Science.gov

Sample records for organ bath experiments

  1. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    PubMed

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2739-2749. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26109238

  2. Isothermal bath and video system for the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. This image shows the isothermal bath and video system for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  3. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material.

    PubMed

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 × 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 ?l from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-?l aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics. PMID:26629619

  4. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  5. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

  6. "Bath salts" and "plant food" products: the experience of one regional US poison center.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christine M; Dulaney, Anna R; Beuhler, Michael C; Kacinko, Sherri

    2013-03-01

    Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active ?-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited studies describing the clinical effects associated with reported "bath salts" exposure in the USA. This study describes the clinical effects associated with "bath salt" and "plant food" exposures as reported to the poison center serving the state of North Carolina (Carolinas Poison Center). We performed a retrospective review of the Carolinas Poison Center database for all cases of reported human exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products from 2010 to 2011 with specific attention to clinical effects and routes of exposure. Additionally, we reviewed therapies used, trended the volume of exposure cases reported over the study period, and evaluated the distribution of calls within state counties using descriptive statistics. Carolinas Poison Center received 485 total calls and 409 reported exposure calls regarding "bath salt" or "plant food" products between January of 2010 and December of 2011. The peak of reported exposures occurred in May of 2011. Clinical effects commonly reported in the exposure cases generated from these calls included tachycardia (53.3 %, n?=?218), agitated/irritable (50.4 %, n?=?206), hallucination/delusions (26.7 %, n?=?109), and hypertension (25.2 %, n?=?103). In addition to intravenous fluids, common therapies included benzodiazepines (46.0 %, n?=?188), sedation (13.4 %, n?=?55), alkalinization (3.90 %, n?=?16), antihistamine (4.16 %, n?=?17), and intubation (3.67 %, n?=?15). Haloperidol was the antipsychotic agent used most often to treat agitation (n?=?40). Serious complications associated with reported exposure to "bath salt" and "plant food" products included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, excited delirium syndrome, and death. While treatments have not been empirically determined, sedation with benzodiazepines, aggressive cooling for hyperthermic patients, and use of small doses of antipsychotics for choreoathetoid movements not controlled with benzodiazepines are not likely to be harmful. PMID:22733603

  7. The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

    1988-01-01

    According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

  8. Modelling microwave cooking; theory and experiment C.J. Budd, Centre for Nonlinear Mechanics, University of Bath, UK,

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    , University of Bath, UK, A.D.C. Hill, Airbus, UK, G. Hooper, CCFRA, UK 1 Introduction Microwave heating representative solution to the problem of simultating the microwave heating of a foodstuff. The purpose potato) at different heating times in various types of microwave oven: mode-stirred ovens rated at 650W

  9. Effects of organic enrichment on sandy beach meiofauna: A laboratory microcosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianing; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Cong, Bingqing; Xu, Shuhui

    2011-09-01

    Meiofauna samples from intertidal sediments of Qingdao No.2 Bathing Beach, China, were collected for field study, and subjected to organic enrichment in a laboratory microcosm experiment for 21 d. There were three different treatments including non-organic addition as the control, low-organic enrichment (2 g DW green algae per 150 mL) and high-organic enrichment (10 g DW green algae per 150 mL). After 21 d, the meiofauna richness decreased in both organic enrichment treatments. Among the three treatments, total meiofauna abundance was significantly different, and the control groups had higher abundance than the other two treatment groups. However, the responses of the meiofauna abundance in the two organic enrichment treatments were non-significantly different. The relationship of meiofaunal abundance and nematode/copepod ratios to organic matter and oxygen level in the microcosm experiments were discussed.

  10. Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

  11. Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings

    PubMed Central

    Brilot, Ben O.; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure. PMID:22250131

  12. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Home + Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ... Map Home Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ...

