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1

Preparation of polyacrylonitrile fibre by spinning into organic baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

-- The spinning of polyacrylonitrile copolymers into organic baths containing dimethyl sulfoxide and isopropyl alcohol has been investigated. It has been found that the optimum DMSO:IPA ratio in the precipitation bath is 60:40% by wt..

T. A. Romanova; V. A. Medvedev; L. A. Kochorova; V. I. Volodin; A. T. Serkov

1992-01-01

2

Bathing  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent falls. You can buy shower chairs at drug stores and medical supply stores. Before ... soft music if it helps to relax the person. Be matter-of-fact about bathing. Say, “It’s time for a bath ...

3

Relaxation experiments using bath-applied suberyldicholine.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of step changes in membrane potential on the end-plate conductance change produced by bath-applied suberyldicholine was studied in voltage-clamped frog muscle fibres. 2. The suberyldicholine-induced conductance increased exponentially from its previous equilibrium level to a new equilibrium level following a step hyperpolarization. 3. For low suberyldicholine concentrations the time constant of this relaxation was independent of the concentration. 4. For low suberyldicholine concentrations the voltage dependence of equilibrium conductance and relaxation time constants was identical. 5. Bungarotoxin pretreatment did not affect the responses beyond a simple reduction in their amplitude. 6. The conductance evoked by high suberyldicholine concentrations was less voltage-sensitive than that evoked by low concentrations. 7. A new model for explaining noise and relaxation data is proposed. This postulates rate-limiting binding steps followed by a voltage-dependent isomerization.

Adams, P R

1977-01-01

4

Quench dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of a bath: Theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Rapid Communication we study the transient dynamics of a Bose superfluid subsequent to an interaction quench. Essential for equilibration is a source of dissipation which we include following the approach of Caldeira and Leggett. Here we solve the equations of motion exactly by integrating out an environmental bath. We thereby derive precisely the time dependent density correlation functions with the appropriate analytic and asymptotic properties. The resulting structure factor exhibits the expected damping and thereby differs from that of strict Bogoliubov theory. These damped sound modes, which reflect the physics beyond mean-field approaches, are characterized and the structure factors are found to compare favorably with experiment.

Rançon, A.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Chin, Cheng; Levin, K.

2013-09-01

5

Theoretical Conclusions Based on the Polarographic Study of Organic Additives to Nickel Baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classical electroplating has been fundamentally changed by the use of brightening substances and other agents. As a result, high-performance baths have been developed that are suitable for the deposition of bright coatings and that operate at high current...

L. Orgovany

1968-01-01

6

A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.  

PubMed

Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives. PMID:20117791

Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

2010-01-14

7

The behavior of organic components in copper recovery from electroless plating bath effluents using 3D electrode systems.  

PubMed

An electrochemical method was applied for the recovery of copper both from the spent solutions and from the rinse waters of electroless copper plating baths, containing copper sulfate, formaldehyde, quadrol, and NaOH. Experiments were conducted in a rotating packed cell (Rollschichtzelle) to investigate the effects of current density, electrolyte composition, temperature, and pH on the copper recovery. All the copper (final CCu=0.1 ppm) was recovered from the waste and rinse waters of chemical copper plating plants with 70% current efficiency by the electrochemical treatment in a rotating packed cell at 130 A/m2 current density, room temperature, with 5mm diameter cathode granules, with the presence of formaldehyde, and with a specific energy consumption of 3.2-3.5 kW h/kg Cu. On the other hand, final copper concentrations of 5 ppm were reached with 62% current efficiency and 5.5-5.8 kW h/kg Cu specific energy consumption, with electrolytes containing no formaldehyde. PMID:15302447

Orhan, Gökhan; Gürmen, Sebahattin; Timur, Servet

2004-08-30

8

Perspectives of Older Persons on Bathing and Bathing Disability: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Bathing is an important and potentially challenging self-care activity, and disability in bathing is associated with several adverse consequences. Little is known about older persons’ experiences with and perspectives on bathing. Objectives To understand the bathing experiences, attitudes, and preferences of older persons in order to inform the development of effective patient-centered interventions. Design Qualitative Study using the Grounded Theory framework. Participants Twenty-three community-living persons, age ? 78 years, identified from the Precipitating Events Project (PEP). Approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participant’s home. Results Three themes emerged: 1) the importance and personal significance of bathing to older persons, 2) variability in attitudes, preferences, and sources of bathing assistance, and 3) older persons’ anticipation of and responses to bathing disability. Discussion The bathing experiences described by study participants underscore the personal significance of bathing and the need to account for attitudes and preferences when designing bathing interventions. Quantitative disability assessments may not capture the bathing modifications made by older persons in anticipation of disability and may result in missed opportunities for early intervention. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of targeted, patient-centered interventions that can subsequently be tested in clinical trials.

Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Gill, Thomas M.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Fried, Terri R.

2009-01-01

9

History of early Organizer Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the research and publication of the paper entitled: ÃÂVersuche zur Analyse der Induktionsmittel in der EmbryonalentwicklungÃÂ [Attempts to analyse the Organizer of the Embryo] and links to other articles about these associates and their historic work.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)

2011-09-20

10

Photographic Fixing Bath.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fixing bath has any desired composition of chemicals including sodium thiosulphate as the main dissolving agent for the undeveloped silver halide in the sensitive emulsion. The bath may also include control chemicals such as acetic acid, sodium sulphi...

M. Levy

1965-01-01

11

METAL COATING BATHS  

DOEpatents

A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

Robinson, J.W.

1958-08-26

12

Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings.  

PubMed

The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure. PMID:22250131

Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa

2012-01-16

13

[Stimulation for sebum excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs on bathing ceramic sand bath].  

PubMed

We previously reported that high risk environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are excreted not only in feces but also in the sebum of the face and body in both normal subjects and Yusho patients. A combination of administration of rice bran fiber and cholestyramine increased fecal excretion of PCDFs and PCBs. In the present study, we stimulated excretion of these compounds in sebum using a ceramic sand bath, a kind of sand bath using small ceramic balls (3.5 mm diameter) instead of natural sand. Five normal volunteers participated in this experiment. Sebum eliminated from the body on bathing ceramic sand bath was collected and weighed and then concentrations of the compounds interest in the sebum were determined. We also examined the effects varying the bath conditions such as temperature of sand, length of bathing time and frequency of taking bath on the amounts of the compounds in the eliminated sebum. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. The average amount of sebum per one bath eliminated from the body during the ceramic sand bath was 0.252 g, and those of PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in it were 2.2, 2.0 and 2.2 pg of TEQ (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent quantity). It was considered that the amounts of these compounds corresponded to between one quarter and third of those eliminated through the sebum in a day. On the other hand, 0.05 g of the sebum was collected from the face during the bath, included 0.39, 0.39 and 0.59 pg TEQ for PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, respectively. 2. As the number of bathing times a day increased, the amount of sebum per bath gradually decreased. However, we could not determine the influence of the conditions of the bath such as temperature and time. PMID:9194339

Iida, T; Hirakawa, H; Matsueda, T; Nakamura, M; Hori, T

1997-05-01

14

Baby Bath Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes. Do I need a special type of soap? There's no need to use special soap for a baby bath. In fact, plain water ... for newborns. When needed, use a mild moisturizing soap. Avoid bubble bath and scented soaps. Will lotion ...

15

An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)|

Palmer, Richard E.

1985-01-01

16

Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

Williamson, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

17

ORGANIC MODERATED REACTOR CRITICAL EXPERIMENT HAZARDS SUMMARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was planned utilizing a critical assembly mock-; up with slightiy enriched fuel in a heterogeneous, organic-moderated lattice. ; The fuel elements are uranium metal fabricated into flat plate, box-type fuel ; elements and other elements of special design. The moderator and reflector are ; Santowax-R. The critical assembly vessel is designed of mild steel, about 6

Zwetzig

1958-01-01

18

Human epididymal and prostatic tracts of vas deferens: different contraction response to noradrenaline stimulation in isolated organ bath assay.  

PubMed

In the present study epididymal and prostatic portions of human vas deferens were separately isolated and stimulated with exogenous noradrenaline to study their contractile properties. The results displayed that the epididymal tract produced a phasic-tonic response, while the prostatic strip produced only a phasic response suggesting a different functional role of each vas deferens segment. Moreover, it has been verified if alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin, alphuzosin and terazosin could differently block the noradrenaline response in each segment. Doxazosin, the most potent antagonist, displayed similar potency in epididymal and prostatic tract (pA(2)=8.51 and 8.42, respectively). Analogously, alphuzosin, although less potent than doxazosin, displayed in the same tracts a superimposed potency (pA(2)=7.25 and 7.30, respectively). In contrast with doxazosin and alphuzosin, terazosin displayed higher potency in blocking the contractile response in prostatic tract (pA(2)=7.67) than in epididymal segment (pA(2)=6.43). These results showed that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and alphuzosin, although with a different potency, did not discriminate between epididymal and prostatic segment while terazosin showed high potency in prostatic tract and only a moderate activity in epididymal section. Moreover, the biological model employed in our experiments could be a valid screening method to test the potential interferences of drugs indicated for bladder outlet obstruction with the peristaltic activity or the global tone of the human vas deferens. PMID:17900563

Colabufo, Nicola A; Pagliarulo, Vincenzo; Berardi, Francesco; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Roberto; Niso, Mauro; Albo, Giancarlo; de Rienzo, Gaetano; Pagliarulo, Arcangelo

2007-09-11

19

Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath fixtures, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

20

Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt bath furnace is basically a ceramic or metal container filled with molten salt into which work is immersed for either heating or cooling. The furnace contains salt such as nitrates, nitrites, caustic soda, chlorides, carbonates, and cyanide. Mixtures of salt are selected to give a specific temperature range and a desired treatment (or lack of treatment) to the

Gordon W. Anderson

1974-01-01

21

Ultrasonic bath depth control and regulation in single cell recordings.  

PubMed

Control of the bath depth is critical in many applications of the patch-clamp technique, particularly when the capacitance of cells is determined to assess secretion or transmitter release or in studies of ion currents sensitive to small changes in the hydrostatic pressure. We describe an inexpensive technique for tight control of the bath depth with the aid of a commercially available ultrasound sensor. The sensor continuously determines changes in the distance to the bath surface with a resolution of about 10 mum. The signal from the sensor is digitized in a microcontroller card and used to send on or off signals at 100 Hz to a peristaltic pump that removes volume from the bath. The inflow into the bath can be realized in a versatile way. The capacitance of Sylgard-coated patch-clamp glass electrodes, demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to small changes in the area moistened by bath solution, is constant within the noise level of +/-3 fF when immersed into a depth-controlled bath, even during exchange of the bath medium. Thus, when small changes in the cell capacitance are measured in patch-clamp experiments, errors due to alterations in the pipette capacitance caused by bath depth fluctuations are eliminated. PMID:16721611

Duong Dinh, Thien An; Jüngling, Eberhard; Strotmann, Karl-Heinz; Westhofen, Martin; Lückhoff, Andreas

2006-05-24

22

Effects of BATHE Interview Protocol on Patient Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Background BATHE, the acronym for background, affect, trouble, handling, and empathy, is an interview approach that can be applied in the out-patient setting whereby questions belonging to each of the 5 categories are asked in the above order. As we have been taught to believe that BATHE raises the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of medical treatment overall, this study was designed to test the validity of the claim that applying BATHE heightens patient satisfaction. Methods Each of the 5 doctors was assigned 10 patients (5 in the BATHE group and the other 5 in the control group) with each patient being randomly assigned to either of the groups. The control group was interviewed as usual and the BATHE group was interviewed using BATHE. Immediately after the interview, each patient anonymously filled out a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Whether the questions asked were appropriate for each category of the protocol was evaluated by the researcher through video clips taped during the interviews. Results On 7 out of 10 items on the patient satisfaction questionnaire, the BATHE group was found to experience higher level of satisfaction than the control group in a statistically significant manner. The questions asked the BATHE group were confirmed to be more appropriate for each category of the protocol except empathy than those asked the control group. Conclusion As applying the BATHE approach was found to achieve higher level of patient satisfaction, we recommend using it in the out-patient setting.

Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Yoon Na; Cheong, Yoo Seock; Choi, Eun Young

2012-01-01

23

Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)|

Chloupek-McGough, Marge

1989-01-01

24

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of iron sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, crystallographic and optical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature chemical deposition method has been developed to deposit iron\\/sulfur thin films onto soda lime glass substrates. The chemical bath deposition (CBD) consists of aqueous solution ferrous sulphate, disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na2EDTA), sodium thiosulphate and organic solutions of ethylenediamine and methanol. The experiments were performed at room temperature and under two different conditions. The films were

P. Prabukanthan; R. J. Soukup; N. J. Ianno; A. Sarkar; S. Kment; H. Kmentova; C. A. Kamler; C. L. Exstrom; J. Olejnicek; S. A. Darveau

2010-01-01

25

The microbiological safety of bathing water – Waterborne pathogens beyond bathing water legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of recreational water of poor microbiological quality may negatively impact on the health of people that are exposed during a diversity of leisure activities. Microbiological contamination of recreational waters may arise from various human and animal faecal sources, but the microbiological quality of bathing water may also deteriorate due to proliferation of micro-organisms of non-faecal origin, such as

F. M. Schets

2011-01-01

26

Lean Production: Experience among Australian Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the findings of a study which investigated the adoption of lean production methods in Australian manufacturing industry. Data were gathered through a telephone survey from 51 companies representing a range of industry sectors. The study found that a large majority of the companies were practising lean production methods. Discusses the organizational changes which had occurred in the organizations as

Amrik S. Sohal; Adrian Egglestone

1994-01-01

27

Adopting SOA - Experiences from Nine Finnish Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-Oriented Architecture is expanding its footprint in an organizationpsilas IT landscape. The era of early adopters is over. However, the path to SOA is long, slow and sometimes even bumpy. Many organizations have taken the first steps, and also bumps, in SOA adoption already many years ago.Adoption has been started for various reasons; typically, motivation is derived from a problem

Timo Kokko; Jari Antikainen; Tarja Systä

2009-01-01

28

"Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

Field, Kurt W.; And Others

1979-01-01

29

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

2013-07-01

30

[Experience in organizing the operations of a large histopathology laboratory].  

PubMed

In connection with the organization of large centralized pathology departments serving up to 4-6 thousand beds or more in hospitals the use of routine methods of work of histological laboratories becomes unacceptable. The authors shares his experience in organization work of a large histopathological laboratories, suggesting available devices increasing the labour productivity and culture and requiring no scarce glassware. PMID:6362622

Konstantinov, G S

1983-01-01

31

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)|

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

32

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

33

Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in

Marcio C. S. de Mattos; David E. Nicodem

2002-01-01

34

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...moored position at the Bath Iron Works Facility in Bath, Maine to...via Marine Safety Information Radio Broadcasts....

2013-07-01

35

Microbiologists meet geologists in Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diverse group of microbiologists, molecular biologists, chemical engineers, and geologists met in Bath, United Kingdom, in September 1993 to reach across the barriers separating their disciplines and report new findings in the expanding field of geomicrobiology. The occasion was the second International Symposium on Subsurface Microbiology, cosponsored by the Subsurface Science Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, Bath was a resort centered around the emission of thermal waters credited with the potential to cure numerous ills. The location was appropriate given that biotechnology appears to have considerable potential to cure some challenging environmental ailments.

Onstott, T. C.

36

The ORGANIC Experiment on the ISS EXPOSE-R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are proposed as carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Recently the fullerenes C60 and C70 have been discovered in a young planetary nebula, Tc 1 and in other astronomical environments. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, which was deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2009 and retrieved by extra-vehicular activity (EVA) in January 2011. The ORGANIC experiment monitors the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes exposed to solar illumination and cosmic radiation. The radiation dose that is collected on the ISS by the samples cannot be accurately simulated in Earth laboratories. Dark samples are shielded from the UV photons and will enable us to differentiate between the effects of exposure to photons and cosmic rays. The samples are monitored before and after space exposure; ground control samples were continuously monitored. We describe the ORGANIC experiment on the Space Station and report on laboratory ground-control measurements in the UV-Vis-NIR at NASA-Ames. Extended space exposure allows us to collect data on multiple samples which can be extrapolated to other astrophysical environments and thus greatly enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space environment.

Bryson, K.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.

2011-05-01

37

Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

Gregor, Richard W.

2012-01-01

38

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

39

Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)|

Pickering, Miles

1980-01-01

40

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

41

Shower bath economizer test program  

SciTech Connect

The shower bath economizer (SBE) is a simple counterflow heat exchanger which transfers heat from warm exiting shower drain water to cold incoming water. This report describes a comprehensive test program conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the SBE. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Hall, J.A.

1987-10-01

42

Dynamic electron localization initiated by particle-bath coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the quantum evolution and relaxation of an electron or hole which is coupled to a set of bath modes. In most applications the bath modes would be the vibronic coordinates but the model considered applies to any type of dynamic boson environment. The method is developed specifically for the problem of dynamic polaron formation in small nonperiodic systems. It can describe a broad group of experimental situations, including in particular electron localization in organics and polymeric materials and devices. The immediate bath is allowed to dissipate energy to a secondary bath. The bath obeys classical dynamics which puts some restriction on the range of validity of this approach. Using the density matrix formalism on a tight binding model consisting of a linear chain coupled to vibronic coordinates, we demonstrate in real time how the interaction with a dissipative bath makes the initial quantum distribution reach a steady-state population. This calculation is based on the Ehrenfest dynamics approximation. As an example we consider coupling at a single impurity site and find that for given parameters (bath coupling, site energy, and relaxation rate), the particle becomes dynamically localized in space on a particular time scale. This localized particle can be called a polaron. We define a population formation time in the same way as done in the experimental measurement. This formation time is studied as a function of the coupling strength, bandwidth, and energy dissipation rate. Energy dissipation plays a crucial role in the spatial localization process. The formation time shortens as the electron-vibration coupling increases, and as the intersite tunneling increases, but lengthens with impurity trap depth. Polaron formation is suppressed for sufficiently wide electronic bands.

Li, Guangqi; Movaghar, Bijan; Ratner, Mark A.

2013-03-01

43

The urban domestic baths of Roman Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the baths of the domus in Roman Africa. Private baths have long been recognized as an aspect of Roman domestic architecture, whether belonging to the country residence (villa ) or urban residence (domus ) of the wealthy. However, despite the numerous examples of these baths uncovered by archaeological investigation, and in disparate regions of the Roman world,

Sonia Hewitt

2000-01-01

44

The urban domestic baths of Roman Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the baths of the domus in Roman Africa. Private baths have long been recognized as an aspect of Roman domestic architecture, whether belonging to the country residence (villa) or urban residence (domus) of the wealthy. However, despite the numerous examples of these baths uncovered by archaeological investigation, and in disparate regions of the Roman world, they are

Sonia Hewitt

2000-01-01

45

10. Historic American Buildings Survey From collection of Bath Marine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic American Buildings Survey From collection of Bath Marine Museum, Washington Street, Bath SOUTHEAST VIEW OF HOUSE FROM WOOD ENGRAVING ON 1851 BATH MAP - George F. Patten House, 118 Front Street, Bath, Sagadahoc County, ME

46

Effectiveness of starch removal in a Bath-Substrate-Flow (BSF) device using surfactants and ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the removal process of starch from different surfaces was studied using a laboratory device called Bath-Substrate-Flow. To do this, experiments were performed using the following solutions as washing bath: (a) the commercial nonionic surfactant Glucopon® 650; (b) the commercial anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate LAS, and (c) the enzyme ?-amylase (obtained from the microorganism Bacillus licheniformis). The

Encarnación Jurado Alameda; Vicente Bravo Rodríguez; Deisi Altmajer Vaz; Rita de Cassia Siqueira Curto Valle

2011-01-01

47

Aerobic Bacterial Counts On Human Skin After Bathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

SKIN bacteria live naturally in the outer keratinised layers of the epidermis (Kligman, 1965), and it follows that bathing with water or with dilute solutions of surface-active agents will remove many of them. This was amply demon- strated in the classical experiments of Price (1938) who used a technique of repetitive scrubbing with water to enumerate bacteria on selected surfaces

R. J. Holt

1971-01-01

48

Prediction of human thermophysiological responses during shower bathing.  

PubMed

This study develops a model to predict the thermophysiological response of the human body during shower bathing. Despite the needs for the quantitative evaluation of human body response during bathing for thermal comfort and safety, the complicated mechanisms of heat transfer at the skin surface, especially during shower bathing, have disturbed the development of adequate models. In this study, an initial modeling approach is proposed by developing a simple heat transfer model at the skin surface during shower bathing applied to Stolwijk's human thermal model. The main feature of the model is the division of the skin surface into three parts: a dry part, a wet part without water flow, and a wet part with water flow. The area ratio of each part is decided by a simple formula developed from a geometrical approach based on the shape of the Stolwijk's human thermal model. At the same time, the convective heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the flowing water is determined experimentally. The proposed model is validated by a comparison with the results of human subject experiments under controlled and free shower conditions. The model predicts the mean skin temperature during shower fairly well both for controlled and free shower bathing styles. PMID:19798515

Munir, Abdul; Takada, Satoru; Matsushita, Takayuki; Kubo, Hiroko

2009-10-02

49

Slag foaming in bath smelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slag foaming measurements in terms of the foaming index (?) were conducted on bath smelting-type slags (CaO-SiO2-FeO, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FeO) at 1773 K. It was found that the slag foam stability decreases with increasing FeO (FeO > 2 pct) content and basicity.\\u000a For the slag system (CaO-SiO2-FeO), no stable foam was observed at very low FeO content (<2 pct). As pct FeO

R. Jiang; R. J. Fruehan

1991-01-01

50

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the International Space Station. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples in space environment. EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, two control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center (MUSC) at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2012-05-01

51

Organization and Analysis of Data from the Qweak Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qweak experiment, which was conducted at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in a collaboration consisting of over twenty institutions, measured the small parity violating asymmetry occurring in elastic e-p scattering at low four-momentum transfer. This asymmetry will be used to calculate a precise value for the proton's weak charge. The Standard Model firmly predicts this weak charge based on the running of the weak mixing angle from the Z0 pole (where it is anchored by precise measurements) down to low energies. Through testing this prediction the Qweak experiment hopes to either constrain or reveal possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. Because of the small size of the predicted asymmetry and the precise nature of the measurement, over 2000 hours of data were taken. In order to help organize and store this data, a database has been implemented containing averages over sets of this data. It must be organized in such a way as to allow the quick and easy retrieval of data by collaborators with minimal knowledge of the database language. Tools for aggregating and expanding parts of this database as well as data analysis will be discussed.

Cargill, Dan; Spayde, Damon

2013-04-01

52

Noncyanide cadmium plating baths. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One approach to minimizing toxic wastes is to eliminate the use of cyanide plating baths. Non-cyanide zinc plating baths have been successfully developed and have found widespread use. An investigation was conducted in an attempt to accomplish similar results with cadmium plating baths. The focus of this study was on additives to a near neutral cadmium bath, free of complexing agents. A Hull cell was used to enable visualization of deposits over a broad range of cathode current densities. Experimental design (Taguchi Method) was used to optimize bath parameters and constituent concentrations. Bath parameters have been developed which indicate promise for producing dense deposits with good covering power, and relatively low tendency for hydrogen embrittlement.

Pearlstein, F.; Agarwala, V.S.

1991-10-04

53

Achieving "organic compositionality" through self-organization: reviews on brain-inspired robotics experiments.  

PubMed

The current paper examines how compositional structures can self-organize in given neuro-dynamical systems when robot agents are forced to learn multiple goal-directed behaviors simultaneously. Firstly, we propose a basic model accounting for the roles of parietal-premotor interactions for representing skills for goal-directed behaviors. The basic model had been implemented in a set of robotics experiments employing different neural network architectures. The comparative reviews among those experimental results address the issues of local vs distributed representations in representing behavior and the effectiveness of level structures associated with different sensory-motor articulation mechanisms. It is concluded that the compositional structures can be acquired "organically" by achieving generalization in learning and by capturing the contextual nature of skilled behaviors under specific conditions. Furthermore, the paper discusses possible feedback for empirical neuroscience studies in the future. PMID:18495423

Tani, Jun; Nishimoto, Ryunosuke; Paine, Rainer W

2008-04-27

54

Electroless Cobalt Deposition from Acid Baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An acid electroless cobalt plating bath was developed which utilizes dimethylamine borane (DMAB) as the reducing agent and which provides bright deposits at over 13 micrometers/hr at 70C. The bath, slightly modified, is also usable at room temperature for...

F. Pearlstein R. F. Weightman

1973-01-01

55

Temperature fluctuations in a heat bath  

SciTech Connect

The model of two boxes in thermal contact each filled with an ideal quasiclassical gas is used to treat, in a unified way, temperature fluctuations in both finite and infinite heat baths. One box is regarded as the heat bath and the other serves as the thermometer.

Prosper, H.B. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States))

1993-01-01

56

BATH AIDS AND THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF BATHING DISABILITY AMONG COMMUNITY-LIVING OLDER PERSONS  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the availability of bath aids may forestall the subsequent development of bathing disability. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective cohort study of 501 community-living residents of greater New Haven, Connecticut, who were 73 years or older and nondisabled, i.e., required no personal assistance, in bathing. Measurements The availability of five bath aids (grab bars, bath seat, nonskid mat or abrasive strips, handheld shower spray, and long handle brush or sponge) was ascertained during a comprehensive home-based assessment. Subsequently, participants were followed with monthly telephone interviews to determine the onset of persistent (i.e., present for at least two consecutive months) disability in bathing and were evaluated for disability in three bathing subtasks (bathing transfers, washing whole body, and drying whole body) during the next home-based assessment, which was completed 18 months after the initial assessment. Results The presence of a bath seat was associated with an increased likelihood of developing persistent disability in bathing and disability in each of the three bathing subtasks, although these associations were not statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Nonsignificant elevations in risk were also observed for grab bars, handheld shower spray, and long handle brush or sponge. In the adjusted analysis, the presence of nonskid mats or abrasive strips was associated with a nonsignificant, 23% reduction in the risk of persistent bathing disability and a reduced likelihood of developing disability in washing and drying one’s whole body, with corresponding odds ratios of 0.28 (P = 0.003) and 0.38 (P = 0.030), respectively. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, the presence of bath aids, with the exception of nonskid mats or abrasive strips, did not forestall the subsequent development of bathing disability. Because it may not be possible to fully account for the effects of self selection, clinical trials may be necessary to demonstrate the potential value of bath aids among community-living older persons.

Gill, Thomas M.; Han, Ling; Allore, Heather G.

2009-01-01

57

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the ISS. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples. EXPOSE-R was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, 2 control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Jessberger, E. K.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2013-06-01

58

Looking for organics on Mars: using MTBSTFA derivatization to detect organic compounds in a SAM-like experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to analyze Martian analogue soils representing a variety of mineralogical and organic compositions in order to develop methodology for use on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. The organic molecules present in the soils must be extracted and derivatized before reaching the Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) analytical device. Approaching the actual SAM experiment brings up numerous constraints. Even under these restrictions, detection of organic molecules is possible.

Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Stalport, F.; Buch, A.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2011-10-01

59

21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product...

2013-04-01

60

20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

2010-04-01

61

20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

2009-04-01

62

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

63

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.|

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

64

Salt Bath Oxinitriding of Gray Cast Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt bath oxinitriding is a duplex surface treatment developed to improve tribological and corrosion properties of ferrous materials. In this research, gray cast iron samples were nitrided at the temperature range of 480°C-580°C, and then oxidized in an oxidative salt bath. The phase composition of surface layer was identified by X-ray diffraction. Using a microhardness tester, hardness of nitrided gray

M. Ahmadi; M. Teimouri; M. Aliofkhazraee; S. M. Mousavi Khoee

2008-01-01

65

IMMIGRANTS' EXPERIENCES IN AMERICA: TOWARD UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZED CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the emergence of Sicilian Mafia in the United States of America as the focal condition, this article investigates why the emergence of organized crime in the United State of America is widely misunderstood. The author aims to provide a renewed theoretical analysis of the social problem. Central to this analysis are two contradictory perspectives on the emergence of organized

Charles B. A. Ubah

66

The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

Castro, Albert J.; And Others

1983-01-01

67

Review of organic micropollutants: local experience detection, purification, and significance  

SciTech Connect

Organic micropollutants are defined and reasons given for the present-day interest in them. The relationship between analytical methodology, purification, and water quality is stressed. The development of analytical methods over the past 14 years is described in terms of attempts to solve a complex analytical problem. The importance of solubility, chemical reactivity and the aromatic/aliphatic characteristics of the pollutants in the purification process is illustrated. The effect of organic micropollutants on water quality is discussed in terms of criteria and the unidentified potential health hazardous organic compounds in drinking water.

van Rossum, P.G.

