Science.gov

Sample records for organ bath experiments

  1. Bathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tub or shower. • Always check the water temperature before he or she gets in the tub ... to do, step by step. • Make sure the water temperature is comfortable. • Don’t use bath oil. It ...

  2. Measurement of angiotensin metabolites in organ bath and cell culture experiments by liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Bujak-Gizycka, B; Madej, J; Wołkow, P P; Olszanecki, R; Drabik, L; Rutowski, J; Korbut, R

    2007-09-01

    The metabolism of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is more complicated than previously expected and understanding the biological phenomena regulated by variety of angiotensin metabolites requires their precise and possibly comprehensive quantitation. Physiological concentrations of angiotensins (Ang) in biological fluids are low, therefore their accurate measurements require very sensitive and specific analytical methods. In this study we developed an accurate and reproducible method of quantitation of angiotensin metabolites through coupling of liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). With this method main angiotensin metabolites (Ang I, II, III, IV, 1-9, 1-7, 1-5) can be reliably measured in organ bath of rat tissues (aorta, renal artery, periaortal adipose tissue) and in medium of cultured endothelial cells (EA.hy926), exposed to Ang I for 15 minutes, in the absence or in the presence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, perindoprilat. Presented LC-ESI-MS method proved to be a quick and reliable solution to comprehensive analysis of angiotensin metabolism in biological samples. PMID:17928648

  3. A Complex Organic Slushy Bathing Low-Mass Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous companions of young forming stars. They were first observed in hot cores surrounding high-mass protostars [e.g., 1], but have since also been detected in the environs of several low-mass counterparts [e.g., 2]. Recent studies have shown that colder envelopes and positions with impinging outflows may also glow with emission from complex organic species [e.g., 3, 4]. For this meeting, I would like to present physicochemical modeling results on the synthesis of complex organics in an envelope-cavity system that is subject to non-thermal processing. This includes wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations with RADMC [5] and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network [6]. The results show that the morphology of such a system delineates three distinct regions: the cavity wall layer with time-dependent and species-variant enhancements; a torus rich in complex organic ices, but not reflected in gas-phase abundances; and the remaining outer envelope abundant in simpler solid and gaseous molecules. Within the adopted paradigm, complex organic molecules are demonstrated to have unique lifetimes and be grouped into early and late species [7]. Key chemical processes for forming and destroying complex organic molecules will be discussed. In addition, the results of adding newly experimentally verified routes [8] into the existing chemical networks will be shown.[1] Blake G. A., Sutton E. C., Masson C. R., Phillips T. G., 1987, ApJ, 315, 621[2] Jørgensen J. K., Favre C., Bisschop S. E., Bourke T. L., van Dishoeck E. F., Schmalzl M., 2012, ApJ, 757, L4[3] Arce H. G., Santiago-García J., Jørgensen J. K., Tafalla M., Bachiller R., 2008, ApJ, 681, L21[4] Öberg K. I., Bottinelli S., Jørgensen J. K., van Dishoeck E. F., 2010, ApJ, 716, 825[5] Dullemond C. P., Dominik C., 2004, A&A, 417, 159[6] Walsh C., Millar T. J., Nomura H., Herbst E., Widicus Weaver S., Aikawa Y., Laas J. C., Vasyunin A. I., 2014, A&A, 563, A33[7] Drozdovskaya

  4. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    PubMed

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments. PMID:26109238

  5. Quench dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of a bath: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rançon, A.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Chin, Cheng; Levin, K.

    2013-09-01

    In this Rapid Communication we study the transient dynamics of a Bose superfluid subsequent to an interaction quench. Essential for equilibration is a source of dissipation which we include following the approach of Caldeira and Leggett. Here we solve the equations of motion exactly by integrating out an environmental bath. We thereby derive precisely the time dependent density correlation functions with the appropriate analytic and asymptotic properties. The resulting structure factor exhibits the expected damping and thereby differs from that of strict Bogoliubov theory. These damped sound modes, which reflect the physics beyond mean-field approaches, are characterized and the structure factors are found to compare favorably with experiment.

  6. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin

  7. "Bath salts" and "plant food" products: the experience of one regional US poison center.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christine M; Dulaney, Anna R; Beuhler, Michael C; Kacinko, Sherri

    2013-03-01

    Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active β-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited studies describing the clinical effects associated with reported "bath salts" exposure in the USA. This study describes the clinical effects associated with "bath salt" and "plant food" exposures as reported to the poison center serving the state of North Carolina (Carolinas Poison Center). We performed a retrospective review of the Carolinas Poison Center database for all cases of reported human exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products from 2010 to 2011 with specific attention to clinical effects and routes of exposure. Additionally, we reviewed therapies used, trended the volume of exposure cases reported over the study period, and evaluated the distribution of calls within state counties using descriptive statistics. Carolinas Poison Center received 485 total calls and 409 reported exposure calls regarding "bath salt" or "plant food" products between January of 2010 and December of 2011. The peak of reported exposures occurred in May of 2011. Clinical effects commonly reported in the exposure cases generated from these calls included tachycardia (53.3 %, n = 218), agitated/irritable (50.4 %, n = 206), hallucination/delusions (26.7 %, n = 109), and hypertension (25.2 %, n = 103). In addition to intravenous fluids, common therapies included benzodiazepines (46.0 %, n = 188), sedation (13.4 %, n = 55), alkalinization (3.90 %, n = 16), antihistamine (4.16 %, n = 17), and intubation (3.67 %, n = 15). Haloperidol was the antipsychotic agent used most often to treat agitation (n = 40). Serious complications associated with reported exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products

  8. The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

    1988-01-01

    According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

  9. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  10. Tripolar-cuff deviation from ideal model: assessment by bioelectric field simulations and saline-bath experiments.

    PubMed

    Triantis, Iasonas F; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    Ideally, interference in neural measurements due to signals from nearby muscles can be completely eliminated with the use of tripolar cuffs, in combination with appropriate amplifier configurations, such as the quasi-tripole (QT) and the true-tripole (TT). The operation of these amplifiers, is based on the theoretical property of the nerve cuff to produce a linear relationship of potential versus distance along its length, internally, when external potentials appear between its ends. Thus, in principle, electroneurogram (ENG) recordings from an ideal tripolar cuff would be free from electromyogram (EMG) interference generated by nearby muscles. However, in practice the cuff exhibits non-ideal behaviour leading to "cuff imbalance". The main focus of this paper is to investigate the causes of cuff imbalance, to demonstrate that it should be incorporated as a main parameter in the theoretical ENG-recording cuff electrode model. In addition to cuff asymmetry and tissue growth, the proximity of the interference source to the cuff is shown to result in cuff imbalance. The influence of proximity imbalance on the performance of the QT and TT amplifiers is also considered. Proximity imbalance is studied using bioelectric field simulations and saline-bath experiments. Variation is observed with both distance (40 mm and 70 mm was examined) and orientation (0-180 degrees), with the latter causing a more severe effect especially when the source dipole and the cuff are vertical to each other. The simulations and measurements are in close agreement. Tissue growth imbalance and asymmetry imbalance are also investigated in vitro. Finally, the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR; ENG/EMG) of the QT and TT amplifiers is examined in the presence of cuff imbalance. It is shown that proximity imbalance results in their SIR to peak only at certain cuff orientation values. This important finding offers an insight as to why in practice ENG recordings using these amplifiers have been widely

  11. Evaluating the operational utility of a Bacteroidales quantitative PCR-based MST approach in determining the source of faecal indicator organisms at a UK bathing water.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Carl M; Kay, David; Wyer, Mark D; Davies, Cheryl; Watkins, John; Kay, Chris; McDonald, Adrian T; Porter, Jonathan; Gawler, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    Microbial source tracking techniques are used in the UK to provide an evidence-base to guide major expenditure decisions and/or regulatory action relating to sewage disposal. Consequently, it is imperative that the techniques used robustly index faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) that are the regulatory parameters for bathing and shellfish harvesting areas. This study reports a 'field-scale' test of microbial source tracking (MST) based on the quantitative PCR analyses of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic marker sequences. The project acquired data to test the operational utility of quantitative Bacteroidales MST data, comparing it with FIO concentrations in streams, effluents and bathing waters. Overall, the data did not exhibit a consistent pattern of significant correlations between Bacteroidales MST parameters and FIOs within the different sample matrices (i.e. rivers, bathing waters and/or effluents). Consequently, there was little evidence from this study that reported concentrations and/or percentages of human and/or ruminant faecal loadings (that are based on Bacteroidales MST gene copy numbers) offer a credible evidence-base describing FIO contributions to receiving water 'non-compliance'. The study also showed (i) there was no significant attenuation of the Bacteroidales gene copy number 'signal' through the UV disinfection process; and (ii) single non-compliant samples submitted for Bacteroidales MST analysis, do not reliably characterise the balance of faecal loadings due to the high variability in the MST signal observed. At this stage in the development of the MST tool deployed, it would be imprudent to use the percentage human and/or ruminant contributions (i.e. as indicated by MST data acquired at a bathing water) as the sole or principal element in the evidence-base used to guide major expenditure decisions and/or regulatory action. PMID:19783026

  12. The influence of peptide impurity profiles on functional tissue-organ bath response: the 11-mer peptide INSL6[151-161] case.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, Mathieu; Wynendaele, Evelien; Lefebvre, Romain A; Goossens, Els; Spiegeleer, Bart De

    2012-02-15

    Bioactive peptides have great pharmaceutical potential as nutraceuticals, diagnostics, and therapeutic drugs in several clinical areas. Thus, the search for novel lead peptides with a biological function has attracted renewed interest. Crude peptide material (i.e., ~70% purity) of INSL6[151-161] (NH₂-FRSLFWGNHSQ-COOH) was found to trigger a contractile response in guinea pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle preparations using tissue-organ baths. However, the purified peptide (i.e., ≥ 95% purity) had no effect on this model. Further investigation with crude materials from other suppliers, with purities ranging between 50% and 80%, indicated that the crude products gave a false-positive functional tissue-organ bath conclusion. These observations question the functionality conclusions when using crude-purity peptide materials; during the initial research or discovery phase, peptide quality is generally neglected, possibly leading to misinterpretation of biological results due to by-products from peptide synthesis and, thus, wrong fail/pass decisions. Therefore, we strongly recommend appropriate quality control testing before using any peptides for initial biomedical research or discovery purposes. PMID:22033292

  13. Mobile wedges in an active turbulent bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Lowen, Hartmut; Aronson, Igor S.

    The motion of micro-wedges in a turbulent bacterial bath is explored using computer simulations with explicit modeling of the bacteria and experiments. We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. We will show that both polar ordering and swirl shielding inside the wedge yield an optimal transport velocity. Finally, we show the behavior of several wedges exposed to a bacterial bath.

  14. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  15. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  16. Physiological evidence for the presence of a cis-trans isomerase of unsaturated fatty acids in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath to adapt to the presence of toxic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Claudia; Eberlein, Christian; Mäusezahl, Ines; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2010-07-01

    The physiology of the response in the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath towards thermal and solvent stress was studied. A systematic investigation of the toxic effects of organic compounds (chlorinated phenols and alkanols) on the growth of this bacterium was carried out. The sensitivity to the tested alkanols correlated with their chain length and hydrophobicity; methanol was shown to be an exception to which the cells showed a very high tolerance. This can be explained by the adaptation of these bacteria to growth on C1 compounds. On the other hand, M. capsulatus Bath was very sensitive towards the tested chlorinated phenols. The high toxic effect of phenolic compounds on methanotrophic bacteria might be explained by the occurrence of toxic reactive oxygen species. In addition, a physiological proof of the presence of cis-trans isomerization as a membrane-adaptive response mechanism in M. capsulatus was provided. This is the first report on physiological evidence for the presence of the unique postsynthetic membrane-adaptive response mechanism of the cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in a bacterium that does not belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Vibrio where this mechanism was already reported and described extensively. PMID:20487020

  17. Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

  18. Alternatives to hexachlorophene bathing of newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hnatko, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    In controlled trials newborn infants were bathed with Lactacyd, pHisoHex, Hibitane, Lanohex or tap water. Bacteriologic samples were taken from three sites (groin, axilla and cord) immediately after birth, following an initial bath with one of the test agents, and on day 3 or 5 after a water bath. Initial bathing with all agents, including water, reduced the concentration of bacteria on the skin to a similar extent. However, comparisons of bacterial flora at birth versus those on days 3 and 5 indicated differences in the actions of the various agents on pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. Lactacyd and Hibitane appeared to be suitable alternatives to hexachlorophene in the control of pathogenic bacteria on the skin of newborns. However, their absorption and toxicity in the newborn are unknown and, unless use of a skin disinfectant is warranted, routine bathing of newborns with tap water appears to be satisfactory. PMID:328126

  19. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  20. Using Language to Organize Academic Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Miriam T.

    The specific goal of language instruction at any level is to develop students' communicative abilities by increasing their awareness of necessary linguistic tools. The degree to which instructors in the English classroom are successful in attaining this specific goal is dependent on the ability of students to organize their experiences. College…

  1. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  2. Organ donation experiences of family members.

    PubMed

    Manuel, April; Solberg, Shirley; MacDonald, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research study was to describe and interpret what life is like for individuals who have consented to donate the organs of a deceased relative for transplantation. This study captures the meaning of this phenomenon in a way to help nurses develop new insights into the lives of these individuals, enable them to implement strategies to better assist and support the family, and perhaps decrease barriers to organ donation. Thematic analysis of the participants' narrative descriptions identified five essential themes: the struggle to acknowledge the death, the need for a positive outcome of the death, creating a living memory, buying time, and the significance of support networks in the organ donation decision. The integration of these themes revealed the essence of the experience as creating of a sense of peace. These five themes and the essence of the experience are discussed in relation to the literature, followed by recommendations for future nursing practice, education, and research. PMID:20629462

  3. Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

  4. Ultrasonic bath depth control and regulation in single cell recordings.

    PubMed

    Duong Dinh, Thien An; Jüngling, Eberhard; Strotmann, Karl-Heinz; Westhofen, Martin; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    Control of the bath depth is critical in many applications of the patch-clamp technique, particularly when the capacitance of cells is determined to assess secretion or transmitter release or in studies of ion currents sensitive to small changes in the hydrostatic pressure. We describe an inexpensive technique for tight control of the bath depth with the aid of a commercially available ultrasound sensor. The sensor continuously determines changes in the distance to the bath surface with a resolution of about 10 mum. The signal from the sensor is digitized in a microcontroller card and used to send on or off signals at 100 Hz to a peristaltic pump that removes volume from the bath. The inflow into the bath can be realized in a versatile way. The capacitance of Sylgard-coated patch-clamp glass electrodes, demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to small changes in the area moistened by bath solution, is constant within the noise level of +/-3 fF when immersed into a depth-controlled bath, even during exchange of the bath medium. Thus, when small changes in the cell capacitance are measured in patch-clamp experiments, errors due to alterations in the pipette capacitance caused by bath depth fluctuations are eliminated. PMID:16721611

  5. [Immersion in a bath despite a safety bath chair].

    PubMed

    Christensen, H B; Lange, A

    1989-01-01

    A case of submersion is described. A mother left her child aged 8 1/2 months sitting in a "safety bath chair" in a full bath and found the child lying under the water shortly afterwards. The infant was hypotonic for a brief period but rapidly recovered without sequelae. Use of a "safety bath chair" gives a false sense of security and its use is warned against. PMID:2911907

  6. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Justin C. T.; Blakemore, Andrea L.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2010-06-01

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many industrial processes where uniformity of coating is desirable. We report work on an idealized version of this situation, the drag-out of a single bubble in Landau-Levich-Derjaguin flow. We find that a well-defined critical wall speed exists, separating the two regimes of bubble persistence at the meniscus and bubble deposition on the moving wall. Experiments show that this transition occurs at Ca∗˜Bo0.73. A similar result is obtained theoretically by balancing viscous stresses and gravity.

  7. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  8. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  9. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  10. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  11. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  12. Assisting Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Bathing: Effects of Two Bathing Interventions on Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeffer, Beverly; Talerico, Karen Amann; Rasin, Joyce; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Stewart, Babara J.; McKenzie, Darlene; Barrick, Ann Louise; Rader, Joanne; Sloane, Philip D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: When cognitively impaired nursing home residents exhibit agitated and aggressive behaviors during bathing, nursing home caregivers are in a unique position to improve residents' experience. This report addresses whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) who received training in a person-centered approach with showering and with the…

  13. Chlorhexidine gluconate: to bathe or not to bathe?

    PubMed

    Rubin, Caroline; Louthan, Rufina Bavin; Wessels, Erica; McGowan, Mary-Bridgid; Downer, Shantee; Maiden, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite infection-prevention initiatives, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are still a common occurrence. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is an important antibacterial agent. Research indicates that the intervention of bathing with CHG can reduce the number of HAIs. Chlorhexidine gluconate is known to reduce the bioload of several bacteria, including multiple strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research regarding the intervention of bathing with CHG was assessed and found to reduce central line-related blood stream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The reduction in HAIs was found to be greater as compared to bathing with soap and water. The reduction of these HAIs will allow for a saving of resources, finances and staff time, which may ultimately be passed on to the patient. While further research is indicated, a strong conclusion is drawn that bathing with CHG reduces the number of HAIs. PMID:23470709

  14. Grooming, Bathing and Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wet One of the most common problems that amputees encounter is maintaining balance while bathing and climbing ... 18/2014 Back to Top © Copyrighted by the Amputee Coalition . Local reproduction for use by Amputee Coalition ...

  15. Autogenous grinding for bath scraps recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Pinoncely, A.; Podda, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the early 80`s, FCB designed an original process for the recycling of bath scraps in Aluminum smelters, using a single stage fully air-swept autogenous mill. Since then, the 9 industrial references confirmed and even exceeded the expectation in terms of dust-free and easy to run operation, high recovery ratio of bath among the metallic scraps, and low maintenance cost. Problems encountered on conventional processes belong to the old days, and new projects tend to give an increasing importance to classification and storage of crushed products, autogenous grinding being already recognized as the most suitable, simple and reliable process route. The present paper describes this original process and draws up the overall performances of ten years of experience.

  16. Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chloupek-McGough, Marge

    1989-01-01

    Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)

  17. A Series of Synthetic Organic Experiments Demonstrating Physical Organic Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yousry; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones. Includes concepts on kinetic versus thermodynamic control of reaction, rearrangement of a secondary carbocation to a tertiary cation, and the effect of the size of the base on orientation during elimination. (MVL)

  18. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    PubMed

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary. PMID:19328932

  19. Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF. PMID:22805742

  20. Organizing a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-01-01

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. PMID:17136163

  1. The Organization of Reports of Scientific Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Beginning teachers of scientific technical writing often have little background knowledge in the sciences; thus, they may encounter difficulty in dealing with technical reports. To achieve clear explanations of the effects of scientific experiments, scientific writers need to know the following general principles: (1) the function of all the…

  2. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  3. Ordination of the estuarine environment: What the organism experiences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators customarily schedule estuary sampling trips with regard to a variety of criteria, especially tide stage and the day-night cycle. However, estuarine organisms experience a wide suite of continuously changing tide and light conditions. Such organisms may undertake i...

  4. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  5. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  6. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  11. Dissipative Landau-Zener transitions of a qubit: Bath-specific and universal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Keiji; Wubs, Martijn; Kohler, Sigmund; Haenggi, Peter; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2007-06-01

    We study Landau-Zener transitions in a qubit coupled to a bath at zero temperature. A general formula that is applicable to models with a nondegenerate ground state is derived. We calculate exact transition probabilities for a qubit coupled to either a bosonic or a spin bath. The nature of the baths and the qubit-bath coupling is reflected in the transition probabilities. For diagonal coupling, when the bath causes energy fluctuations of the diabatic qubit states but no transitions between them, the transition probability coincides with the standard Landau-Zener probability of an isolated qubit. This result is universal as it does not depend on the specific type of bath. For pure off-diagonal coupling, by contrast, the tunneling probability is sensitive to the coupling strength. We discuss the relevance of our results for experiments on molecular nanomagnets, in circuit QED, and for the fast-pulse readout of superconducting phase qubits.

  12. Bath-induced paroxysmal disorders in infancy.

    PubMed

    Nechay, Alla; Stephenson, John B P

    2009-05-01

    We reviewed those paroxysmal disorders of infancy and of the newborn in which the normal process of bathing may be an important trigger. We focused on infant bathing in normal temperature water (37 degrees C, range 36-38 degrees C) rather than in hot water that is above body temperature. Four principal diagnostic categories emerged: bathing epilepsy, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, hyperekplexia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. Bathing or water immersion epilepsy was the best studied and is arguably distinct from hot water epilepsy. The paroxysmal episodes previously attributed to aquagenic urticaria may have been examples of bathing epilepsy with a genetic component. Despite suggestions in the literature to the contrary, no convincing reports of bath-induced infantile syncope have been found. The underlying mechanisms of bath-induced paroxysmal disorders in infancy remain poorly understood, but all have autonomic manifestations and some if not all may be channelopathies. PMID:18571948

  13. Displacement of an Electrically Charged Drop on a Vibrating Bath.

    PubMed

    Brandenbourger, M; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2016-01-29

    In this work, the manipulation of an electrically charged droplet bouncing on a vertically vibrated bath is investigated. When a horizontal, uniform, and static electric field is applied to it, a motion is induced. The droplet is accelerated when the droplet is small. On the other hand, large droplets appear to move with a constant speed that depends linearly on the applied electrical field. In the latter regime, high-speed imaging of one bounce reveals that the droplet experiences an acceleration due to the electrical force during the flight and decelerates to 0 when interacting with the surface of the bath. Thus, the droplet moves with a constant average speed on a large time scale. We propose a criterion based on the force necessary to move a charged droplet at the surface of the bath to discriminate between constant speed and accelerated droplet regimes. PMID:26871337

  14. Organic crystal growth experiment facility (13-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbayashi, Akio

    1992-01-01

    The interesting nature of metal-like organic compounds composed of charge transfer complexes has been recently realized. Crystals of these complexes can usually be grown by the solution crystallization method. It is difficult to grow such organic crystals on Earth, especially from the chemical reactions through diffusion controlled process in the solutions, because of gravitational disturbances, or sedimentation. The International Microgravity Lab. (IML-1) Organic Crystal Growth with G-Gitter Preventive Measure (OCGP) experiment is expected to grow a single crystal large enough to allow its intrinsic physical properties to be measured and its detailed crystal structure to be determined. This experiment also attempts to assess the experimental conditions including the microgravity environment for further study of the fundamental process of solution crystallization, nucleation, and growth from supersaturated phases including chemical reactions. Microgravity disturbances, G-jitter, may be an important environmental factor in the experimental method to assess. The vibration damping effects on organic crystal growth can be carefully studied.

  15. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  16. Bed bathing patients in hospital.

    PubMed

    Downey, Lindsey; Lloyd, Hilary

    There are a number of circumstances that may affect an individual's ability to maintain personal hygiene. Hospitalised patients, and in particular those who are bedridden, may become dependent on nursing staff to carry out their hygiene needs. Assisting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. However, it is a task often delegated to junior or newly qualified staff. This article focuses on the principles of bed bathing patients in hospital, correct procedure and the importance of maintaining patient dignity and respect in clinical practice. PMID:18543852

  17. [Ofuji papuloerythroderma: PUVA bath treatment].

    PubMed

    Michel, S; Hohenleutner, U; Landthaler, M

    1999-05-01

    Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji is a rare skin disorder described primarily in Japanese patients. It occurs primarily in elderly men. The initial lesions are diffuse red papules, sparing the face, palms and soles. Later the papules coalesce into an erythroderma, with typical sparing of the skin folds and creases (the deck chair sign). Pruritus is usually intense. Lymphadenopathy, peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated IgE levels all are common. Both systemic corticosteroids and systemic PUVA therapy have been recommended. We describe a German male who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for papuloerythroderma of Ofuji and responded well to PUVA bath therapy with both improvement in skin findings and reduction in pruritus. PMID:10412634

  18. Column experiments on organic micropollutants - applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Hebig, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    As organic micropollutants become more and more ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, a sound understanding of their fate and transport behaviour is needed. This is to assure both safe and clean drinking water supply for mankind in the future and to protect the aquatic environment from pollution and negative consequences caused by manmade contamination. Apart from countless field studies, column experiments were and are frequently used to study transport of organic micropollutants. As the transport of (organic) solutes in groundwater is controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the compounds, the solvent (the groundwater including all solutes), and the substrate (the aquifer material), the adjustment and control of these boundary conditions allow to study a multitude of different experimental setups and to address specific research questions. The main purpose, however, remains to study the transport of a specific compound and its sorption and degradation behaviour in a specific sediment or substrate. Apart from the effective control of the individual boundary conditions, the main advantage of columns studies compared to other experimental setups (such as field studies, batch/microcosm studies), is that conservative and reactive solute breakthrough curves are obtained, which represent the sum of the transport processes. The analysis of these curves is well-developed and established. Additionally, limitations of this experimental method are presented here: the effects observed in column studies are often a result of dynamic, non-equilibrium processes. Time (or flow velocity) plays a major role in contrast to batch experiments, in which all processes will be observed until equilibrium is reached in the substrate-solution-system. Slightly modifying boundary conditions in different experiments have a strong influence on transport and degradation behaviour of organic micropollutants. This is a significant severe issue when it comes to general findings on the

  19. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  20. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  1. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  2. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

  3. Noncyanide cadmium plating baths. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, F.; Agarwala, V.S.

    1991-10-04

    One approach to minimizing toxic wastes is to eliminate the use of cyanide plating baths. Non-cyanide zinc plating baths have been successfully developed and have found widespread use. An investigation was conducted in an attempt to accomplish similar results with cadmium plating baths. The focus of this study was on additives to a near neutral cadmium bath, free of complexing agents. A Hull cell was used to enable visualization of deposits over a broad range of cathode current densities. Experimental design (Taguchi Method) was used to optimize bath parameters and constituent concentrations. Bath parameters have been developed which indicate promise for producing dense deposits with good covering power, and relatively low tendency for hydrogen embrittlement.