  13. Organs for transplantation. The Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, B

    1991-01-01

    Singapore's Human Organ Transplant Act presumes that competent adults consent to donate their kidneys in the event of a fatal accident, unless they have refused in writing. No family consent is required. What can other countries wishing to implement a presumed-consent model of organ donation learn from Singapore's experience? PMID:1765457

  14. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  15. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  16. Organ donation experiences of family members.

    PubMed

    Manuel, April; Solberg, Shirley; MacDonald, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research study was to describe and interpret what life is like for individuals who have consented to donate the organs of a deceased relative for transplantation. This study captures the meaning of this phenomenon in a way to help nurses develop new insights into the lives of these individuals, enable them to implement strategies to better assist and support the family, and perhaps decrease barriers to organ donation. Thematic analysis of the participants' narrative descriptions identified five essential themes: the struggle to acknowledge the death, the need for a positive outcome of the death, creating a living memory, buying time, and the significance of support networks in the organ donation decision. The integration of these themes revealed the essence of the experience as creating of a sense of peace. These five themes and the essence of the experience are discussed in relation to the literature, followed by recommendations for future nursing practice, education, and research. PMID:20629462

  17. Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

  18. Eczema: Bleach Bath Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment Tips Eczema: Bleach bath therapy Share your child's eczema story Basal cell carcinoma Bedbugs Botulinum toxin Chemical peel Contact dermatitis Dry skin Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans Dyshidrotic eczema E - H I - L M - P Q - T U - W Health and beauty For ...

  19. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

  20. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

  1. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

  2. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

  3. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

  4. Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chloupek-McGough, Marge

    1989-01-01

    Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)

  5. The Organization of Reports of Scientific Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Beginning teachers of scientific technical writing often have little background knowledge in the sciences; thus, they may encounter difficulty in dealing with technical reports. To achieve clear explanations of the effects of scientific experiments, scientific writers need to know the following general principles: (1) the function of all the…

  6. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

  7. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

  8. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

  9. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

  10. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

  11. Ordination of the estuarine environment: What the organism experiences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators customarily schedule estuary sampling trips with regard to a variety of criteria, especially tide stage and the day-night cycle. However, estuarine organisms experience a wide suite of continuously changing tide and light conditions. Such organisms may undertake i...

  12. www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings #12;#12;www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings #12;#12;www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings #12;#12;www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddings #12;www.bath.ac.uk/hospitality/events/weddingswww.bath.ac.uk/hospitality

  13. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  14. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  15. Organic crystal growth experiment facility (13-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbayashi, Akio

    1992-01-01

    The interesting nature of metal-like organic compounds composed of charge transfer complexes has been recently realized. Crystals of these complexes can usually be grown by the solution crystallization method. It is difficult to grow such organic crystals on Earth, especially from the chemical reactions through diffusion controlled process in the solutions, because of gravitational disturbances, or sedimentation. The International Microgravity Lab. (IML-1) Organic Crystal Growth with G-Gitter Preventive Measure (OCGP) experiment is expected to grow a single crystal large enough to allow its intrinsic physical properties to be measured and its detailed crystal structure to be determined. This experiment also attempts to assess the experimental conditions including the microgravity environment for further study of the fundamental process of solution crystallization, nucleation, and growth from supersaturated phases including chemical reactions. Microgravity disturbances, G-jitter, may be an important environmental factor in the experimental method to assess. The vibration damping effects on organic crystal growth can be carefully studied.

  16. Environmental geology of Bath, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaway, G. A.

    1995-10-01

    The hot springs of Bath, England, have been of importance to man for hundreds of years. It was a famous spa in Roman times. Subsequently, the springs were used during the 17th through the 20th centuries and extensive urban and commercial properties were developed at Bath using the water for medical and tourist-oriented activities. With urban and commercial development in the area, man's impact on the environment was substantial and typical environmental problems included pollution, land subsidence, or stability that effected construction, drainage, highways, and canals. During the growth of Bath in the 18th and 19th centuries these environmental problems were described by geologist William Smith and Joseph Townsend. Bath and vicinity provides a unique example of environmental geoscience.