1984-01-01

68

Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia: an Italian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features at onset and outcome and the diagnostic approach in subjects with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Over a 7-year period we observed 78 cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia, in which well documented clinical and radiographic data were available. The final diagnosis of BOOP was validated when patients presented: (i)

S. CAZZATO; M. ZOMPATORI; G. BARUZZI; M. L. SCHIATTONE; M. BURZI; A. ROSSI; L. RATTA; G. TERZUOLO; F. FALCONE; V. POLETTI

2000-01-01

69

Irreversibility and self-organization in hydrodynamic echo experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the reversible-irreversible transition in low-Reynolds hydrodynamic systems driven by external cycling actuation. We introduce a set of models with no auto-organization, and show that a sharp crossover is obtained between a Lyapunov regime in which any noise source, such as thermal noise, is amplified exponentially, and a diffusive regime where this no longer holds. In the latter regime, groups of particles are seen to move cooperatively, yet no spatial organization occurs.

Düring, Gustavo; Bartolo, Denis; Kurchan, Jorge

2009-03-01

70

Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

71

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

72

Taxonomic Organization Scaffolds Young Children's Learning from Storybooks: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test and iteratively design a set of taxonomically-organized storybooks that served to scaffold young children's word learning and concept development. Specifically, Phase 1 of the design experiment asked: (1) What are the effects of taxonomic organization on children's ability to acquire…

Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Neuman, Susan B.

2010-01-01

73

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

74

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, Naval Restricted Area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, Naval Restricted Area...REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, Naval Restricted Area...along the westerly shoreline to the point of origin. (b) The...

2009-07-01

75

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area...REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area...along the westerly shoreline to the point of origin. (b) The...

2010-07-01

76

Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

Ewing, Sheila

1982-01-01

77

Career Experiences, Perceptions of Employment Practices, and Psychological Commitment to the Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among career experiences, perceptions of company employment practices, and psychological commitment to the firm are explored in this paper. Psychological commitment is defined as non-instrumental attraction to and identification with the goals and values of the organization, excluding propensity to stay in the organization. Results show that employee perceptions of the organization's adherence to career-oriented employment practices, including

Karen N. Gaertner; Stanley D. Nollen

1989-01-01

78

PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

79

Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

2006-01-01

80

TEACHING COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE WITH HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes part of a novel approach employed at the authors' institution in the last five years, which comprises the teaching of computer organization\\/ architecture through the effective implementation of processors and computers. The context of the courses is presented first, including a comparison of two hardware courses tracks in Computer Science and Computer Engineering curricula. Previous publications have

Ney Laert Vilar Calazans; Fernando Gehm Moraes; César Augusto; Missio Marcon

2002-01-01

81

FIELD EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR PORTABLE VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the field operation problems associated with use of four portable volatile organic compound (VOC) detection instruments in conducting Reference Method 21 VOC screenings. The report presents the results of the field trials and summarizes the ease of use of ea...

82

Primary healthcare organizations facing a disaster: the Quebec experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to evaluate the role and the nature of the interventions by primary healthcare organizations in Quebec during the ice storm of 1998. The two basic questions are: to what extent CLSC perform their socio-community mission during this disaster? Are there some contingencies factors that explain variation between CLSC in their intervention? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data collection

Carole Lalonde

2007-01-01

83

Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

2006-01-01

84

Preparing your Offshore Organization for Agility: Experiences in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two strategies that have significantly changed the way we conventionally think about managing software development and sustainment are the family of development approaches collectively referred to as agile methods, and the distribution of development efforts on a global scale. When you combine the two strategies, organizations have to address not only the technical challenges that arise from introducing new ways of working, but more importantly have to manage the 'soft' factors that if ignored lead to hard challenges. Using two case studies of distributed agile software development in India we illustrate the areas that organizations need to be aware of when transitioning work to India. The key issues that we emphasize are the need to recruit and retain personnel; the importance of teaching, mentoring and coaching; the need to manage customer expectations; the criticality of well-articulated senior leadership vision and commitment; and the reality of operating in a heterogeneous process environment.

Srinivasan, Jayakanth

85

Fines, Leniency, Rewards and Organized Crime: Evidence from Antitrust Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leniency policies and rewards for whistleblowers are being introduced in ever more fields of law enforcement, though their deterrence effects are often hard to observe, and the likely effect of changes in the specific features of these schemes can only be observed experimentally. This paper reports results from an experiment designed to examine the effects of fines, leniency programs, and

Maria Bigoni; Sven-Olof Fridolfsson; Chloe Le Coq; Giancarlo Spagnolo

2008-01-01

86

Consumers’ willingness to pay for organic chicken breast: Evidence from choice experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for organic chicken using a choice experiment. Specifically, we examined consumers’ WTP for a general organic label and a USDA certified organic label on chicken breast. Our results indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium of 1.193$\\/lb (34.8%) for the general organic label and 3.545 $\\/lb (103.5%) for the USDA

Ellen J. Van Loo; Vincenzina Caputo; Rodolfo M. Nayga; Jean-Francois Meullenet; Steven C. Ricke

2011-01-01

87

On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.|

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

2007-01-01

88

Quantum Bath Refrigeration towards Absolute Zero: Challenging the Unattainability Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T?0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst’s third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

Kolá?, M.; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Alicki, R.; Kurizki, G.

2012-08-01

89

Advanced QPC complex salt bath heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt bath surface treatment has been used widely for various industrial applications for many years. However, the technology is able to be applied in mass scale production only in limited countries, such as USA, Japan, Britain and France, due to the specific salt being obtainable only from one single company in Germany. This article reveals that a new salt, developed

C. F. Yeung; K. H. Lau; H. Y. Li; D. F. Luo

1997-01-01

90

[Crisis and decline of bath houses].  

PubMed

For centuries bath-houses and barber-surgeons formed such an integral part of public life that one is mystified by their vanishing from modern view with hardly any trace left. Previous authors have offered a variety of reasons for this disappearance: the bath-houses' notorious reputation, developing fuel-shortage, the "new" fashion of taking the waters and the outbreak of previously unknown contagious diseases are among those mentioned most frequently. While these factors may be valid reasons for a crisis afflicting the "hot-houses" they would hardly explain why fate overtook the barber-surgeons' entire trade. Judging from the sources available one cannot help but feel that the philosophers of the Enlightenment were largely responsible for such a dramatic change of society. Sceptical philosophy discarded the wisdom of the ancient medical authorities replacing traditional steam-bathing with "modern" cold-bathing. Society itself was subject to equally revolutionary changes: the local masters of the trade had to make room for surgeons educated at medical schools setting the stage for a new reality which has become "normal" to us. PMID:10641424

Widmann, M

1999-01-01

91

Advances in Liquid-Helium-Bath Cryopumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, operation, and performance of liquid-helium-bath cryopumps which incorporate improvements that prolong the self-sufficiency of pumping in helium and nitrogen and that make possible the pumping of H sub 2 and N sub 2 at 4.2 exp 0 K are discusse...

J. J. Thibault J. C. Boissin J. Carle

1980-01-01

92

Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages

L. Moce-Llivina; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre

2005-01-01

93

Thermal Management of Aluminium Cell Bath Crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a consumed carbon anode in an aluminium electrolysis cell is replaced, the solid crust covering the anode and the bath is removed and transported in hopper cars to a cooling area where it remains for a period of one to four days, or more, to cool from a temperature of approximately 900°C to an acceptable temperature for autogenous milling,

J. Kirney; J. Thibault; B. Kruczek; A. Plumpton

2007-01-01

94

String melting in a photon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

Karouby, Johanna

2013-10-01

95

Transitioning to a new nursing home: one organization's experience.  

PubMed

Restructuring of long-term care in Western Health, a regional health authority within Newfoundland and Labrador, created a unique opportunity to study the widespread impacts of the transition. Staff and long-term-care residents were relocated from a variety of settings to a newly constructed facility. A plan was developed to assess the impact of relocation on staff, residents, and families. Indicators included fall rates, medication errors, complaints, media database, sick leave, overtime, injuries, and staff and family satisfaction. This article reports on the findings and lessons learned from an organizational perspective with such a large-scale transition. Some of the key findings included the necessity of premove and postmove strategies to minimize negative impacts, ongoing communication and involvement in decision making during transitions, tracking of key indicators, recognition from management regarding increased workload and stress experienced by staff, engagement of residents and families throughout the transition, and assessing the timing of large-scale relocations. These findings would be of interest to health care managers and leadership team in organizations planning large-scale changes. PMID:23903936

O'Brien, Kelli; Welsh, Darlene; Lundrigan, Elaine; Doyle, Anne

96

Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.  

PubMed Central

The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels.

Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

1990-01-01

97

Wear resistance of copper EDM tool electrode electroformed from copper sulfate baths and pyrophosphate baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroforming copper from the copper sulfate baths or the pyrophosphate baths is one of commonly used methods for manufacturing\\u000a electro-discharge machining (EDM) tool electrode, in particular for the fabrication of micro- and meso-scale tool electrodes\\u000a with complex cross-section, but few literature on the electrode-wear performance of electroformed copper electrode has been\\u000a available until today. To better select copper tool electrode

Ping Mei Ming; Di Zhu; Yong Bin Zeng; Yang Yang Hu

2010-01-01

98

Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

Hodges, Linda C.

1995-12-01

99

30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses and toilet facilities...from the clothes worn underground, to provide...

2009-07-01

100

30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses and toilet facilities...from the clothes worn underground, to provide...

2010-07-01

101

36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered...

2013-07-01

102

Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)|

Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

1973-01-01

103

Sunflower under conventional and organic farming systems : results from a long term experiment in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sunflower productivity under organic and conventional agricultural systems was studied between 2002 and 2004 in the frame of the MASCOT experiment (Mediterranean Arable Systems COmparison Trial), established in 2001. The aim was to compare organic and conventional management systems for a typical arable crop rotation of Central Italy in the long- term. Sunflower was cultivated as a part of

M. MAZZONCINI; P. BÀRBERI; P. BELLONI; D. CERRAI; D. ANTICHI

104

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

105

Effect of organics on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in laboratory experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of acetate, EDTA and natural organic compounds in groundwater at Drigg test site, on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand has been studied in a series of batch experiments. Removing 50% of the organic material from the groundwater with DEAE c...

G. Haigh G. M. Williams P. J. Hooker C. A. M. Ross M. R. Allen

1989-01-01

106

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

107

Effect of Early Bathing on Temperature of Normal Newborn Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nowadays there is a strong tendency for early bathing of healthy newborns but little is known about the ther- mal stability of newborns in response to early bathing. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal effect of bathing on healthy newborn within 1-2 h of life versus 4-6 h after birth. Methods: In this randomized comparative

P Alizadeh Taheri; H Fakhraee; K Sotoudeh

108

BATHING SOLUTION TONICITY AND POTASSIUM TRANSPORT BY THE MIDGUT OF THE TOBACCO HORNWORM MANDUCA SEXTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Potassium transport by the isolated midgut of Manduca larvae, as measured by the short circuit current, is inhibited by substitution of small organic solutes (M.W. < 340) for the sucrose normally included in bathing solution formulated for this tissue. Other solutes of molecular weight equal to or greater than sucrose are essentially as effective as sucrose in promoting the

DAVID F. MOFFETT

109

The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)|

Blackledge, Robert D.

1974-01-01

110

Examination of a Reaction Mechanism by Polarimetry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate Organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the use of polarimetry to determine a reaction mechanism is described. The experiment has been shown to be successful with chiral mandelic acid and POCl3 and with chiral lactic acid and HBr. The substitution mechanisms of these reactions proceed with 1% and 38% SN2 character respectively.

Michael D. Mosher; Chad O. Kelly; Melvyn W. Mosher

1996-01-01

111

Experience with an organ procurement organization-based non-directed living kidney donation programme.  

PubMed

The organ procurement organization (OPO)-based non-directed living kidney donation programme was developed to decrease wait times for kidney transplants, and to meet the community's desire for altruistic living donation. Community awareness was encouraged through information about non-directed living kidney donation on the state donor registry Web site, and through the media. The OPO received all inquiries and responded with phone calls, e-mails, printed information, medical/social history questionnaires, interviews, and referrals to the transplant centres. Kidneys were allocated according to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) wait list for the evaluating transplant centre. Between March 2002 and 23 September 2005, there were 608 inquiries to the OPO about non-directed living kidney donation. In 41 months, 20 transplants occurred with kidneys from non-directed donors. The donor registry and OPO-sponsored publicity led to 578 of the 608 inquiries and 15 of the 20 transplants. OPO screening saved transplant centre resources by ruling out 523 inquiries, referring 76 to transplant centres for complete evaluations. Optional donor/recipient meetings appeared to be beneficial to those participating. OPO-based non-directed living donor programmes can be effective and efficient. Standardization of evaluation, allocation, and follow-up will allow for better data collection and more widespread implementation. PMID:16842517

Mark, Paula J; Baker, Kristie; Aguayo, Cecile; Sorensen, John B

112

Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution  

SciTech Connect

Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs.

Smolen, G.R.

1987-01-01

113

Salt Bath Oxinitriding of Gray Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt bath oxinitriding is a duplex surface treatment developed to improve tribological and corrosion properties of ferrous materials. In this research, gray cast iron samples were nitrided at the temperature range of 480°C-580°C, and then oxidized in an oxidative salt bath. The phase composition of surface layer was identified by X-ray diffraction. Using a microhardness tester, hardness of nitrided gray cast iron was measured. Corrosion behavior of treated (nitrided and oxinitrided) samples was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization technique in 3.5% NaCl solution. XRD analyses indicate that the surface layer in nitrided and oxinitrided samples is composed of ?-iron nitride (Fe2-3N) and magnetite (Fe3O4), respectively. Results show that the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron can be improved up to 170%.

Ahmadi, M.; Teimouri, M.; Aliofkhazraee, M.; Mousavi Khoee, S. M.

114

Quantum diffusion in a fermionic bath.  

PubMed

We propose a scheme for quantum brownian motion of a particle in a fermionic bath. Based on the spin coherent-state representation of the noise operators and a canonical thermal distribution of the associated c numbers, we derive a quantum analog of generalized Langevin equation for quantum-mechanical mean position of the particle subjected to an external force field. The approach allows us to map the quantum problem on a classical setting. The quantum dispersion around the mean can be estimated order by order by a set of quantum correction equations up to a desired degree of accuracy for a given nonlinear potential. We derive a quantum diffusion equation for free particle and show that quantization, in general, enhances the mean-square displacement. Increase in temperature leads to suppression of mean-square displacement. The method is based on canonical quantization procedure and may be used for understanding diffusive transport and thermally activated processes in a fermionic bath. PMID:21230455

Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Mondal, Debasish; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Ray, Deb Shankar

2010-11-17

115

Quantum dynamics in classical thermal baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particular type of open quantum system dynamics is achieved by embedding a quantum system in a classical thermal bath. Such a bath can be represented in terms of the non-Hamiltonian evolution of few variables by means of the so-called Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat. The classical dynamics of the thermostat is integrated by means of time-reversible measure-preserving algorithms. In this work we show that the Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat, when applied to the dissipative evolution of a quantum spin, provides numerical results which agree with those obtained using Nosè-Hoover chains. However, since a fewer number of variables are needed to achieve the correct sampling of the canonical distribution at equilibrium, the Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat promises to be better suited for the simulation of low dimensional open quantum system on discrete grids.

Dlamini, Nkosinathi; Sergi, Alessandro

2013-11-01

116

Economical helium bath cryopump: design and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small UHV helium bath cryopump with low cryoliquid consumption has been designed, manufactured and tested. The cryopump is designed to keep UHV in electron optical devices without generation of disturbing electromagnetic fields or vibrations. The outer volume of its shell is 15l, the filling volumes of liquid helium (LHe) and liquid nitrogen (LN2) are 3.0l and 3.4l, respectively. Operating

V?ra Musilová; Jan Dupák; Pavel Hanzelka; Tomáš Král??k; Pavel Urban

2004-01-01

117

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

1999-01-01

118

Preparation of cationic cotton with two-bath pad-bake process and its application in salt-free dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cationic cotton was prepared by a designed two-bath pad-bake process with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride as cationizing reagent to realize recycle utilization of the reagent and continuous processing of cationization. Experiments showed that 8.0% (o.w.bath) of the reagent, 1:1 of molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to the reagent, 60°C and 6min of baking temperature and time were selected for cationization and the

Lili Wang; Wei Ma; Shufen Zhang; Xiaoxu Teng; Jinzong Yang

2009-01-01

119

Recent results from the SciBath detector at Fermilab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. The fiber readout allows SciBath to measure neutral particle fluxes by tracking the recoiling charged particles with uniform efficiency in all directions. Near 1 MeV, neutrons are detected with 30% efficiency and 30% energy resolution, and near 100 MeV, the efficiency is 10% with a 60% energy resolution. Recently, a series of measurements were conducted at Fermilab in order to measure neutron backgrounds. At the end of December, a measurement was completed 100 meters underground at the MINOS near-detector area. In support of a possible coherent neutrino scattering experiment, a second measurement was completed in April at the MI-12 target building for the Booster Neutrino Beam. The latest results from both of these measurements will be presented. In addition, an overview of detector performance, with a particular emphasis on the event topology reconstruction, will also be presented. These results can be extrapolated to future measurements of fast-neutron backgrounds at other underground facilities.

Cooper, R. L.; Garrison, L.; Rebenitsch, L.; Tayloe, R.; Thornton, R. T.

2012-10-01

120

The Official Roman Baths Museum Web Site in the City of Bath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are baths all over the world, and then there are the very unique baths in Bath, England. As the official site for these marvelous edifices proclaims, they are "the best preserved Roman religious spa from the ancient world." For first-time visitors, the best place to start is "The site today", which is a section that will take visitors around the different parts of this World Heritage Site. In the "Curator's Comments" area, visitors can read comments from Stephen Clews about the ongoing work being done at the site. The site also includes helpful sections on planning a visit and the various collections that are available for use by both the general public and scholars.

121

The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.  

PubMed

This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

1967-01-01

122

Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the CANDY model  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen DYnamics) is a simulation system based on long-term experiments of organic matter turnover and nitrogen dynamics at Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Key driving variables are soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information. The main application of the CANDY model is the calculation of short-term dynamics of nitrogen transformation and long-term dynamics of organic matter turnover in

U. Franko; G. J. Crocker; P. R. Grace; J. Klír; M. Körschens; P. R. Poulton; D. D. Richter

1997-01-01

123

Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group

Barbara A. Gaddis

2001-01-01

124

Seeking organic compounds on Mars : in situ analysis of organic compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry on MOMA experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of future Mars exploratory missions. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars mission (set to launch 2016-2018) is a joint venture by the European Space Agency and NASA to develop a sensitive detector for organics on Mars. MOMA will be one of the main analytical instruments aboard the ExoMars Rover aimed at characterizing possible “signs-of-life molecules” in the Martian environment such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With the aim to separate and detect organic compounds from Martian soil, the French MOMA team has built a gas chromatograph able to work in standalone mode by using a TCD detector. The gas chromatograph can also be coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer developed by the US MOMA team. Moreover, a GC-MS compatible sample processing system (SPS) allowing the extraction and the chemical transformation of the organic compounds from the soil, that fits within space flight conditions, has also been developed. The sample processing is performed in an oven, dedicated to the MOMA experiment containing the solid sample (50-100mg). The internal temperature of oven can be ranged from 20 to 1000 °C which allows for pyrolysis, thermochemolysis or derivatization. The organic extraction step is achieved by using thermodesorption in the range of 100 to 300°C for 0.5 to 5 min. Then, the chemical derivatization and/or thermochemolysis of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA-DMF, TMAH or DMF-DMA solution when enantiomeric separation is required. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows for their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the volatile target molecules are trapped in a cold chemical trap and promptly desorbed into the gas chromatograph coupled to the mass spectrometer. Preliminary tests, performed on several analogue soils such as Atacama soil, with the MOMA SPS-GC/MS experiment demonstrated the capability to detect organic compounds such as amino and carboxylic acids with sensitivities below the ppm level.

Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Pinnick, V.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Rodier, C.; Garnier, C.; Steininger, H.; Moma Team

2010-12-01

125

Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group performed all hands-on experiments. Students in the treatment group performed hands-on experiments for the first and last part of the semester but performed computer simulations for a five-week period in the middle of the semester. Prior to treatment, groups were equivalent with respect to academic orientation, motivation, formal reasoning ability, and spatial visualization ability. Fifteen common misconceptions held by beginning organic chemistry students were identified from the Covalent Bonding and Structures Test. At the end of the semester, thirteen of these misconceptions persisted. Molecular geometry was the only category of misconceptions that significantly improved as a result of computer simulations, F(1,58) = 6.309, p = .015. No significant differential change was observed in misconceptions about bond polarity, molecular polarity, intermolecular forces, lattice structures, or the octet rule. Computer simulations were found to result in significantly greater conceptual understanding of organic chemistry reactions on two of the experiments, Stereochemistry, F(1,55) = 6.174, p = .016, and Nucleophilic Substitution, F(1,57) = 6.093, p = .017. The other three experiments, Infrared Spectroscopy, Elimination, and Oxymercuration, did not show a significant differential effect between types of laboratory experiences. No significant differences were observed on long-term retention of concepts. Overall conclusions from the study are that neither computer simulations nor hands-on laboratory experiments are effective in alleviating misconceptions, but that computer simulations can significantly improve conceptual understanding of organic reaction mechanisms.

Gaddis, Barbara A.

2001-12-01

126

Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

Bierman, S.R.

1986-12-01

127

Attracting RNs to nursing homes: nurses' work experience and perceived importance of organization and job attributes.  

PubMed

Applicant attraction theories stipulate that employment inducements be customized to meet the desires and specific characteristics of potential applicants. This study examined the relationship between nurses' level of work experience and perceived importance of organization and job attributes in attracting them to nursing home jobs. Importance ratings of recruitment factors varied significantly by nurses' level of work experience. Unique variation was attributed to education opportunities, potential for career advancement, compensation issues, benefits, and work flexibility. PMID:9543923

Proenca, E J; Shewchuk, R M

128

The Holburne Museum of Art, Bath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At present, the only way you can visit the Holburne Museum of Art in Bath is online, since they have closed for refurbishing till 2010. You can read about the plans for the improvements and check out floor plans and the development schedule from a link on the homepage. Visitors will be able to check out the history of the museum's beginnings, the highlights of the fine art and decorative art collections, or search through the collection. Users may also view the museum's exhibitions, learn more about workshops, school programs and more.

129

Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These "Classical Field Experiments" included studies on winter wheat (Broadbalk 1843), spring barley (Hoos Barley 1852) and permanent grassland (Park Grass 1856). Additional experiments were established in the 20th century to examine the value of ley-arable cropping, including the Highfield and Fosters Ley-arable experiments (1948) and the Woburn Ley-arable experiment (1938). More recently, the effects of incorporating organic manures and cereal straw have been examined. Early results quickly showed the benefits of inorganic N and P fertilisers on crop production, but the effects of contrasting land uses and management practices on soil properties emerged more slowly. Measurements of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soils taken at intervals from the long-term experiments indicate that the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation is controlled largely by the balance between the rate of organic matter inputs and its oxidation rate, and that these are strongly influenced by land use and management, soil texture (especially clay content) and climate. A recent examination of soil organic C data from two long-term grassland experiments in the UK (including Park Grass) indicates that any changes observed in soil organic C under long-term grasslands over the past 40 years are more likely to be due to changes in land use and management rather than climate change. Data from the Rothamsted Long-term experiments have been used to develop and test biogeochemical models of C and N dynamics. In particular, the Roth-C model has successfully simulated soil C dynamics in the long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere. This model uses several organic matter pools, including decomposable and resistant plant material, soil microbial biomass, humified organic matter and inert organic matter and was one of the 31 models included in the GCTE SOMNET network. The Rothamsted Long-term Experiments together with their archived samples and data have proven especially useful for examining the impact of land use and management on soil organic matter dynamics. They continue to yield important information and are an increasingly valuable experimental resource for today's scientists. Whilst their future long-term uses cannot be predicted, provided they are well maintained, the application of new scientific techniques to examine both fresh and archived samples will continue to provide information of environmental and ecological significance to future generations. Rothamsted Research receives grant-aided support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and additional support from the Lawes Agricultural Trust. Presentation of this work forms part of the ANAEE EC design study (www.anaee.com).

MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.

2009-04-01

130

In-situ SERS experiments during the electrodeposition of gold in the presence of benzyldimethylphenylammonium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen incorporation is one of the main problems encountered in electroforming and electroplating processes and can result in serious material embrittlement. Use of organic additives has been shown to reduce hydrogen incorporation efficiently in electrodeposition of gold from neutral cyano–aurate baths. We report the results of: (i) in-situ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy experiments; supported by (ii) electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry,

A Fanigliulo; B Bozzini

2002-01-01

131

Studies of platinum electroplating baths Part I: The chemistry of a platinum tetrammine bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of a new commercial electroplating bath for platinum, based on a Pt(NH3)42+ salt in a phosphate buffer, is investigated using195Pt NMR and microelectrode techniques. It is shown that the maximum rate of deposition is determined by a homogeneous chemical reaction preceding the electron transfer step; the nature of this homogeneous chemical reaction is discussed.

R. Le Penven; W. Levason; D. Pletcher

1992-01-01

132

Non-Markovian harmonic bath model for molecular systems: Influence of the bath spectral density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quantum mechanical simulations of the electronic excitation dynamics in molecular complexes, like natural or artificial light-harvesting complexes, often open quantum system descriptions are applied, to treat a large number of degrees of freedom involved. A popular approach is then, to include only the electronic degrees of freedom into the system part and to couple them to a non-Markovian bath of harmonic vibrational modes. The coupling to the bath, representing intra-molecular as well as external vibrations, is usually described via the bath spectral density, which therefore is an important ingredient in this approach. Here, we discuss different aspects of the influence of the bath spectral density on dynamics and optical spectra. In particular, we consider structured spectral densities, consisting of multiple broadened peaks. It is often assumed that the strong coupling to an intra-molecular vibrational mode, which is damped by coupling to other vibrational modes, is described reasonably by such a broadened peak in the spectral density. Here we demonstrate that this interpretation should be used with caution, because the damping of the mode differs from the model for an intra-molecular mode that one would usually apply when including the mode directly in the system part.

Roden, Jan; Eisfeld, Alexander; Whaley, K. Birgitta

2012-02-01

133

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.|

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

134

Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

2010-01-01

135

The Photochemical Synthesis, Kinetics, and Reactions of Nitrosomethane Dimer: A Physical-Organic Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information procedures, and results for the photochemical synthesis and reactions of nitrosomethane dimer. The experiments described have shown a high degree of reliability with student use and are suggested to illustrate some problems of physical and organic photochemistry. (Author/JN)

Kozubek, H.; And Others

1982-01-01

136

Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

2006-01-01

137

Consumption choices concerning the genetically engineered, organically grown, and traditionally grown foods: An experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While debate over the new agricultural biotechnology has been relatively muted, food may come under increased scrutiny when consumers confront new products. The American public may demand regulations such as labeling. To test the influence of defining\\/labeling products, an experiment gave subjects choices between organically and traditionally grown or between genetically engineered and traditionally grown food for lunch. Logistic regression

Patrick Stewart

2000-01-01

138

Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008), which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass

L. Hildebrandt; G. J. Engelhart; C. Mohr; E. Kostenidou; V. A. Lanz; A. Bougiatioti; P. F. Decarlo; A. S. H. Prevot; U. Baltensperger; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

2010-01-01

139

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

140

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

141

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

142

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.|

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

143

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

144

Cognettia sphagnetorum (Enchytraeidae) and nutrient cycling in organic soils: a microcosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm experiment was carried out to investigate the role of enchytraeids in nitrogen and phosphorus mineralisation in an organic grassland soil. Soil cores were taken from a cambic stagnohumic gley with associated vegetation in the Moor House National Nature Reserve (UK), defaunated, separated into 3cm layers and inoculated with Cognettia sphagnetorum (Vejdovsky) in microcosms, maintained at 15°C in the

M. J. I. Briones; J. Carreira; P. Ineson

1998-01-01

145

Tsallis power laws and finite baths with negative heat capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is often stated that heat baths with finite degrees of freedom i.e., finite baths, are sources of Tsallis distributions for classical Hamiltonian systems. By using well-known fundamental statistical mechanics expressions, we rigorously show that Tsallis distributions with fat tails are possible only for finite baths with constant negative heat capacity, while constant positive heat capacity finite baths yield decays with sharp cutoff with no fat tails. However, the correspondence between Tsallis distributions and finite baths holds at the expense of violating the equipartition theorem for finite classical systems at equilibrium. We comment on the implications of the finite bath for the recent attempts towards a q-generalized central limit theorem.