  4. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  5. Finite-Size Bath in Qubit Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the above qubit plus finite-size bath, but now the latter is coupled to a practically infinite bath of the same nature of oscillators or two-level systems.

  6. Finite-Size Bath in Qubit Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the above qubit plus finite-size bath, but now the latter is coupled to a practically infinite bath of the same nature of oscillators or two-level systems.

  7. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  8. Organ donation and transplantation-the Chennai experience in India.

    PubMed

    Shroff, S; Rao, S; Kurian, G; Suresh, S

    2007-04-01

    Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the "Transplantation of Human Organ Act" of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed a network between hospitals for organ sharing. From the year 2000 to 2006 an organ sharing network was started in Tamil Nadu and the facilitator of this programme has been a non-government organization called MOHAN (acronym for Multi Organ Harvesting Aid Network) Foundation. The organs shared during the period number over 460 organs in two regions (both Tamil Nadu and Hyderabad). In Tamil Nadu the shared organs have included 166 Kidneys, 24 livers, 6 hearts, and 180 eyes. In 2003 sharing network was initiated by MOHAN in Hyderabad and to some extent the Tamil Nadu model was duplicated. with some success and 96 cadaver organs have been transplanted in the last 3 years. There are many advantages of organ sharing including the cost economics. At present there is a large pool of brain dead patients who could become potential organ donors in the major cities in India. Their organs are not being utilized for various support logistics. A multi-pronged strategy is required for the long term success of this program. These years in Tamil Nadu have been the years of learning, un-learning and relearning and the program today has matured slowly into what can perhaps be evolved as an Indian model. In all these years there have been various difficulties in its implementation and some of the key elements for the success of the program is the need to educate our own medical fraternity and seek their cooperation. The program requires trained counselors to be able to work in the intensive cares. The government's support is pivotal if this program to provide benefit to the common man. MOHAN Foundation has accumulated considerable experience to be able to

  9. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  13. Temperature control of a cryogenic bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

  14. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  15. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products....

  16. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products....

  17. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products....

  18. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  19. [Experience in organizing competition of school health education teams].

    PubMed

    Tsurikov, V T; Gavriushenko, V V

    1991-01-01

    One of the main tasks of Soviet medicine--the healthy lifestyle formation among population can be accomplished with the help of school health education teams. The training of school health education teams is one of the forms of out-of-school hours activities in hygienic education and training of pupils and can easily be accomplished through organizational plans of activities at any school or industrial training school. The organization of school health education teams should unite the efforts of teachers, specialists from the service of healthy lifestyle formation, cultural institutions, young communist league and youth organizations and other departments and public agencies concerned. Using various active publicity media school health education teams should become active healthy lifestyle promotion organizations and their performance can be conducted before any audiences. The working experience of school health education teams is in need of investigation, improvement and dissemination. PMID:1876903

  20. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide-ochre-tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out why: ochre is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. There is consequently a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud and this explains why prehistoric people included ochre use into their habits and rituals. Abstract Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in

  1. Effects of bathing solution on tensile properties of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol

    2014-03-01

    The cornea is a transparent tissue with the major functions of protecting the inner contents of the eye and refracting incoming light. The biomechanical properties of the cornea strongly depend on the microstructure and composition of the stromal layer, a hydrated bio-gel. The uniaxial strip testing is a convenient and well-accepted experimental technique for characterizing corneal material parameters. It is known that the water content of specimens in this method depends on the osmolality of the bathing solution. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of different bathing solutions on uniaxial tensile material properties of the cornea. The tensile behavior of bovine corneal samples was measured in six different bathing solutions, i.e., hypertonic solution (12% NaCl solution), common preserving isotonic solutions (e.g., phosphate buffer saline, ophthalmic balanced salt solution, and 0.9% NaCl solution), hypotonic solution (distilled water), and neutral solution (mineral oil). It was observed that the bathing solution had significant influence on the tensile behavior of the corneal samples. In particular, the specimens tested in bathing solutions causing less swelling had significantly stiffer tensile properties. Furthermore, a simple mathematical model based on Voigt composite material model was developed to represent the measured solution-dependent tensile properties. The present study suggests that extra attention should be paid to corneal thickness (hydration) in uniaxial tensile experiments. It also provides important data on tensile properties of the cornea; such information could significantly contribute to improving the accuracy of numerical predictions of corneal biomechanics. PMID:24333541

  2. Risk factors of sudden death in the Japanese hot bath in the senior population.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takashi; Yamauchi, Misa; Nishida, Naoki; Kaneko, Taeko; Yoshizaki, Katsuaki; Yoshioka, Naofumi

    2005-05-10

    A series of experiments were carried out to clarify the cause of death and the risk factors related to sudden death in the Japanese senior population while bathing in a Japanese style "hot bath." The biodynamic changes while bathing were carefully monitored under actual bathing situations occurring in both the winter and summer seasons. We observed double product (DP), total peripheral blood vessel resistance (TPR), cardiac output (CO), and blood vessel compliance (COMP) by measuring blood pressure, heart rate, pulse wave, and electrocardiogram (ECG). The finding of a high level of DP in the elderly suggests that more myocardial oxygen consumption is needed than for young adults, particularly in subjects with arrhythmia. Although the values for TPR and CO changed somewhat during bathing, the changes were considered normal and to be expected. However, more significant and substantial changes were observed during the winter experiment than during the summer experiment, no doubt owing to lower temperature of the bathing room. The value of COMP did not vary significantly between winter and summer subjects. Twelve subjects in the elderly developed ECG changes while bathing such as supraventricular extrasystole or ventricular tachycardia. No clinical significance was found in the biochemical analyses of the blood obtained before and after bathing. In conclusion, some subjects in the elderly showed risky changes in the above parameters and ECG, factors which may partially explain some of the causes of the many reported cases of lapse of consciousness and unexpected sudden death in the elderly while bathing especially in the winter season. Cold climate, hot water immersion, and hydrostatic pressure may affect their physiological compensation along with existing of coronary stenosis or weakness of respiratory function as a normal consequence of advanced age. PMID:15749356

  3. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  4. [Morphologic (bioptic) conferences: experience with organization, tasks and results].

    PubMed

    Smol'iannikov, A V; Zerbino, D D

    1975-01-01

    The article deals with the experience in organization of practical conferences in Moscow (The Central Institute of Advanced Medical Training) and in Lvov. The conferences enable pathoanatomists of various institutions to obtain consultation concerning bioptic material, to exchange view with regard for any individual observation. This new form of a collective considaration of complex biopsies should be regarded as one of important methods of the work of pathoanatomists. Some problems associated with interpretation of bioptic specimens, avoidance of errors in the process of an investigation of histological preparations, as well as with the role of the conferences in the upgrading professional qualities of pathoanatomists are discussed. PMID:5989

  5. Experience with organic Rankine cycles in heat recovery power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Elovic, A.; Rettger, P.

    1996-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have been increasingly employed to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not feasible or economical. These power plants have logged a total of over 100 million turbine hours of experience demonstrating the maturity and field proven technology of the ORC cycle. The cycle is well adapted to low to moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used to recover energy from geothermal resources. The above cycle technology is well established and applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles.

  6. The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) Experiment on the Organisms/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) Nanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Ricco, A.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.

    2010-04-01

    The organism/organic exposure to orbital stresses nanosatellite has been developed as the first flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program. The satellite includes the SEVO experiment, which investigates the stability of organics.

  7. Lamination of organic solar cells and organic light emitting devices: Models and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oyewole, O. K.; Yu, D.; Du, J.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Anye, V. C.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, a combined experimental, computational, and analytical approach is used to provide new insights into the lamination of organic solar cells and light emitting devices at macro- and micro-scales. First, the effects of applied lamination force (on contact between the laminated layers) are studied. The crack driving forces associated with the interfacial cracks (at the bi-material interfaces) are estimated along with the critical interfacial crack driving forces associated with the separation of thin films, after layer transfer. The conditions for successful lamination are predicted using a combination of experiments and computational models. Guidelines are developed for the lamination of low-cost organic electronic structures.

  8. Isolation, purification and characterization of hemerythrin from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Wang, Vincent C-C; Huang, Yi-Che; Yu, Steve S-F; Chang, Ta-Chau; Chan, Sunney I

    2008-08-01

    Earlier work from our laboratory has indicated that a hemerythrin-like protein was over-produced together with the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) when Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was grown under high copper concentrations. A homologue of hemerythrin had not previously been found in any prokaryote. To confirm its identity as a hemerythrin, we have isolated and purified this protein by ion-exchange, gel-filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and characterized it by mass spectrometry, UV-visible, CD, EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopy. On the basis of biophysical and multiple sequence alignment analysis, the protein isolated from M. capsulatus (Bath) is in accord with hemerythrins previously reported from higher organisms. Determination of the Fe content in conjunction with molecular-weight estimation and mass analysis indicates that the native hemerythrin in M. capsulatus (Bath) is a monomer with molecular mass 14.8 kDa, in contrast to hemerythrins from other eukaryotic organisms, where they typically exist as a tetramer or higher oligomers. PMID:18397812

  9. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

  10. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  11. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the

  12. Changes in Patients’ Experiences in Medicare Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Landon, Bruce E.; Chernew, Michael E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Incentives for accountable care organizations (ACOs) to limit health care use and improve quality may enhance or hurt patients’ experiences with care. METHODS Using Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey data covering 3 years before and 1 year after the start of Medicare ACO contracts in 2012 as well as linked Medicare claims, we compared patients’ experiences in a group of 32,334 fee-for-service beneficiaries attributed to ACOs (ACO group) with those in a group of 251,593 beneficiaries attributed to other providers (control group), before and after the start of ACO contracts. We used linear regression and a difference-in-differences analysis to estimate changes in patients’ experiences in the ACO group that differed from concurrent changes in the control group, with adjustment for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. RESULTS After ACO contracts began, patients’ reports of timely access to care and their primary physicians’ being informed about specialty care differentially improved in the ACO group, as compared with the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.006, respectively), whereas patients’ ratings of physicians, interactions with physicians, and overall care did not differentially change. Among patients with multiple chronic conditions and high predicted Medicare spending, overall ratings of care differentially improved in the ACO group as compared with the control group (P = 0.02). Differential improvements in timely access to care and overall ratings were equivalent to moving from average performance among ACOs to the 86th to 98th percentile (timely access to care) and to the 82nd to 96th percentile (overall ratings) and were robust to adjustment for group differences in trends during the preintervention period. CONCLUSIONS In the first year, ACO contracts were associated with meaningful improvements in some measures of patients’ experience and with unchanged performance in

  13. Pig Organ Energy Loss Comparison Experiments Using BBs.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Musgrave, Ian; Fisk, Wesley; Byard, Roger W

    2016-05-01

    Torso models for ballistics research require that the mechanical properties of simulant materials must match the heterogeneous nature of tissues/organs within the human thorax/abdomen. A series of energy loss experiments were conducted on fresh porcine organs/tissues at room temperature and 37°C, using steel 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) brand air rifle. They were compared to FBI and NATO specification ordnance gelatin and a candidate surrogate material called Simulant "A". Two CED M2 chronographs measured BB velocity. The resulting energy loss was established using KE = 1/2 mv² before and after target perforation. The combined results at room temperature and 37°C were as follows: FBI specification gelatin was similar (p > 0.05) to heart and lung, spleen was similar to NATO specification gelatin, Simulant "A" was similar to hindquarter muscle, and hindquarter muscle, kidney, and spleen were similar to each other regarding energy retardation. These results can be used as a basis for the development of simulant materials to create an anatomically correct heterogeneous model. PMID:27122406

  14. Positronium signature in organic liquid scintillators for neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, D.; Consolati, G.; Trezzi, D.

    2011-01-15

    Electron antineutrinos are commonly detected in liquid scintillator experiments via inverse {beta} decay by looking at the coincidence between the reaction products: neutrons and positrons. Prior to positron annihilation, an electron-positron pair may form an orthopositronium (o-Ps) state, with a mean lifetime of a few nanoseconds. Even if the o-Ps decay is speeded up by spin-flip or pick-off effects, it may introduce distortions in the photon emission time distribution, crucial for position reconstruction and pulse shape discrimination algorithms in antineutrino experiments. Reversing the problem, the o-Ps-induced time distortion represents a new signature for tagging antineutrinos in liquid scintillator. In this article, we report the results of measurements of the o-Ps formation probability and lifetime for the most used solvents for organic liquid scintillators in neutrino physics (pseudocumene, linear alkyl benzene, phenylxylylethane, and dodecane). We characterize also a mixture of pseudocumene +1.5 g/l of 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a fluor acting as wavelength shifter. In the second part of the article, we demonstrate that the o-Ps-induced distortion of the scintillation photon emission time distributions represent an optimal signature for tagging positrons on an event by event basis, potentially enhancing the antineutrino detection.

  15. A Continuous 4He Refrigerator for Use in a Superfluid Helium Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suwen; Avaloff, D.; Nissen, J. A.; Stricker, D. A.; Lipa, J. A.

    2006-09-07

    In cryogenic applications in space, the base temperature, Tmin of the helium bath in the dewar is typically determined by the design of the porous plug and the associated plumbing. For certain experiments, the required operating temperature of the instrument is lower than the bath temperature. In the laboratory, temperatures below 1.2 K require very large pumps or the use of 3He systems. We have demonstrated a modified 4He refrigerator with a continuous fill from a superfluid helium bath with a base temperature more than 0.5 K below the bath temperature. We describe the operation as well as the mechanism of such a refrigerator. For operation in space the refrigerator would need to be equipped with a porous plug to retain the fluid.

  16. Understanding of Bath Surface Wave in Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Nguyen, Anh V.; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-02-01

    The waves formed on bath surface play an important role in the bottom blown copper smelting furnace operations. Simulation experiments have been carried out on model of the bottom blown furnace to investigate features of the waves formed on bath surface. It was found that the ripples, the 1st asymmetric standing wave and the 1st symmetric standing wave were able to occur in this model, and empirical occurrence boundaries have been determined. The amplitude and frequency of the standing waves have been systematically investigated. It was found that the amplitude of the 1st asymmetric standing wave is much greater than the 1st symmetric standing wave and the ripples; and the amplitude is found to increase with increasing bath height and flowrate but decrease with blowing angle. The frequency of the 1st asymmetric standing wave is found increasing with bath height but independent of flowrate and blowing angle.

  17. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  18. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  19. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs. PMID:27392413

  20. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect. PMID:22735119

  1. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  2. Organizing Science Popularization and Teacher Training Workshops : A Nigerian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpala, Kingsley; Okere, Bonaventure

    Funding for science popularization has become a huge challenge in recent times especially for developing countries like Nigeria. However, a change in the school system from the 6-3-3-4 system (6 years primary, 3 years Junior secondary, 3year senior secondary, and 4 years tertiary education) to the 9-3-4 system ( 9 years junior basic, 3 years secondary, and 4 tertiary education) has made it even more convenient to strategically target the students through their teachers to attain the desired quality of education since the introduction of space science into the curriculum at the primary and secondary levels. Considering the size of Nigeria, there Is need for a shift in paradigm for sourcing resources to tackle this deficiency in a sustainable manner. Recently a teacher training and science popularization workshop was organized as a first in a series of subsequent workshops geared towards having a sustainable means of popularizing Science in Nigeria. Principally, the key lies in the partnership with the colleges of education which produce the teachers for primary schools in addition to the usual governmental actions. Experiences from this workshop will be enumerated with the hope of inspiring the same success in similar societies.

  3. General systems theory, brain organization, and early experiences.

    PubMed

    Denenberg, V H

    1980-01-01

    Three hypothetical brain processes--interhemispheric coupling, hemispheric activation, and interhemispheric inhibition--are derived from an equation characterizing general systems theory. To investigate these processes, experimental rats were reared under differing early experience conditions. When adult, they had their right or left neocortex lesioned, had a sham operation, or were left undisturbed. Interhemispheric coupling was measured by means of a correlation coefficient between the right and left hemispheres. The presence of a significant positive correlation is taken as evidence of a negative feedback loop between the hemispheres. In one experimental population, in which rats did not receive any extra stimulation in infancy, the correlation was not significantly different from zero, thus implying that the two hemispheres were operating independently. In another population, in which rats had received handling stimulation in infancy, the correlation coefficient was significant (0.543), indicating that the hemispheres were coupled in a systems arrangement. The processes of hemispheric activation and interhemispheric inhibition were assessed by comparing the mean performance of the two unilateral lesion groups and the group with intact brain. The two rat populations had different forms of brain organizations as measured by these processes. These analyses show that the behavior of the isolated hemisphere cannot be directly extrapolated to the behavior of the connected hemisphere. If there is hemispheric coupling via a negative feedback loop or if there is interhemispheric inhibition, then the disconnected hemisphere may show behaviors that are not evident in the normal connected condition. PMID:7356045

  4. Gene set analyses for interpreting microarray experiments on prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Tintle, Nathan; Best, Aaron; Dejongh, Matthew; VanBruggen, Dirk; Heffron, Fred; Porwollik, Steffen; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2008-11-05

    Background: Recent advances in microarray technology have brought with them the need for enhanced methods of biologically interpreting gene expression data. Recently, methods like Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and variants of Fisher’s exact test have been proposed which utilize a priori biological information. Typically, these methods are demonstrated with a priori biological information from the Gene Ontology. Results: Alternative gene set definitions are presented based on gene sets inferred from the SEED: open-source software environment for comparative genome annotation and analysis of microbial organisms. Many of these gene sets are then shown to provide consistent expression across a series of experiments involving Salmonella Typhimurium. Implementation of the gene sets in an analysis of microarray data is then presented for the Salmonella Typhimurium data. Conclusions: SEED inferred gene sets can be naturally defined based on subsystems in the SEED. The consistent expression values of these SEED inferred gene sets suggest their utility for statistical analyses of gene expression data based on a priori biological information

  5. [Is Turkish bath water potable?: The baths of Sidi-Bel-Abbes].

    PubMed

    Benouis, K; Benabderrahmane, M; Harrache-Chettouh, Djamila; Benabdeli, K

    2008-01-01

    In Algeria, large numbers of people regularly go to Turkish baths or "Hammams". The cold tap water of the baths in the town of Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria) comes either from wells or from a mixture of potable waterworks water and well water. Its principal use is for personal hygiene (washing). However, the steam heat generates thirst that can cause users to drink cold water during the steam bath. In addition, the wells feeding the baths are often poorly protected and especially badly treated. To ascertain whether their water quality, particularly bacteriological, meets the requirements for drinking water, we studied the characteristics of water from ten Turkish baths in Sidi-Bel-Abbes. Bacteriological analyses of cold water showed signs of contamination of fecal origin in 50% of the samples analysed. Moreover two water points from two of the baths appeared to have permanent fecal contamination. The physicochemical analysis showed that the water was very high in calcium (up to 550 mg/L) and magnesium (up to 299 mg/L). The maximum nitrate level observed was 68 mg/L. This study thus showed the existence of a health risk due to deterioration in the quality of the bath water and demonstrated the need for protection of the wells, frequent purification, and regular microbiological testing. PMID:19188127

  6. Organic weed management in vegetables: Research, experiences, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farmers in a national survey ranked weed management as their greatest research need for organic crop production. Scientists from the Agriculture Research Service and Oklahoma State University have combined their efforts to conduct not only organic weed control research, but research involvi...

  7. Decoherence Dynamics of a Superconducting Charge Qubit Coupled to a Boson Bath and a Spin Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qin-Ying; Liang, Bao-Long; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2014-01-01

    By virtue of a superconducting charge qubit, we derive the off-diagonal matrix operator and investigate the decoherence of the system in different regimes coupled to, respectively, the boson bath and the spin bath. It is found that the two different baths make a bit of difference on the decay of the system at low but finite temperature and the decoherence of the system is most closely linked with the regime as well as the coupling strength. Therefore, by optimizing some reasonable parameters, we can suppress appropriately the decoherence of a given quantum system.

  8. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  9. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  10. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Karouby, Johanna

    2013-10-01

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  11. Psychoactive "bath salts": not so soothing.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called "bath salts" products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

  12. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  13. General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, Maryland, looking west. - Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Southwest corner of Belair Drive and Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  14. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... facilities, supplied with hot and cold water under pressure, shall be provided for the use of all...

  15. The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2004-01-01

    Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

  16. Could Communication Form Impact Organizations' Experience with Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Diane Susan; Richard, Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that cultural diversity can be advantageous or detrimental for organizations depending on organization members' communication. Introduces three forms of communication (ethnocentric, modernistic and cosmopolitan) explored by W. Barnett Pearce, each of which differs in deeply held assumptions. Overviews the implications of cosmopolitan…

  17. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  18. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  19. Organizational culture and work redesign: experiences in three organizations.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Redman, R W

    2000-12-01

    Lack of attention to the organization's culture can mean failure for its strategic initiatives. The authors present the results of three case studies of work redesign initiatives in which organizational culture, as measured by the Competing Values Framework, was assessed before and after project implementation. The organization with a balanced culture at baseline and higher "adhocracy" (developmental) values after implementation was more successful than the two organizations with dominant baseline market and hierarchy cultures. Recommendations for increasing desired values and decreasing undesired ones are provided. PMID:11132349

  20. Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ned H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer…

  1. Supporting Aphasics for Capturing, Organizing and Sharing Personal Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Mahmud, Abdullah

    When a person, due to brain injury or another disease, suffers in his or her ability to speak, it becomes inherently cumbersome to share needs, emotions, and experiences through personal stories and social interaction. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author’s dissertation, which focuses on designing a support system to share daily experiences for people suffering from expressive aphasia.

  2. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  3. Astronaut Jack Lousma taking hot bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A closeup view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In deploying the shower facility, the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  4. Leidenfrost drops on liquid baths: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexei; Maquet, Laurent; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Duchesne, Alexis; Brandenbourger, Martin; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that a liquid drop released over a very hot surface generally does not contact the surface nor boils but rather levitates over a thin vapor film generated by its own evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). In particular, the case of a hot (and flat) solid substrate has been extensively studied in recent years. In contrast, we here focus on Leidenfrost drops over a superheated liquid bath, addressing the problem theoretically and comparing our predictions with experimental results, detailed in a separate talk. We predict the geometry of the drop and of the liquid bath, based on the hydrostatic Young-Laplace and lubrication equations. A good agreement is observed with the available experimental data concerning the deformation of the liquid bath. The modeling also yields a rather complete insight into the shape of the drop. As in the case of a solid substrate, the vapor layer generally appears to be composed of a vapor pocket surrounded by a circular neck. The influences of the superheat and of the drop size are parametrically investigated. A number of scaling laws are established. Unlike the case of a solid substrate, no chimney instability was found in the range of drop size studied.

  5. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  6. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  7. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  8. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-05-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  9. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

  10. Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Sheila

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

  11. Differences in Developmental Experiences for Commonly Used Categories of Organized Youth Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Skorupski, William P.; Arrington, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The coherence of adolescents' self-reported learning experiences between subgroups of organized youth activities within five commonly used categories was evaluated. Data for the present study come from a representative sample of eleventh grade adolescents' reports on learning experiences in an organized youth activity using the Youth Experience…

  12. Taxonomic Organization Scaffolds Young Children's Learning from Storybooks: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test and iteratively design a set of taxonomically-organized storybooks that served to scaffold young children's word learning and concept development. Specifically, Phase 1 of the design experiment asked: (1) What are the effects of taxonomic organization on children's ability to acquire…

  13. Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

  14. Role of initial system-bath correlation on coherence trapping

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Yu, Yan-Mei; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study the coherence trapping of a qubit correlated initially with a non-Markovian bath in a pure dephasing channel. By considering the initial qubit-bath correlation and the bath spectral density, we find that the initial qubit-bath correlation can lead to a more efficient coherence trapping than that of the initially separable qubit-bath state. The stationary coherence in the long time limit can be maximized by optimizing the parameters of the initially correlated qubit-bath state and the bath spectral density. In addition, the effects of this initial correlation on the maximal evolution speed for the qubit trapped to its stationary coherence state are also explored. PMID:26303160

  15. Community Organization and Mental Health; The Woodlawn Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael D.; Lewis, Judith A.

