemical Bath Deposited CdS Thin Films Using Two Different Cadmium Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaf, Hani; Oladeji, Isaiah; Chow, Lee

    2005-11-01

    Owing to its transparency, photoconductivity, and high electron affinity, CdS is known to be the best transparent conducting semiconductor for thin film II-VI compound heterojunction solar cells. In this work, a new method to optimize the deposition of CdS using chemical bath deposition technique is presented. CdSO4, and CdCl2 have been used as two different Cd sources. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) in addition to KOH have been used as Ligand. Thiourea has been used as the sulfur source. The effect of changing the KOH and NTA concentrations on the film thickness, transmission, and energy gap has been studied. The results were used to develop a set of experiments that include the optimum deposition conditions by involving all other parameters that affect the deposition process. Thicker and better quality films have been obtained for both CdSO4 and CdCl2 cases.

  1. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  2. Generalized energy equipartition in harmonic oscillators driven by active baths

    E-print Network

    Claudio Maggi; Matteo Paoluzzi; Nicola Pellicciotta; Alessia Lepore; Luca Angelani; Roberto Di Leonardo

    2014-11-06

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  3. Instrinsic oscillations of treadmilling microtubules in a motor bath

    E-print Network

    Sudipto Muhuri; Ignacio Pagonabarraga; Jaume Casademunt

    2011-09-16

    We analyse the dynamics of overlapping antiparallel treadmilling microtubules in the presence of crosslinking processive motor proteins that counterbalance an external force. We show that coupling the force-dependent velocity of motors and the kinetics of motor exchange with a bath in the presence of treadmilling leads generically to oscillatory behavior. In addition we show that coupling the polymerization kinetics to the external force through the kinetics of the crosslinking motors can stabilize the oscillatory instability into finite-amplitude nonlinear oscillations and may lead to other scenarios, including bistability.

  4. Instrinsic oscillations of treadmilling microtubules in a motor bath

    E-print Network

    Muhuri, Sudipto; Casademunt, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the dynamics of overlapping antiparallel treadmilling microtubules in the presence of crosslinking processive motor proteins that counterbalance an external force. We show that coupling the force-dependent velocity of motors and the kinetics of motor exchange with a bath in the presence of treadmilling leads generically to oscillatory behavior. In addition we show that coupling the polymerization kinetics to the external force through the kinetics of the crosslinking motors can stabilize the oscillatory instability into finite-amplitude nonlinear oscillations and may lead to other scenarios, including bistability.

  5. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2.5 bar) to avoid uncontrolled calcite precipitation, and accordingly the pipeline path was designed. Non-linear phenomena that may originate calcite precipitation, such as phase separation and pressure waves, were discussed. The pipeline and the thermal bath are planned to be built next year.

  6. Generalized Energy Equipartition in Harmonic Oscillators Driven by Active Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  7. Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction. PMID:24550123

  8. [Germanism and medicinal bathing in the early days of health resorts in Rio Grande do Sul.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2010-03-01

    In the early days of bathing resorts some German immigrants were found not only among the bathers, but also among the entrepreneurs of the incipient branch of 'curism-tourism'. It was a small group of immigrants of urban origin who, in general, already knew the curative or reinvigorating advantages of the baths in European bathing resorts. Among them, doctors were prominent, important emissaries of a scientific discourse in favor of bathing resorts. The therapeutic practices of bathing in the sea arrived to meridional Brazil with the European immigration of the second half of the nineteenth century, although its diffusion only took place in the first half of the following century, when the first bathing beaches in Rio Grande do Sul were developed. PMID:21461501

  9. Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  10. Control of Decoherence and Relaxation by Frequency Modulation of Heat Bath

    E-print Network

    G. S. Agarwal

    1999-04-26

    We demonstrate in a very general fashion, considerable slowing down of decoherence and relaxation by fast frequency modulation of the system heat bath coupling. The slowing occurs as the decoherence rates are now determined by the spectral components of bath correlations which are shifted due to fast modulation. We present several examples including the slowing down of the heating of a trapped ion, where the system - bath interaction is not necessarily Markovian.

  11. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of chromium–phosphorus coatings electrodeposited from trivalent chromium baths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhixiang Zeng; Aimin Liang; Junyan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Chromium–phosphorus (Cr–P) coatings are electrodeposited from trivalent Cr (Cr(III)) baths containing hypophosphite. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of Cr–P coatings, traditional Cr coatings deposited in hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) baths, and chromium–carbon (Cr–C) coatings deposited in Cr(III) baths containing formate are studied by measuring potentiodynamic polarization curves in a 10wt% HCl solution. The composition and morphology of the coating surface layers are

  12. Skin Tolerance of a New Bath Oil Containing St. John’s Wort Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Reuter; C. Huyke; H. Scheuvens; M. Ploch; K. Neumann; T. Jakob; C. M. Schempp

    2008-01-01

    Background: Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. Objective: To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. Methods: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective

  13. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-01

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous. PMID:21456831

  14. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)

    2011-03-15

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

  15. Phase induced current in presence of nonequilibrium bath: A quantum approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Satyabrata; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2008-09-28

    Based on a system-reservoir nonlinear coupling model, where the associated bath is externally driven by a fluctuating force, we present a microscopic approach to quantum state-dependent diffusion and multiplicative noises in terms of a quantum (Markovian) Langevin equation in overdamped limit when the associated bath is in nonequilibrium state. We then explore the possibility of observing a quantum current when the bath is modulated by white noise, the phenomena which is absent in the classical regime. PMID:19045049

  16. Bathing behavior of captive Orange-winged Amazon parrots ( Amazona amazonica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon M. Murphy; Jerome V. Braun; James R. Millam

    2011-01-01

    Feather maintenance behaviors, particularly preening and bathing, are nearly universal in birds, though their expression and function vary across species. Based on the rain-bathing style of wild Amazon parrots, parrots were sprayed with water to simulate rainfall, and subsequent bathing behavioral parameters were recorded as well as behavioral states accounting for activity budgets 1h pre- and post-spray. When parrots were

  17. A review of "Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland" by Michael Bath.

    E-print Network

    William E. Engel

    2004-01-01

    Aubrey?s phrase, ?Topiques for Locall memorie? (167). With this, Bath turns in the remaining chapters to the traditional arts of rhetoric and of memory. Chapter 8, ?Grave Sentences,? teases out the ways ?the moralising and proverbial sayings? (169... this chapter treats grave sentences as representing the fundamentally written textual medium, the final chapter treats iconographic schemes as being primarily a visual medium.. Chapter 9, on ?Topics and Schemes,? reprises Bath?s earlier theme of Renaissance...

  18. A study on utilizing a chloride bath to electroform MEMS devices with high aspect ratio structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Tang, Jun; Li, Guangyang; Zhang, Congchun; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zhimin; Ding, GuiFu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2010-11-01

    Addressing the problems that occurred for electroforming of MEMS devices with high aspect ratio and geometry-complex structures, the electrochemical properties of a chloride bath are studied in this paper. It has been found that the tensile stress of nickel film from the chloride bath with the addition of saccharine is significantly reduced. Our results also suggested that, compared to the commonly used sulfamate bath, the chloride bath has higher throwing power and covering power, possibly due to its higher conductivity and polarizability. In addition, the presence of saccharine provided a finer grain nickel film with a smoother surface. Furthermore, the MEMS-based latching devices with narrow bars of 50 µm width and 500 µm thickness were obtained from the chloride bath, while the same devices with structure deficiency (incomplete structures) were frequently observed from the sulfamate bath. The finite element method simulations using the ANSYS software for the current density distribution on the surface of different aspect ratio latching structures were carried out. After considering the electrochemical perspectives from both baths, the mechanisms for the deficiency formation from the sulfamate bath and the absence of the deficiencies from the chloride bath were proposed and discussed.