Bagci, G. Baris; Oikonomou, Thomas

2013-10-01

146

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

DOEpatents

A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

1992-05-12

147

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

SciTech Connect

A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

1992-01-01

148

Cavity-assisted quantum bath engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In practice, quantum systems are never completely isolated, but instead interact with degrees of freedom in the surrounding environment, eventually leading to decoherence. Precision measurement techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and interferometry, as well as envisioned quantum schemes for computation, simulation, and data encryption, rely on the ability to prepare and preserve delicate quantum superpositions and entanglement. The conventional route to long-lived quantum coherence involves minimizing coupling to a dissipative bath. Paradoxically, it is possible to instead engineer specific couplings to a quantum environment that allow dissipation to actually preserve coherence. I will discuss our recent demonstration of quantum bath engineering for a superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the qubit to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases the state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature. We envision that future multi-qubit implementations could enable the preparation of entangled many-body states suitable for quantum simulation and computation.

Murch, Kater

2013-03-01

149

Delaying the Bath and In-Hospital Breastfeeding Rates.  

PubMed

Abstract Background and Objective: Until 2010, newborns at our institution were bathed in the nursery at approximately 2 hours of life. In May 2010, infant baths were delayed until at least 12 hours of life. Infants are now bathed in the hospital room with parents' participation and are placed skin-to-skin immediately after the bath. This study explored whether delaying the newborn's first bath correlates with increased in-hospital breastfeeding rates at our Baby-Friendly, urban safety-net hospital. Subjects and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review comparing in-hospital breastfeeding rates during the 6 months before and the 6 months after the bath was delayed. Results: Of the infants, 702 met inclusion criteria. Before the bath was delayed, infants were bathed at an average of 2.4 hours of life. Afterward, infants were bathed at an average of 13.5 hours of life. In-hospital exclusive breastfeeding rates increased from 32.7% to 40.2% (p<0.05) after the bath was delayed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that infants born after implementation of delayed bathing had odds of exclusive breastfeeding 39% greater than infants born prior to the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.91) and 59% greater odds of near-exclusive breastfeeding (AOR=1.59; 95% CI 1.18, 2.15). The odds of breastfeeding initiation were 166% greater for infants born after the intervention than for infants born before the intervention (AOR=2.66; 95% CI 1.29, 5.46). Conclusions: In our cohort, a delayed newborn bath was associated with increased likelihood of breastfeeding initiation and with increased in-hospital breastfeeding rates. PMID:23635002

Preer, Genevieve; Pisegna, Jessica M; Cook, John T; Henri, Anne-Marie; Philipp, Barbara L

2013-05-01

150

Resources at the Grassroots of Recreation: Organizational Capacity and Quality of Experience in a Community Sport Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassroots recreation organizations are volunteer-run informal organizations that deliver sport and recreation at the local level. Using a qualitative case study approach, this study examined how the quality of experience in one community sport organization was affected by organizational capacity, or the ability of the organization to mobilize financial, human, and structural capital to fulfill its mission. While the volunteers

Erin K. Sharpe

2006-01-01

151

An assessment of the impact of the proposed EU bathing water directive on Irish coastal bathing area compliance.  

PubMed

An assessment of the impact of the new microbial water quality standards of the proposed EU Bathing Water Directive on the classification of designated Irish coastal bathing areas is presented. The new standards are applied retrospectively to the microbial water quality results for the bathing seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001, and the outcome is compared with that recorded under the present Bathing Water Directive. A Microsoft EXCEL application was developed to generate the retrospective bathing area classifications according to the proposed Directive (Excellent, Good, Poor). It was found that the number of Irish coastal bathing areas not attaining 'Excellent' classification (as would be required at present for the Blue Flag award) was trebled; the number attaining 'Good' classification was increased by about 50%, and the number attracting 'Poor' classification (equivalent to 'Fail' under the present Directive) was increased nine-fold. Some of the shortcomings of the proposed Directive and suggestions for its revision are discussed. PMID:15850194

Chawla, R; Real, K; Masterson, B

2005-01-01

152

Dynamics of a two-level system under the simultaneous influence of a spin bath and a boson bath.  

PubMed

We study dynamics of a two-level system coupled simultaneously to a pair of dissimilar reservoirs, namely, a spin bath and a boson bath, which are connected via finite interbath coupling. It is found that the steady-state population transfer in the two-level system increases with its coupling to the spin bath, while optimal transfer occurs at intermediate coupling in the transient process. If the two-level system is strongly coupled to the spin bath, the population transfer is unidirectional barring minor population oscillations of minute amplitudes. If the spin bath is viewed as an atomic ensemble, robust generation of macroscopic superposition states exists against parameter variations of the two-level system and the boson bath. PMID:23927254

Wu, Ning; Zhao, Yang

2013-08-01

153

Convective organizing and upscale development processes explored through idealized numerical experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convective systems over many parts of the globe organize into similar complexes with a common evolution. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into basic fundamental processes responsible for convection organizing into large clusters such as Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) and to find a dynamically meaningful distinction between MCC-like clusters and other deep convection. These matters are investigated through idealized numerical experiments using a cloud- resolving, nonhydrostatic model. Modeling issues involving convective initiation and heterogeneous nonuniformly sheared base states with Coriolis effect are addressed. The hypothesis of organization and growth by mesoscale shear instability was studied with dry experiments and explicit cloud microphysics in a linearly unstable vertical shear profile. The shear instability was not manifested. Instead, the dry box experiments gave Rayleigh rolls and the moist experiment resulted in a heavy-raining convective system organized by short gravity waves, the cold dome, and a mesoscale crossover downdraft. The mesoscale downdraft occurred beneath patches of negative potential vorticity (PV), suggesting importance of the PV signature in mesoscale organization. The PV signature and mesoscale circulations as a response to thermal forcing were studied in more detail through dry, initially barotropic experiments with specified, spatially fixed heating distributions and with heating proportional to vertical motion. Particular attention was given to warm core vortex structures resembling those other investigators found associated with MCCs and serving as seeds for tropical cyclones. Warm core vortices were produced in many of the experiments through a variety of mechanisms. Some interesting scenarios producing mesoscale vortices were a layer of cooling resembling melting from an MCC anvil, a line of deep heating, and favorably arranged cloud-scale heating centers. Heating inside a pre-existing warm core vortex favored intensification due to radial (horizontal) vorticity contributions to PV generation. The experiments provide an interesting basis for discussing balance or lack of it and the adjustment process for mesoscale disturbances. Thin, slow internal waves can reduce the Rossby radius to the vortex scale. This research suggests that production or organization around a rotationally balanced mesovortex is the dynamically distinguishing factor of MCC-like systems.

Jascourt, Stephen D.

154

Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25?C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an intermediate product of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the formation of a specific clay mineral (proto-kaolinite) occurs in the presence of a specific organic compound (succinic acid). This implies that microbial species capable of excreting succinate among their EPS may promote authigenic kaolinite formation at low temperature and neutral pH. This biological degradation process might play a crucial role for the formation of authigenic kaolinite, which is a widespread clay mineral in sedimentary environments. Fiore, S., Dumontet, S., Huertas, F.J., and Pasquale, V., 2011. Bacteria-induced crystallization of kaolinite. Applied Clay Science, 53:566-571. Linares, J., and Huertas, F., 1971. Kaolinite: Synthesis at room temperature. Science 171: 896-897.

Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

2012-04-01

155

The experiment BOSS on EXPOSE R-2, Mission Preparation Tests for Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the experiment BOSS the hypothesis will be tested if the biofilm form of life with microorganisms embedded and aggregated in their EPS matrix is suited to support long-term survival of microorganisms under the harsh environmental conditions as they exist in space and on Mars and is superior to the same bacteria in the form of planktonic cultures. An additional protective role may be provided by particles associated in biofilms which may shield the organisms against radiation. The experiment will be flown on EXPOSE R-2 attached outside of the ISS on the Russian module. The experiment has participated at the Experiment verification tests and a Science verification test which have been carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities at DLR. The launch is scheduled for end of 2013.

Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Bauermeister, A.; Barczyk, S.; Billi, D.; Cockell, Ch.; Flemming, H. C.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Venkateswaran, K.

2012-09-01

156

Substituting water for chlorofluorocarbon liquid in density measuring baths for nuclear weapon components on non-fissile alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was part of a Rocky Flats Plant and Department of Energy weapons complex effort to reduce release of hazardous materials to the atmosphere. Experiments were performed to determine whether deionized water could be substituted for trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113) in the bath of a density measuring system. In the first experiment, 14 parts of seven types were tested: They

S. Beitscher; A. D. Palachek

1991-01-01

157

Convenient thermal\\/vapor barrier for constant temperature water bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a simple scheme to install an effective thermal\\/vapor barrier for precision temperature baths. We have found that by floating on the water surface, a pile of common packing material such as styrofoam pellets fused together by a solvent spray, a ten-fold reduction in the bath temperature fluctuation can be achieved.

John S. Huang; Mahn Won Kim

1980-01-01

158

Convenient thermal/vapor barrier for constant temperature water bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a simple scheme to install an effective thermal/vapor barrier for precision temperature baths. We have found that by floating on the water surface, a pile of common packing material such as styrofoam pellets fused together by a solvent spray, a ten-fold reduction in the bath temperature fluctuation can be achieved.

Huang, John S.; Kim, Mahn Won

1980-06-01

159

Ettringite formation in historic bath brick–lime plasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of historic hydraulic brick–lime plasters from a selected Ottoman bath are examined to characterize their technology and the appropriateness of their use in bath. The first type of plaster is original and structurally sound, while the historic repair plaster is the second type and is found to have deteriorated despite being exposed to the same environment. This difference

Hasan Böke; Sedat Akkurt

2003-01-01

160

Bathing water signage and predictive water quality models in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) has developed, and runs, real-time bathing water quality predictions at ten sites throughout Scotland since 2004. Daily bathing water quality predictions are posted on electronic variable message signs at 10 beach locations networked to a central communication centre and updates are simultaneously made on the SEPA website, phone and text message service.Antecedent rainfall and

Calum D. McPhail; Ruth T. Stidson

2009-01-01

161

Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

Baum, Rudy

1982-01-01

162

[Construction hygiene in the area of bathing and recreation].  

PubMed

Construction hygiene in the bathing and recreation areas underwent many changes during the decades. In each case it was accomplished very intensively and defined by the actual needs of the population or by those responsible for the population. With regard to the development of bathing since the Romans, the bathing habits of the Roman times, during the Middle Ages, at the 18th century, at the beginning of the 19th century and of today are characterized broadly. The respective constructional as well as the hygienic measures are also shown and discussed in this context. Whereas the Roman thermals created prerequisites for physical activity as well as possibilities for spare time, and in the early Middle Ages, sexual excesses and the risk factors connected thereby led to the transfer of infectious diseases and consequently to the elimination of the public baths. At the beginning of the 18th century first the cleaning of the body and at the beginning of the 20th century physical activity became very important. With the help of the construction plans for baths and shower-baths and swimming pools of 1906 the aims and purposes of the baths are discussed and the respective constructional changes are shown the example of warm water baths (swimming pools) in Hamburg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1392278

Sonntag, H G

1992-08-01

163

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

164

Recovery of spent electroless nickel plating bath by electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of spent electroless nickel plating (EN) bath decreases the drainage of waste water and saves resources. During the treatment of spent EN bath by electrodialysis, the removals of harmful components, such as phosphite, sulfate and sodium ions, were significant, meanwhile the reduction rates of useful components, for example, hypophosphite and nickel ions, were slow, which was beneficial to the

C. L. Li; H. X. Zhao; T. Tsuru; D. Zhou; M. Matsumura

1999-01-01

165

Bathing waters: New directive, new standards, new quality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bathing water quality is an important public health issue, mainly because of fecal contamination. In 2006, the European Commission (EC) adopted a new directive with respect to recreational bathing waters that calls for stricter standards and reduces the number of laboratory tests done in routine beach monitoring from nineteen to two bacterial indicators, namely, Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci, replacing

Catarina R. Mansilha; Carla A. Coelho; Ana M. Heitor; João Amado; Joaquim P. Martins; Paula Gameiro

2009-01-01

166

Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect

A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

2010-12-07

167

Molten Salt Bath Heating of Uranium and Its Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fabrication of uranium and its alloys, the workpiece is commonly preheated and postheated in a molten salt bath. In this report, past and present uranium salt bath technology is reviewed and critiqued. This critical review points out two distinct f...

R. J. Jackson

1989-01-01

168

Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

1994-01-01

169

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4\\/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated

Juexin Xie; Xingming Wang; Guoying Sheng; Xinhui Bi; Jiamo Fu

2003-01-01

170

Insights Into Atmospheric Aqueous Organic Chemistry Through Controlled Experiments with Cloud Water Surrogates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable laboratory and field-based evidence that chemical processing in clouds and wet aerosols alters organic composition and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Single-compound laboratory experiments have played an important role in developing aqueous-phase chemical mechanisms that aid prediction of SOA formation through multiphase chemistry. In this work we conduct similar experiments with cloud/fog water surrogates, to 1) evaluate to what extent the previously studied chemistry is observed in these more realistic atmospheric waters, and 2) to identify additional atmospherically-relevant precursors and products that require further study. We used filtered Camden and Pinelands, NJ rainwater as a surrogate for cloud water. OH radical (~10-12 M) was formed by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and samples were analyzed in real-time by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Discrete samples were also analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and ESI-MS after IC separation. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Standards of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde and their major aqueous oxidation products were also analyzed, and control experiments performed. Decreases in the ion abundance of many positive mode compounds and increases in the ion abundance of many negative mode compounds (e.g., organic acids) suggest that precursors are predominantly aldehydes, organic peroxides and/or alcohols. Real-time ESI mass spectra were consistent with the expected loss of methylglyoxal and subsequent formation of pyruvate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. New insights regarding other potential precursors and products will be provided.

Turpin, B. J.; Ramos, A.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Seitzinger, S.

2011-12-01

171

Naphthalene sorption to organic soil materials studied with continuous stirred flow experiments  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of sorption-desorption kinetics of hydrophobic contaminants in soils and sediments is a prerequisite for assessing the risk of hazardous compounds and for studying the feasibility of bioremediation treatments. Naphthalene sorption studies were carried out with four organic soil materials, using a batch sorption technique and a continuously stirred flow (CSF) cell. Reproducibility of the CSF experiments were tested, and an experiment with different inputs showed that experimental results were independent of input pulse length. Single-particle and multi-particle linear driving force models and bicontinuum models were tested. When the sorption coefficient K{sub om} was fixed at the values obtained from the batch experiments, the RMSE modeling error increased with increasing N{sub 2} surface area, S{sub N2}, of the soil materials. The high RMSE for soil materials with a high N{sub 2} surface area was the result of strong sorption-desorption non-singularity, most probably due to a larger fraction of the applied naphthalene diffusing to slow sorption sites. A dual resistance sorption model was able to accurately describe the data with two free parameters. However, parameter uncertainty resulted from the simultaneous optimization of the rate parameter, {alpha}, and K{sub om}. The combination of batch sorption experiments, input-response experiments, and model exercises give supporting evidence that sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds to soil OM are controlled by (i) rapid pore diffusion toward S{sub N2} ({alpha} = 0.1 h{sup {minus}1}) and (ii) slow diffusion into the soil organic matter structure ({alpha} = 0.01--0.001 h{sup {minus}1}).

Jonge, H. de [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark). Dept. of Crop Physiology and Soil Science; Heimovaara, T.J.; Verstraten, J.M. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography and Soil Science

1999-03-01

172

Analytical study of criticality experiments of organic and light-water-moderated mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a joint criticality data development program between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. of Japan and the US Dept. of Energy, critical experiments have been conducted with organically moderated fast test reactor (FTR) mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays. The neutronic characteristics of an organic moderator can be examined by comparing the results of these experiments with

N. Aihara; N. Fukumura; H. Kadotani; T. Koyama; M. J. Haire

1987-01-01

173

Interim Survey Report: Recommendations for Ergonomics Interventions for Ship Construction Processes at Bath Iron Works Corporation Shipyard, Bath Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pre-intervention quantitative risk factor analysis was performed at various shops and locations at Bath Iron Works shipyard in Bath, Maine as a method to identify and quantify risk factors that workers may be exposed to in the course of their normal wor...

S. D. Hudock S. J. Wurzelbacher K. Siegfried

2000-01-01

174

Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia aerosol measurement experiment-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008), which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with time of day, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm-3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Kostenidou, E.; Lanz, V. A.; Bougiatioti, A.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

2010-01-01

175

Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008), which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm-3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Kostenidou, E.; Lanz, V. A.; Bougiatioti, A.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

2010-05-01

176

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2009-07-01

177

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2012-07-01

178

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2010-07-01

179

A practice-based culminating experience: Writing a HRSA grant application with Texas Organ Sharing Alliance for public education efforts to increase solid organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2010, nearly 110,000 people in the United States were waiting for organs for transplantation. Despite the fact that the organ donor registration rate has doubled in the last year, Texas has the lowest registration rate in the nation. Due to the need for improved registration rates in Texas, this practice-based culminating experience was to write an application for

Wendy Jean Manuel

2011-01-01

180

Teaching Catalytic Antibodies to Undergraduate Students: An Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only 13 years ago, few believed that antibodies could be catalytic or that any protein could be made to order to perform a catalytic task. The field has quickly matured from initial proof of concept and demonstration of fundamental enzyme-like characteristics to one in which antibodies have catalyzed an extremely broad range of organic transformations. Now that the first catalytic antibody is commercially available, it is possible to bring these novel biocatalysts into the classroom so every student can gain hands-on experience and carry out experiments on the cutting edge of scientific discovery. This lab project deals with antibody-catalyzed aldol condensations. It includes the (i) synthesis of substrate and product; (ii) HPLC characterization of the antibody-catalyzed reaction; (iii) titration of the antibody active-site; and (iv) analysis of the kinetics of the antibody-catalyzed reaction. The lab project provides training not only in biocatalysis but in a number of related aspects of chemical and biochemical research, including organic synthesis, mechanistic organic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Students will learn the use of various experimental techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC, to monitor chemical reactions and determine kinetic parameters. They will be exposed to concepts and terminology of bioorganic chemistry, such as protein structure and function, inhibition and active-site titration, and basic principles of biocatalysis.

Shulman, Avidor; Keinan, Ehud; Shabat, Doron; Barbas, Carlos F., III

1999-07-01

181

Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.  

PubMed

One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials. PMID:18681201

Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

2006-01-01

182

Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by

J. Michelle Kotler; Pascale Ehrenfruend; Oliver Botta; Jurgen Blum; Rainer Schrapler; Joost van Dongen; Anja Palmans; Mark A. Sephton; Zita Martins; Henderson J. Cleaves; Antonio Ricco

2010-01-01

183

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic assessment of tetrachlorethylene in groundwater for a bathing and showering determination  

SciTech Connect

A two-step methodology is described to make a health-based determination for the bathing and showering use of the water from a private well contiminated with volatile organic chemicals. The chemical perchloroethylene (PERC) is utilized to illustrate the approach. First, a chemical-specific exposure model is used to predict the concentration of PERC in the shower air, shower water, and in the air above the bathtub. Second, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is used to predict the concentration of PERC delivered to the target tissue, the brain, since the focus is on neurological endpoints. The simulation exercise includes concurrent dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. A reference target tissue level (RTTL) in the brain is estimated using the PBPK model. A hazard index based on this benchmark guideline is used to make a regulatory determination for bathing and showering use of the contaminated water.

Rao, H.V.; Brown, D.R. (Connecticut Dept. of Health Services, Hartford (United States))

1993-02-01

184

Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. PMID:10098779

Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

1999-02-01

185

Methodology to elaborate the bathing water profile on urban beaches, according to the requirements of the European Directive 2006/7/EC: the case of Santander beaches (Spain).  

PubMed

The approval of the current Bathing Water Directive (Directive 2006/7/EC) set the necessity to define the bathing water profile. The goals established in the definition of the profile are: (i) to know the processes that determine the concentration of bacteriological indicators in the aquatic environment, (ii) to obtain relationships between the cause of pollution and its effects, and (iii) to evaluate the fulfilment of the Directive and to set the Quality Monitoring and Assessment Program, according to the bacteriological characteristics of the bathing water. In this paper an approach to elaborate the bathing water profile and its application to several bathing waters located in Santander municipality (North Spain) is shown. The methodology involves the assessment of advection, diffusion and reaction processes of bacteriological organisms in the aquatic environment by using mathematical models and the selection of an indicator to evaluate the probability to exceed the bacteriological concentrations established in Directive 2006/7/EC, which is useful for the 'source apportionment' assessment. In the definition of the bathing water profile we have considered the sanitation system operating under normal conditions, which includes storm water overflows, uncontrolled discharges and the discharge produced when the pumping system of the wastewater breaks. Finally, according to the bacteriological characteristics of the bathing water it is necessary to develop the Quality Monitoring and Assessment, which has been done taking into account the requirements established in Directive 2006/7/EC and the uncertainties detected in such a method regarding the number of samples to be considered. PMID:24037154

López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

2013-01-01

186

Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

187

Interior view of servant's bath showing original lavatory and toilet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of servant's bath showing original lavatory and toilet, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

188

Interior vie of bath 2 showing original toilet, tub, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior vie of bath 2 showing original toilet, tub, and plumbing wall cabinet, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

189

1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

190

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

191

21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products....

2011-04-01

192

Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

193

Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors and attic scuttle, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

194

Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

195

Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

196

36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed...

2013-07-01

197

36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

2013-07-01

198

Mechanical Properties of Electroplated Nickel Rings for Bath Aging Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydraulic burst tests were performed on electroplated nickel rings as part of a bath aging study. Ring tensile properties were measured. An invalid failure mechanism was observed for rings having a significant gradient in wall thickness over the height. F...

P. M. Heffley

1979-01-01

199

The effect of salt bath cementation on mechanical behavior of hot-rolled and cold-drawn SAE 8620 and 16MnCr5 steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of salt bath cementation on mechanical behavior of SAE 8620 and 16MnCr5 cementation steels, which are widely used in industry, was investigated. The experiments were carried out with hot rolled and cold rolled specimens. The cementation processes were performed in NaCN salt bath at 920 °C temperature for 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Abrasive wear tests

?lyas Ye?en; Metin Usta

2010-01-01

200

Nature of anode passivation in Zn–Ni electroplating baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of zinc anodes in two zinc-nickel electroplating baths (ammonium-containing and ammonium-free) was studied by recording changes in the anode potential and by analyzing the surface films formed at open-circuit and anodic polarization. The surface films were analyzed using XRD, SEM and XPS. The two baths gave films of similar composition but there were differences in their thickness and

A. B Velichenko; J Portillo; X Alcobé; M Sarret; C Müller

2000-01-01

201

Anomalous codeposition of Co–Ni: alloys from gluconate baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of cobalt–nickel alloys were galvanostatically deposited onto steel substrates from gluconate baths. Cathodic polarization\\u000a curves were determined for the parent metals and Co–Ni alloy. The effects of bath composition, current density and temperature\\u000a on cathodic current efficiency (CCE) and alloy composition were studied. The deposition of Co–Ni alloy is of anomalous type,\\u000a in which the less noble metal

M. M. Kamel

2007-01-01

202

Effects of ultrasonic bath treatment on HMX crystals  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic cleaning baths, common in many chemical laboratories, have been used to disperse particle agglomerates prior to automated particle size analysis and have been proposed for disassembly of consolidated powders of crystalline HMX (cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine). This paper reports the effects of a Branson ultrasonic bath on coarse HMX crystals. Three experimental approaches are presented. The following observed effects are discussed: reduction of particle size, alteration of particle morphology, and fracture of individual crystals.

Skidmore, C.B.

1996-12-31

203

ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH RECOVERY BY CATION EXCHANGE AND PRECIPITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method has been discovered to remove accumulated phosphite, sodium, and sulfate from spent electroless nickel plating baths without significant loss of plating reagents or discharge of hazardous chemicals to the environment. A hydrogen-form, strongly-acidic cation resin sorbs sodium and nickel from spent baths to produce effluent containing hypophosphorous, phosphorous, lactic, sulfuric acids, and anti-pit wetting agent. Treatment of

R. W. Anderson; W. A. Neff

204

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W. G.

205

Control of precious-metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis is included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1983-07-01

206

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic ''how to'' approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1986-01-01

207

Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

1999-01-01

208

Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect

A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, {sup 30}NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and reflected light microscopy. Based on these measurements, it was possible to recognize three distinct temperature regimes, within which the type and amount of sulfur in the analyzed fractions underwent transformations: (1) between 150 and 225C significant proportion of kerogen-bound sulfur is lost probably due to the collapse of polysulfide bridges; (2) between 225 and 275C, cleavage of -S-S- and -S-C- linkages within the kerogen is believed to occur, resulting in substantial production of polar sulfur-rich bitumen; (3) above 275C total bitumen yields as well as the proportion of bitumen sulfur decrease, while C-C bond scission leads to increased yields of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The results from this study clearly and quantitatively establish a link between organically-bound sulfur, and more specifically, organic polysulfides, and the low-temperature evolution of soluble petroleum-like products (bitumen) from sulfur-rich source rocks.

Nelson, B.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Seewald, J.S. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry; Vairavamurthy, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Miknis, F.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1995-04-01

209

Kerr black hole in equilibrium with a rotating heat bath  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium and stability of a rotating black hole in a finite heat bath is discussed. An axisymmetric box of radiation in thermal equilibrium rotates rigidly, and some radiation slumps towards the outer wall. When such a heat bath is in equilibrium with a black hole, the temperatures and angular velocities of the hole and the bath are equal. The situation in which the heat bath is in a cylindrical box much larger than the hole, and contains only massless modes, is particularly simple and may be examined in detail. A sufficient condition for the stability of the equilibrium can be derived, analogous to the stability condition derived by Davies and by Gibbons and Perry for the nonrotating case. Depending on the total energy {ital E}, total angular momentum {ital J}, and radius {ital R} of the heat bath, the system at equilibrium may be in one of three thermodynamic regimes: a radiation-only state, a state dominated by a black hole, or a transition state in which both the black hole and the heat bath contain significant energy, angular momentum, and entropy.

Schumacher, B. (Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States)); Miller, W.A.; Zurek, W.H. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1992-08-15

210

Column experiment to study isotope fractionation of volatile organic contaminants in porous media under unsaturated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents is common in industrialized countries. The use of stable isotope analysis is increasingly recognized as a powerful technique for investigating the behaviour of organic or inorganic contaminants. Recently, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven to be an effective tool to confirm and quantify in-situ biodegradation by indigenous microbial populations in groundwater.In contrast, only few studies have investigated the use of CSIA in the unsaturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the main potential applications of CSIA include the assessment of biodegradation and the fingerprinting of different sources of petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvents vapours. However, it has to be taken into account that isotope ratios in the unsaturated zone can vary due to diffusion and volatilization in addition to biodegradation. For application of isotope methods in the unsaturated zone, it is crucial to quantify isotopic fractionation resulting from physico-chemical and transport processes. The study is focused on laboratory experiments that investigate the effect of vaporization and diffusion on isotope ratios. The effect of diffusion is carried out using a column experiment setup that can be considered to represent VOC transport from a floating NAPL towards the atmosphere. Furthermore, additional column and batch experiments will be conducted to better understand the effect of biodegradation. Volatilization is studied with an other experimental setup. In addition, a mathematical framework was developed to simulate the isotope evolution in the column study. Since the initial experiments aimed at investigating the effect of vaporization and diffusion only, the column is filled with dry quartz sand in order to avoid perturbations of concentration profiles by humidity or adsorption on organic matter. An activated sand will later be used for the biodegradation experiments. A mixture of nine contaminants (pentane, MTBE, hexane, benzene, isooctane, methylcyclohexane, toluene, octane and xylene) that represents a wide range of hydrocarbons is emplaced in the column. Periodical measurements of concentrations and ?13C values were carried out in the source chamber and at different distances along the column. A depletion of 13C with distance is observed, which is due to faster diffusion of substances enriched in 12C. The shift of ?13C values towards more negative values is more significant during the first hours of the experiment. After some hours, the value stabilizes when a steady state is reached. These results fit well the analytical models. These results demonstrate that stable isotope profiles are reached under steady state conditions even though molecules with light isotopes only diffuse faster than molecules with heavy isotopes. This is an important finding for the application of isotope analysis to link VOC vapours to contaminant sources and to demonstrate reactive processes based on shifts in isotope ratios. Further experiments will be conducted to study the isotopic response to diffusion, vaporization and biodegradation of chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE) using quite a similar column setup. Stable hydrogen and chlorine isotopes will also be measured during the same experiments in order to better constrain the different processes and fingerprinting sources of contaminations.