    A paraprofessional training program designed to provide community controlled mental health services to the Woodlawn community of Chicago, Illinois, is described in this monograph. The neighborhood and The Woodlawn Organization (T.W.O.A), a self help project formed in early 1960, are described from an historical perspective. Some of the areas…

  16. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

  17. Vial OrganicTM-Organic Chemistry Labs for High School and Junior College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Thomas J.; Meszaros, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Vial Organic is the most economical, safe, and time-effective method of performing organic chemistry experiments. Activities are carried out in low-cost, sealed vials. Vial Organic is extremely safe because only micro quantities of reactants are used, reactants are contained in tightly sealed vials, and only water baths are used for temperature control. Vial Organic laboratory activities are easily performed within one 50-minute class period. When heat is required, a simple hot-water bath is prepared from a beaker of water and an inexpensive immersion heater. The low cost, ease of use, and relatively short time requirement will allow organic chemistry to be experienced by more students with less confusion and intimidation.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  19. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  20. Preparing your Offshore Organization for Agility: Experiences in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Jayakanth

    Two strategies that have significantly changed the way we conventionally think about managing software development and sustainment are the family of development approaches collectively referred to as agile methods, and the distribution of development efforts on a global scale. When you combine the two strategies, organizations have to address not only the technical challenges that arise from introducing new ways of working, but more importantly have to manage the 'soft' factors that if ignored lead to hard challenges. Using two case studies of distributed agile software development in India we illustrate the areas that organizations need to be aware of when transitioning work to India. The key issues that we emphasize are the need to recruit and retain personnel; the importance of teaching, mentoring and coaching; the need to manage customer expectations; the criticality of well-articulated senior leadership vision and commitment; and the reality of operating in a heterogeneous process environment.

  1. The perioperative nurse and the organ donation experience.

    PubMed

    Lilly, K T; Langley, V L

    1999-04-01

    Most OR nurses whether veteran or novice have had some exposure to organ donation; however, few are aware of what occurs outside of the surgical setting. This article provides an overview of the entire donation process, from the hours before the procedure to the steps needed for successful recovery. Particular attention is given to the care of the donor family members, both preoperatively and postrecovery. PMID:11838090

  2. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health.

    PubMed

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture's habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals. PMID:26784238

  3. Solvent-Free Reductive Amination: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.; Cross, Amely V.

    2015-01-01

    The reductive amination reaction between an amine and an aldehyde or ketone is an important method to add an additional alkyl group to an amine nitrogen. In this experiment, students react a selection of benzylamines with aldehydes to form the corresponding imines. These imines are reduced with a mixture of "p"-toluenesulfonic acid…

  4. Summer Experience In Occupational Therapy. Manual For Organizing A Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Barbara E.

    The manual is designed to serve as a comprehensive guide for curriculum directors or state affiliated associations interested in setting up summer experience programs through which students above the age of 16 participate in an occupational therapy department as "apprentice staff members." Separate sections deal with the following details: (1)…

  5. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  6. On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.

  7. Cytochrome c' of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B; Dispirito, A A

    1996-09-15

    Cytochrome c' was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The native and subunit molecular masses of the cytochrome were 34.9 kDa and 16.2 kDa, respectively, with an isoelectric pH of 7.0. The amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid sequence were consistent with identification of the protein as a cytochrome c'. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the monoheme cytochrome indicated the presence of a high spin, S = 5/2, heme center that is diagnostic of cytochromes c'. The optical absorption spectra of ferric or ferrous cytochrome c' were also characteristic of cytochromes c'. The ferrocytochrome bound carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, but not isocyanide, cyanide, or azide. Changes in physical properties due to binding of CO or NO to some other c'-type cytochromes have been interpreted as an indication of dimer dissociation. In the case of cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath, analytical ultracentrifugation of the ferricytochrome, the ferrocytochrome, and the ferrocytochrome-CO complex indicate that the changes induced by binding of CO are conformational and are not consistent with dimer dissociation. EPR spectra show that cytochrome c' was reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine only when in a complex with cytochrome P-460. The value of the midpoint potential, Em 7.0, was -250 mV for cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath, which is well below the range of values reported for other cytochromes c'. The values of midpoint potentials for cytochrome P-460 (Em 7.0 = -300 mV to -380 mV) and cytochrome C555 (Em 7.0 = +175 mV to +195 mV) are less than and greater than, respectively, the value for cytochrome c' and suggest the possibility that the latter may function as an electron shuttle between cytochrome P-460 and cytochrome C555. PMID:8856071

  8. Orbiting droplets on a vibrated bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampara, Naresh; Burger, Loic; Gilet, Tristan; Microfluidics, university of liege Team

    2015-11-01

    A millimeter-sized oil droplet can bounce on a vertically vibrated liquid bath for unlimited time. It may couple to the surface wave it emits; leading to horizontal self-propulsion called walking. When several walkers coexist close to one another, they either repel or attract each other, in response to the superposition of the waves they generate. Attraction leads to various bound states, including droplets that orbit around each other. We have experimentally investigated the variety of quantized orbital motions exhibited by two, three and more identical walkers, as a function of forcing acceleration. Each motion is quantified in terms of droplet and wave energy.

  9. [Experience of medical support organization of the tank biathlon competition].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Kuvshinov, K É; Iakovlev, S V

    2013-11-01

    Authors presented information about medical support of the tank biathlon competition taking part on 12-17 August 2013 at the Alabino. Crews from Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia (The Collective Security Treaty Organization) were invited for the contest. On the basis of the idea of the contest and location of the Alabino, the Main military-medical board of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation developed and passed the Programme of medical support of the contest, gave the word to medical service of the Western Military District and central military-medical facilities about appropriation of funds. Personnel, providing the contest, was training every day during the period of preparation. Over a period of field ambulance station 73 people sought medical advice, 12 of them were sent to hospital. Authors came to conclusion the set tasks were completely fulfilled. PMID:24611301

  10. Invariant solutions organizing turbulence in pipe flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Kühnen, Jakob; Schaner, Markus; Hof, Björn

    2015-11-01

    A large number of unstable invariant solutions, e.g. traveling waves (TWs) or (relative-) periodic orbits, has been discovered and numerically studied in recent years for pipe flow. The proposed role of such states as building blocks of turbulence is however less clear and so far only limited experimental evidence has been provided. In experiments we used a modulated pipe segment to impose a certain symmetry on the experimental velocity field and in the non-modulated downstream pipe traveling waves could be observed persisting for many wavelengths. Measured velocity fields (PIV) were used as initial conditions for a numerical Newton search and converged to the exact invariant traveling wave solutions. All the experimentally observed TW's correspond to lower branch states that are close to the laminar turbulent boundary (edge). Correspondingly in the experiments as the waves proceeded downstream flows would typically relaminarize but occasionally the TW's would grow to turbulence. The latter observation confirms the relevance of these invariant states for the transition process.

  11. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, A.; Ball, H.; Hayes, D.; Zhen, X.; Jarratt, M. C.; Sastrawan, J.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through in-phase or in-quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6-GHz carrier appropriate for trapped Yb171+ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of both engineered dephasing noise during free evolution and engineered amplitude noise during driven operations. In both cases, the observed reduction of coherent lifetimes matches well with quantitative models described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

  12. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  13. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  14. Cavity-assisted quantum bath engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Kater

    2013-03-01

    In practice, quantum systems are never completely isolated, but instead interact with degrees of freedom in the surrounding environment, eventually leading to decoherence. Precision measurement techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and interferometry, as well as envisioned quantum schemes for computation, simulation, and data encryption, rely on the ability to prepare and preserve delicate quantum superpositions and entanglement. The conventional route to long-lived quantum coherence involves minimizing coupling to a dissipative bath. Paradoxically, it is possible to instead engineer specific couplings to a quantum environment that allow dissipation to actually preserve coherence. I will discuss our recent demonstration of quantum bath engineering for a superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the qubit to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases the state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature. We envision that future multi-qubit implementations could enable the preparation of entangled many-body states suitable for quantum simulation and computation. This work was supported by the IARPA CSQ program.

  15. Cytochrome c peroxidase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B; Coats, J R; DiSpirito, A A

    1997-11-01

    A bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase was purified from the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath in either the fully oxidized or the half reduced form depending on the purification procedure. The cytochrome was a homo-dimer with a subunit mol mass of 35.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.5. At physiological temperatures, the enzyme contained one high-spin, low-potential (Em7 = -254 mV) and one low-spin, high-potential (Em7 = +432 mM ) heme. The low-potential heme center exhibited a spin-state transition from the penta-coordinated, high-spin configuration to a low-spin configuration upon cooling the enzyme to cryogenic temperatures. Using M. capsulatus Bath ferrocytochrome c555 as the electron donor, the KM and Vmax for peroxide reduction were 510 +/- 100 nM and 425 +/- 22 mol ferrocytochrome c555 oxidized min-1 (mole cytochrome c peroxidase)-1, respectively. PMID:9325424

  16. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  17. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  18. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  19. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  20. An assessment of the impact of the proposed EU bathing water directive on Irish coastal bathing area compliance.

    PubMed

    Chawla, R; Real, K; Masterson, B

    2005-01-01

    An assessment of the impact of the new microbial water quality standards of the proposed EU Bathing Water Directive on the classification of designated Irish coastal bathing areas is presented. The new standards are applied retrospectively to the microbial water quality results for the bathing seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001, and the outcome is compared with that recorded under the present Bathing Water Directive. A Microsoft EXCEL application was developed to generate the retrospective bathing area classifications according to the proposed Directive (Excellent, Good, Poor). It was found that the number of Irish coastal bathing areas not attaining 'Excellent' classification (as would be required at present for the Blue Flag award) was trebled; the number attaining 'Good' classification was increased by about 50%, and the number attracting 'Poor' classification (equivalent to 'Fail' under the present Directive) was increased nine-fold. Some of the shortcomings of the proposed Directive and suggestions for its revision are discussed. PMID:15850194

  1. Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

  2. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

  3. Practical wet oxidation experiment to determine concentrations of particulate organic matter in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, V. Ya.; Mityaev, M. V.; Sukhotin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The report presents results of experiments testifying to the possibility of using wet oxidation to determine the concentrations of organic carbon in marine particulate matter. We describe a method for eliminating the measurement error caused by the influence of chlorides on the processes of dichromate oxidation of organic matter. We present an equation to calculate the concentration of organic carbon depending on that of sodium chloride.

  4. Reduced total hardness of fresh water enhances the efficacy of bathing as a treatment for amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S D; Powell, M D

    2003-10-01

    The current treatment for amoebic gill disease (AGD)-affected Atlantic salmon involves bathing sea-caged fish in fresh water, often sourced from local dams, for 3-4 h. In both a small-scale laboratory and an on-farm field experiment, the effects of water hardness on the efficacy of freshwater bathing were assessed. Results showed that soft fresh water (19.3-37.4 mg L(-1) CaCO3), whether it be naturally soft city mains water or artificially softened dam water, was more efficacious at alleviating AGD in affected fish than hard fresh water (173-236.3 mg L(-1) CaCO3). Soft freshwater bathing significantly reduced viable gill amoebae numbers (from 73.9 to 40.9% of total count) and significantly alleviated gill pathology, both gross and histological. Following bathing, gross gill pathological scores of soft freshwater bathed fish lagged 2 weeks behind hard freshwater bathed fish. Significant gill lesion fragmentation, and shedding of lesion-associated hyperplastic tissue, was accompanied by a significant reduction in AGD-affected gill filaments in soft freshwater bathed fish. Furthermore, soft freshwater bathing alleviated the blood plasma electrolyte imbalance seen in control (sea water) and hard freshwater bathed fish. This study showed that the use of soft fresh water for bathing AGD-affected Atlantic salmon could be an improvement to the current method of treatment. Not only does it reduce gill amoeba numbers, but also, it is of a therapeutic advantage with the potential to reduce bathing frequency. PMID:14653317

  5. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  6. The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)

  7. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  8. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  14. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  15. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities, supplied with hot and cold water under pressure, shall be provided for the use of all occupants... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold water under pressure, shall be provided for the use of all occupants. These facilities shall be...

  16. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  17. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  18. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  19. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  20. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  1. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  2. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  3. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  4. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  5. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  6. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  7. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  8. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  9. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  10. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  11. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  12. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  13. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  14. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  15. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  16. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing....

  17. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  18. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  19. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  20. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity. PMID:25977851

  1. Cold-induced vasodilatation response at different water bath temperatures in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mathew, L; Purkayastha, S S; Malhotra, M S

    1978-08-01

    The response of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) at different water bath temperatures was studied in 20 monkeys (3.5 kg) in a conscious state in a thermoneutral room. The animals were controlled by seating in a monkey chair, and the right hind limb up to 7.5 cm from the heel was immersed in a water bath for 60 min. Four series of experiments were conducted at water bath temperatures of 0 degrees, 4 degrees, 8 degrees, and 12 degrees C, respectively, at weekly intervals and the skin temperatures were measured from three sites in the foot. Marked CIVD response was noted from the dorsum and, to a lesser extent, from the sole of the foot, but no response was seen from the tip of the middle toe at 0 degrees, 4 degrees, and 8 degrees C water bath temperatures. The pattern of CIVD response at 4 degrees C was identical to that of 0 degrees C, but the response at 8 degrees C was poor and was absent at 12 degrees C. Three patterns of CIVD--such as hunting, proportional control, and slow, steady, and continuous rewarming--was observed. However, 15% of the animals did not exhibit any CIVD. The observations show that the CIVD response of monkeys is remarkably similar to that of man. PMID:98160

  2. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Waltz, Florian; Schwarz, Hans-Christoph; Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie; Behrens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity. PMID:25977851

  3. The development of a virtual heat bath for calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Bracken, D.S.; Rudy, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    All existing calorimeter systems for sensitive nuclear assay employ a heat bath surrounding the sample chamber. The purpose of the heat bath is to maintain a constant temperature so that a fixed temperature difference is maintained across the thermal resistance of the calorimeter. Present calorimeter systems all employ an active, feedback-controlled system to maintain a fixed temperature. An alternative would be to allow the heat-bath temperature to change, to measure it, and to compensate the assay for this change. Two significant observations make this approach possible: (1) the effect on the measurement of a temperature change in the heat bath is differential in form and (2) temperature measurement systems are very accurate when measuring differences in temperature (either in time or between two locations). From these observations, the authors have developed a virtual heat-bath compensation system. The control theory and results will be presented.

  4. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  5. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yu-Min; Wang, Jih-Wen; Liue, Chun-Ying; Yeh, Shinn-Horng

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  6. Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Sutka, R L; Ostrom, N E; Ostrom, P H; Gandhi, H; Breznak, J A

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways. Concentrated cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Nitrosomonas europaea were used to investigate the site preference of N(2)O by microbial processes during nitrification. The average site preference of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per thousand) and N. europaea (-2.3 +/- 1.9 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (-8.3 +/- 3.6 per thousand) differed significantly (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 247.9, p = 0). These results demonstrate that the mechanisms for hydroxylamine oxidation are distinct in M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea. The average delta(18)O-N(2)O values of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation for M. capsulatus Bath (53.1 +/- 2.9 per thousand) and N. europaea (-23.4 +/- 7.2 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (4.6 +/- 1.4 per thousand) were significantly different (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 279.98, p = 0). Although the nitrogen isotope value of the substrate, hydroxylamine, was similar in both cultures, the observed fractionation (delta(15)N) associated with N(2)O production via hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea (-2.3 and 26.0 per thousand, respectively) provided evidence that differences in isotopic fractionation were associated with these two organisms. The site preferences in this study are the first measured values for isolated microbial processes. The differences in site preference are significant and indicate that isotopomers provide a basis for apportioning biological processes producing N(2)O. PMID:12661029

  7. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its

  8. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant1

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. Method this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. Results the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. Final considerations knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation. PMID:26107829

  9. Effects of the non-commensal Methylococcus capsulatus Bath on mammalian immune cells.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Olsen Hult, Lene Therese; Solberg, Henriette; Bakke, Anne; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Huseby, Eirin; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad

    2015-08-01

    Dietary inclusions of a bacterial meal consisting mainly of the non-commensal, methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus Bath have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of intestinal inflammation in different animal models. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms causing these effects, we have studied the influence of this strain on different immune cells central for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Effects were compared to those induced by the closely related strain M. capsulatus Texas and the well-described probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype, but not to the extent observed after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917. Likewise, dose-dependent abilities to activate NF-κB transcription in U937 cells were observed, with E. coli Nissle 1917 being most potent. High levels of CD141 on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were only detected after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917, which collectively indicate a superior capacity to induce Th1 cell responses for this strain. On the other hand, the M. capsulatus strains were more potent in increasing the expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83 and CD86 than E. coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced the highest levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells, suggesting that this strain generally the post potent inducer of cytokine secretion. These results show that M. capsulatus Bath exhibit immunogenic properties in mammalian in vitro systems which diverge from that of E. coli Nissle 1917. This may provide clues to how M. capsulatus Bath influence the adaptive immune system in vivo. However, further in vivo experiments are required for a complete understanding of how this strain ameliorates intestinal inflammation in animal models. PMID:25771177

  10. Microscopic insight into the nanocoalescence of a water droplet on a water bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoufi, A.; Malfreyt, P.

    2013-11-01

    Coalescence of a millimetric water droplet on a water bath has been extensively investigated by experiments, theory and continuum approaches. While the hydrodynamic processes have been largely studied the underlying microscopic mechanisms are much less understood. Thanks to the recent advances in mesoscopic modelling the physics occurring at the nanometric scale can be captured. By using the coarse- and fine-grained simulations we investigate the mechanism of the coalescence of a water nanodroplet on a water bath. In contrast to the millimetric drop we show the absence of a coalescence cascade. The two most probable mechanisms of coalescence largely discussed in the literature are i) the drainage of an air cushion between the water droplet and the bath and ii) the rupture of both water drop and reservoir interfacial layers. From the time-evolution of the 3D water density profile we show that the mechanism begins by the formation of a coalescence bridge during the first picosecond, followed by a temporary noncoalescence where the shape of the drop is modified. The life time of the temporary noncoalescence is ruled by the dissipation of the interfacial layers of the droplet and of the water bath. During this phase the droplet expels water downward through the bridge leading to a thinning of the interfacial layers and to their dissipation that corresponds to the beginning of the drop coalescence into the water bath. In this work we show that the microscopic mechanism of nanocoalescence is partially in line with the millimetric process. Indeed, in contrast with the macroscopic droplet a deformation of the interface was evidenced at the nanometric scale while at the millimetric scale the interfaces suddenly coalesce after the interfacial layers sufficiently dissipated and the drop merges into the bulk.

  11. The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

  12. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  13. Outer membrane proteins of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kleivdal, H; Joergensen, C; Thestrup, H; Jensen, H B

    1997-08-01

    Membranes obtained from whole-cell lysates of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were separated by Triton X-100 extraction. The resulting insoluble fraction was enriched in outer membranes as assessed by electron microscopy and by the content of beta-hydroxy palmitic acid and particulate methane monooxygenase. Major proteins with molecular masses of approximately 27, 40, 46, 59, and 66 kDa were detected by SDS-PAGE of the Triton-X-100-insoluble membranes. MopA, MopB, MopC, MopD, and MopE (Methylococcus outer membrane protein) are proposed to designate these proteins. Several of the Mop proteins exhibited heat-modifiable properties in SDS-PAGE and were influenced by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the sample buffer. The 46- and 59-kDa bands migrated as a single high-molecular-mass 95-kDa oligomer under mild denaturing conditions. When reconstituted into black lipid membranes, this oligomer was shown to serve as a channel with an estimated single-channel conductance of 1.4 nS in 1 M KCl. PMID:9238104

  14. Seeking organic compounds on Mars : in situ analysis of organic compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry on MOMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Pinnick, V.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Rodier, C.; Garnier, C.; Steininger, H.; Moma Team

    2010-12-01

    The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of future Mars exploratory missions. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars mission (set to launch 2016-2018) is a joint venture by the European Space Agency and NASA to develop a sensitive detector for organics on Mars. MOMA will be one of the main analytical instruments aboard the ExoMars Rover aimed at characterizing possible “signs-of-life molecules” in the Martian environment such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With the aim to separate and detect organic compounds from Martian soil, the French MOMA team has built a gas chromatograph able to work in standalone mode by using a TCD detector. The gas chromatograph can also be coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer developed by the US MOMA team. Moreover, a GC-MS compatible sample processing system (SPS) allowing the extraction and the chemical transformation of the organic compounds from the soil, that fits within space flight conditions, has also been developed. The sample processing is performed in an oven, dedicated to the MOMA experiment containing the solid sample (50-100mg). The internal temperature of oven can be ranged from 20 to 1000 °C which allows for pyrolysis, thermochemolysis or derivatization. The organic extraction step is achieved by using thermodesorption in the range of 100 to 300°C for 0.5 to 5 min. Then, the chemical derivatization and/or thermochemolysis of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA-DMF, TMAH or DMF-DMA solution when enantiomeric separation is required. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows for their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the volatile target molecules are trapped in a cold chemical trap and promptly desorbed into the gas chromatograph coupled to the mass

  15. Primary migration by diffusion through kerogen: I. Model experiments with organic-coated rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.M.; Clouse, J.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to assess diffusion through kerogen as a mechanism of hydrocarbon transport through fine-grained rocks. Such transport can be important in primary migration within source rocks and in leakage through seals. To test the concept of diffusion through organic matter networks, model experiments were performed in which hydrocarbon diffusion was measured through Austin chalk cores that had been coated with a monolayer of fatty acids. Hydrocarbon fluxes through the coated cores were compared to hydrocarbon fluxes through uncoated Austin chalk cores. Results showed that the organic coating enhanced transport through the core by a hundredfold over diffusion through its water-filled pore space alone.

  16. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

  17. Hyperthermic effects of hand bathing: benefits of incorporating finger flexion-extension exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ohshige, Tadasu; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kiyama, Ryoji; Nishi, Hiroaki; Takamori, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of hand bathing using plain water and water supplemented with inorganic salt and carbonated gas and to assess the hyperthermic effects of performing finger flexion-extension exercise while bathing in water with carbonated gas and inorganic salt and without water. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy, young males were subjected to plain water bathing, CO2 bathing, kineto-CO2 bathing, or no bathing. CO2 bathing involved bathing in a solution of artificial bath additives including inorganic salts and carbon dioxide. Partial bathing of the hand was implemented for 20 minutes at 41 °C. The concentration of carbonic gas was set at 33 ppm. In the kineto-CO2 bathing condition, finger flexion-extension exercise was performed at 60 laps per minute in the same solution used in CO2 bathing. The control group engaged in the same exercise as those in the kineto-CO2 bathing group, but without bathing. [Results] A significant increase in deep-body temperature was observed in the CO2 bathing and kineto-CO2 bathing conditions compared with both the plain water bathing and control condition. [Conclusion] Significantly heightened hyperthermic effects were observed when finger flexion-extension exercise was performed during CO2 bathing. PMID:26834351

  18. Quantum Spin Baths Induced Transition of Decoherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pochung; Lai Chengyan; Hung, J.-T.; Mou Chungyu

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the reduced dynamics of single or two qubits coupled to an interacting quantum spin bath modeled by a XXZ spin chain. By using the method of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG), we evaluate nonperturbatively the induced decoherence and entanglement. We find that the behavior of both decoherence and entanglement strongly depend on the phase of the underlying spin bath. We show that spin baths can induce entanglement for an initially disentangled pair of qubits. We observe that entanglement sudden death only occurs in paramagnetic phase and discuss the effect of the coupling range.

  19. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  20. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.

    2009-04-01

    Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These "Classical Field Experiments" included studies on winter wheat (Broadbalk 1843), spring barley (Hoos Barley 1852) and permanent grassland (Park Grass 1856). Additional experiments were established in the 20th century to examine the value of ley-arable cropping, including the Highfield and Fosters Ley-arable experiments (1948) and the Woburn Ley-arable experiment (1938). More recently, the effects of incorporating organic manures and cereal straw have been examined. Early results quickly showed the benefits of inorganic N and P fertilisers on crop production, but the effects of contrasting land uses and management practices on soil properties emerged more slowly. Measurements of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soils taken at intervals from the long-term experiments indicate that the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation is controlled largely by the balance between the rate of organic matter inputs and its oxidation rate, and that these are strongly influenced by land use and management, soil texture (especially clay content) and climate. A recent examination of soil organic C data from two long-term grassland experiments in the UK (including Park Grass) indicates that any changes observed in soil organic C under long-term grasslands over the past 40 years are more likely to be due to changes in land use and management rather than climate change. Data from the Rothamsted Long-term experiments have been used to develop and test biogeochemical models of C and N dynamics. In particular, the Roth-C model has successfully simulated soil C dynamics in the long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere. This model uses several

  1. Oil Bath for Precision Calibration of Thermometers in the Range 90 °C to 200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, Jan; Falk, Roland

    2003-09-01

    The calibration of thermometers requires a stable environment. In the range 90 °C to 200 °C normally comparison calibrations are performed in liquid baths with silicone oil as the fluid medium. This range is difficult to cover with sufficient temperature stability using commercially available baths. Therefore a calibration bath was constructed in our laboratory and presented at the 21st Nordic conference on Measurements and Calibration in 1999 [1]. The experience from this has led to this further improved version. The principle of the bath is based on a closed end aluminum tube, with an inner open concentric tube placed near the bottom and allowing free circulation of the oil around it. The circulation is achieved by a stirring propeller in the lower end, and the calibration zone is located inside the inner tube. The heating power is supplied by two different heaters, one main heater wrapped on the outside of the outer tube and one placed in the space between the cylinders. The main heater acts as a guard heater and is supplied with constant power to give the outer wall a stable temperature, just below the set point. The second smaller heater performs the regulation with the aid of a commercial controller. The bath is housed in a floor cabinet and has a working space of diameter 100 mm and a depth of 500 mm. Temperature stability and uniformity achieved in the bath is around ±1 mK in the whole range up to 200 °C, and this is without the use of any kind of equalising block. This is an improvement from the earlier version in the upper temperature range. For example temperature instability and nonuniformity has decreased from ±3 mK to ±1 mK at 200 °C. The performance is now comparable with the best water baths used at lower temperatures. Data and diagrams are presented in this paper.