  17. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  18. Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehmann, Julia B.; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Bahnemann, Detlef W.

    2012-07-01

    Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF.

  19. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  20. Introduction As sessile organisms, intertidal macroalgae experience the

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    2231 Introduction As sessile organisms, intertidal macroalgae experience the full brunt of wave-swept macroalgae may be over-designed for resisting wave forces. The consequent low risk of breakage to their breakage when single loadings do not? Wave-swept macroalgae are subjected to large hydrodynamic forces

  1. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

  2. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  3. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  4. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    E-print Network

    Kao, Justin C. T.

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many ...

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath

    E-print Network

    Li, Baowen

    Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath Jie CHEN1 on heat conduction in nanostructures exemplified by silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon/germanium nano produce consistent results with experiment in large heat bath parameter range. KEYWORDS: heat conduction

  6. Lamination of organic solar cells and organic light emitting devices: Models and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyewole, O. K.; Yu, D.; Du, J.; Asare, J.; Anye, V. C.; Fashina, A.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a combined experimental, computational, and analytical approach is used to provide new insights into the lamination of organic solar cells and light emitting devices at macro- and micro-scales. First, the effects of applied lamination force (on contact between the laminated layers) are studied. The crack driving forces associated with the interfacial cracks (at the bi-material interfaces) are estimated along with the critical interfacial crack driving forces associated with the separation of thin films, after layer transfer. The conditions for successful lamination are predicted using a combination of experiments and computational models. Guidelines are developed for the lamination of low-cost organic electronic structures.

  7. Organic contamination problems in the Viking molecular analysis experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Oro, J.; Fennessey, P. V.

    1974-01-01

    A principal problem in interpreting the results of an organic analysis of an extraterrestrial sample is that of distinguishing contaminating material from indigenous material when unknown types and amounts of contaminants make their way into the sample being analyzed. An approach to control of sample integrity in the Viking molecular analysis experiment has been devised which it is believed, will eliminate such problems. Basically this involves (1) placing an upper limit on the amount of terrestrial contamination that can be tolerated and still allow scientifically meaningful analysis, (2) identifying the potential sources of contamination and analyzing their relative significance, (3) establishing methods to control these sources, and (4) obtaining complete information on the chemical composition of potential contaminants. Previous experience in the Apollo mission has been of great value in developing the Viking program, perhaps the most important carryover being the recognition of the importance of establishing a comprehensive contamination control program in the early stages of mission planning and hardware design.

  8. Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins in Two Amino Acids

    E-print Network

    Yuval Elias; Haggai Gilboa; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2011-10-26

    Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1,2-13C2-amino acids, using the alpha protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, both carbons were cooled by about 2.5-fold, and in other experiments the polarization of C1 nearly doubled while all other spins had equilibrium polarization, indicating reduction in total entropy. The effect of adding Magnevist, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

  9. Bathing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bathroom is warm and well lighted. • Play soft music if it helps to relax the person. • Be ... hit you. • Read “Caring for a Person with Alzheimer’s Disease”: www.nia. nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/ caring-person- ...

  10. Positronium signature in organic liquid scintillators for neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, D.; Consolati, G.; Trezzi, D.

    2011-01-15

    Electron antineutrinos are commonly detected in liquid scintillator experiments via inverse {beta} decay by looking at the coincidence between the reaction products: neutrons and positrons. Prior to positron annihilation, an electron-positron pair may form an orthopositronium (o-Ps) state, with a mean lifetime of a few nanoseconds. Even if the o-Ps decay is speeded up by spin-flip or pick-off effects, it may introduce distortions in the photon emission time distribution, crucial for position reconstruction and pulse shape discrimination algorithms in antineutrino experiments. Reversing the problem, the o-Ps-induced time distortion represents a new signature for tagging antineutrinos in liquid scintillator. In this article, we report the results of measurements of the o-Ps formation probability and lifetime for the most used solvents for organic liquid scintillators in neutrino physics (pseudocumene, linear alkyl benzene, phenylxylylethane, and dodecane). We characterize also a mixture of pseudocumene +1.5 g/l of 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a fluor acting as wavelength shifter. In the second part of the article, we demonstrate that the o-Ps-induced distortion of the scintillation photon emission time distributions represent an optimal signature for tagging positrons on an event by event basis, potentially enhancing the antineutrino detection.