Jeannottat, Simon; Hunkeler, Daniel; Breider, Florian

2010-05-01

211

Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 3rd Edition (by Kenneth L. Williamson)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third edition of Williamson's Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments is welcome. Williamson's lab texts trace their lineage back not only through earlier editions, but, via a multi-edition conventional-scale text (Fieser and Williamson), to Louis Fieser's 1935 lab text. All these books are characterized by well-honed, reliable experiments and innovations such as the use of high-boiling solvents to accelerate reactions and an interesting sequence of transformations based on derivatives of 1,2-diphenylethane. Another connective thread, familiar to many, is the construction and use of simple homemade devices for a variety of laboratory purposes. Williamson himself is a pioneer in the change from macroscale chemistry in the student lab to the microscale approach. His text is written to use a set of glassware designed by him. At San Francisco State University we have used this glassware since the appearance of his first microscale book. Other instructors prefer microscale glassware with ground glass joints, but we find Williamson's kit to be entirely adequate for the undergraduate lab. Moreover, it is the least expensive type available, does not break easily, and is unattractive to graduate research students, hence does not "disappear". Other innovations appearing in earlier editions include sharp attention (all of Chapter 2) to safety, and the integration of waste disposal methods into the lab experiments themselves. By having students convert waste products into less harmful and less bulky materials in the lab, the enormous costs of disposal can be reduced without postlab treatment, a step not permitted except by a licensed waste-treatment facility. Williamson is also the first or one of the first to place computational chemistry into an introductory organic lab text. In this new edition, (optional) molecular mechanics calculations remain the workhorse method. These are now used in conjunction with 20 experiments, and are supplemented in some cases by suggested semiempirical computations. Other new texts, for example that by Pavia et al. (3rd ed., 1999), take computation even further. New features in the third edition include reduction of the macroscale experimental quantities to amounts compatible with 14/20 standard-taper glassware. Additionally, there are some useful and characteristically clever equipment adaptations for microfiltration and gas phase IR spectra, a few new or updated experiments, replacement of all IR spectra by Fourier transform spectra, and routine use of 250-MHz 1H NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy is briefly discussed but not further encountered. One new feature which looks promising is called "Surfing the Web". Pertinent Web site addresses dot the book, but it would be useful if these were indexed as a group. The brief but up-to-date chapter on searching the literature includes addresses and some advice on accessing commercial databases. Regarding the lab course itself, two useful addresses are http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/organic_lab/ and Williamson's own site (under construction as I write), http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/kwilliam/microscale.shtml, where pictures of techniques and other support information will interest teachers and students alike. Williamson has always been responsive to users of his texts, and will probably be quick to incorporate new information and improved techniques at this site. There are a few areas where improvement can still be made. The chapter on IR spectroscopy, although revised, does not contain an extensive, conventional table of characteristic group frequencies. All our instructors supplement the text with standard tables. We also find the section on organic qualitative analysis to be limited and mildly difficult to use. Students must do a lot of page turning, back and forth, to find some of the tests and recipes needed. At SFSU more than half of our second-semester lab is given over to organic qual, and no single lab text except that of Pasto, Johnson, and Miller seems adequate for this purpose. These cautions aside,

Keeffe, Reviewed By James

1999-11-01

212

ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

213

Organic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

2007-12-07

214

Experience in designing and using a flat structure in a multi-project research organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In early 1986, the organization of the Management Systems Laboratories (MSL) was changed from a standard matrix to a flat organization. The flat organization contributed more negative influences on the organization and its goals than positive ones. One ye...

H. A. Kurstedt E. J. Gardner T. B. Hindman

1990-01-01

215

Preventing bath water scalds: a cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing bath thermostatic mixer valves in social housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo assess the cost-effectiveness of installing thermostatic mixer valves (TMVs) in reducing risks of bath water scalds and estimate the costs of avoiding bath water scalds.MethodsThe evaluation was undertaken from the perspective of the UK public sector, and conducted in conjunction with a randomised control trial of TMVs installed in social housing in Glasgow. Installation costs were borne by the

Ceri J Phillips; Ioan Humphreys; Denise Kendrick; Jane Stewart; Mike Hayes; Lesley Nish; David Stone; Carol Coupland; Elizabeth Towner

2011-01-01

216

Modulation of active Cr(III) complexes by bath preparation to adjust Cr(III) electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation process of the Cr(III) bath was studied based on a perspective of accelerating the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and electrodeposition showed that active Cr(III) complexes in the bath prepared at room temperature in several days were rare for depositing chromium. The increase of heating temperature, time, and pH value during the bath preparation promoted the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The chromium deposition rate increased with the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increasing. Increasing the heating temperature from 60 to 96°C, the chromium deposition rate increased from 0.40 to 0.71 ?m/min. When the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increased, the grain size of Cr coatings increased, and the carbon content of the coating decreased. It is deduced that Cr(H2O)4(OH)L2+ (L is an organic ligand, and its valence is omitted) is a primary active Cr(III) complex.

Li, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ming-yong; Zhang, Yi

2013-09-01

217

VARIABILITY OF AQUIFER SORPTION PROPERTIES IN A FIELD EXPERIMENT ON GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC SOLUTES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods to characterize the organic solute sorption distribution coefficient, organic carbon content, and specific surface area of aquifer solids from the site of a field experiment on solute transport in groundwater were refined for application to small subsamples of 10-cm depth...

218

Identifying significant characteristics of organic milk consumers: a CART analysis of an artefactual field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic dairy category is one of the fastest growing categories of organic foods in the US. Organic milk consumers generally cite perceived health benefits and lower risk of food contamination, as well as perceived superior quality and environmental sustainability of organic farming methods, as the major motivations for preference of organic over conventional milk. While the attributes of organic

Zhuo Liu; Christopher A. Kanter; Kent D. Messer; Harry M. Kaiser

2013-01-01

219

Assessment of chemical and biochemical stabilization of organic C in soils from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and chemical stabilization of organic C was assessed in soils sampled from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK), representing a wide range of carbon inputs and managements by extracting labile, non-humified organic matter (NH) and humic substances (HS). Four sequentially extracted humic substances fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) were extracted and characterized before and after a 215-day laboratory

M. De Nobili; M. Contin; N. Mahieu; E. W. Randall; P. C. Brookes

2008-01-01

220

Electrodeposition of hard nanocrystalline chrome from aqueous sulfate trivalent chromium bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sulfate trivalent chromium bath is described which contains chromium(III) salt, sodium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, boric acid, formic acid, carbamide and surfactant. The bath is operated using either titanium–manganese dioxide anodes or platinized titanium anodes without separation of anodic and cathodic compartments. Effect of bath composition and electrolysis conditions on current efficiency of chromium electrodeposition was studied. At optimal bath

V. S. Protsenko; F. I. Danilov; V. O. Gordiienko; S. C. Kwon; M. Kim; J. Y. Lee

2011-01-01

221

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

222

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

223

Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the <200 kDa fraction. Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

2008-06-01

224

Horizontal and vertical distributions of colored dissolved organic matter during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and remote sensing measurements of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were acquired in the Southern Ocean during the 2008 Gas Exchange experiment. Values of CDOM absorption coefficient at 440 nm (ag440) ranged from ˜0.02 to ˜0.06 m-1. In general, CDOM was higher in the region sampled during this study than in other regions of the Southern Ocean. CDOM showed an inverse correlation with salinity, and the spectral slope parameter S varied directly with salinity. These relationships, water circulation patterns, and characteristics of South Georgia Island suggested that runoff was a source of CDOM in the study site. Analysis of seasonal variability of ag440 using ocean color imagery of areas away from the effect of South Georgia Island showed seasonal fluctuations between ˜0.02 to ˜0.03 m-1. CDOM production models showed that in situ production could also account for seasonal changes in CDOM.

Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Miller, Richard L.

2011-04-01

225

Bath scalds in children in the south-east of Scotland.  

PubMed

Scalds caused by domestic hot tap water constitute a significant but preventable hazard in childhood. We have reviewed some of the factors contributing to such injuries, and the experience of a regional paediatric burn unit in their treatment. There were 91 children with bath water scalds and 667 children with thermal injuries from other sources included in this study. In the former group, scalds were more common on the limbs, including the hands and feet. Scalds involving over 40% of body surface area were more common in children with bath water injuries; however, there was no difference between the groups with regard to hospital stay or requirement for skin grafting. Parents ran the bath responsible for scald production in most cases, but single parenthood did not appear to be a risk factor. First aid application made no significant difference to eventual burn area or hospital stay. It appears from this study that reduction of domestic hot water temperature is necessary. Statutory control is likely to offer the best solution to the problem of domestic hot tap water scalds in childhood. PMID:1757913

Tennant, W G; Davison, P M

1991-10-01

226

The Influences of Dissolved Organic Matter on Mercury Biogeochemistry in Mesocosm Experiments in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of mercury (Hg) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) play important roles in controlling reactivity, bioavailability and transport of Hg in aquatic systems. Laboratory experiments using a variety of organic matter isolates from surface waters in the Florida Everglades indicate that DOM binds Hg very strongly and is the dominant ligand for Hg in the absence of sulfide. These experiments have also shown that the presence of DOM influences the geochemical behavior of cinnabar (HgS) through the stabilization of nanocolloidal HgS resulting in relatively high Hg concentrations under supersaturated conditions with respect to HgS, a common condition in waters containing measurable sulfide concentrations. In this paper, the results of in-situ mesocosm experiments designed to directly measure the effects of DOM -Hg interactions on Hg biogeochemistry will be described. In these experiments, mesocosms (wetland enclosures), located in the central Everglades region of Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA 3A15), were amended with isotopically enriched Hg (200Hg, 202Hg), sulfate (SO4=) and the hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction of DOM from a site (F1) in the eutrophic northern Everglades. The use of stable isotope spikes in these studies allowed us to examine the delivery of Hg to surface soils (which are the predominant zones of methylation); partitioning of Hg and MeHg among phases (which impacts bioavailability); net MeHg production; loss of Hg and MeHg through photodemethylation, reduction and volatization; and bioaccumulation. The F1 HPOA isolate, obtained using XAD resins, was more aromatic, had a greater specific ultra-violet absorbance and had previously been shown to be more reactive with Hg than the DOM present at the 3A15 site. The F1 HPOA isolate formed strong DOM-Hg complexes (KDOM') = 1023.2 L kg-1 at pH = 7.0 and I = 0.1) and effectively inhibited the precipitation of HgS in laboratory experiments. Select mesocosms were amended with either F1-HPOA or SO4= resulting in a range of concentrations for each constituent. For the DOM amended mesocosms, DOC concentrations increased from 50-100% and the overall SUVA increased from 2.9 to 3.7 L mg C-1 m-1 relative to control mesocosms, indicating that both the concentration and overall reactivity of the DOM in the amended mesocosms had been altered substantially. In these mesocosms, the concentrations of both ambient and isotopically enriched dissolved Hg increased significantly compared to controls. Greater concentrations of both dissolved ambient and labeled methylmercury were also observed in the DOM amended mesocosms indicating that the added DOM increased Hg bioavailabilty of both Hg pools for methylation. In addition, DOM shielded Hg and MeHg from photodemethylation and volatilization, however, it inhibited subsequent MeHg bioaccumulation. Overall, the addition of DOM resulted in increased concentrations of labeled methylmercury comparable to those measured in mesocosms amended with SO4= suggesting that DOM is an important constituent influencing the methylation of Hg. This effect is likely due to increased concentrations of dissolved Hg in the DOM amended mesocosms.

Aiken, G. R.; Gilmour, C. A.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Orem, W.

2007-12-01

227

Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

2006-12-01

228

Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-01-01

229

Experiments with digital organisms on the origin and maintenance of sex in changing environments.  

PubMed

Many theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of sex, but the question remains unsettled owing to a paucity of compelling empirical tests. The crux of the problem is to understand the prevalence of sexual reproduction in the natural world, despite obvious costs relative to asexual reproduction. Here we perform experiments with digital organisms (evolving computer programs) to test the hypothesis that sexual reproduction is advantageous in changing environments. We varied the frequency and magnitude of environmental change, while the digital organisms could evolve their mode of reproduction as well as the traits affecting their fitness (reproductive rate) under the various conditions. Sex became the dominant mode of reproduction only when the environment changed rapidly and substantially (with particular functions changing from maladaptive to adaptive and vice versa). Even under these conditions, it was easier to maintain sexual reproduction than for sex to invade a formerly asexual population, although sometimes sex did invade and spread despite the obstacles to becoming established. Several diverse properties of the ancestral genomes, including epistasis and modularity, had no effect on the subsequent evolution of reproductive mode. Our study provides some limited support for the importance of changing environments to the evolution of sex, while also reinforcing the difficulty of evolving and maintaining sexual reproduction. PMID:20200140

Misevic, Dusan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E

2010-03-03

230

Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-variability of particulate backscattering (bbp) and attenuation (cp) coefficients and particulate organic carbon (POC) provides a basis for estimating POC on spatial and temporal scales that are impossible to obtain with traditional sampling and chemical analysis methods. However, the use of optical proxies for POC in the open ocean is complicated by variable relationships reported in the literature between POC and cp or bbp. During the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom experiment, we accrued a large data set consisting of >300 POC samples and simultaneously measured cp and bbp. Attention to sampling detail, use of multiple types of POC blanks, cross-calibration of optical instruments, and parallel measurements of other biogeochemical parameters facilitated distinction between natural and methodological-based variability. The POC versuscp slope varied with plankton community composition but not depth; slopes were 11% lower for the diatom versus the recycling community. Analysis of literature POC versus cp slopes indicates that plankton composition is responsible for a large component of that variability. The POC versus bbp slope decreased below the pycnocline by 20%, likely due to changing particle composition associated with remineralization and fewer organic rich particles. The higher bbp/cp ratios below the mixed layer are also indicative of particles of lower organic density. We also observed a peculiar platform effect that resulted in ˜27% higher values for downcast versus upcast bbp measurements. Reduction in uncertainties and improvement of accuracies of POC retrieved from optical measurements is important for autonomous sampling, and requires community consensus for standard protocols for optics and POC.

Cetini?, Ivona; Perry, Mary Jane; Briggs, Nathan T.; Kallin, Emily; D'Asaro, Eric A.; Lee, Craig M.

2012-06-01

231

Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

1993-02-01

232

Crystallographic Structure Determination: An Experiment for Organic Analysis and Other Nontraditional Venues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal diffraction analysis is a technique being increasingly utilized by non-specialists. To give students an introductory experience in this method, a one to two hour lecture and a three hour lab are described for use in courses such as organic analysis, biophysical chemistry, and instrumental methods. This class emphasizes the practical aspects of diffraction analysis, especially how routine structures are solved, how the results are prepared for publication as graphics and tables, and how reliable these results are. The student employ x-ray diffraction analysis software (i.e. SHELXTL) to solve the structures of compounds from supplied crystallographic data sets. Three data sets appropriate for this experiment are provided (i.e. for PhCH2-NH-CHPh-P(O)(OH)(OEt), (h6-1,4-C6H4(NH2)(NMe2))Cr(CO)3, and Pd(Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2)(S2C2(CN)2)) as is a link to a Youngstown State University Structure Center WEB page (i.e. http://www.as.ysu.edu/~adhunter/YSUSC/XRAYDPST/index.html) where additional properly formatted crystallographic data files may be downloaded.

Hunter, Allen D.

1998-10-01

233

CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a substantial decline in SOM with 90% of crop residue removal for 50 years under various rotations at Columbia, MO and Champaign, IL. An increase in SOM following addition of manure was also well simulated. However, the model underestimated SOM for a fertilized treatment at Columbia. We estimated that a minimum of 8.0 Mg/ha/yr of crop residue and organic amendments (4.0 Mg C ha/yr) was required to prevent a decline in SOM at the Morrow Plots in Champaign, IL. More studies are needed to evaluate the CQESTR model's performance in predicting the amount of crop residue required to maintain the SOM concentration in different soils under a wide range of management and climatic conditions. Given the high correlation of simulated and observed SOM changes, CQESTR can be used to consider a wide range of scenarios before making recommendations or implementing proposed changes. CQESTR in conjunction with the local conditions can guide planning and development of sustainable crop and soil management practices.

Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

2009-04-01

234

Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet-visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50 nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs.

Lee, Ji-Hwan; Choi, Stephen U. S.; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Seoung Youn

2012-07-01

235

Entanglement sharing and decoherence in the spin-bath  

SciTech Connect

The monogamous nature of entanglement has been illustrated by the derivation of entanglement-sharing inequalities--bounds on the amount of entanglement that can be shared among the various parts of a multipartite system. Motivated by recent studies of decoherence, we demonstrate an interesting manifestation of this phenomena that arises in system-environment models where there exists interactions between the modes or subsystems of the environment. We investigate this phenomenon in the spin-bath environment, constructing an entanglement-sharing inequality bounding the entanglement between a central spin and the environment in terms of the pairwise entanglement between individual bath spins. The relation of this result to decoherence will be illustrated using simplified system-bath models of decoherence.

Dawson, Christopher M.; McKenzie, Ross H. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Hines, Andrew P.; Milburn, G.J. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

2005-05-15

236

Beneficial effects of sauna bathing for heart failure patients  

PubMed Central

Generally, the sauna bathing has been contraindicated for patients with chronic heart failure. However, it has been well tolerated and improved hemodynamics has been shown in patients with chronic heart failure after a single exposure and after a four-week period of sauna bathing (five days per week). Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 24±7% to 31±9% and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension decreased from 66±6 mm to 62±5 mm after four weeks. In the present review, the mechanisms of action, the clinical data available to date and the possible beneficial effects of sauna bathing for patients with heart failure are discussed, as well as the precautions and the contraindications in this specific group of patients with chronic heart failure.

Blum, Nava; Blum, Arnon

2007-01-01

237

Simulating a solid state spin qubit in a spin bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powerful computational methods have been developed in recent years for understanding decoherence induced by environmental spins. Specifically, the cluster correlation expansion [Phys. Rev. B 78, 085315 (2008)] and adaptations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 187602 (2010)] provide successive approximations that approach the solution to the full quantum mechanical problem for small and large spin baths with good efficiency. With these methods, we are able to study the nature of spin-bath decoherence in various regimes, for different types of qubits (e.g., donors or quantum dots) and for different types of spin baths (e.g., nuclei or electrons). Our quantitative analyses have implications for solid state spin qubit prospects and materials choices. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Witzel, Wayne

2012-02-01

238

Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature.

Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.

2012-12-01

239

Pediatric Sink-Bathing: A Risk for Scald Burns.  

PubMed

Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

2013-02-13

240

Existence of an independent phonon bath in a quantum device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low temperatures, the thermal wavelength of acoustic phonons in a metallic thin film on a substrate can widely exceed the film thickness. It is thus generally believed that a mesoscopic device operating at low temperature does not carry an individual phonon population. In this work, we provide direct experimental evidence for the thermal decoupling of phonons in a mesoscopic quantum device from its substrate phonon heat bath at a sub-Kelvin temperature. A simple heat balance model assuming an independent phonon bath following the usual electron-phonon and Kapitza coupling laws can account for all experimental observations.

Pascal, L. M. A.; Fay, A.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

2013-09-01

241

ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ASIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAIWAN EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Bulletin discusses recent trends and development in organic agriculture in the Asian region, with special focus on the case of Taiwan. In the last few years, organic agriculture has increased rapidly worldwide. The global organic food sale was estimated to be US$26 billion in 2003. Japan has the third largest market for organic foods next to EU and the

Sung-Ching Hsieh

242

Variations in microbial indicator densities in beach waters and health-related assessment of bathing water quality.  

PubMed Central

Daily and hourly variations in microbial indicators densities in the beach-waters of Hong Kong have been described. The levels of Escherichia coli at a number of beaches was observed to be influenced by tide, and for staphylococci, by bather numbers. The tidal influence was most obvious during spring tides; and for the effect of bathers, during neap tides. Both organisms are present in high densities in external sources of faecal pollution of bathing beaches, with the average staphylococci to E. coli ratios being 0.04-3. Staphylococci may serve as an indicator of bather density and the risk of cross-infection amongst bathers (rather than as another indicator of faecal contamination) when the average staphylococci to E. coli ratio for a bathing beach is considerably higher than 3. The variability of microbial indicator densities means the routine sampling of bathing beaches should be carried out on weekend days with maximum numbers of swimmers exposed to the water, and spread throughout the bathing season.

Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K. C.; Hung, R. P.

1991-01-01

243

Urolithiasis in ankylosing spondylitis: Correlation with Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) and Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI)  

PubMed Central

Background: Increased incidence of renal stone has been reported in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but unlike some well-known renal involvements, they have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of AS with urolithiasis and also the relation between urinary stone and severity markers. Methods: One hundred-sixty three AS patients were included in a cross-sectional study from Iranian AS association, Iran Rheumatology Center and Rheumatology Clinic of Shariati Hospital in Tehran. Prevalence of urolithiasis in AS patients was compared with results of a nationwide survey in Iran. Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) and bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were determined for assessment of disease severity. Results: Urolithiasis was observed in 11.7% of AS patients versus 5.7% of normal population (p=0.001). After the elimination of corticosteroid effect, the prevalence of urolithiasis was still higher in AS patients than normal population but without maintaining significant difference. Significant higher values of BASFI, BASMI, BASDAI scores were observed in AS with urolithiasis than AS without urolithiasis. Conclusion: The results confirmed the association of AS with urolithiasis. However, this may be partly due to the effect of other factors such as corticosteroid. Moreover, urolithiais is accompanied with more severe diseases.

Fallahi, Sasan; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Mahmoud, Mahdi i; Paragomi, Pedram; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Farhadi, Elham; Qorbani, Mostafa

2012-01-01

244

Bioavailability of organic matter in a freshwater estuarine sediment: long - term degradation experiments with and without nitrate supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic carbon degradation experiments were carried out using flow-through reactors with sediments collected from an intertidal freshwater marsh of an eutrophic estuary (The Scheldt, Belgium).\\u000a Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon, methane, dissolved cations\\u000a (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), total dissolved Fe, phosphate and alkalinity were measured in the outflow solutions from reactors that were

Jeffrey Abell; Anniet M. Laverman; Philippe Van Cappellen

2009-01-01

245

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

246

Representing cardiac bidomain bath-loading effects by an augmented monodomain approach: application to complex ventricular models.  

PubMed

Although the cardiac bidomain model has been widely used in the simulation of electrical activation, its relatively computationally expensive nature means that monodomain approaches are generally required for long-duration simulations (for example, investigations of arrhythmia mechanisms). However, the presence of a conducting bath surrounding the tissue is known to induce wavefront curvature (surface leading bulk), a phenomena absent in standard monodomain approaches. Here, we investigate the biophysical origin of the bidomain bath-loading induced wavefront curvature and present a novel augmented monodomain-equivalent bidomain approach faithfully replicating all aspects of bidomain wavefront morphology and conduction velocity, but with a fraction of the computational cost. Bath-loading effects are shown to be highly dependent upon specific conductivity parameters, but less dependent upon the thickness or conductivity of the surrounding bath, with even relatively thin surrounding fluid layers (~ 0.1 mm) producing significant wavefront curvature in bidomain simulations. We demonstrate that our augmented monodomain approach can be easily adapted for different conductivity sets and applied to anatomically complex models, thus facilitating fast and accurate simulation of cardiac wavefront dynamics during long-duration simulations, further aiding the faithful comparison of simulations with experiments. PMID:21292591

Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot

2011-01-31

247

A one-bath chrome tanning together with wet-finishing process for reduced water usage and discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact has become a key issue in the present global industrial activities. A conventional leather processing\\u000a method involves multi-step process that employs as well as discharges various inorganic as well as organic materials. Further,\\u000a it demands huge resources like water, time and power. An attempt has been made in the study to overcome these problems by\\u000a exploring a one-bath

S Saravanabhavan; P Thanikaivelan; J Raghava Rao; Balachandran Unni Nair

2005-01-01

248

13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

249

9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

250

Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

251

BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

252

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nonpowered sitz bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled with water for use in external hydrotherapy to relieve pain or pruritis and to accelerate the healing of inflamed or traumatized tissues of the perianal and...

2009-04-01

253

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nonpowered sitz bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled with water for use in external hydrotherapy to relieve pain or pruritis and to accelerate the healing of inflamed or traumatized tissues of the perianal and...

2010-04-01

254

Regenerate metal-plating baths to cut waste and save  

SciTech Connect

During electrode-based metal plating of equipment components, the formation of an electrical field causes metal deposits to be thicker at edges and seams, and thinner on flat surfaces. And, electrode-based methods consume large amounts of energy. Electroless-nickel (EN) -- or autocatalytic -- plating systems were pioneered in the 1940s to solve these problems. EN plating produces a more uniform coating, irrespective of the complexity of the part, and it consumes less electricity, since to electric current is required during plating. Plating in an EN system results from a chemical reaction between nickel in the bath and the substrate of the equipment component. The downside of electroless plating, however, is the limited life of the nickel bath, and the large volume of metal waste produced by bath disposal. Ionsep Corp. (Wilmington, Del.) has developed an electrodialytic system that continuously reforms the EN plating baths, to give them longer life. Its patented system has been successfully laboratory tested in a 1-ft{sup 2} cell, and the firm recently won a $250,000 grant from the US Dept. of Energy (Washington, D.C.) and Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.), to design and engineer a commercial-scale version of the system.

NONE

1995-03-01

255

Nitriding of steel in potassium nitrate salt bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potassium nitrate salt bath has been used for nitriding of interstitial-free steel. The nitriding behavior can be reasonably well described by nitrogen diffusion in iron. Most nitrogen is dissolved interstitially. During nitriding, a slight oxidation of the steel surface also takes place. The nitrided specimen achieves a pronounced solid–solution strengthening.

Y. Z. Shen; K. H. Oh; D. N. Lee

2005-01-01

256

PRAZIQUANTEL BATH TREATMENTS AGAINST THE ASIAN TAPEWORM IN GRASS CARP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many states ban the importation of fish infested with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide (one that would eliminate all tapeworms) would allow the shipment of fish that would otherwise be rejected. Extended bath treatments of infected...

257

Aegean Bath Sponges: Historical Data and Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to evaluate the status of the populations of bath sponges (species of the genera Spongia and Hippospongia) in the Aegean, combining historical sources dated before a series of disease outbreaks that occurred from 1986 on, unpublished data obtained during the recovery phase after the first incident, as well as a current survey of the main spongiferous beds

E. Voultsiadou; T. Dailianis; C. Antoniadou; D. Vafidis; C. Dounas; C. C. Chintiroglou

2011-01-01

258

Positive Lockout Control for Oil and Water Baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control unit is interposed between an electrical supply such as a 115 volt socket and a load, which may be an oil or water bath or constant temperature drying oven and the like, which it is sought to maintain at constant temperature. If the water temp...

J. C. Rentz

1965-01-01

259

19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

260

Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydro...

P. Bros J. P. Gozlan M. Lecomte J. Bourges

1993-01-01

261

Large-time evolution of electron in photon bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that in each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow without bound in

Kirill Kazakov; Vladimir Nikitin

2011-01-01

262

A critical look at the new functions of Ottoman baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of baths, which have been one of the focus of communal life throughout the history of Anatolia and the Balkans, were built especially in the second half of the 14th and in the 15th centuries. But only a very few of the many buildings have retained their original function and have kept their authentic vitality. The majority

Ilter Büyükdigan

2003-01-01

263

Mathematical Model of Plant Uptake and Translocations of Organic Chemicals: Application to Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. A mathematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibr...

L. Boersma C. McFarlane F. T. Lindstrom

1991-01-01

264

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

265

Critical Experiments with Organic Moderators--Monoisopropyl Diphenyl and Gas Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article presents the results of critical tests on the organic moderators isopropylbiphenyl and gas oil, a description of an experimental 'organic reactor,' and some results of measurements carried out on this reactor. Graphs are included showing the d...

Y. N. Aleksenko V. I. Buynitskaya

1967-01-01

266

Effects of tub bathing procedures on preterm infants' behavior.  