  19. Achievable polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    E-print Network

    Nayeli Azucena Rodríguez-Briones; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-12-20

    Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for many algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling is a method to increase the purity of set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the state when no more entropy can be extracted. In particular we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization of the purified qubit and corresponding state of the whole system for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed. It is however possible to reach higher polarization while starting with other states with higher polarization, thus our result provides an achievable lower bound. We also give an upper bound of the number of steps needed to get a certain required polarization.

  20. Distribution of Phytoplankton and Particulate Organic Carbon in the Beaufort Sea during the 2014 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yang, E. J.; Cetinic, I.; Kang, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon in the newly emerging marginal ice zone in the Beaufort Sea are assessed from autonomous Seaglider surveys in summer 2014 as part of the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) Experiment, an international project sponsored by ONR. In late July 2014 four Seagliders were deployed in the Beaufort Sea to follow the retreat of the MIZ. Sampling in open water, through the MIZ and under the ice is expected through mid-September, with gliders navigating under ice from moored acoustic sound sources embedded in the MIZ autonomous observing array. The sensor suite carried by Seagliders include temperature, temperature microstructure, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, and multi-spectral downwelling irradiance. A rigorous sensor inter-calibration program with simultaneous ship CTD and glider profiles is an essential component of glider deployment and recovery protocol, as well as during opportunistic glider encounters with the IBRV Araon during August. Ship-based water sampling will allow construction of regional libraries of optical proxies for chlorophyll, pigment spectral absorption coefficient, and particulate organic carbon. Since irradiance under the ice is dependent on ice thickness and presence of melt ponds and leads, phytoplankton distribution is expected to vary spatially. Both the vertical and horizontal distributions of pigment spectral absorption coefficients are expected to play a role in the feedback between phytoplankton and ice melt. Glider data will allow us to apply a light and chlorophyll primary productivity model to estimate and compare phytoplankton productivity under various ice-cover and ice-free conditions.

  1. Whole-lake experiments reveal the fate of terrestrial particulate organic carbon in benthic food webs of shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, K; Syväranta, J; Hilt, S; Brauns, M; Vanni, M J; Brothers, S; Köhler, J; Knezevi?-Jari?, J; Mehner, T

    2014-06-01

    Lake ecosystems are strongly linked to their terrestrial surroundings by material and energy fluxes across ecosystem boundaries. However, the contribution of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) from annual leaf fall to lake food webs has not yet been adequately traced and quantified. In this study, we conducted whole-lake experiments to trace artificially added tPOC through the food webs of two shallow lakes of similar eutrophic status, but featuring alternative stable regimes (macrophyte rich vs. phytoplankton dominated). Lakes were divided with a curtain, and maize (Zea mays) leaves were added, as an isotopically distinct tPOC source, into one half of each lake. To estimate the balance between autochthonous carbon fixation and allochthonous carbon input, primary production and tPOC and tDOC (terrestrial dissolved organic carbon) influx were calculated for the treatment sides. We measured the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) of about 800 samples from all trophic consumer levels and compared them between lake sides, lakes, and three seasons. Leaf litter bag experiments showed that added maize leaves were processed at rates similar to those observed for leaves from shoreline plants, supporting the suitability of maize leaves as a tracer. The lake-wide carbon influx estimates confirmed that autochthonous carbon fixation by primary production was the dominant carbon source for consumers in the lakes. Nevertheless, carbon isotope values of benthic macroinvertebrates were significantly higher with maize additions compared to the reference side of each lake. Carbon isotope values of omnivorous and piscivorous fish were significantly affected by maize additions only in the macrophyte-dominated lake and delta13C of zooplankton and planktivorous fish remained unaffected in both lakes. In summary, our results experimentally demonstrate that tPOC in form of autumnal litterfall is rapidly processed during the subsequent months in the food web of shallow lakes and is channeled to secondary and tertiary consumers predominantly via the benthic pathways. A more intense processing of tPOC seems to be connected to a higher structural complexity in littoral zones, and hence may differ between shallow lakes of alternative stable states. PMID:25039215

  2. Organic Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherrel

    1990-01-01

    Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

  3. Investigation of spatial distribution of sound field parameters in ultrasound cleaning baths under the influence of cavitation.

    PubMed

    Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Koch, Christian

    2006-12-22

    Ultrasound cleaning baths fitting the full range from micromechanical components up to large machine parts, are regularly used in industry and in the lab. Despite the large number of applications, generally approved principles and objective criteria for parameter settings which allow an efficient operation are non-existent. The empirical selections of the running parameters often impede an optimization in terms of produce and reproducibility. One proposal for an objective description of the processes is the characterization of the sound field in the cleaning bath, which causes cavities, and subsequently, the cleaning process. Sound field measurements in the appropriate frequency range from 20kHz up to more then 1MHz incorporate a number of problems, such as large sensors disturbing the sound field, a lack of accuracy and the risk of being destroyed by cavitation bubbles. Measurement systems based on optical fiber tips and piezo-electrical hydrophones will be presented, which fulfil the accuracy requirements and withstand ultrasound fields with high power and cavitation. The spatial distribution of sound field parameters such as positive and negative peak pressure, amplitudes of fundamentals, harmonics and sub-harmonics as well as the energy density and spectral density in several frequency ranges are determined in experiments. Finally, the determined field parameters are related to the cavitation effects by means of photometric analysis of perforated aluminium foil. Perforations as well as intentions are analyzed and quantified from scanner images of the exposed foil samples using special image processing software. The experiments indicate clear differences in the structure of the sound fields and the spectral properties between the several types of cleaning baths, transducer arrangements and excitations. PMID:16781752

  4. [The experience in organizing the medical support of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War on the northern maritime theater].

    PubMed

    Chernikov, O G; Cherny?, V S; Mishin, Iu A; Soshkin, P A; Fisun, A V

    2014-05-01

    The medical support of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War had a number of features. The Intensity of power of the fighting, the meteorological conditions, the composition of convoy's forces, the kind of enemy's weapon - had a significant impact on the structure of losses in personnel. The main type of medical care on the ships of 2-3rd rank was predoctor care. On the large and small antisubmarine ships and torpedo boats - it was first aid. The factor which has been affecting the amount of assistance - was a one-time inflow of a significant number of victims. Medical-evacuation provision of the convoys was carried out by the ships medical service without the use of amplification and sanitary ships. The most part of the wounded were taken to the coastal fleet hospitals later than 12 hours after the wound. The war experience has shown that in the distant convoys qualified surgical assistance may be provided in case of organizing it in this convoy and in case of using high-speed vehicles. PMID:25286561

  5. Resonator-assisted quantum bath engineering of a flux qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with the controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of the Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99% and the required time on the order of magnitude of a microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

  6. Quantum heat bath for spin-lattice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, C. H.; Wen, Haohua; Semenov, A. A.; Dudarev, S. L.; Ma, Pui-Wai

    2015-03-01

    Quantization of spin-wave excitations necessitates the reconsideration of the classical fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) used for temperature control in spin-lattice dynamics simulations of ferromagnetic metals. In this paper, Bose-Einstein statistics is used to reinterpret the Langevin dynamics of both lattice and spins, allowing quantum statistics to be mimicked in canonical molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting quantum heat baths are tested by calculating the specific heats and magnetization over a wide temperature range, from 0 K to above the Curie temperature, with molecular dynamics (MD), spin dynamics (SD), and spin-lattice dynamics (SLD) simulations. The results are verified with experimental data and available theoretical analysis. Comparison with classical results also shows the importance of quantization effects for spin excitations in all the ferromagnetically ordered configurations.