  11. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  12. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin...

  15. Gene set analyses for interpreting microarray experiments on prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Tintle, Nathan; Best, Aaron; Dejongh, Matthew; VanBruggen, Dirk; Heffron, Fred; Porwollik, Steffen; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2008-11-05

    Background: Recent advances in microarray technology have brought with them the need for enhanced methods of biologically interpreting gene expression data. Recently, methods like Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and variants of Fisher’s exact test have been proposed which utilize a priori biological information. Typically, these methods are demonstrated with a priori biological information from the Gene Ontology. Results: Alternative gene set definitions are presented based on gene sets inferred from the SEED: open-source software environment for comparative genome annotation and analysis of microbial organisms. Many of these gene sets are then shown to provide consistent expression across a series of experiments involving Salmonella Typhimurium. Implementation of the gene sets in an analysis of microarray data is then presented for the Salmonella Typhimurium data. Conclusions: SEED inferred gene sets can be naturally defined based on subsystems in the SEED. The consistent expression values of these SEED inferred gene sets suggest their utility for statistical analyses of gene expression data based on a priori biological information

  16. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  17. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps,...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps,...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a) Definition. Personal hygiene products including bar soaps,...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  1. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  2. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  3. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  4. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  5. Chlorhexidine Bathing and Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Michael J.; Domenico, Henry J.; Byrne, Daniel W.; Talbot, Tom; Rice, Todd W.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Wheeler, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Daily bathing of critically ill patients with the broad spectrum, topical antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine is widely performed and may reduce healthcare-associated infections. Objective To determine if daily bathing of critically ill patients with chlorhexidine decreases the incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Design, setting, and participants A pragmatic cluster-randomized, cross-over study of 9,340 patients admitted to five adult intensive care units of a tertiary medical center in Nashville, Tennessee Intervention Units performed once-daily bathing of all patients with disposable cloths impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine or non-antimicrobial cloths as a control. Bathing treatments were performed for a 10-week period followed by a two-week washout period during which patients were bathed with non-antimicrobial disposable cloths, before crossover to the alternate bathing treatment for 10 weeks. Each unit crossed over between bathing assignments three times during the study Main Outcome and Measures The primary prespecified outcome was a composite of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and Clostridium difficile infections. Secondary outcomes included rates of clinical cultures positive for multi-drug resistant organisms, blood culture contamination, healthcare-associated bloodstream infections, and rates of the primary outcome by ICU. Results A total of 55 and 60 infections occurred during chlorhexidine and control bathing periods, respectively (4 and 4 CLABSI, 21 and 32 CAUTI, 17 and 8 VAP, 13 and 16 C. difficile infections, respectively, between chlorhexidine and control bathing periods). The primary outcome rate was 2.86 per 1000 patient-days and 2.90 per 1000 patient-days during chlorhexidine and control bathing periods, respectively (rate difference, ?0.04; 95% CI, ?1.09 to 1.01; P=0.95). After adjusting for baseline variables, no difference between groups in the rate of the primary outcome was detected. Chlorhexidine bathing did not change rates of infection-related secondary outcomes including hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, blood culture contamination, or clinical cultures yielding multi-drug resistant organisms. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, no difference in the primary outcome was detected in any individual ICU. Conclusion and Relevance In this pragmatic trial, daily bathing with chlorhexidine did not reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infections including central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, or C. difficile. These findings do not support daily bathing of critically ill patients with chlorhexidine. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02033187 PMID:25602496