PubMed

Although medical advances have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, morbidity in terms of neurodevelopmental impairment has not decreased for this population. This results in caregivers having to reconsider how neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) caregiving impacts on preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different phases of a routine tub bath on preterm infants' distress and state behavior in the NICU. The study used an exploratory repeated measures design that focused on preterm infants' distress and state behavior, and evaluated the effects of three phases of a routine tub bath, which were performed according to standard unit practice in the NICU. Thirteen nurses repeatedly bathed 12 infants on different days, and 64 baths were videotaped for the purpose of assessing the variety of distress behavior. The procedures of one bath could be categorized into three phases designated to Phases I, II, and III. The variables were measured by a preterm infant behavioral coding scheme developed for this research. The inter-rater reliability of the instrument ranged from .82 to .99. Mixed effects analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among the bath phases in the occurrences of distress and state behavior. The results showed significant statistical difference among most distress behaviors during the three phases (e.g. "startle, jerk, tremor" F ratio = 25.62, p < .001; "finger splay, grasping, fisting" F ratio = 49.99, p < .001; "grimace" F ratio = 36.55, p < .001; "fussing or crying" F ratio = 25.27, p < .001), with the exception of "extension, arching and squirming". In particular, the occurrence of distress and state behavior increased significantly in phase II. Routine tub bathing not only disrupts preterm infants' sleep but also causes an increase in distress behavior. Preterm infants' stress increases with the intrusiveness of nursing procedures. NICU caregivers should consider the effects of routine nursing activities that influence the infants, and modify handling to promote techniques to promote preterm infants' recovery, growth and development. PMID:17345759

Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Yin, Ti

2006-12-01

267

Organics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)|

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

1978-01-01

268

Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

2012-01-01

269

Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk soil. Differences in the abundance of lignin monomers, hydroxyl acids, n-alkanols and n-fatty acid methyl esters measured by GC MS before and after the incubation indicated selective degradation and preservation patterns at the molecular scale.

Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

2010-05-01

270

Influence of Nighttime Bathing on Evening Home Blood Pressure Measurements: How Long Should the Interval Be after Bathing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese Society of Hypertension has recommended that evening home blood pressure measurement be taken just before bedtime. In this study, to elucidate the influence of nighttime bathing on evening home blood pressure and heart rate, measurements were performed for 7 days using volunteers who were employees of a single company and who had no alcohol intake during the study

Hiroshi Kawabe; Ikuo Saito

2006-01-01

271

Growth of CuBiS 2 thin films by chemical bath deposition technique from an acidic bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

CuBiS2 thin films have been deposited on a glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in an acidic medium. Films are deposited for various concentrations of copper and bismuth. The effect of deposition time and temperature on growth of these films have been studied. To obtain good quality films, the films are grown using a complexing agent. The disodium

P. S Sonawane; P. A Wani; L. A Patil; Tanay Seth

2004-01-01

272

A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

273

Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

2011-01-01

274

Organic contaminant distributions in sediments, polychaetes ( Nereis virens) and American lobster ( Homarus americanus) from a laboratory food chain experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River, NJ, USA, for 70 days. These polychaetes were then fed to the American lobster, Homarus americanus, for up to 112 days.

R. J. Pruell; B. K. Taplin; D. G. McGovern; R. McKinney; S. B. Norton

2000-01-01

275

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

276

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

277

Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

2011-01-01

278

You Stab My Back, I'll Stab Yours: Management Experience and Perceptions of Organization Political Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a survey of 250 British managers, exploring their experience and perceptions of organization politics. Political behaviour appeared to be common. Most managers viewed political behaviour as ethical and necessary, and aspects of organizational effectiveness, change, resourcing and reputation were attributed to political tactics, although 80% had no training in this area. Tactics experienced frequently

David A. Buchanan

2007-01-01

279

Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy for Harmonic Vibrational Modes with Nonlinear System-Bath Interactions. II. Gaussian-Markovian Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relaxation processes in a quantum system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic Gaussian-Markovian heat bath are investigated by the quantum Fokker-Planck equation in the hierarchy form. This model describes frequency fluctuations in the quantum system with an arbitrary correlation time and thus bridges the gap between the Brownian oscillator model and the stochastic model by Anderson and Kubo. The effects of the finite correlation time and the system-bath coupling strength are studied for a harmonic model system by numerically integrating the equation of motion. The one-time correlation function of the system coordinate, which is measured in conventional Raman and infrared absorption experiments, already reflects the inhomogeneous character of the relaxation process. The finite correlation time of the frequency fluctuations, however, is directly evident only in the two- and three-time correlation function as probed by multidimensional spectroscopic techniques such as the Raman echo and the fifth-order 2D Raman experiment.

Tanimura, Yoshitaka; Steffen, Thomas

2000-12-01

280

30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush...

2013-07-01

281

Organic \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents for the first time a 4-bit microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) phase shifter fabricated on, integrated, and packaged into an organic flexible low-permittivity material. A microstrip switched-line phase shifter has been optimized at 14 GHz for small size and excellent performance. In addition, the MEMS phase shifter was packaged in an all-organic flexible low-permittivity liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) package. The

Nickolas Kingsley; John Papapolymerou

2006-01-01

282

Characteristics of metal fluctuation caused by bath-metal interface oscillation in aluminum electrolysis cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bath-metal interface oscillation reduces the stability and efficiency of Hall-Héroult cells. However, the oscillation characteristics have not been understood in detail. A well-designed probe and an online monitor system were designed for monitoring the metal fluctuation. Experiments and analyses show the metal fluctuation can be captured, and a corresponding relationship between anode-cathode distance (ACD) and anode rod voltage drop (UD) have been found. The stack phenomena of the fluctuation have been found as well. Analysis shows that the wave length (around 8 m in this experiment) is much bigger than the anode size; however, the wave velocity (around 0.27 m/s in this experiment) is relatively low. Because of the waves transmitting, anode current changes periodically but the cell voltage remains near constant when the metal is fluctuating.

Zhang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Naijun; Li, Hesong

2010-11-01

283

The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: Flight sample preparation and ground control spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March of 2009, the ORGANIC experiment integrated into the European multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, containing experiments dedicated to Astrobiology, was mounted through Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) externally on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment exposed organic samples of astronomical interest for a duration of 97 weeks (˜22 months) to the space environment. The samples that were returned to Earth in spring 2011, received a total UV radiation dose during their exposure including direct solar irradiation of >2500 h, exceeding the limits of laboratory simulations. We report flight sample preparation and pre-flight ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) characterization of the ORGANIC samples, which include 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The corresponding time-dependent ground control monitoring experiments for ORGANIC measured over ˜19 months are presented and the results anticipated upon return of the samples are discussed. We present the first UV-Vis spectrum of solid circobiphenyl (C38H16). Further, we present the first published UV-Vis spectra of diphenanthro[9,10-b?,10?-d]thiophene (C28H16S), dinaphtho[8,1,2-abc,2?,1?,8?-klm]coronene (C36H16), tetrabenzo[de,no,st,c?d?]heptacene (C42H22), and dibenzo[jk,a?b?]octacene (C40H22) in solid phase and in solution. The results of the ORGANIC experiment are expected to enhance our knowledge of the evolution and degradation of large carbon-containing molecules in space environments.

Bryson, K. L.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2011-12-01

284

[The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].  

PubMed

Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:9889712

Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

285

Density functional theory calculations of dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities for organic molecules in organic solvent: Comparison to experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Against experimental values obtained from solution-phase dc electric field induced second-harmonic generation measurements at a fundamental wavelength of 1910 nm, the performance of 20 exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory in evaluation of solvent modulated dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities of 82 organic molecules in chloroform, 1,4-dioxane, and/or dichloromethane was evaluated. The used exchange-correlation functionals consisted of generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, global hybrids, and range-separated hybrids. The PCM-X/6-311+G(2d,p)//PCM-B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) level of theory was employed. The calculated results showed functionals with the exact asymptote of the exchange potential gave satisfying linear correlation with R2 of 0.95 between experimental data and theoretical values. With a linear correction, these functionals also provided a better accuracy with mean absolute error of 5 × 10-30 esu than other functionals. The solvent effect and solvation scheme on the calculated property were also studied.

Lu, Shih-I.; Chiu, Cheng-Chang; Wang, Ying-Fung

2011-10-01

286

Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and nucleobases, basic constituents common to life on Earth.

Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

287

Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR)

Bierman

1986-01-01

288

Chronodiagnostic acquisition of recovery speed of heart rate under bathing stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cycling on an ergometer is one effective means of measuring cardiovascular function while applying stress on the heart. Bathing in a hot water bath applies a low stress to the heart. The electrocardiograms of a healthy adult male (aged 35 at the start of study) were recorded while taking a hot water bath with no electrode attached to the body

Masa Ishijima; Tatsuo Togawa

1999-01-01

289

Salt bath test for assessing the adhesion of silver to poly(ethylene terephthalate) web  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-resolved salt bath technique was employed for assessing the adhesion of silver coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) web. Furthermore, a basis for quantitative comparisons of adhesion was developed. The salt bath test was applied to samples of silver on PET web, made with a variety of web surface treatments. The results of the salt bath test demonstrate that the

J. M. Grace; V. Botticelli; D. R. Freeman; W. Kosel; R. G. Spahn

1993-01-01

290

Effect of divalent cations in low zinc ambient temperature phosphating bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new zinc phosphating bath, which produces coatings at relatively lower temperatures within a reasonable time by using of chemical accelerators has been devised. Improvement of the bath performance by the addition of divalent cations like calcium, manganese and magnesium has been studied. Bath formulation and operating conditions have been optimized by coating weight determinations. Corrosion resistance property of the

L. C. Deepa; S. Sathiyanarayanan; C. Marikkannu; D. Mukherjee

2003-01-01

291

New plating bath for electroless copper deposition on sputtered barrier layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new copper plating bath for electroless deposition directly on conductive copper-diffusion barrier layers has been developed. This plating bath can be operated at temperatures between 20 and 50°C and has good stability. High temperature processing allows for increased deposition rates and decreased specific resistivity values for the deposited copper films. Electroless Cu films deposited from this bath showed a

Yuri Lantasov; Roger Palmans; Karen Maex

2000-01-01

292

INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

293

78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath Seats AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. The Office of Management and Budget...Commission issued a safety standard for infant bath seats that incorporated by reference...

2013-08-30

294

Radiotracer Experiments on Biological Volatilization of Organic Iodine from Coastal Seawaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological volatilization of iodine from seawaters was studied using a radiotracer technique. Seawater samples were incubated aerobically in serum bottles with radioactive iodide tracer (I), and volatile organic and inorganic iodine were collected with activated charcoal and silver wool trap, respectively. Iodine was volatilized mainly as organic iodine, and inorganic iodine volatilization was not observed. Influence of light intensity on

Seigo Amachi; Mizuyo Kasahara; Takaaki Fujii; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Satoshi Hanada; Yoichi Kamagata; Tadaaki Ban-nai; Yasuyuki Muramatsu

2004-01-01

295

Impact of ISO 9000 on organizational climate : Strategic change management experience of an Indian organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – ISO 9000 yields visible and concrete benefits to organizations in the form of sustained product quality, enhanced market image, increased customer satisfaction, and long-term profitability. However, the derivative impact of ISO 9000 on the human side of the organization, especially its impact on the internal human environment, has been only scantily researched. The purpose of this study is

James Thomas Kunnanatt

2007-01-01

296

Experiences and challenges in the development of an organic HACCP system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based quality assurance has a well established place in controlling safety hazards in food supply chains. The work in the Integrated Project QUALITYLOWINPUTFOOD, QLIFWP 6.2 was designed to support the implementation of HACCP systems in the organic food sector. The structure of the organic food supply chain was examined to

C. Knight; F. Bodnar

2011-01-01

297

The Martian near surface environment: Analysis of Antarctic soils and laboratory experiments on putative Martian organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physical properties as well as the potential for organic material in the Martian near-surface environment can give us a glimpse into the history of the site with regards to water, soil formation processes, as well as the conditions necessary for life. This work is done to support the interpretation of data from the Phoenix Mars Lander as well as other past and future landed missions. The Antarctic Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid cold polar desert that is the most Mars-like place on Earth. Soils from two different soil and climate regimes are analyzed to determine their physical properties such as mineralogy, particle size, shape, color, and specific surface area. These data are used to describe the sample locations in Antarctica and infer properties of Martian soils by comparison to Antarctic sites. I find that the particle size distribution can be used to determine the water history of the site and that the behavior of soluble species in the soil can also be used to trace the movement of water through the soil and could be instructive in understanding how soil organic material is processed by the environment. Continuing with the theme of soil organic matter, we revisit the Viking conclusions with regards to organics on Mars and look at the Phoenix data on the same subject. First, we assume that Mars receives organic material from meteoritic infall. These organics will be processed by chemical oxidants as well as UV light down to 200 nm. Chemical oxidation is predicted to produce molecules such as mellitic acid, which could preserve up to 10% of the original organic mass. Using mellitic acid and other similar organic molecules, we irradiate these molecules with Mars-like ultraviolet light, analyzing the gases that come off as irradiation takes place. We find that organic molecules can survive Mars-like UV conditions as layers of UV-resistant organics build up, shielding the remaining organic material. Additionally, the gas products of irradiation depend on the composition of the original organic molecule, implying that even irradiated molecules will carry some information about the composition of the original molecule. Finally, we take this irradiated organic/soil stimulant mixture and analyze it via pyrolysis, similar to the Viking GC/MS and TEGA instruments that are the only instruments operated on Mars capable of detecting organics. We find that the pyrolysis of mellitic acid (and other similar) molecules primarily produces inorganic fragments but that the reduced carbon fragments released depend on the composition of the original organic. However, the introduction of perchlorate, discovered on Mars by the Phoenix Lander, complicates the issue by creating the conditions for molecular oxidation. The high-oxygen content and high pyrolysis temperatures lead to organic combustion during thermal analysis, meaning that, regardless of the initial composition, most soil organics will be oxidized to CO2 during the detection process. By assuming that organic material was oxidized to CO2 in the Phoenix and Viking samples. We show that this assumption gives organic concentrations consistent with meteoritic accumulation rates. This finding reopens the possibility for organic molecules in the near-surface environment at the Viking and Phoenix landing sites.

Archer, Paul Douglas, Jr.

298

Nonequilibrium work fluctuations for oscillators in non-Markovian baths.  

PubMed

We study work fluctuation theorems for oscillators in non-Markovian heat baths. By calculating the work distribution function for a harmonic oscillator with motion described by the generalized Langevin equation, the Jarzynski equality (JE), transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), and Crooks' theorem (CT) are shown to be exact. In addition to this derivation, numerical simulations of anharmonic oscillators indicate that the validity of these nonequilibrium theorems does not depend on the memory of the bath. We find that the JE and the CT are valid under many oscillator potentials and driving forces, whereas the TFT is not applicable when the driving force is asymmetric in time and the potential is asymmetric in position. PMID:17677214

Mai, Trieu; Dhar, Abhishek

2007-06-01

299

Spin-orbit coupled particle in a spin bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a spin-orbit coupled particle confined in a quantum dot in a bath of impurity spins. We investigate the consequences of spin-orbit coupling on the interactions that the particle mediates in the spin bath. We show that in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, the impurity-impurity interactions are no longer spin conserving. We quantify the degree of this symmetry breaking and show how it relates to the spin-orbit coupling strength. We identify several ways how the impurity ensemble can in this way relax its spin by coupling to phonons. A typical resulting relaxation rate for a self-assembled Mn-doped ZnTe quantum dot populated by a hole is 1 ?s. We also show that decoherence arising from nuclear spins in lateral quantum dots is still removable by a spin echo protocol, even if the confined electron is spin-orbit coupled.

Stano, Peter; Fabian, Jaroslav; Žuti?, Igor

2013-04-01

300

Observations on the effect of immersion in Bath spa water.  

PubMed Central

Immersion in water in spas has been practised for centuries and has many proponents. Despite fierce debate about its efficacy there has been little scientific evaluation of the effect of immersion in mineral waters. Eight normal subjects were immersed in Bath spa water for two hours and the renal, haematological, and cardiovascular responses were compared with those in the control periods before and after immersion. Significant, twofold diuresis and natriuresis, 5% haemodilution, and a 50% increase in cardiac index were observed in subjects immersed, sitting, in Bath spa water at 35 degrees C. These changes may constitute part of the scientific rationale for spa treatment in many states of disease. Images FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5

O'Hare, J P; Heywood, A; Summerhayes, C; Lunn, G; Evans, J M; Walters, G; Corrall, R J; Dieppe, P A

1985-01-01

301

Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths.  

PubMed

E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath. PMID:23999470

Paoluzzi, M; Di Leonardo, R; Angelani, L

2013-09-03

302

Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

Paoluzzi, M.; Di Leonardo, R.; Angelani, L.

2013-10-01

303

Spin-bath narrowing with adaptive parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement scheme capable of achieving the quantum limit of parameter estimation using an adaptive strategy that minimizes the parameter's variance at each step. The adaptive rule we propose makes the scheme robust against errors, in particular imperfect readouts, a critical requirement to extend adaptive schemes from quantum optics to solid-state sensors. Thanks to recent advances in single-shot readout capabilities for electronic spins in the solid state (such as nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond), this scheme can also be applied to estimate the polarization of a spin bath coupled to the sensor spin. In turns, the measurement process decreases the entropy of the spin bath resulting in longer coherence times of the sensor spin.

Cappellaro, Paola

2012-03-01

304

Nonequilibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath  

SciTech Connect

We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined.

Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Mendizabal, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: sebastian.mendizabal@desy.de

2009-06-15

305

Nonequilibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined.

Anisimov, A.; Buchmüller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

2009-06-01

306

Chemical bath deposition of BiVO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical bath deposition method (CBD) to prepare BiVO4 coatings on a glass substrate is described. The synthetic method uses the thermal treatment of aqueous solutions containing a bismuth(III) ethylenediaminetetra-acetate chelate and vanadium (V) species. The deposition method is selective relative to the crystalline phase deposited, yielding pure monoclinic BiVO4. The BiVO4 coatings consist of morphological well-defined particles with properties

Márcia C. Neves; Tito Trindade

2002-01-01

307

Finite Element Modeling of Heat Transfer in Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat flow patterns in two salt bath furnaces were studied in this work using finite element(FE) analysis. The implications of the heat flows on long term stability of furnace performance were evaluated. One design had a purely silica brick back-up after the embedded heating element with asbestos and glass-wool fiber insulation just before the outer steel shell. The other had

O. O. Oluwole; P. O. Atanda; B. I. Imasogie

308

Silk production in a spider involves acid bath treatment  

PubMed Central

We studied physiological conditions during the spinning of dragline silk by the garden cross spider, Araneus diadematus. Silk is converted from the liquid feedstock in the gland into a solid thread via a tapering tubular duct and exits at a spigot. The distal part of the tubule appears specialized for ion transport and the management of the pH inside the lumen. Thus, it appears that spider silk in vivo, like some industrial polymers in vitro, is spun through an acid bath.

Vollrath, F.; Knight, D. P.; Hu, X. W.

1998-01-01

309

Small helium bath cryopump for electron optical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small helium bath cryopump for electron optical devices has been designed and manufactured. The filling volumes of LHe and LN2 are 2.5 and 3.6 l, respectively. Special electron beam welding methods were utilised for the pump structure. The heat loads of the cryogens were minimised using numerical methods. An LHe refill interval of 30 days was reached, whereas that

Pavel Hanzelka; Jan Dupák; V?ra Musilová

2002-01-01

310

Spin decoherence due to a randomly fluctuating spin bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the decoherence of a spin in a quantum dot due to its hyperfine coupling to a randomly fluctuating bath of nuclear spins. The system is modeled by the central spin model with the spin bath initially being at infinite temperature. We calculate the spectrum and time evolution of the coherence factor using a Monte Carlo sampling of the exact eigenstates obtained via the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The exactness of the obtained eigenstates allows us to study the nonperturbative regime of weak magnetic fields in a full quantum mechanical treatment. In particular, we find a large nondecaying fraction in the zero-field limit. The crossover from strong to weak fields is similar to the decoherence starting from a pure initial bath state treated previously. We compare our results to a simple semiclassical picture [Merkulov , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.65.205309 65, 205309 (2002)] and find surprisingly good agreement. Finally, we discuss the effect of weakly coupled spins and show that they will eventually lead to complete decoherence.

Faribault, Alexandre; Schuricht, Dirk

2013-08-01

311

Self-organization and complexity: a new age for theory, computation and experiment.  

PubMed

I first describe the notion of self-organization as a property of far-from-equilibrium nonlinear dissipative dynamical systems. Rather than describing such complex systems at a purely phenomenological level, however, I focus attention on the emergent nature of this complexity, by analysing a few examples of physical and physicochemical systems with simple underlying microscopic dynamics yet complex, self-organizing macroscopic properties. These include several mesoscopic models of fluid dynamics as well as a modern approach to nucleation and growth phenomena. Finally, I discuss how the advent of computational grids is set to provide a major boost to the study of such complex, self-organizing systems. PMID:12816599

Coveney, Peter V

2003-06-15

312

Non-Markovian entanglement dynamics in the presence of system-bath coherence.  

PubMed

A complete treatment of the entanglement of two-level systems, which evolves through the contact with a thermal bath, must include the fact that the system and the bath are not fully separable. Therefore, quantum coherent superpositions of system and bath states, which are almost never fully included in theoretical models, are invariably present when an entangled state is prepared experimentally. We show their importance for the time evolution of the entanglement of two qubits coupled to independent baths. In addition, our treatment is able to handle slow and low-temperature thermal baths. PMID:20867350

Dijkstra, Arend G; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

2010-06-21

313

Ecology of Earthworms under the ‘Haughley Experiment’ of Organic and Conventional Management Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant differences in earthworm populations and soil properties were found in three sections of a farm at Haughley in Suffolk that, since 1939, had either an organic, a mixed conventional, or a stockless intensive arable regime. Compared with the mean earthworm population of a 1,000 year old permanent pasture of 424.0 m; an organic field had 178.6 m; a mixed

R. J. Blakemore

2000-01-01

314

Wheat quality in organic and conventional farming: results of a 21year field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers have become more aware of healthy and safe food produced with low environmental impact. Organic agriculture is of particular interest in this respect, as manifested by 5.768million hectares managed pursuant to Council Regulation (EEC) 2092\\/91 in Europe. However, there can be a considerable risk that the avoidance of chemical inputs in organic farming will result in poor food quality.

Hans Bergmann; Michael Oehme; Renato Amad; Hanna Schneider

2007-01-01

315

Peer-Based Recovery Support Services Within a Recovery Community Organization: The CCAR Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Connecticut Community for Addiction Recovery (CCAR) has a rich history as a lead Recovery Community Organization. This\\u000a chapter describes CCAR’s evolution from a pure advocacy organization to a provider of peer-based recovery support services.\\u000a A key part of this story is the development of recovery community centers (RCCs) that are a grassroots model, conceived in\\u000a the idea of a

Phil Valentine

316

organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma

RICHARD E. MICHOD

317

The Synthesis of 4,6,8-Trimethylazulene: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-stage synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene was developed for use in the undergraduate experiment, highlighting concepts not usually covered in the laboratory. The experiment requires purification procedures of chromatography and of sublimation and illustrates concepts of aromaticity, molecular orbital theory, and carbodium ion reactivity. (JN)

Garst, Michael E.; And Others

1983-01-01

318

Organization and management policy for two phase fluid experiment in space environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outline of the two phase fluid experiment group is described. The following topics are mentioned: the purpose of establishment, the objectives, the roles, the organizational structure, the constituents, the missions of the executive committee, the way of outside negotiation, ownership of the research results, and the way of handling the materials of the experiment group.

Masao Furukawa

1993-01-01

319

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

320

Temperature crossover of decoherence rates in chaotic and regular bath dynamics.  

PubMed

The effect of chaotic bath dynamics on the decoherence of a quantum system is examined for the vibrational degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule in a realistic, constant temperature collisional bath. As an example, the specific case of I(2) in liquid xenon is examined as a function of temperature, and the results compared with an integrable xenon bath. A crossover in behavior is found: The integrable bath induces more decoherence at low bath temperatures than does the chaotic bath, whereas the opposite is the case at the higher bath temperatures. These results, verifying a conjecture due to Wilkie, shed light on the differing views of the effect of chaotic dynamics on system decoherence. PMID:22587172

Sanz, A S; Elran, Y; Brumer, P

2012-03-30

321

Early visual experience and the receptive-field organization of optic flow processing interneurons in the fly motion pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The distribution of local preferred directions and motion sensitivities within the receptive fields of so-called tangential neurons,in the fly visual system,was previously found to match optic flow fields as induced by certain self-motions. The complex,receptive-field organization of the tangential neurons,and the recent evidence showing,that the orderly development,of the fly's peripheral visual system,depends,on visual experience led us to investigate whether

Katja Karmeier; Rico Tabor; Holger G. Karmeier

2006-01-01

322

Pre-biotic organic synthesis: laboratory simulation experiments and their significance for the origin of life in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly assumed that the origin of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere in the solar system was preceded by the synthesis and accumulation of organic compounds essential for life as we know it (e.g. amino acids, sugars, purines, pyrimidines, etc.) by non-biological processes. Over the past century, laboratory simulation experiments using a variety of inorganic precursors and energy sources have resulted in the synthesis of some, but not all of the compounds required for life. More importantly, the mechanisms by which these simple organic compounds initially combined to form the more complex structures (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) upon which all life is based remain elusive. Here we report a summary of the progress to date concerning pathways for the pre-biotic synthesis of organic matter and their significance for the origin of life in the solar system.

Engel, Michael H.

2011-09-01

323

Organic and inorganic analysis of constituents in water produced during in situ combustion experiments for the recovery of tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of waters produced during in situ combustion of a tar sand deposit near Vernal, Utah, is presented. The water samples were collected during two different field experiments. Analysis of the inorganic constituents by standard methods indicated that ammonium, sulfate, and chloride were the predominant ions. Fractions of the organic material, defined as acid and base extracts, were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl ether. Gravimetrically, the acid extracts comprised more than 70 percent of the extractable organic material. Identification of the components in the acid extracts was accomplished by using combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) after methylation with diazomethane. The base extracts were found to be more complex and could not be studied directly with GC-MS. Of the major organic compounds identified, carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid, were found to be the most abundant. Phenols, lactones, and pyridines were also identified. 6 refs.

Barbour, F.A.; Guffey, F.D.

1980-01-01

324

The formation of organic molecules in solar system environments: The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space preflight overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) will investigate the formation of prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment when it is sent to, and later retrieved from, the International Space Station in 2012. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, electrical discharges, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. Two gas mixture compositions (CH4, NH3, H2 and N2, H2, CO) will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 °C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of initial products, intermediates and their abundances. Conducting the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the low gravity, energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur as planetary systems form.

Kotler, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Martins, Z.; Ricco, A.; Blum, J.; Schraepler, R.; van Dongen, J.; Palmans, A.; Sephton, M.; Cleaves, H. J.

2011-12-01

325

Microcosm experiments to control anaerobic redox conditions when studying the fate of organic micropollutants in aquifer material.  

PubMed

The natural processes occurring in subsurface environments have proven to effectively remove a number of organic pollutants from water. The predominant redox conditions revealed to be one of the controlling factors. However, in the case of organic micropollutants the knowledge on this potential redox-dependent behavior is still limited. Motivated by managed aquifer recharge practices microcosm experiments involving aquifer material, settings potentially feasible in field applications, and organic micropollutants at environmental concentrations were carried out. Different anaerobic redox conditions were promoted and sustained in each set of microcosms by adding adequate quantities of electron donors and acceptors. Whereas denitrification and sulfate-reducing conditions are easily achieved and maintained, Fe- and Mn-reduction are strongly constrained by the slower dissolution of the solid phases commonly present in aquifers. The thorough description and numerical modeling of the evolution of the experiments, including major and trace solutes and dissolution/precipitation of solid phases, have been proven necessary to the understanding of the processes and closing the mass balance. As an example of micropollutant results, the ubiquitous beta-blocker atenolol is completely removed in the experiments, the removal occurring faster under more advanced redox conditions. This suggests that aquifers constitute a potentially efficient alternative water treatment for atenolol, especially if adequate redox conditions are promoted during recharge and long enough residence times are ensured. PMID:22115096

Barbieri, Manuela; Carrera, Jesús; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Ayora, Carlos; Cama, Jordi; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Tobella Brunet, Joana; Hernández García, Marta

2011-09-21

326

The Jumping Ring Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

327

Submicron Organic Aerosol Function Groups during the International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol organic mass (OM) components are expected to have significant direct and indirect impacts on Arctic climate, especially during springtime Arctic haze. The chemical and physical properties of OM in Arctic aerosol remain largely unconstrained. The R/V Knorr traveled between Iceland and the Barents Sea during the ice-free months of March and April of 2008 and collected submicron particles on teflon filters for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify organic functional groups. Time series and composition are presented along with air mass back trajectories to indicate source regions. Early findings identify alcohols, alkanes, and carboxylic acids, with smaller amounts of amines, aromatics, alkenes and carbonyls. These data show the important contributions of organic oxygen and nitrogen in the Arctic region. Single particle analysis by Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) Scanning Transmission X- ray Microscopy (STXM) provides additional information about the distribution and morphology of the types of organic particles. Comparison to collocated simultaneous measurements by other techniques showed good agreement for OM and oxygenated organic fractions.