  7. Density matrix negativity for two oscillators in an Agarwal bath.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Chen, G H

    2002-05-01

    A system of two harmonic oscillators is placed in an Agarwal bath. The resulting quantum master equations are studied with the help of quantum characteristic functions. The density matrix positivity is investigated in view of the recent interest in searching for a sound quantum dissipation theory. An analytical criterion is derived for density matrix negativity for two uncoupled oscillators. It is found that, for an initial two-oscillator squeezed state with a real squeezing parameter s, density matrix negativity occurs for two uncoupled oscillators at temperatures lower than Planck's over 2 pi omega/(k(B) ln coth/s/) with omega the oscillator frequency and k(B) the Boltzmann factor. As a by-product an analytical expression is also obtained for determining the quantum separability of two uncoupled oscillators. The effects of interoscillator coupling on density matrix negativity are discussed. PMID:12059660

  8. Asymptotic bound for heat-bath algorithmic cooling.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-13

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system. PMID:25815911

  9. Carbothermic reduction of uranium oxides into solvent metallic baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisard Restivo, Thomaz A.; Capocchi, José D. T.

    2004-09-01

    The carbothermic reduction of UO 2 and U 3O 8 is studied employing tin and silicon solvent metallic baths in thermal analysis equipment, under Ar inert and N 2 reactive atmospheres. The metallic solvents are expected to lower the U activity by several orders of magnitude owing to strong interactions among the metals. The reduction products are composed of the solvent metal matrix and intermetallic U compounds. Silicon is more effective in driving the reduction since there is no residual UO 2 after the reaction. The gaseous product detected by mass spectrometer (MS) during the reduction is CO. A kinetic study for the Si case was accomplished by the stepwise isothermal analysis (SAI) method, leading to the identification of the controlling mechanisms as chemical reaction at the surface and nucleation, for UO 2 and U 3O 8 charges, respectively. One example for another system containing Al 2O 3 is also shown.

  10. Resonator-Assisted Quantum Bath Engineering of a Flux Qubit

    E-print Network

    Xian-Peng Zhang; Li-Tuo Shen; Zhang-Qi Yin; Huai-Zhi Wu; Zhen-Biao Yang

    2015-01-06

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99\\% and the required time on the order of magnitude of microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

  11. Room temperature electrodeposition and characterization of bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films from aqueous nitrate bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Gujar; V. R. Shinde; S. S. Kulkarni; H. M. Pathan; C. D. Lokhande

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method from aqueous nitrate bath at room temperature. The various preparative parameters, such as bath composition, current density, deposition time, etc were optimized to get good quality BFO thin films. The structural, surface morphological, optical and dielectrical properties of the films

  12. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-01

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  13. University of Bath -Student Records & Examinations Office -Student numbers -1 Dec 1999 Student Records & Examinations

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    University of Bath - Student Records & Examinations Office - Student numbers - 1 Dec 1999 Student countries with the most students at the University of Bath arranged in descending order by domicile of their programme of study. The analyses of student numbers by Department of the University show the administrative

  14. Influence of a mesoscopic bath on quantum coherence Onuttom Narayan1 and Harsh Mathur2

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    computing, a fast-expanding area of research.4 In this paper we consider a microscopic quantum systemInfluence of a mesoscopic bath on quantum coherence Onuttom Narayan1 and Harsh Mathur2 1Department; published 15 July 2005 For a quantum double well system interacting with a mesoscopic bath, it is shown

  15. Analysis And Control Of Copper Plating Bath Additives And By-Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Newton; Edward Kaiser

    2003-01-01

    New copper plating bath chemisties are being developed to meet the emerging need of plating copper into submicron features on semiconductor wafers. These chemistries are designed to provide a fast, efficient, fill for even the most challenging wafer terrain. It has been found that maintaining the concentration of the additives in these plating baths at certain levels is critical to

  16. Ergodicity of the Stochastic NoseHoover Heat Bath Wei Chung LO

    E-print Network

    Li, Baowen

    coefficient and the noise fluctuation, related via the fluctuation­dissipation theorem, models the interaction by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution) deterministic type such as Nose´­Hoover heat bath.1) In the case of stochastic heat bath, the dissipation

  17. Effectiveness of Mailing "Bathing without a Battle" to All US Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleson, Diane C.; Sloane, Philip D.; Cohen, Lauren W.

    2006-01-01

    An educational CD-ROM/video program was developed to educate nursing home staff about two research-based techniques for reducing agitation and aggression during bathing of persons with Alzheimer's disease, including person-centered showering and the towel bath. This educational program was distributed free of charge to all 15,453 US nursing homes…

  18. University of Bath Open Access Publications Full-Text Deposit Mandate -Why do this?

    E-print Network

    McCusker, Guy

    University of Bath Open Access Publications Full-Text Deposit Mandate - Why do this? Why do this? 1 Open Access Publications Full-Text Deposit Mandate 1. The University of Bath requires researchers Research Committee. What is it? An Open Access Publications Full-Text Deposit Mandate signals

  19. Dissipative quantum dynamics with the surrogate Hamiltonian approach. A comparison between spin and harmonic baths

    E-print Network

    Koch, Christiane

    from a normal mode analysis combined with a weak system­bath coupling assumption.2 If the bath is only is closely related to a normal mode decomposi- tion. Once this is done the spectral density function iDissipative quantum dynamics with the surrogate Hamiltonian approach. A comparison between spin

  20. Effects of rare earths in borax salt bath immersion vanadium carbide coating process on steel substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Liu; H. C. Wang; Y. Y. Li

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of FeSiRe23, which were used as reducing agents, were added into typical borax salt bath used in thermal diffusion (TD) process to explore the effects of rare earths on borax salt bath vanadizing process and microstructure and properties of vanadium carbide coating. The effect results of rare earths on coating thicknesses at different process conditions showed that the

  1. Coherence and Control of Quantum Registers Based on Electronic Spin in a Nuclear Spin Bath

    E-print Network

    Hodges, Jonathan S.

    We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as ...

  2. Bath Institute for Complex Systems A model of shape memory alloys accounting for plasticity

    E-print Network

    Zimmer, Johannes

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems A model of shape memory alloys accounting for plasticity://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;A model of shape memory alloys accounting for plasticity Martin Kruz´ika & Johannes Zimmerb. We propose a phenomenological model for the evolutionary behaviour of shape memory alloys, where

  3. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, Dvira [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)] [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2014-04-28

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  4. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  5. System of height measurement for molten bath in alumina reduction cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeng Shuiping; Wang Junqing

    2004-01-01

    The height of molten bath in aluminum production must be kept a specific range for the high efficient cell operation, but its measurement is very difficult. On the bases of the difference of temperature rising rate between molten bath (cryolite) and the others (air, aluminum, etc), we designed a new system to measure the height, which included the sensor, the

  6. Pseudomodes and the corresponding transformation of the temperature-dependent bath correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönleber, David W.; Croy, Alexander; Eisfeld, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    In open-system approaches with non-Markovian environments, the process of inserting an individual mode (denoted as "pseudomode") into the bath or extracting it from the bath is widely employed. This procedure, however, is typically performed on basis of the spectral density and does not incorporate temperature. Here, we show how the (temperature-dependent) bath correlation function (BCF) transforms in such a process. We present analytic formulas for the transformed BCF and numerically study the differences between factorizing initial state and global thermal (correlated) initial state of mode and bath, respectively. We find that in the regime of strong coupling of the mode to both system and bath, the differences in the BCFs give rise to pronounced differences in the dynamics of the system.

  7. Structural, morphological and optical properties of cadmium sulphide thin films grown using chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, N. M.

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Aqueous baths of cadmium sulphate and thiourea were used as sources of cadmium (Cd+2) and sulphur (S-2) ions, respectively. The influence of the varied bath temperature from 65°C to 85°C in a step of 10°C on the crystallographic structure, morphology as well as optical properties of as-deposited films were investigated in detail. Increasing bath temperature can promote phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal and improvement of crystallinity in CdS films. CdS film deposited at 85° C shows compact and smooth surface, and excellent transmission in visible light range. The band gaps are found to decrease from 2.52 eV to 2.36 eV with the increase of bath temperature.