  2. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. PMID:27128352

  3. Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

  4. Alternative Conceptions about Micro-Organisms Are Influenced by Experiences with Disease in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana; Krajcovicová, Adriána

    2016-01-01

    Children's ideas concerning natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists, and these ideas are termed as alternative conceptions. The prevalence of alternative conceptions is highest among young children who possess less experience with the natural world as compared with adults. Children's ideas about micro-organisms are of special…

  5. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  6. Differing Profiles of Developmental Experiences across Types of Organized Youth Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Reed W.; Hansen, David M.; Moneta, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    This study inventoried the types of developmental and negative experiences that youth encounter in different categories of extracurricular and community-based organized activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders from 19 diverse high schools responded to a computer-administered protocol. Youth in faith-based activities reported…

  7. An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

    2004-01-01

    Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

  8. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

  9. The Photochemical Synthesis, Kinetics, and Reactions of Nitrosomethane Dimer: A Physical-Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information procedures, and results for the photochemical synthesis and reactions of nitrosomethane dimer. The experiments described have shown a high degree of reliability with student use and are suggested to illustrate some problems of physical and organic photochemistry. (Author/JN)

  10. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  11. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  12. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  13. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  16. Online process control of acidic texturisation baths with ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Oltersdorf, Antje; Rentsch, Jochen

    2009-12-15

    Etching of silicon with mixtures of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid is a widely used process in silicon solar cell fabrication. One precondition for an optimized usage of the acidic etching baths is the exact knowledge of the chemical bath composition. In this paper, we investigated a fast and online-capable method for the total analysis of all bath constituents by ion chromatography. The chromatographical system consists of a low-volume injection valve, which injects the concentrated samples directly into the KOH-based eluent. After separation and detection of nitrate and fluoride, a post-column derivatization with sodium molybdate is applied to detect the hexafluorosilicic acid, which enriches in the texturisation bath during the etching process. The results of the presented approach are discussed and compared with already published chromatographical and titration methods found in literature. PMID:19836511

  17. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Photochemistry of organic molecules in the Solar System : Experiments in Terrestrial orbit and laboratory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Coll, Patrice; Coscia, David; Fray, Nicolas; Macari, Frederique; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Chaput, Didier; Viso, Michel; Bertrand, Marylene; Chabin, Annie; Thirkell, Laurent; Westall, Frances; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Vergne, Jacques; Brack, André

    Photochemistry is leading the chemical evolution in the Solar System. The VUV photolysis of organic compounds is easy to study in the laboratory, with monochromatic sources, but it is difficult to simulate the whole range of wavelengths corresponding to the most energetic part of the Solar radiation (<190nm). This is why the results obtained in laboratory are difficult to extrapolate to the extraterrestrial environments. Space is the only laboratory allowing the exposure of samples to all the space parameters simultaneously. We present the preparation and follow-up of experiments with exobiological interest, in Terrestrial orbit, (AMINO, PRO- CESS, and UV-olution) organized by the European Space Agency (ESA). The experiments are carried out on a FOTON capsule, using the BIOPAN facility (UVolution Sept.2007), and on the International Space Station, using the EXPOSE facilities on the COLUMBUS European module (PROCESS - beginning Feb 2008) and the Russian module ZARYA (AMINO) (beginning expected by the end of 2008). In this project, organic molecules related to the study of the chemistry of Mars, Titan, meteorites or Comets are exposed in space between 10 days and 18 months (according to the experiment). The evolution of the samples can be studied when the samples are returned to Earth, and compared to the results of ground experiments. Preliminary results of the Uvolution experiment will be presented.

  20. Thermal bath of Dirac field in non-inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anwei

    2016-07-01

    The properties of inertial Dirac thermal bath viewed from the perspective of a uniformly accelerated observer is investigated. Using the single-mode approximation, we obtain the expression of the thermal reduced density matrix, which is constructed by the effective partition function in another way compared with the case of scalar field. We deduce the spectrum of particles and antiparticles seen by Rob and antiRob, respectively. It is found that the fermionic thermal bath will suppress the appearance of Unruh particles.

  1. Intranasal substituted cathinone "bath salts" psychosis potentially exacerbated by diphenhydramine.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Erik W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Willing, Laura M; Holstege, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of intranasal "bath salts"-associated psychosis. Symptoms developed during a 3-week binge and were potentially exacerbated by oral diphenhydramine taken for insomnia. The clinical case conference includes expert discussion from 3 disciplines: emergency medicine toxicology, behavioral pharmacology, and addiction medicine. It is hoped that the discussion will provide insight into the clinical aspects and challenges of addressing acute substituted cathinone toxicity, including acute psychosis, a major adverse effect of bath salts consumption. PMID:23732955

  2. Intensive care nurses' experiences of caring for brain dead organ donor patients.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A; Robertson-Malt, S; Walsh, K; Fitzgerald, M

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the feelings and experiences of critical care nurses who have been involved in nursing brain dead patients prior to organ donation. The purpose of the study was to generate knowledge which informs the discipline of nursing. A number of themes relating to nurses' experiences of caring for brain dead organ donor patients were uncovered in this interpretative study. Overall, caring for patients who are diagnosed as brain dead is a challenging experience for nurses and they are intensely involved in a search for meaning in each event. The interpretative analysis in this study has revealed a range of meanings articulated by the nurses involved. However, the primary focus of care--as identified by the participating nurses--was the donor family. PMID:11820230

  3. Research and Analysis on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Molten Bath with Bottom-Blowing in EAF Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Ma, Guohong; Cheng, Ting

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-blowing technology is widely adopted in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking to promote the molten bath fluid flow, accelerate the metallurgical reaction, and improve the quality of molten steel. In this study, a water model experiment and a computational fluid dynamics model were established to investigate the effects of bottom-blowing gas flow rate on the fluid flow characteristics in the EAF molten bath. The results show that the interaction among the bottom-blowing gas streams influences the molten bath flow field, and increasing the bottom-blowing gas flow rate can accelerate the fluid flow and decrease the volume of the dead zone. Based on industrial application research, the physical and chemical properties of the molten bath with bottom-blowing were analyzed. Compared with traditional melting conditions without bottom-blowing, bottom-blowing technology demonstrates obvious advantages in promoting the heat transfer and metallurgical reactions in the molten bath. With the bottom-blowing arrangement, the dephosphorization and decarburization rates are accelerated, the contents of FeO and T. Fe in endpoint slag are decreased, and the endpoint carbon-oxygen equilibrium of molten steel is improved.

  4. [Behaviour of laying hens in aviaries--review. Part 2: Feeding behaviour, reproductive and dust bathing behaviour of chickens].

    PubMed

    Moesta, A; Briese, A; Knierim, U; Hartung, J

    2008-01-01

    This literature review gives information about important behaviour patterns concerning feeding, reproduction and dust bathing of laying hens kept in aviary systems. The behaviour of hens in aviaries is compared to the behaviour of hens living under "close to natural" conditions. Feeding behaviour can be performed to a great extent in aviaries. The same is true for nesting behaviour, while mating behaviour can only be shown in mixed flocks. Dust bathing behaviour in aviaries should be further investigated. Although a litter area is provided and therefore dust bathing is basically possible, further research is needed, to which amount dust bathing behaviour is performed and how it is influenced by composition and height of the dust bathing substrate. Feather pecking and cannibalism can cause more deaths in housing systems with large groups of birds than in cage systems. Considering these results and the results of a first paper dealing with social and resting behaviour, aviaries provide an environment, where hens can perform a large part of their species typical behaviour repertoire. Therefore, under the aspect of behaviour, for laying hens in aviaries the potential to experience good welfare can be evaluated as fairly high. PMID:18265752

  5. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  6. Effect of hyperthermic water bath on parameters of cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Blazícková, S; Rovenský, J; Koska, J; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Effects of hyperthermic water bath on selected immune parameters (lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell counts and their activity) were studied in a group of 10 volunteers. Application of hyperthermic water bath (both topical and whole-body) was followed by a significant reduction of relative B lymphocyte counts. Whole-body hyperthermic water bath reduced relative total T lymphocyte counts, increased relative CD8+ T lymphocyte and NK cell counts and increased NK activity. Whole-body hyperthermic bath increased somatotropic hormone (STH) activity in eight out of 10 volunteers; higher relative counts of CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells were observed compared with the group of volunteers not responding to hyperthermic water bath by STH secretion. In five volunteers STH was released in response to local hyperthermic water bath and the NK activity of lymphocytes also increased but their relative counts did not. The results suggest that these increases in CD8+ lymphocyte and NK cell counts are probably dependent on increased STH production. PMID:11146901

  7. Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of 'bath salt' cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Taylor, Cynthia M; Forster, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as 'legal' alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone, and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable with those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liabilities. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than those of cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly because MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits because of adverse effects of taking 'bath salts'. PMID:23839026

  8. Mephedrone (‘bath salt’) pharmacology: insights from invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ramoz, Leda; Lodi, Sabah; Bhatt, Parth; Reitz, Allen B.; Tallarida, Chris; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50 – 1000 µM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 µM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 µM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e., reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 µM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  9. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  10. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors. PMID:25761524

  11. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Station (ISS) external platform. OREOcube is packaged as an identical pair of 10-cm cube instruments, each weighing < 2 kg and containing a highly capable UV-Visible-NIR spectrometer, a 24-sample carousel, and integral optics enabling use of the Sun as light source for spectroscopy, along with the electronics, microcontroller, and data storage to make each cube an autonomous stand-alone instrument package requiring only a standard power and data interface. We have characterized the influence of mineralogically relevant inorganic materials on the stability, modification, and degradation of the organic molecules under ground laboratory experimental conditions. The results of our laboratory experiments will be used as the basis for the selection of samples for further investigations on the OREOcube ISS experiment. OREOcube is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University partners.

  12. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  13. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  14. Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25˚C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an

  15. Growth experiment of organic metal crystal in low gravity (M-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzai, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to grow large, high-quality single crystals of the organic metal (TMTTF-TCNQ) by the diffusion method without thermal fluctuation due to convection and gravitational sedimentation, and to evaluate the difference in properties between such crystals grown in low gravity and the ones obtained on Earth. The expected results may fix several physical properties of TMTTF-TCNQ, lead to the discovery of new phenomena, and enable us to analyze diffusion processes in a precise way. The result will contribute to the development of research on organic metals and, generally, on crystal growth.

  16. The experiment BOSS on EXPOSE R-2, Mission Preparation Tests for Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Bauermeister, A.; Barczyk, S.; Billi, D.; Cockell, Ch.; Flemming, H. C.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2012-09-01

    In the experiment BOSS the hypothesis will be tested if the biofilm form of life with microorganisms embedded and aggregated in their EPS matrix is suited to support long-term survival of microorganisms under the harsh environmental conditions as they exist in space and on Mars and is superior to the same bacteria in the form of planktonic cultures. An additional protective role may be provided by particles associated in biofilms which may shield the organisms against radiation. The experiment will be flown on EXPOSE R-2 attached outside of the ISS on the Russian module. The experiment has participated at the Experiment verification tests and a Science verification test which have been carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities at DLR. The launch is scheduled for end of 2013.

  17. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

  18. Study of Martian Organic Molecules Irradiation and Evolution: The Momie Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Patrice; Stalport, F.; Szopa, C.; Cottin, H.

    2007-12-01

    The life on Mars remains an open question despite the Viking landers results and the ALH84001 possible terrestrial contamination. However recent data of Mars Express orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem show different proofs of a past environment with liquid water and mild temperatures favorable for life. Among the biomarkers we seek, the organic molecules are primordial because they are necessary to the origin of life as we know it. However, these molecules (except methane recently discovered) have never been detected on Mars by the in situ analyzes of the Viking landers. A key question is to know if organic molecules are indeed present, in which concentration and under which form. Indeed, even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized, those brought by exogenous sources, like interplanetary dust, should be present in detectable amount. Moreover, the track of the endogenous organic molecules should not be dropped out because these molecules are able to resist over periods of several billion years without being degraded. It thus appears that organic molecules could be present at the surface of Mars, even if they have significant chances to undergo a partial or total chemical evolution. Within the framework of a search for organic molecules by present or future space experiments , we are developing the MOMIE project (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to determine how the organic species evolve on the Martian surface. We thus propose to implement this type of research with the assistance of an experimental setup designed for the study of the behavior of organic molecules under conditions simulating as close as possible conditions of Mars surface, and plan to present at 39th DPS our first results.

  19. Thermochemolysis and the Search for Organic Material on Mars Onboard the MOMA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisson, Marietta; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Carolinette; Pinnick, Veronica; Goetz, Walter; Stambouli, Moncef; Belmahdi, Imene; Coll, Patrice; Stalport, Fabien; Grand, Noël; Brinckerhoff, William; Goesmann, Fred; Raulin, François; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Following the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment onboard the future ExoMars 2018 mission will continue to investigate the organic composition of the martian subsurface. MOMA will have the advantage of extracting the sample from as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface where the deleterious effects of radiation and oxidation on organic matter are minimized. To analyse the wide range of organic compounds (volatile and non-volatile compounds) potentially present in the martian soil, MOMA includes two operational modes: UV laser desorption / ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LDI-ITMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (pyr-GC-ITMS). In order to analyse refractory organic compounds and chirality, samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be derivatized beforhands, consisting in the reaction of the sample components with specific chemical reagents (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). To prove the feasibility of the derivatization within the MOMA conditions we have adapated our laboratory procedure for the space conditions (temperature, time, pressure and size). Goal is optimize our detection limits and increase the range of the organic compounds that MOMA will be able to detect. Results of this study, show that Thermochemolysis is one of the most promising technique onboard MOMA to detect organic material. References : [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet, C. et al. (2013) J Chrom. A, 1306, 731-740. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  20. Evolution of organics on the Mars surface: laboratory studies with the MOMIE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé; Raulin, Francois

    The question of life on Mars remains open today, despite the negative results obtained with the Viking landers. Indeed, recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate the existence of a past environment of Mars with liquid water and mild temperatures favourable for life. Among the tracers which could indicate the presence of life on Mars, the organic molecules are of primary importance because they are necessary for the emergence of life as we know it. However, such molecules (except methane recently discovered in the atmosphere) have never been detected on Mars. A key question is therefore to know if organic molecules are indeed present, in which concentration and under which form. Indeed, even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized, those brought by exogenous sources, like interplanetary dust particles, should be present in detectable amounts. Moreover, the search for endogenous organic molecules should not be abandoned because on Earth, there are known examples of organic molecules capable to resist over periods of several billion years without any degradation. It thus appears that organic molecules could be present at the surface of Mars, even if they have significant probabilities to undergo a partial or total chemical evolution. Within the framework of the search for organic molecules by present or future space experiments on Mars, we are developing the MOMIE 1 and the MOMIE 2 projects (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to determine how the organic species could evolve at the Martian surface. We thus propose to implement this type of research by using laboratory experimental setups specifically designed to study the behaviour of organic molecules under experimental conditions simulating as close as possible the environmental conditions at the surface of Mars as we know them today. Trough the MOMIE 1 project, we present here

  1. Formation and retention of organically bound deuterium in rice in deuterium water release experiment.

    PubMed

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ichimasa, Michiko; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2002-06-01

    As a substitute of tritium, deuterated water (D2O) vapor release experiments were performed in a greenhouse to estimate the different formation and subsequent retention of organically bound deuterium in rice plants between daytime and nighttime exposure. Potted rice plants were exposed to D2O vapor in the greenhouse for 8 h, under day or night conditions. Deuterium concentrations in free water and organic matter in rice leaves and ears were investigated until harvest time. The formation of organically bound deuterium in the daytime was higher than during the nighttime by the factors of 2.4 for the ear and 2.9 for the leaf. The decrease of the organically bound deuterium concentration in the ear after the nighttime exposure was faster than that after the daytime exposure. Data analysis was carried out using a compartment model in which different generating processes of organic matter were considered. The calculated organically bound deuterium retention in rice agreed with the measured value. PMID:12046759

  2. Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Abiotic Organics from Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Summers, David P.; Kubo, Mike; Yassar, Saima

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes can be powerful biogeochemical markers in the study of life's origins. Biogenic carbon fixation produces organics that are depleted in C-13 by about -20 to -30%0. Less attention has been paid to the isotopic signatures of abiotic processes. The possibility of abiotic processes producing organics with morphologies and isotopic signatures in the biogenic range has been at the center of recent debate over the Earth's earliest microfossils. The abiotic synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal environments is one possible source of endogenous organic matter to the prebiotic earth. Simulated hydrothermal settings have been shown to synthesize, among other things, single chain amphiphiles and simple lipids from a mix of CO, CO2, and H2. A key characteristic of these amphiphilic molecules is the ability to self-assemble in aqueous phases into more organized structures called vesicles, which form a selectively permeable boundary and serve the function of containing and concentrating other organic molecules. The ability to form cell like structures also makes these compounds more likely to be mistaken for biogenic. Hydrothermal simulation experiments were conducted from oxalic or formic acid in water at 175 C for 72 hr. The molecular and isotopic composition of the products of these reactions were determined and compared to biogenic fractionations . Preliminary results indicate isotopic fractionation during abiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in hydrothermal environments is on par with biological carbon fixation.

  3. Synthesis of Substituted Butenolides. An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment Utilizing Two 3-Step Preparatory Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheut, Géraldine; Liao, Liang; Catel, Jean-Marie; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain; Villemin, Didier

    2001-05-01

    The synthesis of substituted butenolide is reported in two 3-step sequences that illustrate five basic organic reactions (alkyne hydration, Knoevenagel condensation, lactonization, aldolization-type reaction, and hydration of nitrile). The molecules were designed to have pedagogical interest for IR and NMR spectroscopy, such as the observation of the diastereotopic effect. Molecular modeling calculations and a proton-proton homonuclear decoupling experiment for one of these compounds were carried out to demonstrate the presence of a diastereotopic effect.

  4. Bath scalds in children in the south-east of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Tennant, W G; Davison, P M

    1991-10-01

    Scalds caused by domestic hot tap water constitute a significant but preventable hazard in childhood. We have reviewed some of the factors contributing to such injuries, and the experience of a regional paediatric burn unit in their treatment. There were 91 children with bath water scalds and 667 children with thermal injuries from other sources included in this study. In the former group, scalds were more common on the limbs, including the hands and feet. Scalds involving over 40% of body surface area were more common in children with bath water injuries; however, there was no difference between the groups with regard to hospital stay or requirement for skin grafting. Parents ran the bath responsible for scald production in most cases, but single parenthood did not appear to be a risk factor. First aid application made no significant difference to eventual burn area or hospital stay. It appears from this study that reduction of domestic hot water temperature is necessary. Statutory control is likely to offer the best solution to the problem of domestic hot tap water scalds in childhood. PMID:1757913

  5. Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M.

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from—and we bound the work cost of creating—a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

  6. Physical separation of carbon and bath constituents of spent anode residues

    SciTech Connect

    Plumpton, A.J.; Cotnoir, D.

    1996-10-01

    The constituent mineral and metallic phases contained within certain waste products and by-products of aluminum smelting are observed to be sufficiently liberated, permitting their separation and recovery using physical techniques. CRM studied both dry and wet mineral processing methods for the recovery of pure carbon and so-called bath products from spent anode shot-peening wastes. The experiments were undertaken on composite samples of fine and coarse residues, combined in proportion to their production rates. The composite samples analyzed 30% C and 70% electrolysis bath (cryolite, alumina, aluminum fluoride) and possessed an average particle size of 143 {micro}m with a 16 weight % {minus}45 {micro}m fraction. Test results are presented for two dry processing methods of high tension/electrostatic separation and pneumatic tabling, as well as two wet methods of gravity tabling and froth flotation. Each wet mineral separation method yielded two clean products following a limited number of cleaning and scavenging operations; one product graded 95 to 98% C, the other, 97 to 99% bath. Although similar high purity products could be obtained using dry separation approaches, their yields were significantly lower and the feed material required desliming or division into narrow particle size fractions prior to separation. After dry processing including multiple scavenging and cleaning steps, an important middling fraction remained, corresponding to about 40--50 weight % of the feed. Predesign cost estimation was undertaken for the most efficient processing scheme.

  7. Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from-and we bound the work cost of creating-a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments. PMID:26986307

  8. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  9. Extraction of aluminum from a pickling bath with supported liquid membrane extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M. van

    1999-04-01

    Large amounts of waste are produced yearly in the galvanic and chemical surface treatment industry. Bath liquids used in the various processes lose their function due to contamination. The spent bath liquids have to be replaced and treated prior to disposal, leading to high costs and a high environmental burden. In this paper, a proposed solution to the problem is investigated: the selective removal of the contaminant with supported liquid membrane extraction. The extraction of aluminum, a contaminant at high concentrations, from a pickling bath liquid with hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid as its main components has been carried out with the basic extractants Alamine 308 and Alamine 336 in a flat sheet-supported liquid membrane setup. Aluminum transport rates were obtained in the order of 10{sup {minus}6}--10{sup {minus}5} mol/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} s), which are normal values for this technique. The extraction was not completely selective as dissolved phosphorus was coextracted. In all experiments, precipitation took place on the surface of the liquid membrane and in the bulk of the strip phase. Increasing the stripping alkalinity from pH = 8 to pH = 13 reduced the amount of precipitation in the bulk of the strip phase but caused a substantial decrease in the aluminum flux. The precipitation prevents industrial application of the systems investigated.

  10. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  11. Charge-carrier relaxation in disordered organic semiconductors studied by dark injection: Experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, M.; Schaefer, C.; de Groot, J.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of stationary charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors has matured during recent years. However, charge-carrier relaxation in nonstationary situations is still poorly understood. Such relaxation can be studied in dark injection experiments, in which the bias applied over an unilluminated organic semiconductor device is abruptly increased. The resulting transient current reveals both charge-carrier transport and relaxation characteristics. We performed such experiments on hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based organic semiconductor. Modeling the dark injection by solving a one-dimensional master equation using the equilibrium carrier mobility leads to a too-slow current transient, since this approach does not account for carrier relaxation. Modeling by solving a three-dimensional time-dependent master equation does take into account all carrier transport and relaxation effects. With this modeling, the time scale of the current transient is found to be in agreement with experiment. With a disorder strength somewhat smaller than extracted from the temperature-dependent stationary current-voltage characteristics, also the shape of the experimental transients is well described.

  12. Resting-State Retinotopic Organization in the Absence of Retinal Input and Visual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola; Benson, Noah C.; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    Early visual areas have neuronal receptive fields that form a sampling mosaic of visual space, resulting in a series of retinotopic maps in which the same region of space is represented in multiple visual areas. It is not clear to what extent the development and maintenance of this retinotopic organization in humans depend on retinal waves and/or visual experience. We examined the corticocortical receptive field organization of resting-state BOLD data in normally sighted, early blind, and anophthalmic (in which both eyes fail to develop) individuals and found that resting-state correlations between V1 and V2/V3 were retinotopically organized for all subject groups. These results show that the gross retinotopic pattern of resting-state connectivity across V1-V3 requires neither retinal waves nor visual experience to develop and persist into adulthood. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Evidence from resting-state BOLD data suggests that the connections between early visual areas develop and are maintained even in the absence of retinal waves and visual experience. PMID:26354906

  13. Resting-State Retinotopic Organization in the Absence of Retinal Input and Visual Experience.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andrew S; Binda, Paola; Benson, Noah C; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E; Fine, Ione

    2015-09-01

    Early visual areas have neuronal receptive fields that form a sampling mosaic of visual space, resulting in a series of retinotopic maps in which the same region of space is represented in multiple visual areas. It is not clear to what extent the development and maintenance of this retinotopic organization in humans depend on retinal waves and/or visual experience. We examined the corticocortical receptive field organization of resting-state BOLD data in normally sighted, early blind, and anophthalmic (in which both eyes fail to develop) individuals and found that resting-state correlations between V1 and V2/V3 were retinotopically organized for all subject groups. These results show that the gross retinotopic pattern of resting-state connectivity across V1-V3 requires neither retinal waves nor visual experience to develop and persist into adulthood. Significance statement: Evidence from resting-state BOLD data suggests that the connections between early visual areas develop and are maintained even in the absence of retinal waves and visual experience. PMID:26354906

  14. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  15. System-reservoir theory with anharmonic baths: a perturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Chitrak; Banerjee, Dhruba

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we develop the formalism of a general system coupled to a reservoir (the words ‘bath’ and ‘reservoir’ will be used interchangeably) consisting of nonlinear oscillators, based on perturbation theory at the classical level, by extending the standard Zwanzig approach of elimination of bath degrees of freedom order by order in perturbation. We observe that the fluctuation dissipation relation (FDR) of the second kind in its standard form for harmonic baths gets modified due to the nonlinearity and this is manifested through higher powers of {{k}\\text{B}}T in the expression for two-time noise correlation. On the flip side, this very modification allows us to define a dressed (renormalized) system-bath coupling that depends on the temperature and the nonlinear parameters of the bath in such a way that the structure of the FDR (of the second kind) is maintained. As an aside, we also observe that the first moment of the noise arising from a nonlinear bath can be non-zero, even in the absence of any external drive, if the reservoir potential is asymmetric with respect to one of its minima, about which one builds up the perturbation theory.