Russell, L. M.; Shaw, P. M.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

2008-12-01

328

Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

Cleveland, C. C.; Neff, J. C.; Townsend, A. R.; Hood, E.

2004-01-01

329

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

330

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

331

Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

1980-01-01

332

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.|

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

333

Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from eac...

B. C. Nelson T. I. Eglinton J. S. Seewald M. A. Vairavamurthy F. P. Miknis

1995-01-01

334

Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, ³°NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and

B. C. Nelson; T. I. Eglinton; J. S. Seewald; M. A. Vairavamurthy; F. P. Miknis

1995-01-01

335

Neurochemical Organization and Experience-Dependent Activation of Estrogen-Associated Circuits in the Songbird Auditory Forebrain  

PubMed Central

The classic steroid hormone estradiol is rapidly produced by central auditory neurons in the songbird brain and instantaneously modulates auditory coding to enhance the neural and behavioral discrimination of acoustic signals. Although these recent advances highlight novel roles for estradiol in the regulation of central auditory processing, current knowledge on the functional and neurochemical organization of estrogen-associated circuits, as well as the impact of sensory experience in these auditory forebrain networks, remains very limited. Here we show that both estrogen-producing and -sensitive neurons are highly expressed in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the zebra finch analog of the mammalian auditory association cortex, but not other auditory forebrain areas. We further demonstrate that auditory experience primarily engages estrogen-producing, and to a lesser extent, estrogen-responsive neurons in NCM, that these neuronal populations moderately overlap, and that acute episodes of sensory experience do not quantitatively affect these circuits. Finally, we show that whereas estrogen-producing cells are neurochemically heterogenous, estrogen-sensitive neurons are primarily glutamatergic. These findings reveal the neurochemical and functional organization of estrogen-associated circuits in the auditory forebrain, demonstrate their activation and stability in response to sensory experience in behaving animals, and highlight estrogenic circuits as fundamental components of central networks supporting sensory processing.

Jeong, Jin Kwon; Burrows, Kaiping; Tremere, Liisa A.; Pinaud, Raphael

2011-01-01

336

The Organization of a Teaching Nursing Home: An Eight-Year Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High quality care and teaching in a nursing home require organization of an active medical staff that enhances and does not distract from a physician's commitment to his practice in the office and hospital. The medical residency program at the Jewish Home for the Elderly of Fairfield, Connecticut, is described. (MLW)|

Garrell, Marvin

1983-01-01

337

The composting potential of different organic solid wastes: experience from the island of Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 20 years, the National Foundation for Agricultural Research in Crete and the School of Agricultural Technology of the Technological and Educational Institute of Crete have been involved in a number of research and development activities, related to the production and evaluation of compost derived from a variety of local solid, mainly agricultural organic wastes. Materials such as

T. Manios

2004-01-01

338

Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

Hollister, William G.; And Others

339

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

Berkvens, Jan

2012-01-01

340

Cerebral Organization for Language in Deaf and Hearing Subjects: Biological Constraints and Effects of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral organization during sentence processing in English and in American Sign Language (ASL) was characterized by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 4 T. Effects of deafness, age of language acquisition, and bilingualism were assessed by comparing results from (i) normally hearing, monolingual, native speakers of English, (ii) congenitally, genetically deaf, native signers of ASL who learned English late

Helen J. Neville; Daphne Bavelier; David Corina; Josef Rauschecker; Avi Karni; Anil Lalwani; Allen Braun; Vince Clark; Peter Jezzard; Robert Turner

1998-01-01

341

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn From International Adult Learning: Experiences From Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in Cambodia. This intervention aimed at developing a training approach to be used within the local ministry

Jan Berkvens

2012-01-01

342

Controlling Organics: The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tests show the level of trihalomethanes in the Los Angeles water supply system to be within the proposed limit of 100 ?g\\/l, they are above levels suggested for future standards. Department personnel are investigating treatment alternatives that will allow compliance with both the proposed and projected future regulations for control of trihalomethanes and synthetic organics.

D. G. McBride

1978-01-01

343

Work Organization, Control and the Experience of Work in Call Centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the integration of telephone and VDU technologies, call centres are not uniform in terms of work organization. It is suggested that diversity can best be understood by reference to a range of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Consequently, perspectives that treat all call centres as if they were the same hybrids of customization and routinization are rejected, along with over-optimistic

Phil Taylor; G. Mulvey; J. Hyman; Peter Bain

2002-01-01

344

Oxidation of organics in water in microfluidic electrochemical reactors: Theoretical model and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of organics in water performed in micro reactors on boron doped diamond (BDD) anode was investigated both theoretically and experimentally in order to find the influence of various operative parameters on the conversion and the current efficiency CE of the process. The electrochemical oxidation of formic acid (FA) was selected as a model case. High conversions for

Onofrio Scialdone; Chiara Guarisco; Alessandro Galia

345

Medical Malpractice Experience of Health Maintenance Organizations and Foundations for Medical Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the parameters of malpractice in 12 health maintenance organizations (HMO's) and 3 foundations for medical care is documented. The 15 institutions visited provide health care services to over 50 percent of the entire market served by HMO's and ...

W. J. Curran G. B. Moseley

1972-01-01

346

CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) f...

347

Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments Using CQESTR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil carbon (C) models are useful for examining the complex interactions between climate, crop, and soil management practices and their influences on long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC). The CQESTR model was developed to evaluate the effect of agricultural management practices on short- a...

348

Mineralization of soil organic matter in two elevated CO2 by warming experiments in grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experimentally elevated atmospheric CO2 has enhanced carbon (C) allocation belowground, while ecosystem warming has led to losses of soil C due to enhanced mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Few investigations of possible interactions between elevated CO2 and temperature have been reported...

349

Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of School Organization: Fundamental Inconsistencies between Expectations and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preservice teacher-candidates enrolled in teacher education programs across Canada are exposed to the nuances of school organization during their practice-teaching assignments. Although the literature is full of scholarship about the concerns of new teachers, less attention has been given to school organizational factors as sources of dissonance…

Cherubini, Lorenzo

2009-01-01

350

Management Tools and Organization as Key Factors Towards Quality Care: Reflections from Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care organization in French hospitals has become an increasingly important issue, as efforts to ensure better cost control have Increased financial constraints, as patients hare demanded ever better results and quality, and as nurses' expectations for better working conditions have grown. Organiz- ing a health care unit requires an articulation between individual efforts — necessary both for gathering accurate

DOMINIQUE TONNEAU

1997-01-01

351

The Tenne del Faro and the Neighbourhood Baths of Ostia: Their Architecture, Decoration, Urban Context and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baths and bathing were a very important institution for the inhabitants of Ostia and the Roman Empire in general. They served the general populace not only as a place to wash, but also fulfilled important social functions and often offered a number of other services besides those directly connected to bathing. There are several different types of Roman Bath buildings

Joelle Lisa Lardi

2006-01-01

352

Changes in cropland topsoil organic carbon with different fertilizations under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments across mainland China.  

PubMed

Topsoil soil organic carbon (SOC) data were collected from long-term Chinese agro-ecosystem experiments presented in 76 reports with measurements over 1977 and 2006. The data set comprised 481 observations (135 rice paddies and 346 dry croplands) of SOC under different fertilization schemes at 70 experimental sites (28 rice paddies and 42 dry croplands). The data set covered 16 dominant soil types found in croplands across 23 provinces of mainland China. The fertilization schemes were grouped into six categories: N (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer only), NP (compound inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NPK (compound inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), O (organic fertilizers only), OF (combined inorganic/organic fertilization) and Others (other unbalanced fertilizations such as P only, K only, P plus K and N plus K). Relative change in SOC content was analyzed, and rice paddies and dry croplands soils were compared. There was an overall temporal increase in topsoil SOC content, and relative annual change (RAC, g kg(-1) yr(-1)) ranged -0.14-0.60 (0.13 on average) for dry cropland soils and -0.12-0.70 (0.19 on average) for rice paddies. SOC content increase was higher in rice paddies than in dry croplands. SOC increased across experimental sites, but was higher under organic fertilization and combined organic/inorganic fertilizations than chemical fertilizations. SOC increase was higher under balanced chemical fertilizations with compound N, P and K fertilizers than unbalanced fertilizations such as N only, N plus P, and N plus K. The effects of specific rational fertilizations on SOC increase persisted for 15 years in dry croplands and 20 years in rice paddies, although RAC values decreased generally as the experiment duration increased. Therefore, the extension of rational fertilization in China's croplands may offer a technical option to enhance C sequestration potential and to sustain long-term crop productivity. PMID:20697875

Wang, ChengJi; Pan, GenXing; Tian, YouGuo; Li, LianQing; Zhang, XuHui; Han, XiaoJun

2010-08-10

353

[History of hot spring bath treatment in China].  

PubMed

As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

2011-07-01

354

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

2008-01-01

355

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

2008-01-01

356

SciBath: A novel tracking detector for neutral particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SciBath prototype detector consists of 90 liters of liquid scintillator containing 768 wavelength-shifting fibers aligned in a three dimensional grid with no optical separation. This unique design allows detailed reconstruction of charged particle tracks in arbitrary directions. While constructed as a prototype neutrino detector it should also detect neutrons in the 1-100MeV range with high efficiency and good resolution. The device is currently being commissioned. Information on the detector performance will be presented along with a discussion of potential applications.

Garrison, Lance; Kunkler, Brandon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Novak, Melanie; Mikev, Tyler; Tayloe, Rex; Visser, Gerard

2010-11-01

357

Instrinsic oscillations of polymerizing antiparallel microtubules in a motor bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the dynamics of overlapping antiparallel treadmilling microtubules in the presence of crosslinking processive motor proteins that counterbalance an external force. We show that coupling the force-dependent velocity of motors and the kinetics of motor exchange with a bath in the presence of treadmilling leads generically to oscillatory behavior. In addition we show that coupling the polymerization kinetics to the external force through the kinetics of the crosslinking motors can stabilize the oscillatory instability into finite-amplitude nonlinear oscillations and may lead to other scenarios, including bistability.

Muhuri, Sudipto; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Casademunt, Jaume

2012-07-01

358

Instrinsic oscillations of polymerizing antiparallel microtubules in a motor bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the dynamics of overlapping antiparallel treadmilling microtubules in the presence of crosslinking processive motor proteins that counterbalance an external force. We show that coupling the force-dependent velocity of motors and the kinetics of motor exchange with a bath in the presence of treadmilling leads generically to oscillatory behavior. In addition, we show that coupling the polymerization kinetics to the external force through the kinetics of the crosslinking motors can stabilize the oscillatory instability into finite-amplitude nonlinear oscillations and may lead to other scenarios, including bistability.

Muhuri, Sudipto; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Casademunt, Jaume

2012-06-01

359

Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2.5 bar) to avoid uncontrolled calcite precipitation, and accordingly the pipeline path was designed. Non-linear phenomena that may originate calcite precipitation, such as phase separation and pressure waves, were discussed. The pipeline and the thermal bath are planned to be built next year.

Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

2013-04-01

360

Strategies for establishing organ transplant programs in developing countries: the Latin America and Caribbean experience.  

PubMed

The Latin America and Caribbean region is composed of 39 countries. It is remarkable the progress of transplantation in the region in despite of the low economic resources when compared to other regions. The criteria for brain death are well established and culturally accepted. The consent for retrieval is based on required family consent in most countries. The regulations for living donors are also well established, with restrictions to unrelated donors and prohibition of any kind of commerce. The access to transplant is limited by the model of public financing by each country, and those with public universal coverage have no financial restrictions to cover the costs for any citizen; in countries with restricted coverage, the access is restricted to the employment status. There is a progressive increment in the annual number of solid organ transplants in Latin America, reaching near 10,000 in 2004, accomplished by adequate legislation that is also concerned with the prohibition of organ commerce. PMID:16836729

Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Duro-Garcia, Valter

2006-07-01

361

Development of a Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in situ search of organic compounds on Mars : application to the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for past or present life signs is one of the primary goals of the future Mars exploratory missions. With this aim the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) module of the ExoMars 2013 next coming European space mission is designed to the in situ analysis, in the Martian soil, of organic molecules of exobiological interest such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the frame of the MOMA experiment we have been developing a Sample Processing System (SPS) compatible with gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The main goal of SPS is to allow the extraction and the gas chromatography separation of the refractory organic compounds from a solid matrix at trace level within space compatible operating conditions. The SPS is a mini-reactor, containing the solid sample (~500mg), able to increase (or decrease) the internal temperature from 20 to 500 °C within 13 sec. The extraction step is therefore performed by using thermodesorption, the best yield of extraction being obtained at 300°C for 10 to 20 min. It has to be noticed that the temperature could be increased up to 500°C without a significant lost of efficiency if the heating run time is kept below 3 min. After the thermodesorption the chemical derivatization of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA and DMF [buch et al.]. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the targeted volatile molecules are transferred through a heated transfer line in the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer for the detection. The SPS is a "one step/one pot" sample preparation system which should allow the MOMA experiment to detect the refractory molecules absorbed in the Martian soil at a detection limit below the ppb level. A. Buch, R. Sternberg, C. Szopa, C. Freissinet, C. Garnier, J. El Bekri, C. Rodier, R. Navarro González, F. Raulin, M. Cabane, M. Stambouli, D.P. Glavin and P.R. Mahaffy, Development of a gas chromatography compatible Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in-situ analysis of refractory organic matter in Martian soil: preliminary results, Journal of Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.05.001.

Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Garnier, C.; Fressinet, C.; Szopa, C.; El Bekri, J.; Coll, P.; Rodier, C.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

2008-09-01

362

Coupling Efficiency Enhancement in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Microlens Array— Theory and Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microlens arrays are introduced on glass substrates to improve the out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). The microlenses suppress waveguiding loss in the substrate. A theoretical model, based on electromagnetic wave propagation and geometric ray tracing, is developed to simulate the enhancement effects and optimize the structure parameters of the lens pattern. A simple soft-lithography approach is employed to

Huajun Peng; Yeuk Lung Ho; Xing-Jie Yu; Man Wong; Hoi-Sing Kwok

2005-01-01

363

Adsorption of propane, propylene and isobutane on a metal–organic framework: Molecular simulation and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of propane\\/propylene mixtures is the most energy-intensive operation practiced in the petrochemical industry. Adsorptive processes are currently viewed as a promising alternative to cryogenic distillation for the separation of these mixtures. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using a new metal–organic framework material, CuBTC, in adsorptive separation processes, particularly in a simulated moving bed (SMB) context

Nabil Lamia; Miguel Jorge; Miguel A. Granato; Filipe A. Almeida Paz; Hubert Chevreau; Alírio E. Rodrigues

2009-01-01

364

Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol from aromatic precursors in smog chamber experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a newly built smog chamber (27m^3 volume) at the Paul Scherrer Institute secondary organic aerosols were produced from photo-oxidation products of aromatic compounds. The aerosol composition as well as gas phase reaction products was analyzed. Aerosol collected on filter samples was analyzed with gas chromatography \\/ mass spectrometry GC\\/MS after derivatization of carbonyl, carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups to

M. Kalberer; M. Sax; R. Zenobi; D. Paulsen; M. Steinbacher; A. Prevot; E. Weingartner; U. Baltensperger

2003-01-01

365

Theory and experiment of nanostructure self-organization in irradiated materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation of materials by energetic particles (e.g., electrons, ions and neutrons) is associated with very high internal power dissipation, which can drive the underlying nano- and microstructure far from normal equilibrium conditions. One of the most unusual responses in this connection is the ability of the material's nano- and microstructure to self-assemble in well-organized, two- and three-dimensional periodic arrangements. We

N. M. Ghoniem; D. Walgraef; S. J. Zinkle

2001-01-01

366

Source apportionment of fine organic aerosol in Mexico City during the MILAGRO experiment 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon (OC) comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Mexico City. Daily and select 12-h PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and peripheral sites in Mexico City from 17-30 March 2006. Samples were analyzed for OC and elemental carbon (EC) using thermal-optical filter-based methods. Real-time water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was collected at the peripheral site. Organic compounds, particularly molecular markers, were quantified by soxhlet extraction with methanol and dichloromethane, derivitization, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS). A chemical mass balance model (CMB) based on molecular marker species was used to determine the relative contribution of major sources to ambient OC. Motor vehicles, including diesel and gasoline, consistently accounted for 49% of OC in the urban area and 32% on the periphery. The daily contribution of biomass burning to OC was highly variable, and ranged from 5-26% at the urban site and 7-39% at the peripheral site. The remaining OC unapportioned to primary sources showed a strong correlation with WSOC and was considered to be secondary in nature. Comparison of temporally resolved OC showed that contributions from primary aerosol sources during daylight hours were not significantly different from nighttime. This study provides quantitative understanding of the important sources of OC during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign.

Stone, E. A.; Snyder, D. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Schauer, J. J.

2008-03-01

367

Source apportionment of fine organic aerosol in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Experiment 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon (OC) comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Mexico City. Daily and select 12-h PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and peripheral sites in Mexico City from 17-30 March 2006. Samples were analyzed for OC and elemental carbon (EC) using thermal-optical filter-based methods. Real-time water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was collected at the peripheral site. Organic compounds, particularly molecular markers, were quantified by soxhlet extraction with methanol and dichloromethane, derivitization, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS). A chemical mass balance model (CMB) based on molecular marker species was used to determine the relative contribution of major sources to ambient OC. Motor vehicles, including diesel and gasoline, consistently accounted for 47% of OC in the urban area and 31% on the periphery. The daily contribution of biomass burning to OC was highly variable, and ranged from 5-30% at the urban site and 11-50% at the peripheral site. The remaining OC unapportioned to primary sources showed a strong correlation with WSOC and was considered to be secondary in nature. Comparison of temporally resolved OC showed that contributions from primary aerosol sources during daylight hours were not significantly different from nighttime. This study provides quantitative understanding of the important sources of OC during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign.

Stone, E. A.; Snyder, D. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Schauer, J. J.

2007-07-01

368

Enhanced denitrification and organics removal in hybrid wetland columns: comparative experiments.  

PubMed

This study investigated three lab-scale hybrid wetland systems with traditional (gravel) and alternative substrates (wood mulch and zeolite) for removing organic, inorganic pollutants and coliforms from a synthetic wastewater, in order to investigate the efficiency of alternative substrates, and monitor the stability of system performance. The hybrid systems were operated under controlled variations of hydraulic load (q, 0.3-0.9 m3/m2 d), influent ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N, 22.0-80.0 mg/L), total nitrogen (TN, 24.0-84.0 mg/L) and biodegradable organics concentration (BOD5, 14.5-102.0 mg/L). Overall, mulch and zeolite showed promising prospect as wetland substrates, as both media enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. Average NH4-N, TN and BOD5 removal percentages were over 99%, 72% and 97%, respectively, across all three systems, indicating stable removal performances regardless of variable operating conditions. Higher Escherichia coli removal efficiencies (99.9%) were observed across the three systems, probably due to dominancy of aerobic conditions in vertical wetland columns of the hybrid systems. PMID:20934326

Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

2010-09-21

369

Organic Composition of Size-Segregated Aerosols Sampled During the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol samples were collected for the analysis of organic source markers using non-rotating Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI) as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Tampa, FL, USA. Daily samples were collected 12 m above ground at a flow rate of 30 lpm throughout the month of May 2002. Aluminum foil discs were used to sample aerosol size fractions with aerodynamic cut diameter of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.17 and 0.093 um. Samples were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone/hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low detection limits were achieved using a HP Programmable Temperature Vaporizing inlet (PTV) and large volume injections (80ul). Excellent chromatographic resolution was obtained using a 60 m long RTX-5MS, 0.25 mm I.D. column. A quantification method was built for over 90 organic compounds chosen as source markers including straight/iso/anteiso alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The investigation of potential aerosol sources for different particle sizes using known organic markers and source profiles will be presented. Size distributions of carbon preference indices (CPI), percent wax n-alkanes (%WNA) and concentration of selected compounds will be discussed. Also, results will be compared with samples acquired in different environments including the 1999 Atlanta SuperSite Experiment, GA, USA.

Tremblay, R. T.; Zika, R. G.

2003-04-01

370

Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

2008-01-01

371

Class Matters: The Experiences of Female College Students in a Greek-Letter Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study documents the experiences of 15 women from different social class backgrounds who are members of a women's fraternity/sorority at a large, public, institution located in an urban area in the Mid-West. The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between social class and the nature and impact of the…

Ryan, Helen-Grace

2009-01-01

372

Optimization of Chemical Bath Deposited CdS Thin Films Using Two Different Cadmium Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to its transparency, photoconductivity, and high electron affinity, CdS is known to be the best transparent conducting semiconductor for thin film II-VI compound heterojunction solar cells. In this work, a new method to optimize the deposition of CdS using chemical bath deposition technique is presented. CdSO4, and CdCl2 have been used as two different Cd sources. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) in addition to KOH have been used as Ligand. Thiourea has been used as the sulfur source. The effect of changing the KOH and NTA concentrations on the film thickness, transmission, and energy gap has been studied. The results were used to develop a set of experiments that include the optimum deposition conditions by involving all other parameters that affect the deposition process. Thicker and better quality films have been obtained for both CdSO4 and CdCl2 cases.

Khallaf, Hani; Oladeji, Isaiah; Chow, Lee

2005-11-01

373

Detrital Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter in Soils: A Field Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We established a long-term field study in an old growth coniferous forest at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, to address how detrital quality and quantity control soil organic matter accumulation and stabilization. The Detritus Input and Removal Treatments (DIRT) plots consist of treatments that double leaf litter, double woody debris inputs, exclude litter inputs, or remove root inputs via trenching. We measured changes in soil solution chemistry with depth, and conducted long-term incubations of bulk soils and soil density fractions from different treatments in order to elucidate effects of detrital inputs on the relative amounts and lability of different soil C pools. In the field, the effect of adding woody debris was to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in O-horizon leachate and at 30 cm, but not at 100 cm, compared to control plots, suggesting increased rates of DOC retention with added woody debris. DOC concentrations decreased through the soil profile in all plots to a greater degree than did dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), most likely due to preferential sorption of high C:N hydrophobic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in upper horizons; %hydrophobic DOM decreased significantly with depth, and hydrophilic DOM had a much lower and narrower C:N ratio. Although laboratory extracts of different litter types showed differences in DOM chemistry, percent hydrophobic DOM did not differ among detrital treatments in the field, suggesting microbial equalization of DOM leachate in the field. In long-term laboratory incubations, light fraction material did not have higher rates of respiration than heavy fraction or bulk soils, suggesting that physical protection or N availability controls different turnover times of heavy fraction material, rather than differences in chemical lability. Soils from plots that had both above- and below-ground litter inputs excluded had significantly lower DOC loss rates, and a non-significant trend for lower respiration rates . Soils from plots with added wood had similar respiration and DOC loss rates as control soils, suggesting that the additional DOC sorption observed in the field in these soils was stabilized in the soil and not readily lost upon incubation.

Lajtha, K.; Crow, S.; Yano, Y.; Kaushal, S.; Sulzman, E.; Sollins, P.

2004-12-01

374

A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone (5) from benzil (1) and 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone (2). In version (high base concentration) a mixture of 5 and the diastereomeric 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-ones 3 and 4 are produced, while in the other (low base concentration) a mixture of 1, 2, 3, and 4 results. The experiment is typically carried out in conjunction with the previously reported preparation/dehydration of 3, thus the students provide themselves with authentic samples of 3 and 5. Using these, plus authentic samples of 1 and 2 which are made available, students are able to identify all of the components in the equilibrium mixtures, except 4, by TLC analysis. In the case of 4, students are expected to propose a reasonable structure for this compound based on the observed chemistry and the spectroscopic evidence which is provided (i.e., NMR, IR and mass spectra). The experiment lends itself nicely to either the traditional or problem-solving approach, and it also opens up opportunities for collaborative learning.

Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.

1998-05-01

375

Early Life Experience Shapes the Functional Organization of Stress-Responsive Visceral Circuits  

PubMed Central

Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits.

Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

376

Dead Sea bath salts for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Thirty patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis were randomly divided into two groups of fifteen patients each of similar age, sex, duration and severity of disease, and medical treatment. All patients were treated once a day with bath salts heated to 35 degrees C for twenty minutes. Group I received Dead Sea bath salts and Group II, the control group, received sodium chloride (NaCl). The study was double-blind and of two weeks' duration. All patients were evaluated by one rheumatologist both before treatment, and two weeks later at the end of the treatment period. Follow-up evaluations were made one and three months after conclusion of the treatments. The clinical parameters evaluated included duration of morning stiffness, fifteen meter walk time, hand-grip strength, activities of daily living, circumference of proximal interphalangeal joints, number of active joints, Ritchie index and the patient's own assessment of disease activity. The laboratory parameters evaluated included erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum levels of amyloid A, rheumatoid factor, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. A statistically significant improvement (p less than 0.01 or p less than 0.05) was observed in Group I only, in most of the clinical parameters assessed. Maximal therapeutic effect was obtained at the end of the treatment and lasted up to one month. PMID:2397624

Sukenik, S; Neumann, L; Buskila, D; Kleiner-Baumgarten, A; Zimlichman, S; Horowitz, J

377

[Dead Sea bath salts for osteoarthritis of the knee].  

PubMed

26 patients with osteoarthritis of the knees were randomly divided into 2 groups of 13 each with patients of similar ages, sex distribution and duration and severity of disease. All were treated with daily baths at 34-35 degrees C for 20 min. containing Dead Sea bath salts (Group I) or sodium chloride (Group II). The study was double-blind and of 2 weeks duration. Patients were evaluated by a rheumatologist before, at the end of treatment and 1 month later. Clinical parameters evaluated included index of severity of osteoarthritis, patient's assessment of disease severity, range of movement of knees, soft tissue swelling, effusion and crepitus. There was significant improvement in the index of severity of osteoarthritis at the end of the treatment in both groups (p < 0.01). 1 month later, in Group I the significance of the index was still p < 0.01, but p < 0.05 in Group II. Patient's assessment of improvement was significant only in Group I at the end of the treatment period (p < 0.01). There was no statistical improvement in either group in the other parameters assessed. PMID:8543232

Sukenik, S; Mayo, A; Neumann, L; Flusser, D; Kleiner-Baumgarten, A; Buskila, D

1995-08-01

378

Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-?) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.

Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,

2010-07-01

379

Growing experience with mTOR inhibitors in pediatric solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

Controlled trials of mTOR inhibitors in children following solid organ transplantation are scarce, although evidence from prospective single-arm studies is growing. Everolimus with reduced CNI therapy has been shown to be efficacious and safe in de novo pediatric kidney transplant patients in prospective trials. Prospective and retrospective data in children converted from CNI therapy to mTOR inhibition following kidney, liver, or heart transplantation suggest preservation of immunosuppressive efficacy. Good renal function has been maintained when mTOR inhibitors are used de novo in children following kidney transplantation or after conversion to mTOR inhibition with CNI minimization. mTOR inhibition with reduced CNI exposure is associated with a low risk for developing infection in children. Growth and development do not appear to be impaired during low-dose mTOR inhibition, but more studies are required. No firm conclusions can be drawn as to whether mTOR inhibitors should be discontinued in children requiring surgical intervention or whether mTOR inhibition delays progression of hepatic fibrosis after pediatric liver transplantation. In conclusion, current evidence suggests that use of mTOR inhibitors in children undergoing solid organ transplantation is efficacious and safe, but a number of issues remain unresolved and further studies are required. PMID:24004351

Ganschow, R; Pape, L; Sturm, E; Bauer, J; Melter, M; Gerner, P; Höcker, B; Ahlenstiel, T; Kemper, M; Brinkert, F; Sachse, M M; Tönshoff, B

2013-09-04

380

Hospital health professionals' education about organ and tissue donation: a Turin hospital experience.  

PubMed

The culture of organ and tissue donation is not particularly well established among the general population, who often receive incorrect, incomplete information. Unfortunately, even among health workers not directly involved in the field of transplantation (laypersons), there is a poor level of knowledge concerning the underlying principles, mechanisms, and results. To increase lay health workers' knowledge and awareness of the importance of donation and transplantation, we organized an educational session for (nurses, doctors, healthcare workers, technicians, and other professionals) at a hospital coordinating service in Turin. The project was divided into 3 phases: first (February 2010), we performed an initial survey using an instrument containing 18 questions. We sought to assess the level of awareness of hospital personnel. Among 880 distributed questionnaires, 346 were compiled and returned to the authors (39.31%). During the second phase, covering the following 24 months, we held 15 educational courses on the subject of transplantation for 483 participants. In the third and last phase (February 2012), we performed a second survey, distributing, 785 questionnaires identical to the previous one, among which 404 were compiled and returned (51.46%). PMID:24033997

Potenza, R; Fonsato, A; Bertolino, D; Peluso, M; Maina, L; Finiguerra, I; Vergano, M

2013-09-01

381

Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film form 0.2 to 0.5 mum with improved quality. A novel chemical activated diffusion of Cd into ZnS thin film at temperature lower than 100°C is also developed. This in conjunction with thermal activated diffusion at 400°C has enabled us to synthesize Cd1-xZn xS thin films suitable for solar cells from CBD grown CdS/ZnS multilayer. The potential application of the new Cd1-xZnxS/CdS/CdTe solar cell structure is also demonstrated. The unoptimized structure grown on transparent conducting oxide coated soda lime glass of 3mm thickness with no antireflection coating yielded a 10% efficiency. This efficiency is the highest ever recorded in any Cd1-xZnxS film containing CdTe solar cells.

Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

382

Optimization of the heat treatment of ZhGr1.0 material in salt baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.It is shown that salt baths can be successfully employed in the heat treatment of sintered materials.2.Suitable bath compositions are recommended for heating sintered materials for quenching (75% BaCl2 + 25% NaCl) and for their tempering (50% KNO3 + 50% NaNO2).3.Optimum conditions are recommended for the heat treatment of ZhGr1.0-type sintered materials involving the use of salt baths (Table

S. I. Bogodukhov; S. S. Kiparisov; A. M. Shakirov

1976-01-01

383

Comparison of the quenching capacities of hot salt and oil baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quenching capacity of hot salt baths is studied and compared with that of oil baths. The microstructure and mechanical\\u000a properties of steel AISI 1045 (the Russian counterpart is steel 45) are determined after different variants of quenching,\\u000a namely, in a salt bath (40% NaOH and 60% KOH) without water and with 5 wt.% water at various temperatures and in

J. Rassizadehghani; Sh. Raygan; M. Askari

2006-01-01

384

A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise.  

PubMed

This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous. PMID:21456831

Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

2011-03-01

385

Skin Tolerance of a New Bath Oil Containing St. John’s Wort Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. Objective: To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. Methods: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective

J. Reuter; C. Huyke; H. Scheuvens; M. Ploch; K. Neumann; T. Jakob; C. M. Schempp

2008-01-01

386

Experiences \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations depend on software systems that represent large capital investments. Changes in the economics of the surrounding hard- ware and operating systems continually reduce the value of such systems. For example, the economics of software tools for engineering changed dra- matically when personal computers running the Windows operating sys- tems overtook Unix workstations running Unix and mainframe as preferred

David W. Coppit; Kevin J. Sullivan

387

The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-06-01

388

Removal of organic films from solid surfaces using aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants. 1: Experiments  

SciTech Connect

An important step in the production of printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) is the postsolder removal of flux residues from the surface. Traditionally, this has been accomplished using CFC-113-based solutions, but the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Acts have forced the development of alternative cleaners. This is a study of the mechanisms by which aqueous solutions of a nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol mono-n-dodecyl either (C{sub 12}E{sub 5})) remove films of flux residues (abietic acid in isopropyl alcohol) from PWA surfaces. Cleaning rates were studied in a rotating disk apparatus to control hydrodynamic conditions. The cleaning process followed a three-step mechanism. In the first stage, surfactant liquefies the organic by partitioning into the film. In the second and third stages, shear stresses at the PWA surface remove aggregates of the surfactant-laden liquefied AA from the bulk AA film and the PWA substrate, respectively.

Beaudoin, S.P.; Grant, C.S.; Carbonell, R.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-10-01

389

Effect of the geometric parameters of the EAF bath on the main characteristics of furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of melting a semiproduct in an electric arc furnace (EAF) and metal mixing developed earlier are used to study the effect of the proportion of the bath sizes on the following main technicaleconomic characteristics of a heat: the expenditure of electric energy, the heat time, and the operating time under electric current. The range of the optimal values of the proportion of the EAF bath sizes is determined with allowance for bath stirring with CO bubbles during decarburization. It is useful to increase the bath depth of EAFs operating according to single-slag technology and to classify furnaces according to the type of charge and the method of its loading.

Belkovskii, A. G.; Kats, Ya. L.

2013-06-01

390

Electrowinning of cobalt from a sulphate bath containing H 3 BO 3 and NaF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrowinning of cobalt from a sulphate bath containing Na2SO4, NaF and H3BO3 individually and H3BO3 in combination with NaF and Na2SO4 was studied. From the preliminary study it was observed that a sulphate bath containing both NaF and H3BO3 gave the best results. The effects of various parameters, namely NaF, H3BO3 and cobalt concentrations, current density, bath temperature, bath pH,

S. C. Das; T. Subbaiah

1987-01-01

391

Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.  

PubMed

A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

2013-03-01

392

Soil-solution partitioning of DOC in acid organic soils: Results from a UK field acidification and alkalization experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle and has profound impacts on water chemistry and metabolism in lakes and rivers. Reported increases of DOC concentration in surface waters across Europe and Northern America have been attributed to several drivers; from changing climate and land-use to eutrophication and declining acid deposition. The last of these suggests that acidic deposition suppressed the solubility of DOC, and that this historic suppression is now being reversed by reducing emissions of acidifying pollutants. We studied a set of four parallel acidification and alkalization experiments in organic rich soils which, after three years of manipulation, have shown clear soil solution DOC responses to acidity change. We tested whether these DOC concentration changes were related to changes in the acid/base properties of DOC. Based on laboratory determination of DOC site density (S.D. = amount of carboxylic groups per milligram DOC) and charge density (C.D. = organic acid anion concentration per milligram DOC) we found that the change in DOC soil-solution partitioning was tightly related to the change in degree of dissociation (? = C.D./S.D. ratio) of organic acids (R2=0.74, p<0.01). Carbon turnover in soil organic matter (SOM), determined by soil respiration and ?-D-glucosidase enzyme activity measurements, also appears to have some impact on DOC leaching, via constraints on the actual supply of available DOC from SOM; when the turnover rate of C in SOM is low, the effect of ? on DOC leaching is reduced. Thus, differences in the magnitude of DOC changes seen across different environments might be explained by interactions between physicochemical restrictions of DOC soil-solution partitioning, and SOM carbon turnover effects on DOC supply.

Oulehle, Filip; Jones, Timothy; Burden, Annette; Evans, Chris

2013-04-01

393

Transport and attenuation of metal(loid)s in mine tailings amended with organic carbon: Column experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-scale column experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic carbon amendments on the mobility of As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in mine tailings. Three columns were packed with sulfide- and carbonate-rich tailings, which were amended with a 1:1 (vol.) mixture of peat and spent brewing grain at proportions of 0, 2 and 5 vol. %. A simulated input solution characterized by circumneutral pH and elevated concentrations of SO4 and S2O3 was passed through the columns for 540 days. The input solution contained low concentrations of metal(loid)s during the initial 300 days and elevated concentrations thereafter. Decreases in mass transport of S2O3 were observed in all columns; with increased attenuation observed at 5 vol. % organic carbon content. Removal of Mn, Ni, Cu, Sb and Mo was observed in all columns during the initial 300 days. However, during this time, mobilization of Fe, As, Zn and Pb was observed, with the greatest increases in concentration observed at the higher organic carbon content. During the final 240 days, S2O3 removal was enhanced in columns containing organic carbon, and Fe, Mn, Ni, Tl, As and Sb removal also was observed. This study demonstrates the influence of organic carbon amendments on metal(loid) mobility in mine tailings. Decreases in mass discharge of metal(loid)s may be achieved using this technique; however, site-specific geochemical conditions must be considered before field-scale implementation.

Lindsay, Matthew B. J.; Blowes, David W.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Condon, Peter D.

2011-07-01

394

Organization of ventricular fibrillation in the human heart: experiments and models.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac death is a major health problem in the industrialized world. The lethal event is typically ventricular fibrillation (VF), during which the co-ordinated regular contraction of the heart is overthrown by a state of mechanical and electrical anarchy. Understanding the excitation patterns that sustain VF is important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this paper, we studied the organization of human VF by combining clinical recordings of electrical excitation patterns on the epicardial surface during in vivo human VF with simulations of VF in an anatomically and electrophysiologically detailed computational model of the human ventricles. We find both in the computational studies and in the clinical recordings that epicardial surface excitation patterns during VF contain around six rotors. Based on results from the simulated three-dimensional excitation patterns during VF, which show that the total number of electrical sources is 1.4 +/- 0.12 times greater than the number of epicardial rotors, we estimate that the total number of sources present during clinically recorded VF is 9.0 +/- 2.6. This number is approximately fivefold fewer compared with that observed during VF in dog and pig hearts, which are of comparable size to human hearts. We explain this difference by considering differences in action potential duration dynamics across these species. The simpler spatial organization of human VF has important implications for treatment and prevention of this dangerous arrhythmia. Moreover, our findings underline the need for integrated research, in which human-based clinical and computational studies complement animal research. PMID:19168541

ten Tusscher, K H W J; Mourad, A; Nash, M P; Clayton, R H; Bradley, C P; Paterson, D J; Hren, R; Hayward, M; Panfilov, A V; Taggart, P

2009-01-23

395

Genomic Insights into Methanotrophy: The Complete Genome Sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

PubMed Central

Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that may have biotechnological potential.

2004-01-01

396

Non-defendable resources affect peafowl lek organization: a male removal experiment.  

PubMed

A lekking mating system is typically thought to be non-resource based with male providing nothing to females but genes. However, males are thought to clump their display sites on areas where they are more likely to encounter females, which may depend on non-defendable resource location. We tested this hypothesis on a feral population of peacocks. In agreement, we found that, within the lek, display site proximity to food resources had an effect on female visitation rate and male mating success. The attractiveness of display sites to male intruders was explained by the distance to the feeding place and by the female visitation rate. We randomly removed 29 territorial males from their display sites. Display sites that were more attractive to male intruders before removal remained highly attractive after removal and display sites closer to the feeding area attracted the attention of intruders significantly more after removal. Similarly, display sites that were more visited by females before removal remained more visited after removal, suggesting again that the likelihood of encountering females is determined by the display site location. Overall, these results are in agreement with non-defendable resources affecting lek spatial organization in the peafowl. PMID:17074448

Loyau, Adeline; Jalme, Michel Saint; Sorci, Gabriele

2006-09-30

397

An overview of organically bound tritium experiments in plants following a short atmospheric HTO exposure.  

PubMed

The need for a less conservative, but reliable risk assessment of accidental tritium releases is emphasized in the present debate on the nuclear energy future. The development of a standard conceptual model for accidental tritium releases must be based on the process level analysis and the appropriate experimental database. Tritium transfer from atmosphere to plants and the subsequent conversion into organically bound tritium (OBT) strongly depends on the plant characteristics, seasons, and meteorological conditions, which have a large variability. The present study presents an overview of the relevant experimental data for the short term exposure, including the unpublished information, also. Plenty of experimental data is provided for wheat, rice, and soybean and some for potato, bean, cherry tomato, radish, cabbage, and tangerine as well. Tritiated water (HTO) uptake by plants during the daytime and nighttime has an important role in further OBT synthesis. OBT formation in crops depends on the development stage, length, and condition of exposure. OBT translocation to the edible plant parts differs between the crops analyzed. OBT formation during the nighttime is comparable with that during the daytime. The present study is a preliminary step for the development of a robust model of crop contamination after an HTO accidental release. PMID:23246588

Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Strack, S; Atarashi-Andoh, M; Kim, S B

2012-12-12

398

An interpenetrated metal-organic framework and its gas storage behavior: simulation and experiment.  

PubMed

A new metal-organic framework, called UHM-6 (UHM: University of Hamburg Materials), based on the copper paddle wheel motif and a novel organosilicon linker, 4',4?-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(biphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) (sbbip), has been synthesized and characterized with regard to its gas storage behavior up to 1 bar for hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. The 2-fold interpenetrated microporous framework of UHM-6 is isoreticular to PMOF-3 (Inorg. Chem.2009, 48, 11507) and is composed of cuboctahedral cages of Cu(2) paddle wheels connected via nonlinear organosilicon units. The structure (SG I422, No. 97) is characterized by straight channels running along the [001] and [110] direction. UHM-6 reveals a specific surface area of S(BET) ~ 1200 m(2) g(-1) and a specific micropore volume of V(micropore) ~ 0.48 cm(3) g(-1). At 1 bar the activated form of UHM-6 shows a hydrogen uptake of 1.8 wt % (77 K), a methane uptake of 0.8 mmol g(-1) (293 K), and a carbon dioxide uptake of 3.3 mmol g(-1) (273 K). Accompanying theoretical grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations show an overall good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, GCMC adsorption simulations for three binary equimolar mixtures (CH(4)/H(2), CO(2)/H(2), and CO(2)/CH(4)) were carried out (T = 298 K) to assess the potential for gas separation/purification applications. PMID:21985253

Frahm, Daniela; Fischer, Michael; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

2011-10-10

399

Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

Meer, Sneer

2002-06-01

400

How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via “calls for proposals”, which are sent out each half year via the “Digital User Office (DUO)” (see http://duo.web.psi.ch ). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the “Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)” consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time allocation is handled more directly and in time in order to fulfill the companies’ demands. Here, the confidentiality plays a more important role than in scientific studies that are done with the aim of a free publication. It has been possible to earn money regularly from the industrial projects in order to cover the salary cost of some positions within the NIAG group. The permanent improvement of the methodology and performance in neutron imaging is a third major activity of the NIAG team. Running projects in this direction are the permanent insert of a grating interferometry device, improved energy selection with the help of single graphite crystals and utilization of the beam line BOA at SINQ for the energy range between 4 and 15 Å.

Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

2011-09-01

401

Experience with Fosfomycin for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Organisms  

PubMed Central

Fosfomycin has shown promising in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary pathogens; however, clinical data are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with MDR pathogens treated with fosfomycin tromethamine. Charts for 41 hospitalized patients with a urine culture for an MDR pathogen who received fosfomycin tromethamine from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed. Forty-one patients had 44 urinary pathogens, including 13 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp), 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates, 7 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 9 others. In vitro fosfomycin susceptibility was 86% (median MIC, 16 ?g/ml; range, 0.25 to 1,024 ?g/ml). Patients received an average of 2.9 fosfomycin doses per treatment course. The overall microbiological cure was 59%; failure was due to either relapse (24%) or reinfection UTI (17%). Microbiological cure rates by pathogen were 46% for CR-Kp, 38% for P. aeruginosa, 71% for VRE, 57% for ESBL producers, and 100% for others. Microbiological cure (n = 24) was compared to microbiological failure (n = 17). There were significantly more solid organ transplant recipients in the microbiological failure group (59% versus 21%; P = 0.02). None of the patients in the microbiological cure group had a ureteral stent, compared to 24% of patients within the microbiological failure group (P = 0.02). Fosfomycin demonstrated in vitro activity against UTIs due to MDR pathogens. For CR-KP, there was a divergence between in vitro susceptibility (92%) and microbiological cure (46%). Multiple confounding factors may have contributed to microbiological failures, and further data regarding the use of fosfomycin for UTIs due to MDR pathogens are needed.

Sekeres, Jennifer; Hall, Gerri S.; van Duin, David

2012-01-01

402

Electrical transport characteristics of single-layer organic devices from theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrical model based on drift diffusion is described. We have explored systematically how the shape of the current density-voltage (J-V) curves is determined by the input parameters, information that isessential when deducing values of these parameters by fitting to experimental data for an ITO/PPV/Al organic light-emitting device (OLED), where ITO is shorthand for indium tin oxide and PPV is poly(phenylene vinylene). Our conclusion is that it is often possible to obtain a unique fit even with several parameters to fit. Our results allowing for a tunneling current show remarkable resemblance to experimental data before and after the contacts are conditioned. We have demonstrated our model on single-layer devices with ITO/PFO/Au and ITO/PEDOT/PFO/Au at room temperature and ITO/TPD/Al over temperatures from 130 to 290 K. PFO is shorthand for poly(9,9'-dialkyl-fluorene-2,7-dyl) and TPD is shorthand for N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)1-1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine. Good fits to experimental data have been obtained, but in the case of the TPD device, only if a larger value for the relative permittivity ?s than would be expected is used. We infer that a layer of dipoles at the ITO/TPD interface could be responsible for the observed J-V characteristics by locally causing changes in ?s. The strong temperature dependence of the hole barrier height from fitting J-V characteristics to the experimental data may indicate that the temperature dependence of the thermionic emission model is incorrect.

Martin, S. J.; Walker, Alison B.; Campbell, A. J.; Bradley, D. D. C.

2005-09-01

403

Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

1998-01-01

404

A large aperture blackbody bath for calibration of thermal imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imagers are becoming widely used instruments for noncontact absolute temperature measurements as opposed to previous practice when they were mostly used to measure temperature differences. To assure accurate and reliable absolute temperature measurements, a calibration procedure including evaluation of the thermal imager entire field of view (FOV) is needed. The challenge was to construct a large aperture blackbody, covering the complete FOV of the thermal imager and having better stability and non-uniformity than the thermal sensitivity of the imager. The blackbody calibration bath was designed on hypothesis analogous to the multi zone furnace, where the role of electrical heaters was superseded by electrically controlled valves. The experimental work showed that the designed system enables traceable calibration of thermal imagers in the temperature range from 10 to 70 °C with the expanded uncertainty of 0.2 °C, while further investigations are needed to cover ranges beyond that.

Miklavec, A.; Pušnik, I.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

2013-02-01

405

Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

1996-11-01

406

Cluster Techniques to Study Spin Decoherence in a Spin Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noisy nuclear spin environments in many solid state materials pose a serious threat to the feasibility of solid-state spin quantum computation where localized electron spins, as qubits, may interact with millions of lattice nuclei [1, 2, 3, 4]. Such nuclear induced decoherence may be partially reduced through the application of a strong magnetic field that suppresses electro-nuclear flip-flops (due to a large mismatch of their gyromagnetic ratios). However, even in the limit where electro-nuclear flip-flops are completely suppressed, dephasing decoherence, known as spectral diffusion, occurs as a result of fluctuations of the nuclear field that is caused by dipolar (or other) interactions among the nuclear bath spins. While a direct approach to this problem is impossible due to the intractable Hilbert space of many interacting spins, we have devised a cluster method to formally solve this problem. Direct application of perturbation theories are futile due to the large size of the bath. Perturbation methods become effective, however, in the cluster expansion framework. These techniques will be discussed and qubit decoherence calculation results will be shown, including effects of dynamical decoupling pulse sequences [5, 6] that prolong qubit coherence. [1] W. M. Witzel, Rogerio de Sousa, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161306(R) (2005). [2] W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035322 (2006). [3] W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 077601 (2007). [4] W. M. Witzel, Xuedong Hu, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 76, 035212 (2007). [5] W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, arXiv:0707.1037. [6] B. Lee, W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, arXiv:0710.1416.

Witzel, Wayne

2008-03-01

407

Avoiding bias effects in NMR experiments for heteronuclear dipole-dipole coupling determinations: principles and application to organic semiconductor materials.  

PubMed

Carbon-proton dipole-dipole couplings between bonded atoms represent a popular probe of molecular dynamics in soft materials or biomolecules. Their site-resolved determination, for example, by using the popular DIPSHIFT experiment, can be challenged by spectral overlap with nonbonded carbon atoms. The problem can be solved by using very short cross-polarization (CP) contact times, however, the measured modulation curves then deviate strongly from the theoretically predicted shape, which is caused by the dependence of the CP efficiency on the orientation of the CH vector, leading to an anisotropic magnetization distribution even for isotropic samples. Herein, we present a detailed demonstration and explanation of this problem, as well as providing a solution. We combine DIPSHIFT experiments with the rotor-directed exchange of orientations (RODEO) method, and modifications of it, to redistribute the magnetization and obtain undistorted modulation curves. Our strategy is general in that it can also be applied to other types of experiments for heteronuclear dipole-dipole coupling determinations that rely on dipolar polarization transfer. It is demonstrated with perylene-bisimide-based organic semiconductor materials, as an example, in which measurements of dynamic order parameters reveal correlations of the molecular dynamics with the phase structure and functional properties. PMID:23780575

Kurz, Ricardo; Cobo, Marcio Fernando; Ribeiro de Azevedo, Eduardo; Sommer, Michael; Wicklein, André; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Hempel, Günter; Saalwächter, Kay

2013-06-18

408

Treatment of organic waste  

DOEpatents

An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1979-01-01

409

Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport of the respective compounds. Concentrations of almost all micropollutants decreased with increasing soil passage. However, since compounds transported by processes 2 & 3 can be re-mobilized by changing water chemistry, the importance of a diligent characterisation of aquifer material and raw water is apparent for risk assessment. The experiments were conducted within the context of the project GABARDINE, funded by the European Commission.

Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

410

Passive ventilation of an underground bath house by the use of solar chimney  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underground bath house in Western Pennsylvania is designed to have passive ventilation provided by a solar chimney. The bath house is to be used in the afternoons and during the summer months only and is not heated or cooled. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the ventilation rate provided by the absorption of solar energy on the

S. F. Ahmed; S. R. Barnes

1980-01-01

411

INVESTIGATION OF THE DECARBURIZING EFFECT OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE SALT BATHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decarburizing action of molten BaClâ baths was studied using ; a hexagonal industrial, metal-treating tank provided with automatic temperature ; control. The effect of the moiten salt bath was estimated on the basis of the ; decrease of the C content of a thin metal sheet with an original concentration of ; 0.83% C, The dependence of the effect

Smolnikov

1962-01-01

412

CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS  

EPA Science Inventory

The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

413

Bathing the Alzheimer's patient in long term care: Results and recommendations from three studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the management of persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, bathing constitutes a major source of agitation and discomfort for care recipients, and represents a significant job stress for caregivers. This paper reports three studies that were conducted in nursing facilities to help guide staff and administrators in efforts to improve resident bathing. The first study, a mail survey

Philip D. Sloane; Vanessa J. Honn; Sharon A. R. Dwyer; Jennifer Wieselquist; Carole Cain; Sue Myers

1995-01-01

414

Microstructural studies of QPQ complex salt bath heat-treated steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

QPQ salt bath surface treatment has been developed successfully in China, introducing a new salt to the bath and offering superior surface properties such as high hardness, good wear-resistance, improved fatigue resistance and very good corrosion resistance for the treated components. In recent years the method has been used widely: for tools and moulds to increase their strength and to

H. Y Li; D. F Luo; C. F Yeung; K. H Lau

1997-01-01

415

Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities – What are the Risks?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

416

Device for the gasification of carbon by means of a molten metal bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is disclosed for the gasification of carbon containing material to obtain the continuous production of gas, essentially a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by using the molten metal bath process. The carbon material, oxidizing agents, and slag-forming additives as needed are introduced into a reactor below the surface of a molten metal bath. The reactor is provided

P. Paschen; A. Kryczun; R. Pfeiffer; R. Pufal; C. Rao; H. D. Waldhecker

1983-01-01

417

Taking a Bath After a Workout? Hold the Ice, Researchers Say  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Taking a Bath After a Workout? Hold the Ice, Researchers Say Study found ... 21 (HealthDay News) -- Taking an ice bath after a workout does not reduce soreness or strength loss, ...

418

VAPORISATION OF THE METALLIC BATH COMPONENT DURING REFINING IN OXYGEN CONVERTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a series of researches regarding the vaporization of the component elements of the metallic bath and slag during refining in LD converter. Also, the main factors which influence the vaporization process during steel making in LD converter are studied: the converter atmosphere; the carbon content of the metallic bath; the speed of the oxygen jet; the temperature

Lilica IVANESCU; Alexandru IVANESCU; Elisabeta VASILESCU

419

Friction and wear characterization of some cobalt- and iron-based superalloys in zinc alloy baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-journal submerged bearing test rig was built to evaluate the friction and wear behavior of materials in zinc alloy baths. Some cobalt- and iron-based superalloys were tested using this rig at conditions similar to those of a continuous galvanizing operation (load and bath chemistry). Metallographic and chemical analyses were conducted on tested samples to characterize the wear. It was

K Zhang; L Battiston

2002-01-01

420

A general procedure for evaluation of calibration baths in precision temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the proposed paper is to develop a standardized procedure for evaluation of various calibration baths in precision temperature measurements. Since the uncertainties of transfer measurement and temperature standards such as SPRTs in particular are decreasing, metrological characteristics of calibration baths are becoming limiting factor in temperature calibrations by comparison. Due to the fact, that a time invariance

J. Drnovsek; Jovan Bojkovski; I. Pusnik

1997-01-01

421

Cardiovascular effects of Atenolol, Scopolamine and their combination on healthy men in Finnish sauna baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators of cardiovascular strain were studied in 12 healthy young men under the influence of drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system during the course of taking a sauna bath. There were four bath sessions: one without a drug (control) and three with drug pretreatment (Atenolol 50 mg or Scopolamine 0.3 mg or their combination taken orally 2 h before the

K. Kukkonen-Harjula; P. Oja; I. Vuori; M. Pasanen; K. Lange; S. Siitonen; T. Metsä-Ketelä; H. Vapaatalo

1994-01-01

422

Averaged master equation for a quantum system coupled to a heat bath with fluctuating energy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A master equation for a quantum system coupled to a heat bath with stochastically fluctuating energy levels is derived by making use of the ensemble averaging and the averaging with respect to a stochastic process in the bath. Relaxation terms are determined in the Born approximation with respect to the system-bath interaction and the damping parameters related to a relaxation kernel are specified. In parallel with the spectral strength of the bath, the damping parameters determine the transient times for the Markovian description creating the physical origin of the slippage [A. Suarez, R. Sibey, and I. Oppenheim, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5101 (1992)]. The influence of energy fluctuations of the bath is analyzed for a two-level system including the solution of the corresponding non-Markovian equation for the level population difference. The conditions for the formation of Boltzmann's thermal ratio between steady-state populations are evaluated as well.

Petrov, Elmar G.

1998-01-01

423

Canonical formulation of quantum dissipation and noise in a generalized spin bath.  

PubMed

The quantum dynamics of a particle coupled to the dissipative degrees of freedom of a generalized spin bath in the presence of an external force field is presented. Based on Holstein-Primakoff transformation, which sets up a mapping between boson and spin operators, we show that the spin-1/2 bath and the harmonic bath can be realized as two special limits of the generalized bath. In the large spin limit, the Hamiltonian reduces to well-known Zwanzig Hamiltonian. Making use of spin coherent states and canonical thermal distributions of the associated c numbers, we derive and explore the quantum Langevin equation and the properties of the spin and harmonic baths in the context of quantum dissipation of the system. PMID:23005383

Ghosh, Arnab; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ray, Deb Shankar

2012-07-19

424

Investigation of spatial distribution of sound field parameters in ultrasound cleaning baths under the influence of cavitation.  

PubMed

Ultrasound cleaning baths fitting the full range from micromechanical components up to large machine parts, are regularly used in industry and in the lab. Despite the large number of applications, generally approved principles and objective criteria for parameter settings which allow an efficient operation are non-existent. The empirical selections of the running parameters often impede an optimization in terms of produce and reproducibility. One proposal for an objective description of the processes is the characterization of the sound field in the cleaning bath, which causes cavities, and subsequently, the cleaning process. Sound field measurements in the appropriate frequency range from 20kHz up to more then 1MHz incorporate a number of problems, such as large sensors disturbing the sound field, a lack of accuracy and the risk of being destroyed by cavitation bubbles. Measurement systems based on optical fiber tips and piezo-electrical hydrophones will be presented, which fulfil the accuracy requirements and withstand ultrasound fields with high power and cavitation. The spatial distribution of sound field parameters such as positive and negative peak pressure, amplitudes of fundamentals, harmonics and sub-harmonics as well as the energy density and spectral density in several frequency ranges are determined in experiments. Finally, the determined field parameters are related to the cavitation effects by means of photometric analysis of perforated aluminium foil. Perforations as well as intentions are analyzed and quantified from scanner images of the exposed foil samples using special image processing software. The experiments indicate clear differences in the structure of the sound fields and the spectral properties between the several types of cleaning baths, transducer arrangements and excitations. PMID:16781752

Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Koch, Christian

2006-06-02

425

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

426

Internal Marketing, Negative Experiences, and Volunteers'Commitment to Providing High-Quality Services in a UK Helping and Caring Charitable Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study examined the effects of “negative'' contact experiences with beneficiaries on charity volunteers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment within a helping and caring charitable organization that for 3.5 years had operated an internal marketing program. It was hypothesized that negative experiences downwardly moderated (i) the impact of the charity's internal market activities on satisfaction and commitment, and (ii)

Roger Bennett; Anna Barkensjo

2005-01-01

427

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.|

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

428

Epitaxy of Rodlike Organic Molecules on Sheet Silicates--A Growth Model Based on Experiments and Simulations  

PubMed Central

During the last years, self-assembled organic nanostructures have been recognized as a proper fundament for several electrical and optical applications. In particular, phenylenes deposited on muscovite mica have turned out to be an outstanding material combination. They tend to align parallel to each other forming needlelike structures. In that way, they provide the key for macroscopic highly polarized emission, waveguiding, and lasing. The resulting anisotropy has been interpreted so far by an induced dipole originating from the muscovite mica substrate. Based on a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we present an alternative growth model being able to explain molecular adsorption on sheet silicates in terms of molecule?surface interactions only. By a comprehensive comparison between experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that geometrical changes in the substrate surface or molecule lead to different molecular adsorption geometries and needle directions which can be predicted by our growth model.