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  9. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  10. J. Phys. I France 6 (1996) 1697-1710 DECEMBER1996, PAGE1697 Quasi.One.Dimensional Organic Metals: Theory and Experiment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1996-01-01

    model with a weak repulsion. Con- siderable high temperature variation of the magnetic susceptibility: Theory and Experiment L.P. Gor'kov (*) National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University August 1996) PACS.71.20.Rv Polymers and organic compounds PACS.71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron

  11. Preparation and Analysis of Cyclodextrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks: Laboratory Experiments Adaptable for High School through Advanced Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Merry K.; Angle, Samantha R.; Northrop, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    ?-Cyclodextrin can assemble in the presence of KOH or RbOH into metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) with applications in gas adsorption and environmental remediation. Crystalline CD-MOFs are grown by vapor diffusion and their reversible adsorption of CO[subscript 2](g) is analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The experiment can be…

  12. Sector cooperation on biodiversity and organic agriculture in Sweden - can the experiences be used in East Africa?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Mattsson

    Summary Between 1997 and 2003 a number of representatives from different stakeholders in the area of biodiversity and organic agriculture took part in a project to promote biodiversity in organic agriculture. Initially, the project was used to build up an overview of the knowledge in the area of biodiversity and organic agriculture. It was also seen as important to understand

  13. Analysis of Molecular Geochemistry of Soil Organic Matter from 17-year Reciprocal Transplant Experiment in Arid Ecosystem: Simulated Climate Pertubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M.; Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Successful development of chemical profiles that link soil carbon vulnerability and resilience to climate change would greatly facilitate assessment of soil ecosystems response to global climate change. Additionally these signatures could be used to support the design of sustainable agricultural and food/energy crop security practices. We test this possibility using soils obtained from a 17-year reciprocal soil transplant experiment between two elevations in the arid environment of eastern Washington [1]. 30-cm diameter soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between the upper and lower sites. Cores were also transplanted in place to control for disturbance. Extracted subcores were incubated in environmental chambers and measured microbial respiration revealed statically a significant decrease in respiratory response as a function of temperature in cores transferred from low elevation to high elevation. We use ultra high resolution mass spectrometry to identify thousands of organic molecules and changes in geochemistry that would indicate the vulnerability of the soil ecosystem to climate perturbation. In our experiments we used methanol extraction followed by direct injection to 12 T ESI FT-ICR MS to identify about 4000 of individual compounds in about 200 mg soils at sub ppm mass accuracy. Chemical formulae were assigned to approximately 65% of the measured peaks using a modified Kujawinski pipeline and second order Kendrick transformations [2] resulted in approximately 75% assigned peaks. Our preliminary analysis finds that while the bulk C content of soils from the cooler, wetter conditions at the upper elevation is approximately twice that of the warmer, drier conditions at lower elevation, the molecular soil geochemistry is remarkably similar. Detailed analysis reveals subtle differences in the lipid, carbohydrate, and condensed hydrocarbon compositional makeup of the soil. Additionally, of the more than 17,000 individual compounds identified approximately 50% contain N which is atypical geochemistry of soil obtained from other ecosystems. 1. Bond-Lamberty B, Bolton H, Fansler SJ, Liu C, Smith JL, and Bailey VL, 2014, Global Change Biology, in review. 2. Roach PJ, Laskin L, and Laskin A, 2011, Analytical Chemistry 83:4924-4929.

  14. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  15. Influence of a compost layer on the attenuation of 28 selected organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions: insights from a large scale column experiment.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Mario; Kröger, Kerrin Franziska; Nödler, Karsten; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Hernández, Marta; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Soil aquifer treatment is widely applied to improve the quality of treated wastewater in its reuse as alternative source of water. To gain a deeper understanding of the fate of thereby introduced organic micropollutants, the attenuation of 28 compounds was investigated in column experiments using two large scale column systems in duplicate. The influence of increasing proportions of solid organic matter (0.04% vs. 0.17%) and decreasing redox potentials (denitrification vs. iron reduction) was studied by introducing a layer of compost. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was used as water matrix for simulating soil aquifer treatment. For neutral and anionic compounds, sorption generally increases with the compound hydrophobicity and the solid organic matter in the column system. Organic cations showed the highest attenuation. Among them, breakthroughs were only registered for the cationic beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol. An enhanced degradation in the columns with organic infiltration layer was observed for the majority of the compounds, suggesting an improved degradation for higher levels of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. Solely the degradation of sulfamethoxazole could clearly be attributed to redox effects (when reaching iron reducing conditions). The study provides valuable insights into the attenuation potential for a wide spectrum of organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions. Furthermore, the introduction of the compost layer generally showed positive effects on the removal of compounds preferentially degraded under reducing conditions and also increases the residence times in the soil aquifer treatment system via sorption. PMID:25723339

  16. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...Shipbuilding, Conversion and Repair, USN, Bath, Maine or his/her authorized...

  17. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...Shipbuilding, Conversion and Repair, USN, Bath, Maine or his/her authorized...

  18. A research strategy for using stream microcosms in ecotoxicology: Integrating experiments at different levels of biological organization with field data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Culp; Cheryl L. Podemski; Kevin J. Cash; Richard B. Lowell

    2000-01-01

    Environmental pollutants and other stressors can haveeffects at many different levels of biologicalorganization and a key step in the design ofecotoxicological studies is the formulation ofhypotheses that explicitly state the level(s) ofbiological organization that the study is meant toaddress. For example, single species studies at theindividual organism level can provide key informationon individual growth rates and physiologicalresponses, while multispecies studies

  19. NATURAL GRADIENT EXPERIMENT ON SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A SAND AQUIFER. 3. RETARDATION ESTIMATES AND MASS BALANCES FOR ORGANIC SOLUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term behavior of five organic solutes during transport over a period of 2 years in ground water under natural gradient conditions was characterized quantitatively by means of moment estimates. Total mass was conserved for two of the organic compounds, carbon tetrachlorid...

  20. Sampling from living organisms: section 3 in Sampling and experiments with biofilms in the environment: chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms, unlike inanimate surfaces, seem to exert some control over their surface microbiota, in many cases maintaining conserved, species-specific microbial communities. Microbial ecologists seek to characterize and identify these microbes to understand the roles they are playing in the larger organism's biology.

  1. Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

  2. Extracting work from a single heat bath via vanishing quantum coherence.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O; Zubairy, M Suhail; Agarwal, Girish S; Walther, Herbert

    2003-02-01

    We present here a quantum Carnot engine in which the atoms in the heat bath are given a small bit of quantum coherence. The induced quantum coherence becomes vanishingly small in the high-temperature limit at which we operate and the heat bath is essentially thermal. However, the phase phi, associated with the atomic coherence, provides a new control parameter that can be varied to increase the temperature of the radiation field and to extract work from a single heat bath. The deep physics behind the second law of thermodynamics is not violated; nevertheless, the quantum Carnot engine has certain features that are not possible in a classical engine. PMID:12511655

  3. Heat current characteristics in nanojunctions with superconducting baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettinger, David; Chitra, R.; Restrepo, Juliana

    2014-10-01

    As a fundamental requisite for thermotronics, controlling heat flow has been a longstanding quest in solid state physics. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in nanoscale hybrid systems as possible candidates for thermal devices. In this context, we study the heat current in the simplest hybrid device of a two level system weakly coupled to two heat baths. We use the reduced density matrix approach together with a simple Born-Markov approximation to calculate the heat current in the steady state. We consider different kinds of reservoirs and show that the nature of the reservoir plays a very important role in determining the thermal characteristics of the device. In particular, we investigate the effectiveness of a conventional superconductor as a reservoir with regard to manipulating the heat current. In the emergent temperature characteristics, we find that superconductivity in the reservoirs leads to enhanced thermal currents and that the superconducting phase transition is clearly visible in the heat current. We observe negative differential thermal conductance and a pronounced rectification of the heat current, making this a good building block for a quantum thermal diode.