  16. Environmental and behavioral conditions of bathing among elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuji; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tochihara, Yutaka; Nagai, Yumiko; Ito, Hiromitsu; Yoshitake, Shiro

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the bathing conditions of elderly Japanese, and sought to find factors relating to regional differences in death rates from bathtub accidents. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 11 areas of Japan. Questionnaires including questions regarding the length of time since houses had been built, types of facilities, and subjects' indoor thermal sensations and behavior while bathing were distributed to detached houses in each area twice, once in summer and once in winter. Completed questionnaires were collected from approximately 160 elderly people over 65 years old. Information regarding thermal sensations of rooms in winter revealed that a prefabricated bath and insulating window glass eased the cold in the bathroom. Unexpectedly, more subjects in the southern region than in the northern region reported being cold or a little cold while bathing in winter. In the present study, thermal sensations and behaviors while bathing seemed to be more affected by facilities and the location of houses than by the sex and age of the subjects. PMID:17435371

  17. Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1--The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2--The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3--Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4--The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid

  18. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  19. Substituting water for chlorofluorocarbon liquid in density measuring baths for nuclear weapon components on non-fissile alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beitscher, S.; Palachek, A.D.

    1991-09-23

    This project was part of a Rocky Flats Plant and Department of Energy weapons complex effort to reduce release of hazardous materials to the atmosphere. Experiments were performed to determine whether deionized water could be substituted for trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113) in the bath of a density measuring system. In the first experiment, 14 parts of seven types were tested: They included shells of beryllium, vanadium, titanium, stainless steel, uranium, a uranium alloy, and casting feed strips of a uranium alloy. Each part was measured for density five times in each medium. The entire experiment was repeated -- the only change being addition of a wetting agent to the water. Two additional experiments were confided to the uranium alloy casting feed strips. As a result of this study, it is recommended that CFC be discontinued as a bath medium for the part types studied in this investigation and that deionized water be substituted.

  20. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia aerosol measurement experiment-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Kostenidou, E.; Lanz, V. A.; Bougiatioti, A.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008), which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with time of day, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm-3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  1. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Kostenidou, E.; Lanz, V. A.; Bougiatioti, A.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-05-01

    Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008), which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm-3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  2. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  3. [Assessment of a hospital bath chair: an ergonomic approach].

    PubMed

    Comélio, Maria Estevam; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    2005-01-01

    A high rate of musculoskeletal disorders in members of the nursing team is observed in the literature. The use of special devices such as the bath chair has reduced the risk of back injuries in these workers and has also provided the patient with greater safety as well as comfort. The aim of the present study was to assess the ergonomic characteristics of a bath chair utilized in a hospital Separate questionnaires were applied for the nurses and the patients. The bath chair accessories presented several ergonomic problems. The perceived physical exertion according to the Borg-CR10 Scale indicated that a high level of exertion was required to manipulate the equipment (8.33). PMID:16514945

  4. Effects of Water Temperature during Foot Bath in Young Females.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Tatsuya Saito, Tatsuya Saito; Kato, Toshiaki; Onodera, Sho

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects of environmental and water temperatures of foot baths on pulse rate, blood pressure, mean skin temperature, salivary amylase (SA) activity, relaxation level and thermal sensation during winter. Five females participated in the study. The subjects rested in a chair for 20 min and the above-noted physiological reactions during the last 5 min of the resting period were recorded as baseline (BASE) values. Next, the subjects received a 15-min foot bath in water at 40 °C (WT40) or 45 °C (WT45), with a 15-min recovery period. Although SA is thought to be an indicator of stress via the sympathetic nervous system, we did not find a correlation between SA activity and relaxation state. We considered the possible effect of seasonal variation on the physiological reaction to foot bathing. PMID:24174706

  5. Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50 nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs. PMID:22839598

  6. [A sudden death case in the bath with peculiar scald].

    PubMed

    Hosoe, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, H; Nishiyama, N; Ogura, T; Hirasawa, T; Fukunaga, T

    1999-06-01

    A 60-year-old man was found dead in the bathtub of his house on the 2nd of February. Erythema with a clear border was observed on the right side of the face, trunk and around the knees, though the left side of the face, the hips and the feet were normal. The water heater was set outside of the bath, and the heated water flowed from the heater to the bath through the upper pipe. In order to determine the mechanism of the peculiar scalding, changes in the water temperature in the bathtub were measured under the same conditions. An hour after turning on the water heater, the surface water temperature of the bath was 73 degrees C. Zonal gradation of the temperature was observed. At the level of the opening for the lower intake pipe, it was 50 degrees C. The border of the scalding was consistent with the water layer above 50 degrees C. PMID:10536442

  7. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

  8. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

  9. Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects

  10. Hygiene for the newborn--to bath or to wash?

    PubMed Central

    Hylén, A. M.; Karlsson, E.; Svanberg, L.; Walder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Appropriate skin care of newborns is performed partly to prevent infection but also for aesthetic and cleansing purposes. Skin care should involve cleansing with a non-toxic, non-abrasive neutral material. This study compared the relative risks and benefits of washing versus bathing with regard to bacterial colonization rate, clinical infection rate, body temperature and crying. The results confirm our clinical impression that bathing and washing routines do not differ with regard to signs of infection or other clinical complications. However, the washing routine does increase the babies heat loss and make them less comfortable. PMID:6663065

  11. Existence of an independent phonon bath in a quantum device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, L. M. A.; Fay, A.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2013-09-01

    At low temperatures, the thermal wavelength of acoustic phonons in a metallic thin film on a substrate can widely exceed the film thickness. It is thus generally believed that a mesoscopic device operating at low temperature does not carry an individual phonon population. In this work, we provide direct experimental evidence for the thermal decoupling of phonons in a mesoscopic quantum device from its substrate phonon heat bath at a sub-Kelvin temperature. A simple heat balance model assuming an independent phonon bath following the usual electron-phonon and Kapitza coupling laws can account for all experimental observations.

  12. Teaching Catalytic Antibodies to Undergraduate Students: An Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, Avidor; Keinan, Ehud; Shabat, Doron; Barbas, Carlos F., III

    1999-07-01

    Only 13 years ago, few believed that antibodies could be catalytic or that any protein could be made to order to perform a catalytic task. The field has quickly matured from initial proof of concept and demonstration of fundamental enzyme-like characteristics to one in which antibodies have catalyzed an extremely broad range of organic transformations. Now that the first catalytic antibody is commercially available, it is possible to bring these novel biocatalysts into the classroom so every student can gain hands-on experience and carry out experiments on the cutting edge of scientific discovery. This lab project deals with antibody-catalyzed aldol condensations. It includes the (i) synthesis of substrate and product; (ii) HPLC characterization of the antibody-catalyzed reaction; (iii) titration of the antibody active-site; and (iv) analysis of the kinetics of the antibody-catalyzed reaction. The lab project provides training not only in biocatalysis but in a number of related aspects of chemical and biochemical research, including organic synthesis, mechanistic organic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Students will learn the use of various experimental techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC, to monitor chemical reactions and determine kinetic parameters. They will be exposed to concepts and terminology of bioorganic chemistry, such as protein structure and function, inhibition and active-site titration, and basic principles of biocatalysis.

  13. Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

  14. Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

    2006-01-01

    One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials. PMID:18681201

  15. First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

  16. Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

  17. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  18. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D; Craddock, R Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Handwerker, Daniel A; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, B Nolan; Nichols, Thomas E; Pellman, John; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rokem, Ariel; Schaefer, Gunnar; Sochat, Vanessa; Triplett, William; Turner, Jessica A; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment. This renders sharing and reusing data (within or between labs) difficult if not impossible and unnecessarily complicates the application of automatic pipelines and quality assurance protocols. To solve this problem, we have developed the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS), a standard for organizing and describing MRI datasets. The BIDS standard uses file formats compatible with existing software, unifies the majority of practices already common in the field, and captures the metadata necessary for most common data processing operations. PMID:27326542

  19. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P.; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, B. Nolan; Nichols, Thomas E.; Pellman, John; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rokem, Ariel; Schaefer, Gunnar; Sochat, Vanessa; Triplett, William; Turner, Jessica A.; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment. This renders sharing and reusing data (within or between labs) difficult if not impossible and unnecessarily complicates the application of automatic pipelines and quality assurance protocols. To solve this problem, we have developed the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS), a standard for organizing and describing MRI datasets. The BIDS standard uses file formats compatible with existing software, unifies the majority of practices already common in the field, and captures the metadata necessary for most common data processing operations. PMID:27326542

  20. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  1. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hebig, Klaus H; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott J

    2014-03-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and observed mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies. PMID:24365588

  2. Organic Matter Development and Turnover depending on Mineral Composition in an Artificial Soil Incubation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, G. J.; Heister, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research indicates that minerals play an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). However, it is difficult to determine the effect of mineral composition on SOM development in natural soils where mineral composition is usually not well defined and initial conditions are generally unknown. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment with so-called "artificial soils" composed of mixtures of clean and well-defined model materials where the development of organic matter could be followed from known initial conditions. The artificial soils were composed of 8 different mixtures of quartz, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal, manure as carbon substrate and a microbial inoculum extracted from a natural arable soil. These mixtures were incubated in the dark and sampled 4 times over a total incubation time of 18 months. The organic matter (OM) turnover during incubation was followed by measuring CO2 respiration and C and N contents and distribution over particle size fractions with time. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis were used to determine the development of OM composition. The artificial soil mixtures developed quickly into complex, aggregated, soil-like materials. CO2 respiration was the same for all artificial soil compositions, indicating that microbial degradation was probably limited by nutrient or substrate availability. With increasing incubation time, nitrogen-rich, proteinaceous material, became enriched in the smallest particle size fraction, indicating the accumulation of microbial debris. There was some difference in the distribution of hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable N and organic carbon after 3 months of incubation depending on the type of clay mineral and charcoal presence. However, the artificial soils developed towards more similar systems with increasing incubation time. The artificial soil incubation experiment provided a

  3. Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection

  4. Markovian master equation for a classical particle coupled with arbitrary strength to a harmonic bath.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Maxim F

    2014-12-01

    We consider a classical point particle bilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath. Assuming that the evolution of the particle is monitored on a timescale which is longer than the characteristic bath correlation time, we derive the Markovian master equation for the probability density of the particle. The relaxation operator of this master equation is evaluated analytically, without invoking the perturbation theory and the approximation of weak system-bath coupling. When the bath correlation time tends to zero, the Fokker-Planck equation is recovered. For a finite bath correlation time, the relaxation operator contains contributions of all orders in the system-bath coupling. PMID:25481131

  5. Parallel Combinatorial Esterification: A Simple Experiment for Use in the Second-Semester Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birney, David M.; Starnes, Stephen D.

    1999-11-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has revolutionized the way potential new drugs are discovered. This simple experiment utilizes the Fischer esterification, a common reaction in second-semester organic laboratories, to demonstrate the fundamentals of combinatorial methods. These include simultaneous synthesis of numerous compounds, a selective assay for a desired activity, and an algorithm for identifying the active structure. Using a parallel synthesis combinatorial method, each student in a lab section prepares a different ester. The targeted activity (the characteristic odor of wintergreen) is easily detected by smell. The student's enjoyment of the lab is enhanced by the preparation of several other characteristic odors as well.

  6. Early experience of a safety net provider reorganizing into an accountable care organization.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Santos, Palmira; Thompson, Douglas; Stout, Somava S; Bearse, Adriana; Mechanic, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Although safety net providers will benefit from health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act, they also face significant challenges in the postreform environment. Some have embraced the concept of the accountable care organization to help improve quality and efficiency while addressing financial shortfalls. The experience of Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA) in Massachusetts, where health care reform began six years ago, provides insight into the opportunities and challenges of this approach in the safety net. CHA's strategies include care redesign, financial realignment, workforce transformation, and development of external partnerships. Early results show some improvement in access, patient experience, quality, and utilization; however, the potential efficiencies will not eliminate CHA's current operating deficit. The patient population, payer mix, service mix, cost structure, and political requirements reduce the likelihood of financial sustainability without significant changes in these factors, increased public funding, or both. Thus the future of safety net institutions, regardless of payment and care redesign success, remains at risk. PMID:24842968

  7. Formation of highly oxygenated organic aerosol in the atmosphere: Insights from the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Lea; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Donahue, Neil M.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2010-12-01

    Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiments (FAME-08 and FAME-09), which were part of the EUCAARI intensive campaigns. Quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMSs) were employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the OA. The experiments provide unique insights into ambient oxidation of aerosol by measuring at the same site but under different photochemical conditions. NR-PM1 concentrations were about a factor of three lower during FAME-09 (winter) than during FAME-08 (summer). The OA sampled was significantly less oxidized and more variable in composition during the winter than during the early summer. Lower OH concentrations in the winter were the main difference between the two campaigns, suggesting that atmospheric formation of highly oxygenated OA is associated with homogeneous photochemical aging.

  8. Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 μM. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 μM [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate

  9. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, N.; Yang, W.; Ho, S. W.; Hu, J. L.; Wan, J. T. K.; Liu, R. B.

    2011-12-23

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  10. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  12. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  15. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Regenerate metal-plating baths to cut waste and save

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    During electrode-based metal plating of equipment components, the formation of an electrical field causes metal deposits to be thicker at edges and seams, and thinner on flat surfaces. And, electrode-based methods consume large amounts of energy. Electroless-nickel (EN) -- or autocatalytic -- plating systems were pioneered in the 1940s to solve these problems. EN plating produces a more uniform coating, irrespective of the complexity of the part, and it consumes less electricity, since to electric current is required during plating. Plating in an EN system results from a chemical reaction between nickel in the bath and the substrate of the equipment component. The downside of electroless plating, however, is the limited life of the nickel bath, and the large volume of metal waste produced by bath disposal. Ionsep Corp. (Wilmington, Del.) has developed an electrodialytic system that continuously reforms the EN plating baths, to give them longer life. Its patented system has been successfully laboratory tested in a 1-ft{sup 2} cell, and the firm recently won a $250,000 grant from the US Dept. of Energy (Washington, D.C.) and Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.), to design and engineer a commercial-scale version of the system.

  17. [Legionella pneumonia which occurred in a private whirlpool bath user].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Jun; Kondo, Hirobumi; Takayama, Youko; Sunagawa, Keisuke; Enari, Tadako; Ishii, Yoshikazu

    2004-10-01

    A 88 year old female with active rheumatoid arthritis treated by low dose of prednisolone and methotrexate was admitted to our hospital because of severe bilateral pulmonary infiltration and acute respiratory distress syndrome. On admission, she had consciousness disturbance and was intubated because of severe respiratory failure. We heard from her family of her habit she had taking a private whirlpool bath 2 or 3 times everyday. So, we suspected a Legionella pneumophila infection. We started intravenous erythromycin (EM) (1,500mg/day) and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1,000mg x 3days) and full controlled mechanical ventilation supported with PEEP. Her respiratory failure was gradually improved and she was discharged on the 44 the hospital day. Legionella pneumophila (serogroup 6) was isolated in her sputum by B-CYE alpha culture. Legionella pneumophila (serogroup 6) was isolated in her private whirlpool bath too. Both samples revealed the same by genetic analysis with pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This is the first adult case of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia infected from a private whirlpool bath confirmed by genetic analysis. We should always suspect Legionella pneumonia as one of the severe community-acquired pneumonia, because Legionella pneumophila were frequently detected among various water sources including the private whirlpool bath. PMID:15560380

  18. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  19. A to Stirred-Liquid-Bath-Based Blackbody Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yuan, Z.; Hao, X.; Wang, T.; Duan, Y.

    2015-08-01

    At the national facility for blackbody source radiance temperature calibration of the National Institute of Metrology, China, a stirred liquid bath blackbody was developed for use as a radiance temperature reference source, which has a temperature range from to . This blackbody source consists of a stirred liquid bath, a blackbody cavity, a standard capsule platinum resistance thermometer, and a dry-air purging system. The cavity is cylindrical with grooves on the inner wall. The cavity is 80 mm in diameter, with a depth of 520 mm, and is immersed in a bath filled with a water-ethylene glycol mixture. The average normal emissivity of the cavity is calculated to be better than 0.9999 with V grooves and when painted with Nextel 811-21 coating. The temperature stability of the blackbody source is over a period of 20 min, and the temperature uniformity of the cavity bottom is . The standard uncertainty of the radiance temperature of the stirred liquid bath blackbody source is estimated to be.

  20. VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  2. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Finite Systems in a Heat Bath: Spectrum Perturbations and Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Rodrigo; Rubi, J Miguel

    2016-09-01

    When a finite system is at equilibrium with a heat bath, the equilibrium temperature is dictated by the heat bath and not by the intrinsic thermostatistics of the finite system. If not sufficiently large, it may be necessary for the finite system to change its thermostatistics in order to be at equilibrium with the heat bath. We account for this process by invoking Landsberg's notion of temperature-dependent energy levels. We establish that the mismatch between the intrinsic temperature of the excited finite system and that of the heat bath drives a spectrum perturbation which enables thermal equilibrium. We show that the temperature-induced spectrum perturbation is equivalent to Hill's purely thermodynamic subdivision potential. The difference between intrinsic and equilibrium temperature provides us with a measure for how large a system can be before it no longer needs to be regarded as small. The theoretical framework proposed in this paper identifies the role of temperature in a bottom-up thermostatistical description of finite systems. PMID:27494276

  5. Bath osmolality: effect on water permeability of epithelial tissue.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y T; Parsons, R H; Feeney, G A; Walker, K L

    1982-03-01

    When hyperosmotic gradients from 100 to 500 mosM are used to produce a water flux, the water permeability of live and potassium cyanide (KCN)-poisoned frog skin decreases with increasing osmotic gradients. In addition, as the total bath osmolality (corium + epithelial) increases there is a reduction in tissue water. Examination of the tissue cellular and extracellular compartments shows that cell shrinkage caused by the increasing hyperosmolality of the bathing medium correlates with the decrease in osmotic permeability. When the bath osmolality is held constant and cell volume decreases, there is a decrease in the water permeability. High potassium in the external bathing medium causes cell swelling that is associated with an increase in water permeability. These data support the hypothesis that a number of conditions known to affect the water permeability of frog skin do so partly or wholly as a result of a change in the cell volume, which either directly or indirectly alters the osmotic permeability of a rate limiting barrier, possibly the cell membrane. PMID:6801996

  6. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. NOTE THE WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. The copper responding surfaceome of Methylococccus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Larsen, Oivind; Jensen, Harald B

    2011-10-01

    Proteins on the cellular surface of a bacterium, its surfaceome, are part of the interface between the bacterium and its environment, and are essential for the cells response to its habitat. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is one of the most extensively studied methane-oxidizers and is considered as a model-methanotroph. The composition of proteins of the surfaceome of M. capsulatus Bath varies with the availability of copper and changes significantly upon only minor changes of copper concentration in the sub-μM concentration range. Proteins that respond to the changes in copper availability include the assumed copper acquisition protein MopE, c-type heme proteins (SACCP, cytochrome c(553o) proteins) and several proteins of unknown function. The most intriguing observation is that multi-heme c-type cytochromes are major constituents of the M. capsulatus Bath surfaceome. This is not commonly observed in bacteria, but is a feature shared with the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Their presence on the M. capsulatus Bath cellular surface may be linked to the cells ability to efficiently adapt to changing growth conditions and environmental challenges. However, their possible role(s) in methane oxidation, nitrogen metabolism, copper acquisition, redox-reactions and/or electron transport remain(s) at present an open question. This review will discuss the possible significance of these findings. PMID:22092708

  9. Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

    The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

  10. Zinc recovery and waste sludge minimization from chromium passivation baths.

    PubMed

    Diban, Nazely; Mediavilla, Rosa; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the feasibility of applying emulsion pertraction technology (EPT) aiming at zinc recovery and waste minimization in the zinc electroplating processes that include Cr (III) passivation. The assessment consists of firstly the lifetime extension of the passivation baths by selective removal of the tramp ions zinc and iron, and secondly, the recovery of zinc for further reuse. Spent passivation baths from a local industry were tested, being the major metallic content: Cr(3+) 9000mg L(-1), Zn(2+) 12,000mg L(-1), Fe(3+) 100mg L(-1). Working in a Liqui-Cel hollow fiber membrane contactor and using the extractant bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, reduction of zinc and iron concentrations below 60mg L(-1) and 2mg L(-1), respectively were obtained, while trivalent chromium, the active metal that generates the passivation layer, was retained in the baths. Zinc was selectively transferred to an acidic stripping phase that in the experimental time reached a concentration of 157,000mg L(-1). Zinc recovery by electrowinning from the acidic stripping phase without any pretreatment of the electrolyte solution provided a purity of 98.5%, matching the lower commercial zinc grade. As a result of the extension of the life time of the passivation bath, significant environmental advantages are derived such as minimization of the volume of hazardous wastes and savings in the consumption of raw materials. PMID:21704452

  11. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES NEXT TO THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Effects of tub bathing procedures on preterm infants' behavior.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Yin, Ti

    2006-12-01

    Although medical advances have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, morbidity in terms of neurodevelopmental impairment has not decreased for this population. This results in caregivers having to reconsider how neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) caregiving impacts on preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different phases of a routine tub bath on preterm infants' distress and state behavior in the NICU. The study used an exploratory repeated measures design that focused on preterm infants' distress and state behavior, and evaluated the effects of three phases of a routine tub bath, which were performed according to standard unit practice in the NICU. Thirteen nurses repeatedly bathed 12 infants on different days, and 64 baths were videotaped for the purpose of assessing the variety of distress behavior. The procedures of one bath could be categorized into three phases designated to Phases I, II, and III. The variables were measured by a preterm infant behavioral coding scheme developed for this research. The inter-rater reliability of the instrument ranged from .82 to .99. Mixed effects analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among the bath phases in the occurrences of distress and state behavior. The results showed significant statistical difference among most distress behaviors during the three phases (e.g. "startle, jerk, tremor" F ratio = 25.62, p < .001; "finger splay, grasping, fisting" F ratio = 49.99, p < .001; "grimace" F ratio = 36.55, p < .001; "fussing or crying" F ratio = 25.27, p < .001), with the exception of "extension, arching and squirming". In particular, the occurrence of distress and state behavior increased significantly in phase II. Routine tub bathing not only disrupts preterm infants' sleep but also causes an increase in distress behavior. Preterm infants' stress increases with the intrusiveness of nursing procedures. NICU caregivers should consider the effects of routine

  16. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  17. Representing cardiac bidomain bath-loading effects by an augmented monodomain approach: application to complex ventricular models.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot

    2011-04-01

    Although the cardiac bidomain model has been widely used in the simulation of electrical activation, its relatively computationally expensive nature means that monodomain approaches are generally required for long-duration simulations (for example, investigations of arrhythmia mechanisms). However, the presence of a conducting bath surrounding the tissue is known to induce wavefront curvature (surface leading bulk), a phenomena absent in standard monodomain approaches. Here, we investigate the biophysical origin of the bidomain bath-loading induced wavefront curvature and present a novel augmented monodomain-equivalent bidomain approach faithfully replicating all aspects of bidomain wavefront morphology and conduction velocity, but with a fraction of the computational cost. Bath-loading effects are shown to be highly dependent upon specific conductivity parameters, but less dependent upon the thickness or conductivity of the surrounding bath, with even relatively thin surrounding fluid layers (~ 0.1 mm) producing significant wavefront curvature in bidomain simulations. We demonstrate that our augmented monodomain approach can be easily adapted for different conductivity sets and applied to anatomically complex models, thus facilitating fast and accurate simulation of cardiac wavefront dynamics during long-duration simulations, further aiding the faithful comparison of simulations with experiments. PMID:21292591

  18. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takatoshi E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu

    2014-06-28

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies’ thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts – the reorganization shift – to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length

  19. Psychoactive “bath salts”: not so soothing

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Lehner, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called “bath salts” products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

  20. Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows

  1. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  2. Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Seewald, J.S.; Vairavamurthy, M.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, {sup 30}NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and reflected light microscopy. Based on these measurements, it was possible to recognize three distinct temperature regimes, within which the type and amount of sulfur in the analyzed fractions underwent transformations: (1) between 150 and 225C significant proportion of kerogen-bound sulfur is lost probably due to the collapse of polysulfide bridges; (2) between 225 and 275C, cleavage of -S-S- and -S-C- linkages within the kerogen is believed to occur, resulting in substantial production of polar sulfur-rich bitumen; (3) above 275C total bitumen yields as well as the proportion of bitumen sulfur decrease, while C-C bond scission leads to increased yields of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The results from this study clearly and quantitatively establish a link between organically-bound sulfur, and more specifically, organic polysulfides, and the low-temperature evolution of soluble petroleum-like products (bitumen) from sulfur-rich source rocks.