2011-01-01

429

Assessment of potential climate change impacts on peatland dissolved organic carbon release and drinking water treatment from laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

Catchments draining peat soils provide the majority of drinking water in the UK. Over the past decades, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have increased in surface waters. Residual DOC can cause harmful carcinogenic disinfection by-products to form during water treatment processes. Increased frequency and severity of droughts combined with and increased temperatures expected as the climate changes, have potentials to change water quality. We used a novel approach to investigate links between climate change, DOC release and subsequent effects on drinking water treatment. We designed a climate manipulation experiment to simulate projected climate changes and monitored releases from peat soil and litter, then simulated coagulation used in water treatment. We showed that the 'drought' simulation was the dominant factor altering DOC release and affected the ability to remove DOC. Our results imply that future short-term drought events could have a greater impact than increased temperature on DOC treatability. PMID:23207497

Tang, R; Clark, J M; Bond, T; Graham, N; Hughes, D; Freeman, C

2012-12-01

430

Epitaxy of rodlike organic molecules on sheet silicates--a growth model based on experiments and simulations.  

PubMed

During the last years, self-assembled organic nanostructures have been recognized as a proper fundament for several electrical and optical applications. In particular, phenylenes deposited on muscovite mica have turned out to be an outstanding material combination. They tend to align parallel to each other forming needlelike structures. In that way, they provide the key for macroscopic highly polarized emission, waveguiding, and lasing. The resulting anisotropy has been interpreted so far by an induced dipole originating from the muscovite mica substrate. Based on a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we present an alternative growth model being able to explain molecular adsorption on sheet silicates in terms of molecule-surface interactions only. By a comprehensive comparison between experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that geometrical changes in the substrate surface or molecule lead to different molecular adsorption geometries and needle directions which can be predicted by our growth model. PMID:21309570

Simbrunner, Clemens; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hernandez-Sosa, Gerardo; Oehzelt, Martin; Djuric, Tatjana; Resel, Roland; Romaner, Lorenz; Puschnig, Peter; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Salzmann, Ingo; Schwabegger, Günther; Watzinger, Irene; Sitter, Helmut

2011-02-10

431

Metabolic model of lead kinetics based upon measured organ burdens during chronic exposure experiments with infant and juvenile baboons  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of the kinetics of lead metabolism in the infant and juvenile baboon has been developed based upon data from chronic exposure experiments in this non-human primate. The model of lead metabolism presents in quantitative terms the rates of uptake, distribution and elimination that lead may undergo during its passage through the organism. The organs of accumulation are defined as compartments, each of which is defined as a quantity of tissue that behaves kinetically like a distinct, homogeneous, well mixed pool in terms of lead concentration. The flow of lead between the compartments of accumulation is described by a series of differential equations. Elimination rate coefficients, expressed in terms of the biological half-life for each compartment have been estimated. The model describes the observed build-up and accumulation of lead in the major body compartments of the infant and juvenile baboon. The model indicates that: the biological half-life of lead in blood of the very young animals is shorter than that of the older animals; there is a higher rate of uptake of lead in the soft tissues and in the bones of rapidly growing animals; and there is an inverse relationship between the quality of lead administered and the amount of lead absorbed, i.e., as exposure increases the rate of absorption decreases. The model derived for the older animals accurately predicts the accumulation and retention of lead in adult humans under normal exposure conditions.

Mallon, R.P.

1983-01-01

432

Matrix-addressable, active electrode arrays for neural stimulation using organic semiconductors—cytotoxicity and pilot experiments in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic field effect transistors can be integrated into micromachined polyimide-based neural stimulation electrode arrays in order to build active switching matrices. With this approach, a matrix of N × M electrode contacts requires only N + M interconnects to a stimulator when active switching elements are used instead of N × M interconnects. In this paper, we demonstrated that pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) can be used to drive stimulation currents through neural electrodes in a physiological-like environment. In order to prove the general applicability as an implant material, the cytotoxicity of pentacene was evaluated with respect to potential effects on cell viability. The results of these tests indicate that extracts from pentacene inhibit neither proliferation nor metabolism of the tested mouse fibroblasts. However, some effect on cell spreading was observed when cells were in direct contact to pentacene for 48 h. In pilot experiments it was demonstrated for the very first time that pentacene transistors can be used as switching elements, acting as voltage-controlled current sources, capable of driving currents suitable for electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve via a tripolar cuff electrode.

Feili, Dara; Schuettler, Martin; Stieglitz, Thomas

2008-03-01

433

Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

SciTech Connect

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-12-01

434

Toward a Full Simulation of the Basic Oxygen Furnace: Deformation of the Bath Free Surface and Coupled Transfer Processes Associated with the Post-Combustion in the Gas Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article treats different phenomena taking place in a steelmaking converter through the development of two separate models. The first model describes the cavity produced at the free surface of the metal bath by the high-speed impinging oxygen jet. The model is based on a zonal approach, where gas compressibility effects are taken into account only in the high velocity jet region, while elsewhere the gas is treated as incompressible. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to follow the deformation of the bath free surface. Calculations are presented for two- and three-phase systems and compared against experimental data obtained in a cold model experiment presented in the literature. The influence on the size and shape of the cavity of various parameters and models (including the jet inlet boundary conditions, the VOF advection scheme, and the turbulence model) is studied. Next, the model is used to simulate the interaction of a supersonic oxygen jet with the surface of a liquid steel bath in a pilot-scale converter. The second model concentrates on fluid flow, heat transfer, and the post-combustion reaction in the gas phase above the metal bath. The model uses the simple chemical reaction scheme approach to describe the transport of the chemical species and takes into account the consumption of oxygen by the bath and thermal radiative transfer. The model predictions are in reasonable agreement with measurements collected in a laboratory experiment and in a pilot-scale furnace.

Doh, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Djambazov, G.; Pericleous, K.; Ghazal, G.; Gardin, P.

2013-06-01

435

Organic Laboratory Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)|

Smith, Sherrel

1990-01-01

436

Damped harmonic oscillator: pure states of the bath and exact master equations.  

PubMed

Time evolution of a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a heat bath is compared for three classes of initial states for the bath modes-grand canonical ensemble, number states, and coherent states. It is shown that for a wide class of number states the behavior of the oscillator is similar to the case of the equilibrium bath. If the bath modes are initially in coherent states, then the variances of the oscillator coordinate and momentum, as well as its entanglement to the bath, asymptotically approach the same values as for the oscillator at zero temperature and the average coordinate and momentum show a Brownian-like behavior. We derive an exact master equation for the characteristic function of the oscillator valid for arbitrary factorized initial conditions. In the case of the equilibrium bath this equation reduces to an equation of the Hu-Paz-Zhang type, while for the coherent states bath it leads to an exact stochastic master equation with a multiplicative noise. PMID:14525053

Pereverzev, Andrey

2003-08-14

437

Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment.  

PubMed

A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2-3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (Delta(14)C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO(2) efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Delta(14)C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO(2) sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45-55 cm thaw depth), while CO(2) from the ambient snow areas was approximately 100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration Delta(14)C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO(2) in the atmosphere. PMID:20084398

Nowinski, Nicole S; Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E; Welker, Jeffrey M

2010-01-19

438

Method and apparatus for detecting defects in a material in a liquid bath  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for detecting defects in a material in a liquid bath, the system including a light that illuminates the material through the liquid bath, at least one camera with a view of the material through the liquid bath, and a digital processor in communication with the at least one camera. The at least one camera transmits image data to the digital processor and the digital processor analyzes the image data to identify defects in the material. In an embodiment of the invention, the system includes an anti-turbulence interface through which the at least one camera views the material.

2005-03-22

439

The dependence of exciton transport efficiency on spatial patterns of correlation within the spectral bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial correlations in spectral bath motions have been proposed to explain long-lived coherence in exciton transport. Systems of interest, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to organic photovoltaics, contain inhomogeneous environments. We consider the possibility that the degree of spatial correlation varies throughout an exciton transport system. We model exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex (FMO), a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex. Although it remains unclear whether significant spatial correlations exist in FMO, its very high exciton transport efficiency makes it an interesting case for studies of exciton transport. We also simulate a highly symmetric ten-site model system. We use an extension of the environment-assisted quantum transport model to simulate transport, allowing the spatial correlation function to vary throughout the system. We demonstrate both via analysis and via simulation that exciton transport efficiency is most sensitive to changes in correlation between the site coupled to the trap and its neighboring sites. This asymmetry in sensitivity is highly robust and appears irrespective of changes in parameters such as transition dipole orientations and initial conditions. Our results suggest that in the design of exciton transport systems, efforts to increase efficiency by controlling spatial correlation should be focused on the region near the site of exciton trapping.

Pelzer, Kenley M.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Griffin, Graham B.; Gray, Stephen K.; Engel, Gregory S.

2013-09-01

440

Hypercalcemic crisis resulting from near drowning in an indoor public bath  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Hypercalcemic crisis Symptoms: Near drowning state Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical care medicine Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Hypercalcemic crisis, generally caused by malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism, is a life-threatening emergency that can result in multi-organ failure. Lowering the patient’s calcium level immediately and determining the correct etiology are essential. Case Report: We report a case of hypercalcemic crisis with a novel etiology. A 66-year-old male presented to the emergency room in cardiac arrest with a ventricular arrhythmia after being discovered submerged in an indoor public bath. He underwent cardioversion and was emergently intubated. Computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary edema, suspected from water aspiration. Laboratory data revealed severe hypercalcemia and mild hypernatremia. Following three days of continuous hemodiafiltration, serum Ca decreased to and remained within normal limits. We concluded the etiology of hypercalcemia was absorption of Ca resulting from aspirated water. Conclusions: Near drowning can be a cause of hypercalcemic crisis. For cases of near drowning, it is important to investigate the source of the aspirated water and consider electrolyte abnormalities in the diagnosis.

Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Yamada, Go; Amano, Aya; Yamada, Tomoko; Hamamatsu, Keita; Murabe, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Toshihiko

2013-01-01

441

Abundance and biodiversity of soil microarthropods as influenced by different types of organic manure in a long-term field experiment in Central Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of long-term organic and mineral fertilization on soil microarthropods and soil chemical parameters in a field experiment under semi-arid conditions in Central Spain. Two different regimes of organic manuring, i.e. farmyard manure applied once in 3 years versus annual manuring with crop residues were compared. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents were increased markedly by farmyard manure,

Timo Kautz; Cristina López-Fando; Frank Ellmer

2006-01-01

442

Release of Reactive Halogen Species from Sea-Salt Aerosols under Tropospheric Conditions with/without the Influence of Organic Matter in Smog-Chamber Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments to investigate the release of reactive halogen species from sea-salt aerosol and the influence of organic matter were performed in an aerosol smog-chamber (3500 l), made of Teflon film (FEP 200A, Dupont). Smog chamber facilities at lowered temperature (coolable down to -25°C) enable us to simulate these reactions under polar, tropospheric conditions. First experiments were performed to investigate the production of atomic Br and Cl without the impact of organic aerosol. Br and Cl play an important role in atmospheric ozone depletion, particularly regarding ozone depletion events (bromine explosion) during polar spring. In these studies, the aerosol was generated by atomizing salt solutions containing the typical Br/Cl ratio of 1/660 in seawater by an ultrasonic nebulizer and increasing the Br content up to sixfold. To ensure the aqueous surface of the aerosol, the experiments were performed at relative humidities above 76%. We determined the atomic Cl and OH-radical concentrations from the simultaneous consumption of four reference hydrocarbons. The Br-radical concentration was calculated on the basis of ozone depletion. Organic aerosol may take part in these reaction cycles by halogenation and production of volatile organic halogens. Further experiments are planned to add organic aerosol for mechanistic and kinetic studies on the influence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and humic-like substances (HULIS) on bromine explosion. The formation of the secondary organic aerosol and the determination of possible halogenated gaseous and solid organic products will be studied using longpath-FTIR, DRIFTS, ATR-FTIR, GC-FID, GC-ECD, GC-MS, TPD-MS and DMA-CNC.

Balzer, N.; Behnke, W.; Bleicher, S.; Krueger, H.; Ofner, J.; Siekmann, F.; Zetzsch, C.

2008-12-01

443

Assessment of chemical and biochemical stabilization of organic C in soils from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK).  

PubMed

Biological and chemical stabilization of organic C was assessed in soils sampled from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK), representing a wide range of carbon inputs and managements by extracting labile, non-humified organic matter (NH) and humic substances (HS). Four sequentially extracted humic substances fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) were extracted and characterized before and after a 215-day laboratory incubation at 25 degrees C from two arable soils, a woodland soil and an occasionally stubbed soil. The fractions corresponded to biochemically stabilised SOM extracted in 0.5M NaOH (free fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA)) and chemically plus biochemically stabilised SOM extracted from the residue with 0.1M Na4P2O7 plus 0.1M NaOH (bound FA and HA). Our aim was to investigate the effects of chemical and biochemical stabilization on carbon sequestration. The non-humic to humic (NH/H) C ratio separated the soils into two distinct groups: arable soils (unless fertilised with farmyard manure) had an NH/H C ratio between 1.05 and 0.71, about twice that of the other soils (0.51-0.26). During incubation a slow, but detectable, decrease in the NH/H C ratio occurred in soils of C input equivalent or lower to 4Mgha(-1)y(-1), whereas the ratio remained practically constant in the other soils. Before incubation the free to bound humic C ratio increased linearly (R2=0.91) with C inputs in the soils from the Broadbalk experiment and decreased during incubation, showing that biochemical stabilization is less effective than chemical stabilization in preserving humic C. Changes in delta13C and delta15N after incubation were confined to the free FA fractions. The delta13C of free FA increased by 1.48 and 0.80 per thousand, respectively, in the stubbed and woodland soils, indicating a progressive biological transformation. On the contrary, a decrease was observed for the bound FA of both soils. Concomitantly, a Deltadelta15N of up to +3.52 per thousand was measured after incubation in the free FA fraction and a -2.58 Deltadelta15N in the bound FA. These changes, which occurred during soil incubation in the absence of C inputs, indicate that free FA fractions were utilised by soil microorganisms, and bound FA were decomposed and replaced, in part, by newly synthesized FA. The 13CPMAS-TOSS NMR spectra of free HA extracted before and after 215 days of incubation were mostly unchanged. In contrast, changes were evident in bound HA and showed an increase in aromatic C after incubation. PMID:18042372

De Nobili, M; Contin, M; Mahieu, N; Randall, E W; Brookes, P C

2007-11-26

444

Medical Malpractice Experience of Health Maintenance Organizations and Foundations for Medical Care. Supplement A: Health Maintenance Organizations - Medical Malpractice Insurance Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medical malpractice insurance problems associated with health maintenance organizations (HMO's) are explored. Historical trends in the malpractice insurance issue are reviewed. Arguments and theories upon which some observers might base the conclusion tha...

R. H. Mills J. L. Rogers

1973-01-01

445

Surface modification of 2205 duplex stainless steel by low temperature salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2205 stainless steel was modified by salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C in this study. The microstructure, surface hardness and erosion-corrosion resistance were systematically evaluated. Salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C can form a nitrocarburized layer, and with the treated time prolong, the thickness of the layer increased. By nitrocarburizing within 8 h, only expanded austenite (S phase) formed. With treated time increased, CrN gradually diffused from the places where there were ferrite grains in the layer before nitrocarburizing. Besides, the depth increased with the nitrocarburized time and the layer grew approximately conforms to the parabolic rate law. Salt bath nitrocarburizing can effectively improve the surface hardness of 2205 DSS. The erosion-corrosion resistance was improved by salt bath nitrocarburizing and the 16 h treated sample had the best erosion-corrosion behavior.

Huang, Runbo; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Si; Li, Mingxing; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

2013-04-01

446

BATH 2. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST CAMP H.M. SMITH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BATH 2. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

447

Equilibrium characteristics of tartrate and EDTA-based electroless copper deposition baths  

SciTech Connect

Electroless deposition of copper is being used for a variety of applications, one of them being the development of seed metallic layers on non-metals, which are widely used in electronic circuitry. Solution equilibrium characteristics of two electroless copper baths containing EDTA and tartrate as the complexing agents were studied as functions of pH, chelating agent and metal ion concentrations. Equilibrium diagrams were constructed for both cu-tartrate and Cu-EDTA systems. It was determined that copper is chiefly complexed as Cu(OH){sub 2}L{sub 2}{sup {minus}4} in the tartrate bath, and as CuA{sup {minus}2} in the EDTA bath, where L and A are the complexing tartrate and EDTA ligands, respectively. The operating ranges for electroless copper deposition were identified for both baths. Dependence of Cu(OH){sub 2} precipitation on the pH and species concentrations was also studied for these systems.

Ramasubramanian, M.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

1997-08-01

448

Nitride precipitation in salt-bath nitrided interstitial-free steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitride precipitation and its effect on microstrain in salt-bath nitrided interstitial-free steel were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. As the cooling rate after nitriding decreased, two nitrides, ??-Fe4N and ?\\

Tae-Ho Lee; Chang-Seok Oh; Min-Ku Lee; Sang-Won Han

2010-01-01

449

Plating bath for obtaining high strength, low stress nickel coatings on complex shapes having sharp corners  

DOEpatents

An electroplating bath capable of providing a nickel coating having excellent hardness, high tensile strength, and low internal stress is provided which contains nickel sulfamate, boric acid, nickel chloride hexahydrate, an aromatic sulfonic acid such as naphthalene trisulfonic acid and a surface tension-maintaining agent such as sodium lauryl sulfate. The nickel plating bath of the invention is capable of providing a nickel coating on surfaces of electrically conductive objects such as metals and metal alloys, and the resulting plated articles have tensile strengths of up to about 275 kpsi. The electroplating bath will be particularly useful in forming bright, lustrous, hard nickel coatings on electrically conductive surfaces having complex shapes and sharp corners. A method for electroplating conductive objects using this nickel bath is also provided.

Boring, M.D.; Coates, C.W.; Waldrop, R.C.

1990-02-12

450

75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 1215 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2009-0064] Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080...

2010-06-15

451

Factors Affecting 'Escherichia coli' Concentrations at Lake Erie Public Bathing Beaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes field studies done throughout the recreational season of 1997 (May through September) at three public bathing beaches in the Cleveland, Ohio, metropolitan area. Concentrations of E. coli were determined in water and lake-bottom sedim...

D. S. Francy R. A. Darner

1999-01-01

452

Bagni per l'Anodizzazione dell'Alluminio Senza Scarichi (Aluminium Anodizing Baths without Wastes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article, designed for the European community, presents some technically valid solutions for the problem of the regeneration of anodization and alkaline silking baths with a contemporary recuperation of aluminum salts.

A. P. di Silvio R. Finessi

1995-01-01

453

BATHING BEACH MONITORING PROTOCOLS/COMMUNICATING SWIMMING ACTIVITY RISK TO THE PUBLIC  

EPA Science Inventory

Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated that five water ...

454

Explicit system-bath correlation calculated using the hierarchical equations of motion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) method has recently been widely applied to many problems of quantum dynamics in condensed phase. It is now well known that the auxiliary density operators (ADOs) in the HEOM formalism contain system-bath correlations that are important in calculating various dynamical properties, yet quantitative relations to explicitly calculate such correlations from the ADOs are still scarce. This paper extends a previous study [Q. Shi et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 164518 (2009)] in investigating the physical meaning of ADOs to general spectral densities and lower temperature cases. Using the path-integral technique, we derive exact relations between the expectation values of the collective bath coordinate and the ADOs, which could be very useful in investigating the correlated system-bath dynamics directly with the HEOM formalism. Numerical examples concerning the evolution of the expectation values of the collective bath coordinate are also presented.

Zhu, Lili; Liu, Hao; Xie, Weiwei; Shi, Qiang

2012-11-01

455

Release of Reactive Halogen Species from Sea-Salt Aerosols under Tropospheric Conditions with\\/without the Influence of Organic Matter in Smog-Chamber Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to investigate the release of reactive halogen species from sea-salt aerosol and the influence of organic matter were performed in an aerosol smog-chamber (3500 l), made of Teflon film (FEP 200A, Dupont). Smog chamber facilities at lowered temperature (coolable down to -25°C) enable us to simulate these reactions under polar, tropospheric conditions. First experiments were performed to investigate the

N. Balzer; W. Behnke; S. Bleicher; H. Krueger; J. Ofner; F. Siekmann; C. Zetzsch

2008-01-01

456

Effect of temperature and pH of ammonium galvanic bath on the properties of Zn-Co alloy coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations on Zn-Co coatings obtained electrochemically in acidic and neutral ammonium baths are presented. The chemical composition, morphology and surface roughness of received coatings were determined together with the current efficiency. It was found that the coatings morphology depends on the process parameters. In the case of neutral bath the increase of bath temperature resulted in decrease of cobalt contents in the coatings, whereas it was not practically observed for acidic baths. It was also observed that surface roughness of the Zn-Co coatings decreased with the increase of temperature for both types of baths. It was also found that the grain size of coatings obtained in neutral bath depends on pH of bath.

Maciej, A.; Michalska, J.; Simka, W.; Nawrat, G.; Piotrowski, J.

2011-05-01

457

Electroless Plating of Palladium on Stainless Steel Substrates in Hydrazine Solutions: A Study of the Relationships Between Bath Parameters, Deposition Mechanisms, and Deposit Morphologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a reliable and inexpensive method for producing hydrogen permeable membranes is of intense interest to ongoing fuel cell research. This study investigated electroless plating of palladium onto stainless steel substrates in hydrazine solution as a possible means of membrane production. Following initial research to establish the optimum infiltrant particle size, sensitization time, and activation time, electroless plating experiments were performed to determine the effects of varying hydrazine concentration, agitation, and residence time on the palladium deposit quality and morphology. SEM examination of the experimental products elucidated relationships between specific plating bath parameters or combinations of parameters, the governing deposition mechanisms, and the deposit morphologies. The results indicate that it is possible to produce application-specific deposit layer morphologies by modifying the plating bath parameters at critical stages of the plating cycle.

Davis, Stacy

458

Synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by ultrasonic bath: effect of external magnetic field.  

PubMed

A novel technique was used for the synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by applying an external magnetic field (EMF) on the precursor solution before sonication with ultrasonic bath. The results were compared in the presence and absence of EMF. Manganese acetate solution as precursor was circulated by a pump at constant speed (7 rpm, equal to flow rate of 51.5 mL/min) in an EMF with intensity of 0.38 T in two exposure times (t(MF), 2h and 24h). Then, the magnetized solution was irradiated indirectly by ultrasonic bath in basic and neutral media. One experiment was designed for the effect of oxygen atmosphere in the case of magnetic treated solution in neutral medium. The as prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, TEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) analysis. In neutral medium, the sonication of magnetized solution (t(MF), 24h) led mainly to a mixture of Mn(3)O(4) (hausmannite) and ?-MnOOH (manganite) and sonication of unmagnetized solution led to a pure Mn(3)O(4). In point of particle size, the larger and smaller size of nanoparticles was obtained with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. In addition, the EMF was retarded the nucleation process, accelerated the growth of the crystal, and increased the amount of rod-like structure especially in oxygen atmosphere. In basic medium, a difference was observed on the composition of the products between magnetic treated and untreated solution. For these samples, the magnetic measurements as a function of temperature were exhibited a reduction in ferrimagnetic temperature to T(c)=39K, and 40K with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. The ferrimagnetic temperature was reported for the bulk at T(c)=43K. A superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature without any saturation magnetization and hysteresis in the measured field strength. The effect of EMF on the sample prepared in the basic medium was negligible but, in the case of neutral medium, the EMF affected the slope of the magnetization curves. The magnetization at room temperature was higher for the samples obtained in neutral medium without magnetic treatment. In addition, a horizontal shift loop was observed in neutral medium at low temperature. PMID:22221536

Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H

2011-12-13

459

Numerical and analytical approach to the quantum dynamics of two coupled spins in bosonic baths  

SciTech Connect

The quantum dynamics of a spin chain interacting with multiple bosonic baths is described in a mixed Wigner-Heisenberg representation. The formalism is illustrated by simulating the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of two coupled spins, where each spin is also coupled to its own bath of harmonic oscillators. In order to prove the validity of the approach, an analytical solution in the Born-Markov approximation is found. The agreement between the two methods is shown.

Sergi, Alessandro; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco [School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01 Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg (South Africa); Quantum Research Group, School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Quantum Research Group, School of Physics and National Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001 (South Africa)

2009-07-15

460

Trace metal determinations in nickel-plating baths by polarographic methods  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the use of polarographic methods to determine 0.1 to 50.0 mg/l quantities of the trace metals arsenic, antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium, and lead in nickel-plating baths. Except for arsenic, these elements are determined simultaneously without sample preparation. A comparison of the lead results obtained by polarography and colorimetry emphasizes the advantages of polarography to determine trace elements in nickel-plating baths.

Powell, M.R.; Kirkpatrick, C.R.; Sullivan, H.H.

1985-01-31

461

Copper pyrophosphate\\/PY61H plating bath: chemical variables, synergism, and electrodeposition mechanism. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study identified chemically PY61H, a proprietary agent used in copper pyrophosphate baths for its brightening and leveling properties for plated through-holes of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Numerous weapons programs incorporate printed wiring boards. PY61H consisted primarily of the dipotassium salt of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole. Laboratory-scale prototypes of production baths demonstrated that the dimercaptothiadiazole salt can produce a bright plate analogous to

Borhani

1981-01-01

462

Determination of additives in an electrolytic zinc bath by q 1 H-NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) for the quantification of additives in an electrolytic Zn bath is reported. A simple and quick method is described\\u000a that does not need any prior sample preparation. Contrary to other analytical methods, the three additives in the bath, benzylidene\\u000a acetone (BDA), benzoic acid (BA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PE400), can be quantified. Two

Ainara Barriola; José I. Miranda; Miren Ostra; Carlos Ubide

2010-01-01

463

On the wear of a cobalt-based superalloy in zinc baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journal bearings made of a cobalt-based superalloy, trade marked STELLITE 6, were evaluated in zinc baths with and without\\u000a the presence of aluminum and iron. The sleeve and the bushing wore evenly when tested in a pure zinc bath. The surfaces were\\u000a generally smooth and covered by some rather fine grooves after the test. The wear of the bearings was

K. Zhang; N. Y. Tang

2003-01-01

464

Effect of the structure and properties of hearth carbon blocks on premature shutdown of electrolytic baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premature shutdown of electrolytic baths after a short service life leads to an increase in the cost of aluminum and serious\\u000a economic losses. The most important element governing the service life of an electrolytic bath is the hearth that is lined\\u000a with refractory hearth blocks. Presence of one concealed crack, that is exposed in the start-up period, may lead to

A. A. Yurkov; S. A. Khramenko; V. I. Borisov

2008-01-01

465

Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline iron group thin film alloys electrodeposited from sulfate and chloride baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic studies of iron group binary (NiCo and CoFe) and ternary (CoNiFe) thin film alloys relating their magnetic properties with film composition, grain size and the corresponding crystal structure were investigated. Anions influence current efficiencies, magnetic properties, surface morphology and phases of electrodeposited films. Higher current efficiencies in chloride baths compared to sulfate baths were observed for CoFe, NiCo and

Daheum Kim; D.-Y. Park; B. Y. Yoo; P. T. A. Sumodjo; N. V. Myung

2003-01-01

466

LIGA fabrication of nanocrystalline Ni–W alloy micro specimens from ammonia-citrate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia-citrate bath has been investigated for the deposition of nano crystalline Ni–W alloy micro components using the LIGA\\u000a process. First the bath stability and deposit characteristics were studied. Fabrication of micro specimens were then carried\\u000a out on silicon substrates covered with novolac as well as thick PMMA resist for LIGA. Effects of different parameters like\\u000a current density, nickel ion and

A. S. M. A. Haseeb; K. Bade

2008-01-01

467

Stabilization of photon collapse and revival dynamics by a non-Markovian phonon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state-based light emitters such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have b