  4. Regionalization of donor organ procurement: first experiences in southern Bavaria and results of a regional donor hospital survey.

    PubMed

    Beckurts, K T; Jauch, K W; Hölscher, A H; Anthuber, M; Heidecke, C D; Stangl, M; Illner, W D; Schulz, C; Land, W

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve organizational, qualitative, and economic aspects of organ procurement, a model of regionalization was established in the local area of southern Bavaria, as from September 1993, with the following characteristics. A collaborative 24 h-duty schedule with surgeons from all active regional transplant programs. Surgeons are grouped according to their operative qualification level: (1) Group I, capable of retrieving all abdominal organs (liver, pancreas, kidney), (2) Group II, capable of removing kidneys, and (3) Group III, surgical assistance in procurement procedures. All donor organs in the local region are explanted by the local team and foreign recipient centers are supplied with the organs removed by a standardized technique. Only three times during the first, and not once during the second year, did a foreign team insist on traveling to our region to perform a liver retrieval. A survey clearly documented univocal acceptance of this model by donor hospital executives. Simplified organization and less disturbance in operating theaters were among the most frequent arguments in favor, and the familiarity of explant teams in donor hospitals was considered advantageous. Most donor hospitals do not expect to profit in terms of financial savings. When asked for further possible measures to improve organ donation, a clearer legal situation, but also the need for more information and education programs, including better media representation of transplant issues, were cited most frequently. An improvement in financial reimbursements for the donor hospitals as an instrument to enhance willingness for organ donation was not considered essential. In conclusion, our model of regionalization of organ procurement proved to be effective in achieving a high quality of organ retrieval and a reduction in personnel requirements for the transplant centers. In addition, the response from donor hospitals was unequivocally positive and may, thus, positively influence donor activity. Relevant financial savings can result from reduced on-call duties and minimized traveling costs. Further attempts to rationalize organ procurement could possibly include heart(-/lung)surgeons in the regionalized teams. PMID:8959887

  5. Are Organic Falls Bridging Reduced Environments in the Deep Sea? - Results from Colonization Experiments in the Gulf of Cádiz

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Marina R.; Matos, Fábio L.; Génio, Luciana; Hilário, Ana; Moura, Carlos J.; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F.

    2013-01-01

    Organic falls create localised patches of organic enrichment and disturbance where enhanced degradation is mediated by diversified microbial assemblages and specialized fauna. The view of organic falls as “stepping stones” for the colonization of deep-sea reducing environments has been often loosely used, but much remains to be proven concerning their capability to bridge dispersal among such environments. Aiming the clarification of this issue, we used an experimental approach to answer the following questions: Are relatively small organic falls in the deep sea capable of sustaining taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblages over demographically relevant temporal scales? Are there important depth- or site-related sources of variability for the composition and structure of these assemblages? Is the proximity of other reducing environments influential for their colonization? We analysed the taxonomical and trophic diversity patterns and partitioning (?- and ?-diversity) of the macrofaunal assemblages recruited in small colonization devices with organic and inorganic substrata after 1-2 years of deployment on mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cádiz. Our results show that small organic falls can sustain highly diverse and trophically coherent assemblages for time periods allowing growth to reproductive maturity, and successive generations of dominant species. The composition and structure of the assemblages showed variability consistent with their biogeographic and bathymetric contexts. However, the proximity of cold seeps had limited influence on the similarity between the assemblages of these two habitats and organic falls sustained a distinctive fauna with dominant substrate-specific taxa. We conclude that it is unlikely that small organic falls may regularly ensure population connectivity among cold seeps and vents. They may be a recurrent source of evolutionary candidates for the colonization of such ecosystems. However, there may be a critical size of organic fall to create the necessary intense and persistent reducing conditions for sustaining typical chemosymbiotic vent and seep organisms. PMID:24098550

  6. Aseptically Sampled Organics in Subsurface Rocks From the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment: An Analog For The Search for Deep Subsurface Life on Mars.}

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bonaccorsi; C. R. Stoker

    2005-01-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. Subsurface ecosystems are of great relevance to astrobiology including the search for past\\/present life on Mars. The surface of Mars has conditions preventing current life but the subsurface might preserve organics and even host some life [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) is performing a simulation of

  7. Dissipation and decoherence induced by collective dephasing in coupled-qubit system with a common bath

    E-print Network

    Z. H. Wang; Y. J. Ji; Yong Li; D. L. Zhou

    2014-08-31

    The longitudinal coupling of a system to the bath usually induces the pure dephasing of the system. In this paper, we study the collective dephasing induced dissipation and decoherence in a coupled-qubit system with a common bath. It is shown that, compared with the case of the same system with independent baths, the interference between the dephasing processes of different qubits induced by the common bath significantly changes the dissipation of the system. For the system of two coupled qubits, the interference leads to a faster decoherence in the non-single-excitation subspaces and a slower dissipation (and decoherence) in the single-excitation subspace. For the system of multiple coupled qubits, we also find the slower dissipation in the single-excitation subspace and obtain the decay rates of the first excited states for different system sizes numerically. All our results on collective dephasing induced dissipation can be explained based on a simple model with Fermi's golden rule.

  8. Non-Markoffian effects of a simple nonlinear bath Hanno Gassmann,

    E-print Network

    Bruder, Christoph

    Non-Markoffian effects of a simple nonlinear bath Hanno Gassmann, Florian Marquardt, and C. Bruder: a Markoffian master equation for the spin dynamics, a weak- coupling approximation, and the substitution master equation and a weak-coupling app

  9. Structural and mutagenesis studies of soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    E-print Network

    Chatwood, Lisa L., 1979-

    2004-01-01

    The solution structure for the 27 kDa flavin binding domain of soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was solved by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a two domains, an FAD ...

  10. Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, Mark; Zarea, Mehdi; Wasielewski, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible. This work was supported by NSF grant no. CHE-/266201 and by DARPA-QUBE Program: N66001-10-1-4066/P00001.

  11. Heat transport in harmonic oscillator systems with thermal baths: application to optomechanical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuereb, André; Imparato, Alberto; Dantan, Aurélien

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the transport of phonons between N harmonic oscillators in contact with independent thermal baths and coupled to a common oscillator, and derive an expression for the steady state heat flow between the oscillators in the weak coupling limit. We apply these results to an optomechanical array consisting of a pair of mechanical resonators coupled to a single quantized electromagnetic field mode by radiation pressure as well as to thermal baths with different temperatures. In the weak coupling limit this system is shown to be equivalent to two mutually-coupled harmonic oscillators in contact with an effective common thermal bath in addition to their independent baths. The steady state occupation numbers and heat flows are derived and discussed in various regimes of interest.

  12. Heat transport in harmonic oscillator systems with correlated baths: Application to optomechanical arrays

    E-print Network

    André Xuereb; Alberto Imparato; Aurélien Dantan

    2014-12-23

    We investigate the transport of phonons between $N$ harmonic oscillators in contact with independent thermal baths and coupled to a common oscillator, and derive an expression for the steady state heat flow between the oscillators in the weak coupling limit. We apply these results to an optomechanical array consisting of a pair of mechanical resonators coupled to a single quantised electromagnetic field mode by radiation pressure as well as to thermal baths with different temperatures. In the weak coupling limit this system is shown to be equivalent to two mutually-coupled harmonic oscillators in contact with an effective common thermal bath in addition to their independent baths. The steady state occupation numbers and heat flows are derived and discussed in various regimes of interest.