  3. Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

  4. Electrostatic model of the energy-bending within organic semiconductors: experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Wong, W. S.; Talik, A. N.; Woon, K. L.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-09-01

    The interfacial properties between electrodes and the various organic layers that comprise an organic electronic device are of direct relevance in understanding charge injection, extraction and generation. The energy levels and energy-bending of three interfaces; indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), ITO/poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and PEDOT:PSS/PVK were measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By decoupling the vacuum shift and energy-bending, the energy-bending at these interfaces can be simulated using an electrostatic model that takes into account the energetic disorder of the polymers. The model is further extended to include blended mixtures of semiconductors at differing concentrations and it was found that a very good agreement exists between the experiment and theory for all interfaces. This suggests that the electrostatic model can be used to describe energy-bending at the interface between any organic semiconductors. Further investigation into the effect of the Gaussian density of states width on energy-bending is warranted.

  5. The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André

    2012-05-01

    The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations. PMID:22680688

  6. Uncoupling of bacterial and terrigenous dissolved organic matter dynamics in decomposition experiments.

    PubMed

    Herlemann, Daniel P R; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4-16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot

  7. Uncoupling of Bacterial and Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Decomposition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4–16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot

  8. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    PubMed

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals. PMID:26673595

  9. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  10. The Determination of the Stereochemistry of Erythro-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-Ethanediol: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Alex T.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment designed to illustrate the power of nuclear magnetic reasonance spectroscopy in a determination of the configurations at centers of chirality of various isomers of acyclic systems. Provides a background discussion and experimental procedure. (JM)

  11. Cardiac infection and sepsis in 3 intravenous bath salts drug users.

    PubMed

    Belton, Patrick; Sharngoe, Tenzing; Maguire, F Michael; Polhemus, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The street drug "bath salts" are psychoactive mixtures of cathinone derivatives. We report 3 cases of disseminated Staphylococcus aureus infection with cardiac involvement (2 endocarditis and 1 pericarditis), secondary to intravenous bath salts use. PMID:23418275

  12. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system.

    PubMed

    Louton, H; Bergmann, S; Reese, S; Erhard, M H; Rauch, E

    2016-07-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated "normally." Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  13. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system

    PubMed Central

    Louton, H.; Bergmann, S.; Reese, S.; Erhard, M. H.; Rauch, E.

    2016-01-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated “normally.” Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  14. Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy for Harmonic Vibrational Modes with Nonlinear System-Bath Interactions. II. Gaussian-Markovian Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Yoshitaka; Steffen, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    The relaxation processes in a quantum system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic Gaussian-Markovian heat bath are investigated by the quantum Fokker-Planck equation in the hierarchy form. This model describes frequency fluctuations in the quantum system with an arbitrary correlation time and thus bridges the gap between the Brownian oscillator model and the stochastic model by Anderson and Kubo. The effects of the finite correlation time and the system-bath coupling strength are studied for a harmonic model system by numerically integrating the equation of motion. The one-time correlation function of the system coordinate, which is measured in conventional Raman and infrared absorption experiments, already reflects the inhomogeneous character of the relaxation process. The finite correlation time of the frequency fluctuations, however, is directly evident only in the two- and three-time correlation function as probed by multidimensional spectroscopic techniques such as the Raman echo and the fifth-order 2D Raman experiment.

  15. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  16. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment in Iowa: Organic resilience in soil quality and profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological, and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The certified organic systems are designed...

  17. A time convolution less density matrix approach to the nonlinear optical response of a coupled system-bath complex

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Marten Knorr, Andreas

    2010-04-15

    Time convolution less density matrix theory (TCL) is a powerful and well established tool to investigate strong system-bath coupling for linear optical spectra. We show that TCL equations can be generalised to the nonlinear optical response up to a chosen order in the optical field. This goal is achieved via an time convolution less perturbation scheme for the reduced density matrices of the electronic system. In our approach, the most important results are the inclusion of a electron-phonon coupling non-diagonal in the electronic states and memory effects of the bath: First, the considered model system is introduced. Second, the time evolution of the statistical operator is expanded with respect to the external optical field. This expansion is the starting point to explain how a TCL theory can treat the response up to in a certain order in the external field. Third, new TCL equations, including bath memory effects, are derived and the problem of information loss in the reduced density matrix is analysed. For this purpose, new dimensions are added to the reduced statistical operator to compensate lack of information in comparison with the full statistical operator. The theory is benchmarked with a two level system and applied to a three level system including non-diagonal phonon coupling. In our analysis of pump-probe experiments, the bath memory is influenced by the system state occupied between pump and probe pulse. In particular, the memory of the bath influences the dephasing process of electronic coherences developing during the time interval between pump and probe pulses.

  18. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from the "24-hour bath"].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murakami, K; Ishii, N; Kwon, H H

    2000-01-01

    The "24-HOUR BATH" is an apparatus which circulates the bath water, keeps it clean and warm, and makes it possible to take a bath at any time during the day or night. It consists of apparatus for cleaning (sponge or mesh filter and filter material), heating (ceramic heater), and sterilizing (UV lamp). Recently, three cases of skin disease due to M. avium infection in private homes, in which "24-HOUR BATH" water was suspected to be the source of infection, have been reported. We attempted to isolate M. avium complex from the water (32 specimens), sponge filter (29 specimens), and filter material (32 specimens) of the "24-HOUR BATH". One hundred-ml samples of bath water, and 50-ml samples of rinse from a sponge filter or filter material were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Sediment was suspended in distilled water and a smear was prepared, and then digested and decontaminated with 2% sodium hydroxide. The processed specimens were cultured on 2% Ogawa medium containing ofloxacin (1 microgram/ml) and ethambutol (2.5 micrograms/ml) for 8 weeks at 37 degrees C. Positive smears were 3 (9.4%), 25 (86.2%) and 25 (78.1%) specimens from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. A few bacterial clumps were observed, especially in the sponge specimens. The number of positive culture was 5 (15.6%), 24 (82.8%) and 25 (78.1%) from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. Among them the number of Runyon's Group III-positive cultures was 5 (100%), 22 (91.7%) and 20 (80%) in the water, sponge, and filter material specimens, respectively. In most cases, cultures were positive for both the sponge and filter material specimens. All of the Group III mycobacteria were smooth, grew at 28, 37, 42, and 45 degrees C, negative for niacin, nitrate reductase, semiquantitative catalase, urease and Tween80 hydrolysis, and positive for 68 degrees C catalase. All of the strains reacted with M. avium complex AccuProbe and M. avium AccuProbe, but none of the strains reacted

  19. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  20. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush...

  1. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush...

  2. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  3. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into publicly owned treatment works resulting from oxidizing and reducing salt bath descaling... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the salt... Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath...

  4. Effects of language experience and stimulus context on the neural organization and categorical perception of speech.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Lee, Chia-Cheng

    2015-10-15

    Categorical perception (CP) represents a fundamental process in converting continuous speech acoustics into invariant percepts. Using scalp-recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated how tone-language experience and stimulus context influence the CP for lexical tones-pitch patterns used by a majority of the world's languages to signal word meaning. Stimuli were vowel pairs overlaid with a high-level tone (T1) followed by a pitch continuum spanning between dipping (T3) and rising (T2) contours of the Mandarin tonal space. To vary context, T1 either preceded or followed the critical T2/T3 continuum. Behaviorally, native Chinese showed stronger CP as evident by their steeper, more dichotomous psychometric functions and faster identification of linguistic pitch patterns than native English-speaking controls. Stimulus context produced shifts in both groups' categorical boundary but was more exaggerated in native listeners. Analysis of source activity extracted from primary auditory cortex revealed overall stronger neural encoding of tone in Chinese compared to English, indicating experience-dependent plasticity in cortical pitch processing. More critically, "neurometric" functions derived from multidimensional scaling and clustering of source ERPs established: (i) early auditory cortical activity could accurately predict listeners' psychometric speech identification and contextual shifts in the perceptual boundary; (ii) neurometric profiles were organized more categorically in native speakers. Our data show that tone-language experience refines early auditory cortical brain representations so as to supply more faithful templates to neural mechanisms subserving lexical pitch categorization. We infer that contextual influence on the CP for tones is determined by language experience and the frequency of pitch patterns as they occur in listeners' native lexicon. PMID:26146197

  5. Landau-Zener population control and dipole measurement of a two-level-system bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. S.; Gladchenko, S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Burin, A. L.; Osborn, K. D.

    2014-09-01

    Tunneling two-level systems (TLSs), present in dielectrics at low temperatures, have been recently studied for fundamental understanding and superconducting device development. According to a recent theory by Burin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.157002], the TLS bath of any amorphous dielectric experiences a distribution of Landau-Zener transitions if exposed to simultaneous fields. In this experiment we measure amorphous insulating films at millikelvin temperatures with a microwave field and a swept electric field bias using a superconducting resonator. We find that the maximum dielectric loss per microwave photon with the simultaneous fields is approximately the same as that in the equilibrium state, in agreement with the generic material theory. In addition, we find that the loss depends on the fields in a way which allows for the separate extraction of the TLS bath dipole moment and density of states. This method allows for the study of the TLS dipole moment in a diverse set of disordered films, and provides a technique for continuously inverting their population.

  6. HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

    The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during

  7. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-07-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  8. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-05-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  9. Are Roots the Source of All Soil Organic Matter? Results From Isotopic Experiments in Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    Plants produce organic detritus through roots and aboveground senescence, mainly litterfall. In soil science and biogeochemistry, the main source of soil carbon (C) inputs has been assumed to be litter. For example, litterfall is used as a measure of primary productivity relevant to belowground processes and decomposition, and properties of litter decay have been used to parameterize soil C models. There is little empirical evidence, however, that aboveground C inputs make a quantitatively important contribution to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). In a series of experiments in Mediterranean conifer and eastern deciduous forests, we used 13-C and 14-C analysis to quantify the contribution of leaf /needle C versus root C into soil organic matter pools (separated by density, physical, and chemical fractionation). Because dissolved organic C (DOC) leaching into soil may be rapidly decomposed by microbes, we also examine incorporation of isotopic tracers into microbial biomass (using chloroform-fumigation extraction, 13-C PLFA, and handpicked ectomycorrhizal fungi). We have found that aboveground inputs make almost no contribution to soil organic matter or microbial biomass in the mineral soil of these forests, at least within five years of substrate deposition. A new model of the litter layer might have the litter layer accumulating and decaying in relative isolation from the mineral soil. In that case, DOC leaching from the litter layer may be providing energy but not biomass to microbes, be mineralized in abiotic reactions with soil minerals, or be moving rapidly in macro pores. We note that these sites have low earth worm populations; sites with more bioturbation might have more surface C input to SOM. We have found that fine root lifetimes are much longer than typical leaf or needle lifespan, such that the two sources must be treated differently in biogeochemical models. It also means that the stock of SOM in these forests is derived from a much smaller flux of C

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment facility (OMRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hine, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) facility performed from October 1977 through September 1979. This D and D project included removal of all the facilities and as much contaminated soil and rock as practical. Removal of the reactor pressure vessel was an unusually difficult problem, and an extraordinary, unexpected amount of activated rock and soil was removed. After removal of all significantly contaminated material, the site consisted of a 20-ft deep excavation surrounded by backfill material. Before this excavation was backfilled, it and the backfill material were radiologically surveyed and detailed records made of these surveys. After the excavation was backfilled and graded, the site surface was surveyed again and found to be essentially uncontaminated.

  11. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  12. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

  13. The Synthesis of 1-Phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines: An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment and Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, R. M.; Sammes, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment (requiring three/four 3-hour laboratory sessions) involving a four-stage synthesis of 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via the Pictet-Spengler route. In addition, the experiment allows students to study the spectra and properties of aklaloid-like materials while completing several…

  14. [Experience of using bacterial lysate IRS 19 for the prophylaxis of the diseases of respiratory organs in organized groups].

    PubMed

    Volgin, A R; Demina, Iu V

    2005-01-01

    To solve the problem of unfavorable sanitary and epidemiological situation in diseases of respiratory organs in one of the organized groups in the Moscow region, a preparation prepared from a group of curative vaccines, IRS 19, was used. For controlling the effectiveness of its prophylactic action two groups of 250 persons were formed. As a result, morbidity rate in respiratory diseases decreased 2.5-3 times. In 1.5 months after the use of the preparation was started the coefficient of protection against the whole group of diseases of respiratory organs was 70%. PMID:16028523

  15. Some final conclusions and supporting experiments related to the search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biemann, K.; Lavoie, J. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Viking molecular analysis experiment has demonstrated the absence (within the detection limits which range from levels of parts per million to below parts per billion) of organic substances in the Martian surface soil at the two Viking landing sites. Laboratory experiments with sterile and nonsterile antarctic samples further demonstrate the capability and reliability of the instrument. The circumstances under which organic components could have escaped detection, such as inaccessibility or extreme thermal stability of organic polymers, are discussed but are found to be unlikely. The inability of the instrument to detect free oxygen evolved from soil samples is pointed out.

  16. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  17. Molecular dynamics with coupling to an external bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, H. J. C.; Postma, J. P. M.; van Gunsteren, W. F.; DiNola, A.; Haak, J. R.

    1984-10-01

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the need often arises to maintain such parameters as temperature or pressure rather than energy and volume, or to impose gradients for studying transport properties in nonequilibrium MD. A method is described to realize coupling to an external bath with constant temperature or pressure with adjustable time constants for the coupling. The method is easily extendable to other variables and to gradients, and can be applied also to polyatomic molecules involving internal constraints. The influence of coupling time constants on dynamical variables is evaluated. A leap-frog algorithm is presented for the general case involving constraints with coupling to both a constant temperature and a constant pressure bath.

  18. Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanturf, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

  19. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP

  20. Microbial control on stability of soil organic matter in drought manipulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Schrumpf, M.; Weber, E.; Wutzler, T.; Gleixner, G.; Reichstein, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-04-01

    Extending drought periods as a consequence of global warming affect both the amount and the activity of heterotrophic microorganisms in soil. The studies of drought effect on the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) which is microbially mediated still show controversial results mainly due to separated research approaches which do not consider the soil - plant system as a whole. We would like to discuss the results obtained within the QuaSOM experiment (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena, Germany) where continues 13C- CO2-labeling was applied during vegetation of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under deficit and optimal moisture regimes. The partitioning of plant-originated and SOM-originated carbon in heterotrophic respiration and in microbial biomass will be related to the changes in the microbial growth parameters and enzymes kinetics. The drought effect on temperature sensitivity of the enzymes responsible for the decomposition of SOM-compounds of different availability will be compared in the rhizosphere of peppermint versus bulk soil. The effect of vegetation on cycling of organic matter in soil will be considered for the contrasting moisture regimes. The changes in carbon sequestration potential due to priming effects caused by repeated drying - rewetting events will be evaluated for the short term time scale.

  1. Electron spin decoherence in silicon carbide nuclear spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping

    In this paper, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of 29Si (4.7 counter-intuitive result, is the suppression of heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

  2. Giving a Newborn a Bath in her Parents' Presence.

    PubMed

    Didry, Pascale; Didry, Emmanuelle

    2015-11-01

    Today, Sophie is working on the maternity ward. She is going to give Manon, David and Laura's first born, a bath. Manon was born on the day before. She weighs 3.350kg and is 49cm long. She has already got a lot of fuzzy brown hair. Both parents are looking forward to watching and learning how to care for their new baby. PMID:26548395

  3. Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

    1993-02-01

    Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

  4. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure. PMID:26372681

  5. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-07-14

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation.

  6. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  7. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a

  8. Mineralization of Soil Organic Matter in Two Elevated CO2 by Warming Experiments in Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.; Hovenden, M.; Williams, A.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Morgan, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Experimentally elevated atmospheric CO2 has enhanced carbon (C) allocation belowground, while ecosystem warming has led to losses of soil C due to enhanced mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Few investigations of possible interactions between elevated CO2 and temperature have been reported, but the potential for C cycling effects not to be simply additive is high. We have taken advantage of two multi-factor global change experiments being conducted in mixed C3/C4 grasslands to evaluate similarities and differences in responses of SOM mineralization rates. The TasFACE experiment in Tasmania, Australia, has been running for over 5 years, while the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA, has been running for less than 2 years. Both experiments employ mini-FACE systems (enriched plots targeted at 550 at TasFACE and 600 ppm at PHACE) and overhead ceramic infrared emitters (heated plots targeted at +2 degrees C at TasFACE and +1.5/+3 degrees day/night at PHACE). Soil samples collected after 5 years at TasFACE and at the beginning of the second year at PHACE were incubated for three weeks to evaluate changes in labile SOM pool sizes and turnover rates. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 would enhance labile SOM pool size and that warming would reduce it, and that warming would stimulate decomposition rate. Preliminary results suggested that five years of warming enhanced decomposition rate in the TasFACE soils, but only under the C4 grass species, whereas the first two months of warming had no effects on decomposition rate at PHACE. Elevated CO2 increased mineralizable C pool sizes by 10 to 30 percent, depending on depth, in the TasFACE soils, but did not significantly alter C cycling in the PHACE soils. Short experimental duration likely explained the lack of treatment effects seen at PHACE. We plan to continue conducting parallel experiments to track temporal changes in C cycling with the expectation that interactive effects of

  9. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

    2014-09-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  10. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Grabau, Zane J.; Chen, Senyu

    2014-01-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of metabolic regulation by copper ions in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Yet-Ran; Yi, Eugene C; Lee, Hookeun; Tian, Qiang; Wu, Keh-Ming; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Yu, Steve S-F; Chen, Yu-Ju; Aebersold, Ruedi; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-12-01

    Copper ions switch the oxidation of methane by soluble methane monooxygenase to particulate methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Toward understanding the change in cellular metabolism related to this transcriptional and metabolic switch, we have undertaken genomic sequencing and quantitative comparative analysis of the proteome in M. capsulatus (Bath) grown under different copper-to-biomass ratios by cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag technology. Of the 682 proteins identified, the expressions of 60 proteins were stimulated by at least 2-fold by copper ions; 68 proteins were down-regulated by 2-fold or more. The 60 proteins overexpressed included the methane and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, while the 68 proteins suppressed were mainly responsible for cellular signaling processes, indicating a role of copper ions in the expression of the genes associated with the metabolism of the organism downstream of methane oxidation. The study has also provided a complete map of the C1 metabolism pathways in this methanotroph and clarified the interrelationships between them. PMID:15385566

  12. Cytochrome P460 genes from the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus bath.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, D J; Zahn, J A; Hooper, A B; DiSpirito, A A

    1998-12-01

    P460 cytochromes catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. They have been isolated from the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (R. H. Erickson and A. B. Hooper, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 275:231-244, 1972) and the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (J. A. Zahn et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:5879-5887, 1994). A degenerate oligonucleotide probe was synthesized based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome P460 and used to identify a DNA fragment from M. capsulatus Bath that contains cyp, the gene encoding cytochrome P460. cyp is part of a gene cluster that contains three open reading frames (ORFs), the first predicted to encode a 59,000-Da membrane-bound polypeptide, the second predicted to encode a 12, 000-Da periplasmic protein, and the third (cyp) encoding cytochrome P460. The products of the first two ORFs have no apparent similarity to any proteins in the GenBank database. The overall sequence similarity of the P460 cytochromes from M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea was low (24.3% of residues identical), although short regions of conserved residues are present in the two proteins. Both cytochromes have a C-terminal, c-heme binding motif (CXXCH) and a conserved lysine residue (K61) that may provide an additional covalent cross-link to the heme (D. M. Arciero and A. B. Hooper, FEBS Lett. 410:457-460, 1997). Gene probing using cyp indicated that a cytochrome P460 similar to that from M. capsulatus Bath may be present in the type II methanotrophs Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylocystis parvus OBBP but not in the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylomicrobium albus BG8, and Methylomonas sp. strains MN and MM2. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies against cytochrome P460 from M. capsulatus Bath indicated that the expression level of cytochrome P460 was not affected either by expression of the two different methane monooxygenases or by addition of ammonia to the culture medium. PMID:9851984

  13. Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Gijs; van der Sar, Toeno; Blok, Machiel; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Hanson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond at room temperature that is composed of electron spins of substitutional nitrogen impurities. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, by combining spin bath control with dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for fundamental studies on decoherence and enable novel avenues for spin-based magnetometry and quantum information processing. PMID:22536480

  14. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  15. Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 3rd Edition (by Kenneth L. Williamson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeffe, Reviewed By James

    1999-11-01

    The third edition of Williamson's Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments is welcome. Williamson's lab texts trace their lineage back not only through earlier editions, but, via a multi-edition conventional-scale text (Fieser and Williamson), to Louis Fieser's 1935 lab text. All these books are characterized by well-honed, reliable experiments and innovations such as the use of high-boiling solvents to accelerate reactions and an interesting sequence of transformations based on derivatives of 1,2-diphenylethane. Another connective thread, familiar to many, is the construction and use of simple homemade devices for a variety of laboratory purposes. Williamson himself is a pioneer in the change from macroscale chemistry in the student lab to the microscale approach. His text is written to use a set of glassware designed by him. At San Francisco State University we have used this glassware since the appearance of his first microscale book. Other instructors prefer microscale glassware with ground glass joints, but we find Williamson's kit to be entirely adequate for the undergraduate lab. Moreover, it is the least expensive type available, does not break easily, and is unattractive to graduate research students, hence does not "disappear". Other innovations appearing in earlier editions include sharp attention (all of Chapter 2) to safety, and the integration of waste disposal methods into the lab experiments themselves. By having students convert waste products into less harmful and less bulky materials in the lab, the enormous costs of disposal can be reduced without postlab treatment, a step not permitted except by a licensed waste-treatment facility. Williamson is also the first or one of the first to place computational chemistry into an introductory organic lab text. In this new edition, (optional) molecular mechanics calculations remain the workhorse method. These are now used in conjunction with 20 experiments, and are supplemented in some cases by

  16. Effect of alkali and alkaline-earth chloride addition on electrolytic reduction of UO 2 in LiCl salt bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu

    2011-05-01

    The electrolytic reduction process of actinide oxides in a LiCl salt bath at 923 K has been developed for nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since some salt-soluble fission products, such as Cs, Sr and Ba, accumulate in the LiCl salt bath, their effect on UO 2 reduction was investigated. In the experiments, UO 2 specimens were reduced by potential- or current-controlled electrolysis in various LiCl salt baths containing up to 30 mol% of KCl, CsCl, SrCl 2 or BaCl 2. The rate of UO 2 reduction in a LiCl salt bath was considerably decreased by the addition of alkali metal chlorides (KCl and CsCl) and slightly decreased by BaCl 2 addition. SrCl 2 addition had no appreciable effect. It was suggested that the diffusion of O 2- ions from the inside of UO 2 specimens to the bulk salt determined the reduction rate during the electrolysis and that the effect of salt composition was related to the solubility of O 2- ions in the salt bath.

  17. Generating entanglement via symmetry-selective bath engineering in superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Irfan; Schwartz, Mollie; Martin, Leigh; Flurin, Emmanuel; Aron, Camille; Kulkarni, Manas; Tureci, Hakan

    Bath engineering, which utilizes coupling to lossy modes in a quantum system to generate non-trivial steady states, is a potential alternative to gate- and measurement-based quantum science. In this talk, we discuss autonomous stabilization of entanglement between two superconducting transmon qubits in a symmetry-selective manner. Our experiments are implemented using two 3D transmons housed in separate copper cavities. The cavities are coupled via an aperture, and hybridize into nondegenerate symmetric and antisymmetric bath modes. We utilize the engineered symmetries of the dissipative environment to stabilize a target Bell state 1/√{ 2} | ge > +/- | eg > in the qubit sector; we further demonstrate suppression of the Bell state of opposite symmetry due to parity selection rules. This implementation is resource-efficient, achieves a steady-state fidelity <- = 0 . 70 , and is scalable to multiple qubits. http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.00702 This research was supported by the ARO.

  18. Formation rates of complex organics in UV irradiated CH_3OH-rich ices. I. Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, K. I.; Garrod, R. T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2009-09-01

    Context: Gas-phase complex organic molecules are commonly detected in the warm inner regions of protostellar envelopes, so-called hot cores. Recent models show that photochemistry in ices followed by desorption may explain the observed abundances. There is, however, a general lack of quantitative data on UV-induced complex chemistry in ices. Aims: This study aims to experimentally quantify the UV-induced production rates of complex organics in CH3OH-rich ices under a variety of astrophysically relevant conditions. Methods: The ices are irradiated with a broad-band UV hydrogen microwave-discharge lamp under ultra-high vacuum conditions, at 20-70 K, and then heated to 200 K. The reaction products are identified by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), through comparison with RAIRS and TPD curves of pure complex species, and through the observed effects of isotopic substitution and enhancement of specific functional groups, such as CH3, in the ice. Results: Complex organics are readily formed in all experiments, both during irradiation and during the slow warm-up of the ices after the UV lamp is turned off. The relative abundances of photoproducts depend on the UV fluence, the ice temperature, and whether pure CH3OH ice or CH3OH:CH4/CO ice mixtures are used. C2H6, CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3, HOCH2CHO and (CH2OH)2 are all detected in at least one experiment. Varying the ice thickness and the UV flux does not affect the chemistry. The derived product-formation yields and their dependences on different experimental parameters, such as the initial ice composition, are used to estimate the CH3OH photodissociation branching ratios in ice and the relative diffusion barriers of the formed radicals. At 20 K, the pure CH3OH photodesorption yield is 2.1(±1.0)×10-3 per incident UV photon, the photo-destruction cross section 2.6(±0.9)×10-18 cm^2. Conclusions: Photochemistry in CH3OH ices is efficient enough to

  19. Ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical organisms: Laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Sueitt, A P E; Yamada-Ferraz, T M; Oliveira, A F; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze laboratory and field data to assess the ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical biota. Short-term laboratorial tests resulted in estimated EC₅₀ values of 76.72 (67.32-86.12)mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and 296.46 (277.16-315.76) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. xanthus. Long-term laboratorial tests generated IC₂₅ values of 5.05 (4.35-5.75) and 28.73 (26.30-31.15) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and C. xanthus, respectively. The results from in situ mesocosm experiments performed in the Ibirité reservoir (a tropical eutrophic urban water body located in SE Brazil) indicated that C. silvestrii and C. xanthus were not under severe deleterious acute impact due to the treatment because the higher nitrate concentrations determined were 5.2 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=24 h; sediment-water interface) and 17.5 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=600 h; interstitial water). However, an abrupt decrease in the densities of Cyanophyceae members and other benthic taxa was observed. In summary, the present work contributes greatly to the toxicity data linked to two taxonomically distinct organisms that have never been screened for calcium nitrate sensitivity. Furthermore, considering the problem of the management and restoration of eutrophic environments, our study reports a comprehensive field assessment that allows the elucidation of the possible toxic impacts caused by the addition of calcium nitrate (a remediation technique) on aquatic and benthic organisms as well as the implications on the aquatic ecosystem as a whole, which may greatly allow expanding the current knowledgebase on the topic. PMID:25868152

  20. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property: implications for experiments, feedbacks, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to land use or climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we summarize recent understanding and propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming. Numerical models of soil carbon cycling are used to attribute carbon sources and sinks, predict climate-ecosystem feedbacks, and evaluate biofuel and sequestration strategies. Current ecosystem models rest heavily on the concept of recalcitrance and most models partition plant input into pools of different turnover time solely on the basis of plant tissue chemistry. However, recent research enabled by isotopic, spectroscopic, and molecular marker tools finds little evidence that recalcitrance or selective preservation determine the long residence time of SOM. Without the assumption that recalcitrance or molecular structure control decomposition rates, the framework of these models is no longer justified. Some improvements can be made easily; in other areas, research is needed to translate recent findings into new parameters, for example, to predict the effect of organo-mineral interactions and soil depth on decomposition rates. In this presentation, we will describe a new view of soil carbon cycling that is consistent with the new generation of observations, discuss suggested improvements to soil carbon models, and explore the implications for the vulnerability of soil organic carbon.

  1. The FLAME Deluge: organic aerosol emission ratios from combustion chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolleys, Matthew; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; McMeeking, Gavin; Lee, Taehyoung; Sullivan, Amy; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Collett, Jeff

    2014-05-01

    A high level of variability has been identified amongst organic aerosol (OA) emission ratios (ER) from biomass burning (BB) under ambient conditions. However, it is difficult to assess the influences of potential drivers for this variability, given the wide range of conditions associated with wildfire measurements. Chamber experiments performed under controlled conditions provide a means of examining the effects of different fuel types and combustion conditions on OA emissions from biomass fuels. ERs have been characterised for 67 burns during the second Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME II), involving 19 different species from 6 fuel types widely consumed in BB events in the US each year. Average normalised dOA/dCO ratios show a high degree of variability, both between and within different fuel types and species, typically exceeding variability between separate plumes in ambient measurements. Relationships with source conditions were found to be complex, with little consistent influence from fuel properties and combustion conditions for the entire range of experiments. No strong correlation across all fires was observed between dOA/dCO and modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is used as an indicator of the proportional contributions of flaming and smouldering combustion phases throughout each burn. However, a negative correlation exists between dOA/dCO and MCE for some coniferous species, most notably Douglas fir, for which there is also an apparent influence from fuel moisture content. Significant contrasts were also identified between combustion emissions from different fuel components of additional coniferous species. Changes in fire efficiency were also shown to dramatically alter emissions for fires with very similar initial conditions. Although the relationship with MCE is variable between species, there is greater consistency with the level of oxygenation in OA. The ratio of the m/z 44 fragment to total OA mass concentration (f44) as

  2. Fast neutron spectrometry with organic scintillators applied to magnetic fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschuck, Yu. A.; Esposito, B.; Trykov, L. A.; Semenov, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry with NE213 liquid scintillators is commonly used in thermonuclear fusion experiments to measure the 2.45 and 14.1 MeV neutron flux. We present the unfolded neutron spectrum, which was accumulated during several ohmic deuterium plasma discharges in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade using a 2″×2″ NE213 scintillator. In this paper, we review the application of organic scintillator neutron spectrometers to tokamaks, focusing in particular on the comparison between NE213 and stilbene scintillators. Various aspects of the calibration technique and neutron spectra unfolding procedure are considered in the context of their application for fusion neutron spectrometry. Testing and calibration measurements have been carried out using D-D and D-T neutron generator facilities with both NE213 and stilbene scintillators. The main result from these measurements is that stilbene scintillator has better neutron energy resolution than NE213. Our stilbene detector could be used for the determination of the ion temperature ( Ti) from neutron spectrum broadening in tokamak thermonuclear plasmas with Ti=4 keV and higher.

  3. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  4. Photochemical alkene formation in seawater from dissolved organic carbon: Results from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratte, M.; Bujok, O.; Spitzy, A.; Rudolph, J.

    1998-03-01

    The production mechanism of light alkenes, alkanes, and isoprene was investigated in laboratory experiments by measuring their concentrations in natural seawater as a function of spectral range, exposure time and origin, and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The production mechanism of alkanes and of isoprene could not be clarified. Ethene and propene are produced photochemically from DOC. The relevant spectral range is UV and short-wavelength visible light. Initial production rates (up to day 10 of exposure) were in the range of several pmol L-1 h-1 (mg DOC)-1; the corresponding mean quantum yields for the spectral range of 300-420 nm were about 10-8. Generally, the production rates and the quantum yields for ethene were about 2 times that of propene. The key factors in the total column integrated oceanic alkene production are the solar photon flux at sea surface, the penetration depth of the light into the ocean (especially the relation between different light absorbers, i.e., the extinction due to absorption of DOC), and the wavelength- and DOC-dependent quantum yields. As a result of the high variability of these parameters, actual local alkene production rates for a specific oceanic region may differ considerably from the globally averaged oceanic alkene production rates. The latter were estimated to be at most 5 Mt yr-1.

  5. Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

  6. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

    2012-11-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

  7. Supervised Self-Organizing Classification of Superresolution ISAR Images: An Anechoic Chamber Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radoi, Emanuel; Quinquis, André; Totir, Felix

    2006-12-01

    The problem of the automatic classification of superresolution ISAR images is addressed in the paper. We describe an anechoic chamber experiment involving ten-scale-reduced aircraft models. The radar images of these targets are reconstructed using MUSIC-2D (multiple signal classification) method coupled with two additional processing steps: phase unwrapping and symmetry enhancement. A feature vector is then proposed including Fourier descriptors and moment invariants, which are calculated from the target shape and the scattering center distribution extracted from each reconstructed image. The classification is finally performed by a new self-organizing neural network called SART (supervised ART), which is compared to two standard classifiers, MLP (multilayer perceptron) and fuzzy KNN ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] nearest neighbors). While the classification accuracy is similar, SART is shown to outperform the two other classifiers in terms of training speed and classification speed, especially for large databases. It is also easier to use since it does not require any input parameter related to its structure.

  8. Fluxes of Primary and Secondary Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) During the BEWA Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, R.; Rappenglück, B.; Steigner, D.; Hansel, A.; Graus, M.; Lindinger, C.

    2003-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a crucial role in the formation of photo-oxidants and particles through the diverse BVOC degradation pathways. Yet, current estimations about temporal and spatial BVOC emissions, including the specific BVOC mix are rather vague. This paper reports results from the determination of BVOC net emission rates that were obtained within the frame of the BEWA field experiments at the Waldstein site in the Fichtelgebirge in 2001 and 2002, an extended forest site that is largely dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Stand fluxes of volatile organic compounds were determined with Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) coupled to a Relaxed-Eddy-Accumulation (REA) system. The PTR-MS is capable to measure simultaneously a variety of organic trace gases, including oxygenated compounds. Air samples were taken at the top of a meteorological tower at the height of 32 m a.g.l. close to the Gill Sonic anemometer that controlled the REA-sampling. A critical value when using the REA approach is the Businger-Oncley parameter b. For this canopy type a b value of 0.39 (threshold velocity wo = 0.6) was determined. The PTR-MS data show clear diurnal variations of ambient air mixing ratios of isoprene and monoterpenes, but also of oxygenated VOC such as methanol, carbonyls, methylvinylketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MAC). Canopy fluxes of isoprene reached up to 7 nmol m-2 s-1 during daytime. The fluxes of the sum of monoterpenes were in the same range. MVK and MAC are products from isoprene oxidation. The BEWA data confirm this relationship and reveal a better correlation of MVK+MAC with isoprene (r2=0.78) than with the sum of monoterpenes (r2=0.30). In our study MVK+MAC fluxes were about 30% lower than isoprene fluxes. Both observations indicate active photochemical degradation of isoprene in this area. Actealdehyde and acetone are typical intermediate compounds in the photochemical degradation of both anthropogenic

  9. Decoherence of a single spin coupled to an interacting spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ning; Fröhling, Nina; Xing, Xi; Hackmann, Johannes; Nanduri, Arun; Anders, Frithjof B.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-01-01

    Decoherence of a central spin coupled to an interacting spin bath via inhomogeneous Heisenberg coupling is studied by two different approaches, namely an exact equations of motion (EOMs) method and a Chebyshev expansion technique (CET). By assuming a wheel topology of the bath spins with uniform nearest-neighbor X X -type intrabath coupling, we examine the central spin dynamics with the bath prepared in two different types of bath initial conditions. For fully polarized baths in strong magnetic fields, the polarization dynamics of the central spin exhibits a collapse-revival behavior in the intermediate-time regime. Under an antiferromagnetic bath initial condition, the two methods give excellently consistent central spin decoherence dynamics for finite-size baths of N ≤14 bath spins. The decoherence factor is found to drop off abruptly on a short time scale and approach a finite plateau value which depends on the intrabath coupling strength nonmonotonically. In the ultrastrong intrabath coupling regime, the plateau values show an oscillatory behavior depending on whether N /2 is even or odd. The observed results are interpreted qualitatively within the framework of the EOM and perturbation analysis. The effects of anisotropic spin-bath coupling and inhomogeneous intrabath bath couplings are briefly discussed. Possible experimental realization of the model in a modified quantum corral setup is suggested.

  10. Incidence of Symptoms and Accidents During Baths and Showers Among the Japanese General Public

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Goto, Yasuaki; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Bathing is a deeply ingrained custom among Japanese; however, data on the incidence rate of symptoms and accidents during bathing have not yet been reported for the Japanese general public. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 617 Japanese adults who attended a specialized health checkup. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess weekly frequencies of bathtub bathing and showering and the frequency of symptoms/accidents (falling, loss of consciousness, and other) during these activities in the past year. We calculated the incidence rates of accidents per 10 000 baths/showers and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and compared the clinical characteristics of participants who had symptoms/accidents with those who did not. Results The incidence rates of accidents per 10 000 bathtub baths and showers were 0.43 (95% CI: 0.22–0.84) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.04–1.37). Although these rates are low, there were 740 000 bathtub bathing-related accidents in Japan, due to the fact that bathing is an almost-daily habit. There was no significant difference in clinical characteristics between groups Conclusions We collected basic information on the incidence of bathing-related accidents in Japan. Falls and loss of consciousness during bathing or showering can potentially lead to a serious accident, so the general public should be educated about the possibility of such accidents during bathing. PMID:21478641

  11. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  12. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-07

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  13. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the "Landau-Zener resummation" of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  14. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations.

    PubMed

    Mavros, Michael G; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the "Landau-Zener resummation" of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics. PMID:25106575

  15. Hydro-environmental modelling for bathing water compliance of an estuarine basin.

    PubMed

    Kashefipour, S M; Lin, B; Harris, E; Falconer, R A

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, considerable investment has been committed to sewerage infrastructure and new sewage treatment plants in the catchment surrounding an estuarine basin along the north-west coast of England. Although this capital investment has resulted in a marked reduction in the input of bacterial loads, relatively high counts of faecal indicator organisms are still being encountered in the coastal receiving waters, and the local bathing waters continue to fail on occasions to comply with the European Community (EC) Bathing Water Directive (1976) mandatory standards. Details are given herein of a comprehensive modelling study aimed at quantifying the impact of various bacterial inputs into the estuary and surrounding coastal waters on the bathing water quality. The model domain includes the coastal area and the entire estuary (namely the Ribble) up to the tidal limits of its tributaries. Faecal coliforms have been used as the main water quality indicator organisms. The numerical model developed for this study combines a depth integrated two-dimensional coastal model and a cross-sectionally integrated one-dimensional river model, and is capable of predicting water surface elevations, velocity fields and faecal coliform concentration distributions across the entire model domain. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using water level and velocity measurements from three surveys and then validated against measured data from three other surveys. In order to predict the faecal coliform concentration distributions, variable faecal coliform decay rates were used, i.e. different values of decay rates were applied to the coastal and riverine waters, for day- and nighttime, and for wet and dry weather conditions. The maximum and minimum decay rates used were 2.32/day and 0.71/day for the dry and wet weather surveys, respectively. The model was then applied to (i) assess the impact of previous discharge strategies and investigate the effectiveness of future capital

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

  17. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  18. Langevin description of gauged scalar fields in a thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yuhei; Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2014-04-01

    We study the dynamics of the oscillating gauged scalar field in a thermal bath. A Langevin-type equation of motion of the scalar field, which contains both dissipation and fluctuation terms, is derived by using the real-time finite-temperature effective action approach. The existence of the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation between the nonlocal dissipation term and the Gaussian stochastic noise terms is verified. We find that the noise variables are anticorrelated at equal time. The dissipation rate for each mode is also studied, which turns out to depend on the wave number.

  19. Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

  20. Detection of weak signals in memory thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.; Velasco, R. M.; Romero-Bastida, M.

    2014-11-01

    The nonlinear relaxation time and the statistics of the first passage time distribution in connection with the quasideterministic approach are used to detect weak signals in the decay process of the unstable state of a Brownian particle embedded in memory thermal baths. The study is performed in the overdamped approximation of a generalized Langevin equation characterized by an exponential decay in the friction memory kernel. A detection criterion for each time scale is studied: The first one is referred to as the receiver output, which is given as a function of the nonlinear relaxation time, and the second one is related to the statistics of the first passage time distribution.

  1. [An interdisciplinary approach of the organ donation decision: the Lausanne's experience].

    PubMed

    Bosisio, Francisca; Merminod, Gilles; Burger, Marcel; Pascual, Manuel; Moretti, Dianne; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2013-11-27

    Since 2007, the Interdisciplinary Ethics Platform (Ethos) of the University of Lausanne is leading an interdisciplinary reflection on the organ donation decision. On this basis, the project "Organ transplantation between the rhetoric of the gift and a biomedical view of the body" studies the logics at stake in the organ donation decision-making process. Results highlight many tensions within practices and public discourses in the field of organ donation and transplantation and suggest lines of inquiry for future adjustments. PMID:24383251

  2. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  4. Hydrothermal alteration experiments: tracking the path from interstellar to chondrites organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic molecules are detected in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The origin of these organics, whether formed prior the accretion phase, or in-situ on the parent body, is still a matter of debate. We have investigated experimentally the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecules submitted to hydrothermal conditions, mimicking asteroidal alteration (T<200°C). In particular, we want to assess the potential catalytic role of clays minerals in the polymerization/degradation of organics. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, compound of C-N bonds) is used as a plausible interstellar precursors from icy grains. Experimental products reveal a large diversity of molecules, including nitrogen organic molecules similar to those found in chondrites.

  5. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  6. Experiments probing the influence of air exchange rates on secondary organic aerosols derived from indoor chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Shields, Helen C.

    Reactions between ozone and terpenes have been shown to increase the concentrations of submicron particles in indoor settings. The present study was designed to examine the influence of air exchange rates on the concentrations of these secondary organic aerosols as well as on the evolution of their particle size distributions. The experiments were performed in a manipulated office setting containing a constant source of d-limonene and an ozone generator that was remotely turned "on" or "off" at 6 h intervals. The particle number concentrations were monitored using an optical particle counter with eight-channels ranging from 0.1-0.2 to>2.0 μm diameter. The air exchange rates during the experiments were either high (working hours) or low (non-working hours) and ranged from 1.6 to>12 h -1, with intermediate exchange rates. Given the emission rates of ozone and d-limonene used in these studies, at an air exchange rate of 1.6 h -1 particle number concentration in the 0.1-0.2 μm size-range peaked 1.2 h after the ozone generator was switched on. In the ensuing 4.8 h particle counts increased in successive size-ranges up to the 0.5-0.7 μm diameter range. At higher air exchange rates, the resulting concentrations of total particles and particle mass (calculated from particle counts) were smaller, and at exchange rates exceeding 12 h -1, no excess particle formation was detectable with the instrument used in this study. Particle size evolved through accretion and, in some cases, coagulation. There was evidence for coagulation among particles in the smallest size-range at low air exchange rates (high particle concentrations) but no evidence of coagulation was apparent at higher air exchange rates (lower particle concentrations). At higher air exchange rates the particle count or size distributions were shifted towards smaller particle diameters and less time was required to achieve the maximum concentration in each of the size-ranges where discernable particle growth

  7. Relation between creep compliance and elastic modulus in organic-rich shales observed through laboratory experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Hiroki; Zoback, Mark

    2013-04-01

    We studied the ductile creep behavior of organic-rich shales from shale gas reservoirs in North America through laboratory triaxial experiments to better understand controls on the physical behavior of these rocks over time and the effect of creep on other rock properties. Laboratory experiments conducted at room-temperature conditions show that creep deformation observed at in-situ differential stress conditions is approximately linear with the applied differential pressure. The creep behavior is also anisotropic such that creep occurs more in the bedding-perpendicular direction than in the bedding-parallel direction. The reduction in sample volume during creep suggests that the creep is accommodated by a small amount of pore compaction occurring in the clay-aggregates and/or the relatively porous kerogen in the rock. Thus, the tendency to creep (creep compliance) is generally observed to increases with clay and kerogen volume. However, the strongest correlation is found between creep compliance and Young's modulus. A strong negative correlation between creep compliance and elastic Young's modulus exists regardless of the sample orientation and despite the wide range of sample mineralogy (5-50% clay, 5-60% quartz-feldspar-pyrite, 0-80% carbonates). This correlation is quite interesting as inelastic creep and elastic stiffness depend on somewhat different physical attributes. We attempt to quantitatively explain the correlation between creep behavior and elastic stiffness by appealing to a stress-partitioning that occurs between the soft components (clay and kerogen) and stiff components (quartz, feldspar, pyrite, carbonates) of the shale rock. First, the stress-partitioning occurring within the soft and stiff components is quantified based on the rock composition, elastic properties of the individual components, and the overall average Young's modulus of the rock. By combining the stress-partitioning behavior with knowledge that the creep behavior is linear

  8. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by

  9. Fertilization effects on soil organic matter turnover in a long term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioacchini, Paola; Giordani, Gianni; Montecchio, Daniela; Nastri, Anna; Triberti, Loretta; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural management practices such as residues application, level and kind of fertilization and amendment, tillage intensity can affect the capacity of soil to sequester and incorporate carbon (C). These practices also influence both above-ground and below-ground plant production and, as a consequence, the amount of C that enters the soil. However, studing the dyamics of C inputs in soils and the effects of the agricultural management practices on C incorporation in soil organic matter (SOM) requires long-term field experiments. The long-term field experiment in Cadriano, at the University of Bologna, Italy, started in 1966 and still in progress, compares two continuous rotations of corn and wheat, interacting with two cattle manure supplies (M0: no manure - M1: 20 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material) and two mineral NP rates (N0P0: no NP fertilizers - N1P1: 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 plus 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 for wheat and maize, respectively). The experimental design is a split-plot replicated twice, with fertilizer sub-plots of 56 m2 of area each. The field is annually ploughed to 40 cm depth. Crop residues are always removed, with the exception of roots and stubbles. By using the delta 13C technique we measured the amount of corn-derived C retained over a 36-years period in total soil organic C (SOC) and in the humic fraction that is referred as the most stable pool of SOC. These amounts were compared with the total inputs of belowground C (roots and rhizodepositions) in order to highlight if the capacity of soil to stabilize the new C inputs can be affected by the different fertilization practices. The results showed that the amount of corn-derived C in SOC increased in the following order: control (20.5%), Mineral (25%) Manure (29.4%), the same trend was observed for the humic fraction. On the contrary the cumulative C input over the same period followed a different order, the highest was obtained for the mineral treatment, than for the manure and the control

  10. Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-06-01

    When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

  11. Review Article: Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin; Oliaei, Fardin

    2011-01-01

    The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies. The use and associated disposal of POPs have been occurring for over 50 years. Concurrent with the phase-out of some of the most hazardous chemicals, the production of new POPs, such as brominated and fluorinated compounds has increased since the 1990s. These latter compounds are commonly used in a wide range of consumer goods, and as consumer products reach the end of their useful lives, ultimately enter waste recycling and disposal systems, in particular at municipal landfills. Because of their very slow, or lack of degradability, POPs will persist in landfills for many decades and possibly centuries. Over these extended time periods engineered landfill systems and their liners are likely to degrade, thus posing a contemporary and future risk of releasing large contaminant loads to the environment. This review highlights the necessity for alternative disposal methods for POP wastes, including destruction or complete removal from potential environmental release. In addition to such end of pipe solutions a policy change in the use pattern of persistent toxic chemicals is inevitable. In addition, inventories for the location and quantity of POPs in landfills, together with an assessment of their threat to ecosystems, drinking water and food resources are identified as key measures to facilitate appropriate management of risks. Finally the challenges of POP wastes in transition/developing countries, the risk of increased leaching of POPs from

  12. Dynamics of Protonated Peptide Ion Collisions with Organic Surfaces: Consonance of Simulation and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Subha; Barnes, George L; Laskin, Julia; Hase, William L

    2016-08-18

    In this Perspective, mass spectrometry experiments and chemical dynamics simulations are described that have explored the atomistic dynamics of protonated peptide ions, peptide-H(+), colliding with organic surfaces. These studies have investigated the energy transfer and fragmentation dynamics for peptide-H(+) surface-induced dissociation (SID), peptide-H(+) physisorption on the surface, soft landing (SL), and peptide-H(+) reaction with the surface, reactive landing (RL). SID provides primary structures of biological ions and information regarding their fragmentation pathways and energetics. Two SID mechanisms are found for peptide-H(+) fragmentation. A traditional mechanism in which peptide-H(+) is vibrationally excited by its collision with the surface, rebounds off the surface and then dissociates in accord with the statistical, RRKM unimolecular rate theory. The other, shattering, is a nonstatistical mechanism in which peptide-H(+) fragments as it collides with the surface, dissociating via many pathways and forming many product ions. Shattering is important for collisions with diamond and perfluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) surfaces, increasing in importance with the peptide-H(+) collision energy. Chemical dynamics simulations also provide important mechanistic insights on SL and RL of biological ions on surfaces. The simulations indicate that SL occurs via multiple mechanisms consisting of sequences of peptide-H(+) physisorption on and penetration in the surface. SL and RL have a broad range of important applications including preparation of protein or peptide microarrays, development of biocompatible substrates and biosensors, and preparation of novel synthetic materials, including nanomaterials. An important RL mechanism is intact deposition of peptide-H(+) on the surface. PMID:27467857

  13. On the use of plant emitted volatile organic compounds for atmospheric chemistry simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hohaus, T.; Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Wegener, R.; Novelli, A.; Fuchs, H.; Wahner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) contribute to about 90% of the emitted VOC globally with isoprene being one of the most abundant BVOC (Guenther 2002). Intensive efforts in studying and understanding the impact of BVOC on atmospheric chemistry were undertaken in the recent years. However many uncertainties remain, e.g. field studies have shown that in wooded areas measured OH reactivity can often not be explained by measured BVOC and their oxidation products (e.g. Noelscher et al. 2012). This discrepancy may be explained by either a lack of understanding of BVOC sources or insufficient understanding of BVOC oxidation mechanisms. Plants emit a complex VOC mixture containing likely many compounds which have not yet been measured or identified (Goldstein and Galbally 2007). A lack of understanding BVOC sources limits bottom-up estimates of secondary products of BVOC oxidation such as SOA. Similarly, the widespread oversimplification of atmospheric chemistry in simulation experiments, using single compound or simple BVOC mixtures to study atmospheric chemistry processes limit our ability to assess air quality and climate impacts of BVOC. We will present applications of the new extension PLUS (PLant chamber Unit for Simulation) to our atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. PLUS is used to produce representative BVOC mixtures from direct plant emissions. We will report on the performance and characterization of the newly developed chamber. As an exemplary application, trees typical of a Boreal forest environment were used to compare OH reactivity as directly measured by LIF to the OH reactivity calculated from BVOC measured by GC-MS and PTRMS. The comparison was performed for both, primary emissions of trees without any influence of oxidizing agents and using different oxidation schemes. For the monoterpene emitters investigated here, we show that discrepancies between measured and calculated total OH reactivity increase with increasing degree of oxidation

  14. Experimental study of pharmacokinetics of external, whole-body bathing application of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Komoda, Masayo; Akagi, Keita; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    As a novel method improving the safety of conventional oral ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we conceived an idea called the "whole-body bathing method". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. To evaluate the feasibility of the method, we investigated the IVM concentration in the skin and plasma after bathing rats in a fluid containing 100 ng/mL of IVM. After the bathing, the concentration of IVM in the skin was more than 400 ng/g wet weight and was maintained until 8 h after the bathing. The concentration was clearly higher than that in patients taking IVM p.o. as previously reported; IVM was not detected in plasma in the present study. Thus, the method would be a preferable drug delivery system for the skin application of IVM compared with p.o. administration. PMID:25492083

  15. Vibrational spectroscopy of a harmonic oscillator system nonlinearly coupled to a heat bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2002-10-01

    Vibrational relaxation of a harmonic oscillator nonlinearly coupled to a heat bath is investigated by the Gaussian-Markovian quantum Fokker-Planck equation approach. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinate, but linear plus square in the system coordinate modeling the elastic and inelastic relaxation mechanisms. Interplay of the two relaxation processes induced by the linear-linear and square-linear interactions in Raman or infrared spectra is discussed for various system-bath couplings, temperatures, and correlation times for the bath fluctuations. The one-quantum coherence state created through the interaction with the pump laser pulse relaxes through different pathways in accordance with the mechanisms of the system-bath interactions. Relations between the present theory, Redfield theory, and stochastic theory are also discussed.