  13. Drops walking on a vibrating bath: towards a hydrodynamic pilot-wave theory

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of droplets walking on a vertically vibrating fluid bath. Several walking states are reported, including pure resonant walkers that bounce ...

  14. Equilibrium characteristics of tartrate and EDTA-based electroless copper deposition baths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasubramanian, M.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    1997-08-01

    Electroless deposition of copper is being used for a variety of applications, one of them being the development of seed metallic layers on non-metals, which are widely used in electronic circuitry. Solution equilibrium characteristics of two electroless copper baths containing EDTA and tartrate as the complexing agents were studied as functions of pH, chelating agent and metal ion concentrations. Equilibrium diagrams were constructed for both cu-tartrate and Cu-EDTA systems. It was determined that copper is chiefly complexed as Cu(OH){sub 2}L{sub 2}{sup {minus}4} in the tartrate bath, and as CuA{sup {minus}2} in the EDTA bath, where L and A are the complexing tartrate and EDTA ligands, respectively. The operating ranges for electroless copper deposition were identified for both baths. Dependence of Cu(OH){sub 2} precipitation on the pH and species concentrations was also studied for these systems.

  15. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  16. BATHING BEACH MONITORING PROTOCOLS/COMMUNICATING SWIMMING ACTIVITY RISK TO THE PUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated that five water ...

  17. [Update of DIN 19.643--treatment and disinfection of swimming pool and bathing tub water].

    PubMed

    Hässelbarth, U

    1992-08-01

    German Standards Specification DIN 19,643 is at present under revision for health reasons and because of both negative and positive experiences gathered in practice. To enable adaptation of the standards specification to future developments, a Part I of the specification is being created comprising the demands to be made on the quality of the water and general demands on the construction and operation of swimming pools and tubs and basins in bath houses, e.g. in spas or municipal swimming pools. The subsequent parts of the new specification (Part 2 to Part n) concern the demands to be made on individual combinations of processes; these can be supplemented at any time in accordance with technical progress without requiring revision of the entire standards specification. Essential innovations are the reformulation of the required efficiency of disinfection, the introduction of the parameters Legionella pneumophila, trihalogen methane (THM) and the reduction of the limit value for chloramines. Technically speaking, the new features concern the automatic measurement of the auxiliary parameters of hygiene such as redox potential, pH value and free chlorine, automatic control of disinfectant additions, automatic filter rinsing with fluidization of the filter-bed to a prescribed minimum bed expansion, and the sight-glas at the filter container. The demands made on Jacuzzi and warm water spouted bed besins are integrated into the specification, thus obviating the need for German Standards Specification DIN 19,644. PMID:1392275

  18. Effects of bath resistance on action potentials in the squid giant axon: myocardial implications.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Wikswo, J P

    1997-01-01

    This study presents a simplified version of the quasi-one-dimensional theory (Wu, J., E. A. Johnson, and J. M. Kootsey. 1996. A quasi-one-dimensional theory for anisotropic propagation of excitation in cardiac muscle. Biophys. J. 71:2427-2439) with two components of the extracellular current, along and perpendicular to the axis, and a simulation and its experimental confirmation for the giant axon of the squid. By extending the one-dimensional core conductor cable equations, this theory predicts, as confirmed by the experiment, that the shapes of the intracellular and the extracellular action potentials are related to the resistance of the bath. Such a result was previously only expected by the field theories. The correlation between the shapes of the intracellular and the extracellular potentials of the giant axon of the squid resembles that observed during the anisotropic propagation of excitation in cardiac muscle. Therefore, this study not only develops a quasi-one-dimensional theory for a squid axon, but also provides one possible factor contributing to the anisotropic propagation of action potentials in cardiac muscle. PMID:9370430

  19. Progress towards an effective non-Markovian description of a system interacting with a bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferialdi, L.; Dürr, D.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a system coupled to a bath of independent harmonic oscillators. We transform the bath in chain structure by solving an inverse eigenvalue problem. We solve the equations of motion for the collective variables defined by this transformation, and we derive the exact dynamics for a harmonic oscillator in terms of the microscopic motion of the environmental modes. We compare this approach to the well-known generalized Langevin equation and we show that our dynamics satisfies this equation.

  20. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Lokhande; A. Ennaoui; P. S. Patil; M. Giersig; K. Diesner; M. Muller; H. Tributsch

    1999-01-01

    Indium sulphide (In2S3) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In2S3 thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC

  1. Bang-Bang control of a qubit coupled to a quantum critical spin bath

    E-print Network

    Davide Rossini; Paolo Facchi; Rosario Fazio; Giuseppe Florio; Daniel A. Lidar; Saverio Pascazio; Francesco Plastina; Paolo Zanardi

    2008-05-20

    We analytically and numerically study the effects of pulsed control on the decoherence of a qubit coupled to a quantum spin bath. When the environment is critical, decoherence is faster and we show that the control is relatively more effective. Two coupling models are investigated, namely a qubit coupled to a bath via a single link and a spin star model, yielding results that are similar and consistent.

  2. A Lattice-Gas with Long-Range Interactions Coupled to a Heat Bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Yepez

    1994-01-01

    Introduced is a lattice-gas with long-range 2-body interactions. An effective inter-particle force is mediated by momentum exchanges. There exists the possibility of having both attractive and repulsive interactions using finite impact parameter collisions. There also exists an interesting possibility of coupling these long-range interactions to a heat bath. A fixed temperature heat bath induces a permanent net attractive interparticle potential,

  3. Chrome Plating from Sulfate–Oxalate Cr(III) Baths. Structure, Composition, and Corrosion Behavior1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. M. Polukarov; V. A. Safonov; A. A. Edigaryan; L. N. Vykhodtseva

    2001-01-01

    The studies on chrome-plating from sulfate–oxalate Cr(III) baths are generalized. It is shown that the metal is deposited from the mentioned baths at a current efficiency over 40% and forms deposits of any thickness. Chrome-plating may be carried out in the cells with undivided cathodic and anodic compartments, which reduces the current efficiency to 25–30%. The reflectivity and color of

  4. A Stemmatic Analysis of the Fifteenth-Century Witnesses to The Wife of Bath's Prologue1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Robinson

    This article presents the results of a stemmatic analyis of the fifty-eight fifteenth-century witnesses to The Wife of Bath's Prologue. This analysis is based on the transcripts and collations of these witnesses published on my CD- ROM of The Wife of Bath's Prologue, and uses the techniques outlined in my article (with Robert O'Hara) on computer-assisted stemmatic analysis published in

  5. Properties of ZnO thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition and post annealed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ouerfelli; M. Regragui; M. Morsli; G. Djeteli; K. Jondo; C. Amory; G. Tchangbedji; K. Napo; J. C. Bernède

    2006-01-01

    ZnO thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) have been studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and electrical measurements. The optimum CBD conditions for achieving structured, but adherent, ZnO films are as follows. Zinc acetate (0.0188 mol l-1) and ethylenediamine (0.03 mol l-1) are mixed. The pH of the bath is raised by addition of

  6. Structured ZnO thin films grown by chemical bath deposition for photovoltaic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Drici; G. Djeteli; G. Tchangbedji; H. Derouiche; K. Jondo; K. Napo; J. C. Bernède; S. Ouro-Djobo; M. Gbagba

    2004-01-01

    ZnO thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD-ZnO). The deposition conditions, i.e. the pH and the temperature of the bath, have been adjusted to achieve the deposition of porous, but adherent, thin films. After annealing in air half an hour at 300 °C ZnO films crystallized in the hexagonal structure are obtained. They are nearly stoichiometric with

  7. ZnO\\/CdS bilayers prepared by concurrent deposition from a chemical bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Castillo; M. Sotelo-Lerma; R. A. Zingaro; R. Ram??rez-Bon; F. J. Espinoza-Beltran; R. Guillemette; M. A. Dom??nguez

    2001-01-01

    ZnO\\/CdS bilayer films have been prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique from a single reaction bath. The bilayer films were obtained by using solution concentrations of 1M for ZnSO4 and 0.1M for CdCl2. The pH was adjusted by the use of an ethanolamine–ammonia system. A solution 1M of thiourea was used as the source of sulfur ions. The

  8. Spectral Investigations of Chemical Bath Deposited Zinc Oxide Thin Films - Ammonia Gas Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kathirvel; D. Manoharan; S. M. Mohan; S. Kumar

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates at various bath temperatures (40ºC, 60 ºC and 80 ºC) by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The structure of the deposited ZnO films was determined by powder X-ray diffraction and it exhibits hexagonal structure along with c-axis orientation. The optical absorbance of the deposited films was characterized by UV-VIS-NIR spectrometry.

  9. A review of "Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland" by Michael Bath

    E-print Network

    William E. Engel

    2004-01-01

    ) were used in the spirit of externalizing, on architectural features, things one would have by heart. For precedents Bath looks to William Engel?s analysis of Montaigne?s famous library (169-72) and Sir Nicholas Bacon?s REVIEWS 307 Long Gallery... a handsome volume with numerous illustrations. Michael Bath. Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland. Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland Publishing, 2003. ix + 286 pp. + 255 illus. $49.95. Review by WILLIAM E. ENGEL, NASHVILLE...

  10. Numerical and analytical approach to the quantum dynamics of two coupled spins in bosonic baths

    SciTech Connect

    Sergi, Alessandro; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco [School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01 Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg (South Africa); Quantum Research Group, School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Quantum Research Group, School of Physics and National Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001 (South Africa)

    2009-07-15

    The quantum dynamics of a spin chain interacting with multiple bosonic baths is described in a mixed Wigner-Heisenberg representation. The formalism is illustrated by simulating the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of two coupled spins, where each spin is also coupled to its own bath of harmonic oscillators. In order to prove the validity of the approach, an analytical solution in the Born-Markov approximation is found. The agreement between the two methods is shown.

  11. Optimization of bright zinc-nickel alloy bath for better corrosion resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yogesha; A. Chitharanjan Hegde

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of an acid chloride bath for electrodeposition of smooth Zn-Ni alloy on to mild steel was studied using thiamine\\u000a hydrochloride (THC) as brightener. The influence of deposition current density, temperature, composition, and corrosion properties\\u000a of Zn-Ni alloy coatings was investigated. The effect of bath composition and operating parameters on deposits characters like\\u000a composition, micro-hardness, thickness and adhesions were tested.

  12. Nonrelativistic bound states in a moving thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Miguel Angel; Soto, Joan; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2011-07-01

    We study the propagation of nonrelativistic bound states moving at constant velocity across a homogeneous thermal bath and we develop the effective field theory which is relevant in various dynamical regimes. We consider values of the velocity of the bound state ranging from moderate to highly relativistic and temperatures at all relevant scales smaller than the mass of the particles that form the bound state. In particular, we consider two distinct temperature regimes, corresponding to temperatures smaller or higher than the typical momentum transfer in the bound state. For temperatures smaller or of the order of the typical momentum transfer, we restrict our analysis to the simplest system, a hydrogenlike atom. We build the effective theory for this system first considering moderate values of the velocity and then the relativistic case. For large values of the velocity of the bound state, the separation of scales is such that the corresponding effective theory resembles the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). For temperatures larger than the typical momentum transfer we also consider muonic hydrogen propagating in a plasma which contains photons and massless electrons and positrons, so that the system resembles very much a heavy quarkonium in a thermal medium of deconfined quarks and gluons. We study the behavior of the real and imaginary part of the static two-body potential, for various velocities of the bound state, in the hard thermal loop approximation. We find that Landau damping ceases to be the relevant mechanism for dissociation from a certain critical velocity on, in favor of screening. Our results are relevant for understanding how the properties of heavy quarkonia states produced in the initial fusion of partons in the relativistic collision of heavy ions are affected by the presence of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma.

  13. The dynamics and shapes of a viscous sheet spreading on a moving liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebilleau, J.; Lebon, L.; Limat, L.; Quartier, L.; Receveur, M.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the shape and dynamics of a floating viscous sheet formed by a jet falling on a static or moving bath under partial wetting conditions. For a static bath, the viscous sheet has a circular shape and spreads with a uniform thickness that is surprisingly larger than the static Langmuir equilibrium thickness. This thickening effect seems to be linked to a peculiarity of the oil used for the bath, which is in situation of total wetting on the sheet surface, and climbs the sheet a bit like a macroscopic "precursor film" that increases dissipation at the sheet perimeter. For a moving bath, the viscous sheet evolves from an ellipse to a ribbon, a transient remarkable pear shape being observed between these two states. A simple kinematic model of advection of the spreading sheet by the bath predicts very well the characteristics of the ribbon regime. Convected sheets whose shape is reminiscent of pendant drops in 2D are also observed at higher bath velocity, with interesting pinch off phenomena.

  14. Diastereoselective Allylation of "N"-"Tert"-Butanesulfinyl Imines: An Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Yang; Sun, Li-Sen; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Xing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    An asymmetric synthetic experiment that encompasses both diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity is described. In this experiment, Zn-mediated allylation of an ("R")-"N"-"tert"-butanesulfinyl imine is first performed to obtain either diastereomer using two different solvent systems, followed by oxidation of the…

  15. Management & Organization: Program Planning & Governance, Personnel, Business Management, Community Relations. Handbooks for Experience-Based Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy; And Others

    This is one of a set of five handbooks compiled by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory that describes the processes for planning and operating a total experience-based career education (EBCE) program. Processes and material are those developed by the original EBCE model--Community Experience in Career Education (CE)2. The area of…

  16. The Application of a Novel Pressurized Liquid Extraction Method to Quantify Organic Tracers Combined with Historic and Novel Organic Contaminants for the Discover-AQ Houston Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A. E.; Yoon, S.; Sheesley, R. J.; Usenko, S.

    2014-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ is a NASA mission seeking to better understand air quality in cities across the United States. In September 2013, flight, satellite and ground-based data was collected in Houston, TX and the surrounding metropolitan area. Over 300 particulate matter filter samples were collected as part of the ground-based sampling efforts, at four sites across Houston. Samples include total suspended particle matter (TSP) and fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5). For this project, an analytical method has been developed for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of a wide variety of organic tracers and contaminants from quartz fiber filters (QFFs). Over 100 compounds were selected including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, levoglucosan, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). Currently, there is no analytical method validated for the reproducible extraction of all seven compound classes in a single automated technique. Prior to extraction, QFF samples were spiked with known amounts of target analyte standards and isotopically-labeled surrogate standards. The QFF were then extracted with methylene chloride:acetone at high temperatures (100?C) and pressures (1500 psi) using a Thermo Dionex Accelerated Solvent Extractor system (ASE 350). Extracts were concentrated, spiked with known amounts of isotopically-labeled internal standards, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry utilizing electron ionization and electron capture negative ionization. Target analytes were surrogate recovery-corrected to account for analyte loss during sample preparation. Ambient concentrations of over 100 organic tracers and contaminants will be presented for four sites in Houston during DISCOVER-AQ.

  17. NASA Lewis Research Center combustion MHD experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Smith

    1982-01-01

    The MHD power generation experiments were conducted in a high field strength cryomagnet which was adapted from an existing facility. In its original construction, it consisted of 12 high purity aluminum coils pool cooled in a bath of liquid neon. In this configuration, a peak field of 15 tesla was produced. For the present experiments, the center four coils were

  18. The experiments in this course are examples of real-life problems which make use of organic chemistry in various ways and have impact on diverse businesses and industries. Each

    E-print Network

    Houston, Paul L.