  16. Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction. PMID:24550123

  17. Inside the Black Box: Exploring the Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.; Aragon, Steven R.; Stone, James R., III

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that Career Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) provide a variety of experiences that either directly or indirectly affect three important outcomes of secondary education: achievement, transition to postsecondary education and training, and employability. A pre-post-test comparison study of high school…

  18. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment supports organic yields, soil quality, and economic performance in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The main goals of the project are to evalua...

  19. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  20. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

  1. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  2. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

  3. A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

  4. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

  5. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  6. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities. PMID:26846444

  7. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-02-01

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities.

  8. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the azido complex of methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Lu, Shen; Sazinsky, Matthew H; Whittaker, James W; Lippard, Stephen J; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre

    2005-03-30

    The azido complex formed in oxidized methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was investigated with resonance Raman and FTIR techniques. These experiments show the presence of a nuas(NNN) at approximately 2077 cm-1 which splits to two components at 2059 and 2073 cm-1 with 15N14N2. The vibrational data are assigned to an azido complex bound terminally to one iron(III) at the diiron center. When the azido complex is illuminated at 15 K, a new nuas(NNN) is observed at 2136 cm-1 which is assigned to a photodissociated HN3 within the substrate pocket. We propose a model where an aqua ligand engages a hydrogen bond interaction with the 1N atom of the azido group and acts as at a proton donor during the photolysis process. PMID:15783178

  9. Qubit interference at avoided crossings: The role of driving shape and bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattmann, Ralf; Hänggi, Peter; Kohler, Sigmund

    2015-04-01

    We derive the structure of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana (LZSM) interference patterns for a qubit that experiences quantum dissipation and is additionally subjected to time-periodic but otherwise general driving. A spin-boson Hamiltonian serves as the model, which we treat with a Bloch-Redfield master equation in the Floquet basis. It predicts resonance peaks whose form depends significantly on the operator through which the qubit couples to the bath. The Fourier transforms of the LZSM patterns exhibit arc structures which reflect the shape of the driving. These features are captured by an effective time-independent Bloch equation which provides an analytical solution. Moreover, we determine the decay of these arcs as a function of dissipation strength and temperature.

  10. Efficient heat-bath sampling in Fock space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Adam; Changlani, Hitesh; Umrigar, Cyrus

    We introduce an algorithm for sampling many-body quantum states in Fock space. The algorithm efficiently samples states with probability approximately proportional to an arbitrary function of the second-quantized Hamiltonian matrix elements connected to the current state. We apply the new sampling algorithm to the recently-developed Semistochastic Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo method (S-FCIQMC), a semistochastic implementation of the power method for projecting out the ground state energy in a basis of Slater determinants. The heat-bath sampling requires modest additional computational time and memory compared to uniform sampling but results in newly-spawned weights that are approximately of the same magnitude, thereby greatly improving the efficiency of projection. A comparison in efficiency between uniform and approximate heat-bath sampling is performed on the all-electron nitrogen dimer at equilibrium in Dunning's cc-pVXZ basis sets with X ∈ D , T , Q , 5 , demonstrating a large gain in efficiency that increases with basis set size. This work was supported in part by grants NSF CHE-1112097, DOE DE-SC0006650, and NSF ACI-1534965.

  11. Achievable Polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Briones, Nayeli Azucena; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-04-29

    Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for quantum algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method to increase the purity of a set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the limit when no more entropy can be extracted from the system. In particular, we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization achievable for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed, and the corresponding steady state of the whole system. It is, however, possible to reach higher polarization while starting with certain states; thus, our result provides an achievable bound. We also give the number of steps needed to get a specific required polarization. PMID:27176508

  12. Response to mercury (II) ions in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-11-01

    The mercury (II) ion is toxic and is usually detoxified in Bacteria by reduction to elemental mercury, which is less toxic. This is catalysed by an NAD(P)H-dependent mercuric reductase (EC 1.16.1.1). Here, we present strong evidence that Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) - a methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria - uses this enzyme to detoxify mercury. In radiorespirometry studies, it was found that cells exposed to mercury dissimilated 100% of [(14) C]-methane provided to generate reducing equivalents to fuel mercury (II) reduction, rather than the mix of assimilation and dissimilation found in control incubations. The detoxification system is constitutively expressed with a specific activity of 352 (±18) nmol NADH oxidized min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) . Putative mercuric reductase genes were predicted in the M. capsulatus (Bath) genome and found in mRNA microarray studies. The MerA-derived polypeptide showed high identity (> 80%) with MerA sequences from the Betaproteobacteria. PMID:22092810

  13. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  14. Achievable Polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Briones, Nayeli Azucena; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for quantum algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method to increase the purity of a set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the limit when no more entropy can be extracted from the system. In particular, we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization achievable for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed, and the corresponding steady state of the whole system. It is, however, possible to reach higher polarization while starting with certain states; thus, our result provides an achievable bound. We also give the number of steps needed to get a specific required polarization.

  15. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film

  16. Bath Salts Abuse leading to New Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    PubMed

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    2014-06-20

    Background: Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States.Objective: To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients.Method: This is a case report on a 40 year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current US public health legislation on bath salts.Results: The presented case illustrates a new onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms.Discussion: To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and US legislation by Ohio state law to current US federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts.Conclusion: It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder. PMID:24951715

  17. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-01

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous. PMID:21456831

  18. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-15

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

  19. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  20. Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarea, Mehdi; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

  1. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States. PMID:15792331

  2. Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath

    SciTech Connect

    Zarea, Mehdi Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2014-01-14

    We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

  3. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

  4. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  5. Gauging a Quantum Heat Bath with Dissipative Landau-Zener Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wubs, Martijn; Kohler, Sigmund; Haenggi, Peter; Saito, Keiji; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2006-11-17

    We calculate the exact Landau-Zener transition probabilities for a qubit with an arbitrary linear coupling to a bath at zero temperature. The final quantum state exhibits a peculiar entanglement between the qubit and the bath. In the special case of diagonal coupling, the bath does not influence the transition probability, whatever the speed of the Landau-Zener sweep. It is proposed to use Landau-Zener transitions to determine both the reorganization energy and the integrated spectral density of the bath. Possible applications include circuit QED and molecular nanomagnets.

  6. The Synthesis and Methanolysis of Benzyl Tosylates: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Michael E.; Gribble, Gordon W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments (requiring six hours/week for six to eight weeks) involving the synthesis and methanolysis of substituted benzyl tosylates. The experiments provide students with experiences in kinetic data manipulation and an introduction and firm basis for structure-activity relationships and solvent effects in organic…

  7. Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and

  8. Exploring Atmospheric Aqueous Chemistry (and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation) through OH Radical Oxidation Experiments, Droplet Evaporation and Chemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Sullivan, A.; Häkkinen, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Tan, Y.; McNeill, V. F.; Collett, J. L.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.; Sareen, N.; Carlton, A. G.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gas phase photochemistry fragments and oxidizes organic emissions, making water-soluble organics ubiquitous in the atmosphere. My group and others have found that several water-soluble compounds react further in the aqueous phase forming low volatility products under atmospherically-relevant conditions (i.e., in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols). Thus, secondary organic aerosol can form as a result of gas followed by aqueous chemistry (aqSOA). We have used aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments coupled with product analysis and chemical modeling to validate and refine the aqueous chemistry of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid. The resulting chemical model has provided insights into the differences between oxidation chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. Further, we conducted droplet evaporation experiments to characterize the volatility of the products. Most recently, we have conducted aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments with ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases to identify additional atmospherically-important precursors and products. Specifically, we scrubbed water-soluble gases from the ambient air in the Po Valley, Italy using four mist chambers in parallel, operating at 25-30 L min-1. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments and control experiments were conducted with these mixtures (total organic carbon ≈ 100 μM-C). OH radicals (3.5E-2 μM [OH] s-1) were generated by photolyzing H2O2. Precursors and products were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ion chromatography (IC), IC-ESI-MS, and ultra high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chemical modeling suggests that organic acids (e.g., oxalate, pyruvate, glycolate) are major products of OH radical oxidation at cloud-relevant concentrations, whereas organic radical - radical reactions result in the formation of oligomers in wet aerosols. Products of cloud chemistry and droplet evaporation have

  9. Heat-Bath Configuration Interaction: An Efficient Selected Configuration Interaction Algorithm Inspired by Heat-Bath Sampling.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Adam A; Tubman, Norm M; Umrigar, C J

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new selected configuration interaction plus perturbation theory algorithm that is based on a deterministic analog of our recent efficient heat-bath sampling algorithm. This Heat-bath Configuration Interaction (HCI) algorithm makes use of two parameters that control the trade-off between speed and accuracy, one which controls the selection of determinants to add to a variational wave function and one which controls the selection of determinants used to compute the perturbative correction to the variational energy. We show that HCI provides an accurate treatment of both static and dynamic correlation by computing the potential energy curve of the multireference carbon dimer in the cc-pVDZ basis. We then demonstrate the speed and accuracy of HCI by recovering the full configuration interaction energy of both the carbon dimer in the cc-pVTZ basis and the strongly correlated chromium dimer in the Ahlrichs VDZ basis, correlating all electrons, to an accuracy of better than 1 mHa, in just a few minutes on a single core. These systems have full variational spaces of 3 × 10(14) and 2 × 10(22) determinants, respectively. PMID:27428771

  10. Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of…

  11. On Organizing Educational Research Communication in Europe: Past Experiences and Possible Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    In this note I will comment on the development of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) as a European educational research organization and the current situation. In doing so I will put forward a few matters concerning the social and intellectual organization of the EERA and the visibility of educational research in Europe.

  12. Organizing for Student Success: The University College Model. The First Year Experience Monograph Series No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenbeck, Scott E.; Jackson, Barbara; Smith, Maggy; Ward, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Organizing for Student Success draws on data from more than 50 institutions to provide insight into how university colleges are organized, the initiatives they house, and the practices in place to ensure their effectiveness. Twenty case studies from 15 different campuses offer an in-depth understanding of institutional practice. Ultimately,…

  13. A CRITIQUE OF EXPERIMENTS ON THE ROLE OF NEUROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION IN READING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASS, GENE V.

    FIFTEEN EMPIRICAL STUDIES CONCERNED WITH THE ROLE WHICH NEUROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION PLAYS IN THE TEACHING AND IMPROVEMENT OF READING ARE ANALYZED. FOLLOWING A REVIEW OF DELACATO'S THEORY OF NEUROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION, EACH OF THE STUDIES IS PRESENTED WITH ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE DATA AND WITH IMPLICATIONS NOT ACKNOWLEDGED OR CONTRARY TO…

  14. Enhancing the Undergraduate Experience: The Role of a Student Organization for Preservice Agricultural Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a need exists to establish an organization specifically for preservice agricultural science teachers and if so, the attributes of such an organization. Selected peer preservice agricultural education programs were examined and focus groups were conducted with preservice and inservice teachers. Results…

  15. Enantiomeric derivatization on the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard ExoMars 2018: how to unravel martian chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Morisson, M.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of homochirality in life on Earth remains unknown. The answer to this question lies in the study of chirality elsewhere in the Solar System. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment aboard Curiosity established the presence of organic molecules indigenous to a clay-rich sample on Mars [1]. However, SAM does not have the ability to separate between the enantiomers of potential medium- or high- molecular weight organic molecules. One of the wet chemistry experiments to be used in the MOMA instrument of the Exomars mission is designed for the extraction and identification of refractory organic chemical components in solid samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), while keeping the chiral center of the molecules intact [2]. This derivatization technique, using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent, will allow MOMA to separate the enantiomers of molecules of interest for astrobiology, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids. We present here the results of laboratory experiments which display the feasability and limitations of the detection of an enantiomeric excess of complex organic molecules in various analog samples, depending on the mineralogy of the Mars analog solid sample.

  16. Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Ward, Naomi; Larsen, Øivind; Sakwa, James; Bruseth, Live; Khouri, Hoda; Durkin, A Scott; Dimitrov, George; Jiang, Lingxia; Scanlan, David; Kang, Katherine H; Lewis, Matt; Nelson, Karen E; Methé, Barbara; Wu, Martin; Heidelberg, John F; Paulsen, Ian T; Fouts, Derrick; Ravel, Jacques; Tettelin, Hervé; Ren, Qinghu; Read, Tim; DeBoy, Robert T; Seshadri, Rekha; Salzberg, Steven L; Jensen, Harald B; Birkeland, Nils Kåre; Nelson, William C; Dodson, Robert J; Grindhaug, Svenn H; Holt, Ingeborg; Eidhammer, Ingvar; Jonasen, Inge; Vanaken, Susan; Utterback, Terry; Feldblyum, Tamara V; Fraser, Claire M; Lillehaug, Johan R; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2004-10-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that

  17. Genomic Insights into Methanotrophy: The Complete Genome Sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that

  18. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    PubMed

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies. PMID:17877849

  19. The politics of combating the organ trade: lessons from the Israeli and Pakistani experience.

    PubMed

    Efrat, A

    2013-07-01

    Israel and Pakistan--two major participants in the global organ trade--enacted legislative prohibitions on the trade at roughly the same time. The article highlights three influences that brought about this change of policy in both countries: advocacy by local physicians coupled with media coverage and reinforced by the international medical community. The analysis also explains why the two countries have differed with respect to the enforcement of the organ-trade prohibition. The insights from the Israeli and Pakistani cases will be of use for the transplant community's efforts against organ trafficking. PMID:23675678

  20. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: an emerging designer drug phenomenon.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-02-27

    Synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as 'bath salts', became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that dysregulation of central monoamine systems is a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  1. Skin hydration in nursing home residents using disposable bed baths.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Katrin; Tency, Inge; Roelant, Ella; Laureys, Sarina; Devriendt, Hendrik; Lips, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new way for applying bed baths and reducing the risk for dry skin by comparing the effect of two washing methods on skin hydration. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. Skin hydration was measured before and after implementation of disposable wash gloves, using a MoistureMeter SC at three skin sites. Total skin hydration did not differ between residents at the start of the study in both groups. After implementation, the post minus pre hydration scores were higher for the intervention group than the control group at all skin sites. However, the difference was only significant at cheek site. The use of disposable wash gloves does not increase the risk for dry skin in comparison with traditional washing methods. These results may encourage the introduction of disposable wash gloves as an innovation in daily skin care practice. PMID:26724816

  2. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as ‘bath salts’, became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate dysregulation of central monoamine systems are a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  3. Asymptotic bound for heat-bath algorithmic cooling.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-13

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system. PMID:25815911

  4. Modeling SOA formation from alkanes and alkenes in chamber experiments: effect of gas/wall partitioning of organic vapors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéphanie La, Yuyi; Camredon, Marie; Ziemann, Paul; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hodzic, Alma; Aumont, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Oxidation products of Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) are expected to be the major precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Laboratory experiments were conducted this last decade in the Riverside APRC chamber to study IVOC oxidative mechanisms and SOA formation processes for a large set of linear, branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons (Ziemann, 2011). This dataset are used here to assess the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) (Aumont et al., 2005). The simulated SOA yields agree with the general trends observed in the chamber experiments. They are (i) increasing with the increasing carbon number; (ii) decreasing with increasing methyl branch number; and (iii) increasing for cyclic compounds compared to their corresponding linear analogues. However, simulated SOA yields are systematically overestimated regardless of the precursors, suggesting missing processes in the model. In this study, we assess whether gas-to-wall partitioning of organic vapors can explain these model/observation mismatches (Matsunaga and Ziemann, 2010). First results show that GECKO-A outputs better match the observations when wall uptake of organic vapors is taken into account. Effects of gas/wall partitioning on SOA yields and composition will be presented. Preliminary results suggest that wall uptake is a major process influencing SOA production in the Teflon chambers. References Aumont, B., Szopa, S., Madronich, S.: Modelling the evolution of organic carbon during its gas-phase tropospheric oxidation: development of an explicit model based on a self generating approach. Atmos.Chem.Phys., 5, 2497-2517 (2005). P. J. Ziemann: Effects of molecular structure on the chemistry of aerosol formation from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of alkanes and alkenes, Int. Rev.Phys.Chem., 30:2, 161-195 (2011). Matsunaga, A., Ziemann, P. J.: Gas-wall partitioning of organic compounds in a Teflon film

  5. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

  6. Dynamics of a qubit in a high-impedance transmission line from a bath perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Soumya; Baranger, Harold U.; Florens, Serge

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a generic model of light-matter interaction in the context of high-impedance waveguides, focusing on the behavior of the photonic states generated in the waveguide. The model treated consists simply of a two-level system coupled to a bosonic bath (the Ohmic spin-boson model). Quantum quenches as well as scattering of an incident coherent pulse are studied using two complementary methods. First, we develop an approximate ansatz for the electromagnetic waves based on a single multimode coherent state wave function; formally, this approach combines in a single framework ideas from adiabatic renormalization, the Born-Markov approximation, and input-output theory. Second, we present numerically exact results for scattering of a weak intensity pulse by using numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations. NRG provides a benchmark for any linear response property throughout the ultrastrong-coupling regime. We find that in a sudden quantum quench, the coherent state approach produces physical artifacts, such as improper relaxation to the steady state. These previously unnoticed problems are related to the simplified form of the ansatz that generates spurious correlations within the bath. In the scattering problem, NRG is used to find the transmission and reflection of a single photon, as well as the inelastic scattering of that single photon. Simple analytical formulas are established and tested against the NRG data that predict quantitatively the transport coefficients for up to moderate environmental impedance. These formulas resolve pending issues regarding the presence of inelastic losses in the spin-boson model near absorption resonances, and could be used for comparison to experiments in Josephson waveguide quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the scattering results using the coherent state wave-function approach are compared favorably to the NRG results for very weak incident intensity. We end our study by presenting results

  7. College Students' Attitudes towards Living Organisms: The Influence of Experience and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Lola Boeck; Boyer, Stan

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the attitude variations between students who had direct experiences with another living thing and those who did not. All students who had direct experiences with another living thing showed a higher mean value in all the attitude categories that showed more concern for another species. Confirms the importance of students having direct…

  8. The Synthesis of 4,6,8-Trimethylazulene: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Michael E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A two-stage synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene was developed for use in the undergraduate experiment, highlighting concepts not usually covered in the laboratory. The experiment requires purification procedures of chromatography and of sublimation and illustrates concepts of aromaticity, molecular orbital theory, and carbodium ion reactivity. (JN)

  9. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  10. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-04-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability.

  11. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  12. [Interference therapy and radon baths in the combined treatment of patients with reflex cervicobrachial syndromes].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, F E; Semenistaia, S V

    1998-01-01

    Patients with cervicobrachialgic syndromes on interference therapy, exercise treatment, massage of the cervical collar region received balneotherapy. 42 of them took water baths, 39 took dry air radon baths. These complexes proved effective in cervicobrachialgic syndromes, the effect being slightly dependent on the clinical symptoms of the disease. PMID:9987978

  13. Transport coefficients of a quantum system interacting with a squeezed heat bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Kanokov, Z.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2006-07-15

    The analytical expressions for the time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients are presented for the case of coupling in coordinates between the collective subsystem and a squeezed heat bath. The effects of initial phase-sensitive and -insensitive correlations of the heat bath on the diffusion coefficients, fluctuations, and decoherence are studied. The interplay between friction and decoherence is discussed.

  14. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities – What are the Risks?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  15. Quantum thermodynamic functions for an oscillator coupled to a heat bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2007-04-01

    Small systems (of interest in the areas of nanophysics, quantum information, etc.) are particularly vulnerable to environmental effects. Thus, we determine various thermodynamic functions for an oscillator in an arbitrary heat bath at arbitrary temperatures. Explicit results are presented for the most commonly discussed heat bath models: Ohmic, single relaxation time, and blackbody radiation.

  16. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... modifications to reduce further the risk of injury associated with infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 30, 2013 (78 FR 53734),...

  17. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  18. Copper sulfate foot baths on dairies and crop toxicities – What are the risks?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  19. Pulse shape discrimination capability of metal-loaded organic liquid scintillators for a short-baseline reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. R.; Han, B. Y.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kang, Jeongsoo; Khan, N.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, J. Y.; Siyeon, Kim; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Yeongduk; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, Jaison; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Lee, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Park, Hyeonseo; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Seo, K. M.; Seon, Gwang-Min; Yeo, I. S.; Yeo, K. M.

    2015-05-01

    A new short-baseline (SBL) reactor neutrino experiment is proposed to investigate a reactor anti-neutrino anomaly. A liquid scintillator (LS) is used to detect anti-neutrinos emitted from a Hanaro reactor, and the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability of the metal-loaded organic LSs is evaluated on small-scale laboratory samples. PSD can be affected by selecting different base solvents, and several of the LSs used two different organic base solvents, such as linear alkyl benzene and di-isopropylnaphthalene. For the metallic content, gadolinium (Gd) or lithium (6Li) was loaded into a home-made organic LS and into a commercially available liquid scintillation cocktail. A feasibility study was performed for the PSD using several different liquid scintillation cocktails. In this work, the preparation and the PSD characteristics of a promising candidate, which will be used in an above-ground environment, are summarized and presented.

  20. Pre-biotic organic synthesis: laboratory simulation experiments and their significance for the origin of life in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael H.

    2011-10-01

    It is commonly assumed that the origin of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere in the solar system was preceded by the synthesis and accumulation of organic compounds essential for life as we know it (e.g. amino acids, sugars, purines, pyrimidines, etc.) by non-biological processes. Over the past century, laboratory simulation experiments using a variety of inorganic precursors and energy sources have resulted in the synthesis of some, but not all of the compounds required for life. More importantly, the mechanisms by which these simple organic compounds initially combined to form the more complex structures (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) upon which all life is based remain elusive. Here we report a summary of the progress to date concerning pathways for the pre-biotic synthesis of organic matter and their significance for the origin of life in the solar system.