    Overview The experiments in this course are examples of real-life problems which make use of organic chemistry in various ways and have impact on diverse businesses and industries. Each experiment participants have been changed! The aim of each experiment is for you to provide a solution to the problem

  19. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpi Modi; Manisha Bhattacharya; Namita Singh; Rajendra Prasad Tripathi; Subash Khushu

    ObjectiveTo investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach.

  20. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  1. Simulating the reactive transport of organic solutes and zero valent iron nano particles in 1-D column experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Taghavy; J. Costanza; K. D. Pennell; L. Abriola

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the reactive transport of nano Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) particles and organic solutes in a two fluid phase system. A hybrid model for the simultaneous simulation of reactive transport of ZVI particles and solutes is presented. This simulator couples a Lagrangian Random Walk-based Particle Tracking (RWPT) method for ZVI transport with a conventional Eulerian Finite Differencing (FD)

  2. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  3. Effects of Individual and Organization Based Beliefs and the Moderating Role of Work Experience on Insiders' Good Security Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burcu Bulgurcu; Hasan Cavusoglu; Izak Benbasat

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to identify the factors that drive an employee to comply with requirements of the Information Security Policy (ISP) with regard to protecting her organizationpsilas information and technology resources. Two different research models are proposed for an employeepsilas individual based beliefs and organization based beliefs. An employeepsilas attitude is traced to its underlying foundational beliefs in each model,

  4. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgessa, Z. N.; Oluwafemi, O. S.; Botha, J. R.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH- to Zn2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H+ and OH- in the solution.

  5. Organic geochemical studies of soils from the Rothamsted Classical Experiments—IV. Preliminary results from a study of the effect of soil pH on organic matter decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pim F van Bergen; Chris J Nott; Ian D Bull; Paul R Poulton; Richard P Evershed

    1998-01-01

    Total lipid extracts and solvent insoluble organic matter in soils from the Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, U.K. were studied to determine the effect of pH on the preservation\\/degradation of plant derived biomolecules. Analyses involved high temperature-gas chromatography (HT-GC), HT-GC–mass spectrometry (HT-GC–MS), GC combustion–isotope ratio MS (GCC–IRMS) and flash pyrolysis–GC (Py–GC) and Py–GC–MS. The plots selected for

  6. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths.

    PubMed

    Sääskilahti, K; Oksanen, J; Tulkki, J

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations. PMID:23944435

  7. A case–control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000–2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. Results There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ?15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ?15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15–19, 20–29, and???30 minutes) were similar. Conclusions Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ?15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile. PMID:24131571

  8. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-006-9235-3 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

  9. Deep-Sea Nematodes Actively Colonise Sediments, Irrespective of the Presence of a Pulse of Organic Matter: Results from an In-Situ Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Guilini, Katja; Soltwedel, Thomas; van Oevelen, Dick; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-01-01

    A colonisation experiment was performed in situ at 2500 m water depth at the Arctic deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN to determine the response of deep-sea nematodes to disturbed, newly available patches, enriched with organic matter. Cylindrical tubes,laterally covered with a 500 µm mesh, were filled with azoic deep-sea sediment and 13C-labelled food sources (diatoms and bacteria). After 10 days of incubation the tubes were analysed for nematode response in terms of colonisation and uptake. Nematodes actively colonised the tubes,however with densities that only accounted for a maximum of 2.13% (51 ind.10 cm?2) of the ambient nematode assemblages. Densities did not differ according to the presence or absence of organic matter, nor according to the type of organic matter added. The fact that the organic matter did not function as an attractant to nematodes was confirmed by the absence of notable 13C assimilation by the colonising nematodes. Overall, colonisationappears to be a process that yields reproducible abundance and diversity patterns, with certain taxa showing more efficiency. Together with the high variability between the colonising nematode assemblages, this lends experimental support to the existence of a spatio-temporal mosaic that emerges from highly localised, partially stochastic community dynamics. PMID:21526147

  10. Comparing the Effects of Swaddled and Conventional Bathing Methods on Body Temperature and Crying Duration in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Edraki, Mitra; Paran, Maryam; Montaseri, Sedigheh; Razavi Nejad, Mostajab; Montaseri, Zohre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining body temperature and reducing stress are important challenges in bathing preterm infants. Swaddle bathing, which includes in itself the principles of developmental care, can be used as a low-stress and appropriate bathing method for premature infants. Given the limitations of the researches carried out on this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on body temperature and crying duration in premature infants. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 50 premature infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) who were eligible for the study were divided by random allocation into two experimental and control groups. The infants in the experimental group were bathed using the swaddle bathing method and the infants in the control group were bathed using the conventional bathing method. Body temperature was measured 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the bath. To record the crying, the infants' faces were filmed during the bath. The data were analyzed using chi-squared test, independent t-test, paired t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean temperature loss was significantly less in the swaddle-bathed newborns compared to the conventionally-bathed newborns. Furthermore, crying time was significantly less in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of swaddled bathing in maintaining body temperature and reducing stress, it can be used as an appropriate bathing method in NICU. PMID:25276751

  11. TSF EXPERIMENT FOR COMPARISON OF HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER TURBULENCE IN BOTH HE I AND HE II : FIRST RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is kept constant by means of a heat exchanger immersed in a saturated bath. This experiment takes profit-made cold differential pressure sensor [5], a coiled shape heat exchanger immersed inside the saturated bath Cedex 09, France ABSTRACT Superfluid turbulence (TSF) project uses liquid helium for the fundamental

  12. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system. PMID:22403246

  13. Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

  14. Manipulating the Microcavity Structure for Highly Efficient Inverted Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Simulation and Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wang; Zhaoqi Deng; Jiangshan Chen; Dongge Ma

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study on inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (ITOLEDs) with a microcavity structure is demonstrated. In the ITOLEDs, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is used as the emitting material and the outcoupling capping layer, and the 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline is used as the hole\\/exciton-blocking layer to confine most emitting dipoles exactly at the desired resonant position. A

  15. Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

    2014-09-24

    Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs. PMID:25250820

  16. Selective formation of biphasic thin films of metal–organic frameworks by potential-controlled cathodic electrodeposition

    E-print Network

    Li, Minyuan Miller

    Cathodic electrodeposition lends itself to the formation of biphasic metal–organic framework thin films at room temperature from single deposition baths using potential bias as the main user input. Depending on the applied ...

  17. Abstract--Visual perception depends on prior experience. Previous encounters with visual objects allow an organism to

    E-print Network

    Bressler, Steven L.

    that synchronized oscillatory population activity in the beta frequency range (13-30 Hz) carries causal influences causal influences carried by beta frequency oscillations in the sensorimotor system [12] was used here electrode sites were transcribed to maps of the lateral cortical surface at the time of surgery. Experiments

  18. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

  19. Effect of turnover rate on the change of concentration of an unstable compound in a dip coating bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Sato; Monsanto Agriculh

    2000-01-01

    The effect of turnover rate on the change of concentration of unstable (degradable) compounds in a dip coating bath during\\u000a a continuous coating process was theoretically calculated as a function of the degradation rate of the compound. It is assumed\\u000a that the bath is replenished by the same coating material as that in the original bath to maintain the volume

  20. Controlled crystallite orientation in ZnO nanorods prepared by chemical bath deposition: Effect of H 2O 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Gurav; U. M. Patil; S. M. Pawar; J. H. Kim; C. D. Lokhande

    2011-01-01

    ZnO nanorods with controlled crystallite orientation are grown on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) route. The crystallite orientation in the film is successfully controlled by varying content of H2O2 in the bath solution. The crystallites became increasingly oriented as content of H2O2 in the bath solution increased, resulting in the formation of vertically