  6. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  7. Effects of bathing solution on tensile properties of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol

    2014-03-01

    The cornea is a transparent tissue with the major functions of protecting the inner contents of the eye and refracting incoming light. The biomechanical properties of the cornea strongly depend on the microstructure and composition of the stromal layer, a hydrated bio-gel. The uniaxial strip testing is a convenient and well-accepted experimental technique for characterizing corneal material parameters. It is known that the water content of specimens in this method depends on the osmolality of the bathing solution. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of different bathing solutions on uniaxial tensile material properties of the cornea. The tensile behavior of bovine corneal samples was measured in six different bathing solutions, i.e., hypertonic solution (12% NaCl solution), common preserving isotonic solutions (e.g., phosphate buffer saline, ophthalmic balanced salt solution, and 0.9% NaCl solution), hypotonic solution (distilled water), and neutral solution (mineral oil). It was observed that the bathing solution had significant influence on the tensile behavior of the corneal samples. In particular, the specimens tested in bathing solutions causing less swelling had significantly stiffer tensile properties. Furthermore, a simple mathematical model based on Voigt composite material model was developed to represent the measured solution-dependent tensile properties. The present study suggests that extra attention should be paid to corneal thickness (hydration) in uniaxial tensile experiments. It also provides important data on tensile properties of the cornea; such information could significantly contribute to improving the accuracy of numerical predictions of corneal biomechanics. PMID:24333541

  8. The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2004-01-01

    Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

  9. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

  10. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

  11. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees...Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and...

  12. Motion of two micro-wedges in a turbulent bacterial bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, A.; Sokolov, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Löwen, H.

    2015-07-01

    The motion of a pair of micro-wedges ("carriers") in a turbulent bacterial bath is explored using computer simulations with explicit modeling of the bacteria and experiments. The orientation of the two micro-wedges is fixed by an external magnetic field but the translational coordinates can move freely as induced by the bacterial bath. As a result, two carriers of same orientation move such that their mutual distance decreases, while they drift apart for an anti-parallel orientation. Eventually the two carriers stack on each other with no intervening bacteria exhibiting a stable dynamical mode where the two micro-wedges follow each other with the same velocity. These findings are in qualitative agreement with experiment on two micro-wedges in a bacterial bath. Our results provide insight into understanding self-assembly of many micro-wedges in an active bath.

  13. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

  14. Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

  15. Taxonomic Organization Scaffolds Young Children's Learning from Storybooks: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test and iteratively design a set of taxonomically-organized storybooks that served to scaffold young children's word learning and concept development. Specifically, Phase 1 of the design experiment asked: (1) What are the effects of taxonomic organization on children's ability to acquire…

  16. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  17. Protective coating for salt-bath brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, A. C.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Ceramic coating, consisting of graphite, enameler's clay, and algin binder, applied to materials prior to salt bath brazing facilitates brazing process and results in superior joints. Alternate coating materials and their various proportions are given.

  18. Our plumbing, ourselves : a public bath house

    E-print Network

    Merceret, Honor

    1993-01-01

    Cleansing for being well Cleansing for well being. This thesis will consider: --how developments in plumbing and sewage and their related fixtures, kitchens and baths, parallel cultural changes throughout history. Though ...

  19. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 ?M) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 ?M). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 ?M) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 ?M) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  20. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  1. Adelard of Bath (1075-1160)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Bath, England, a teacher and translator of scientific work from the Arabic, Adelard traveled in France, Italy, Syria and Palestine. On returning to Bath, he translated Euclid's Elements from Arabic, and his translation became for centuries the chief geometry textbook in the West. He also translated the zij (astronomical table) of Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi. He wrote works on the abacu...

  2. A Continuous 4He Refrigerator for Use in a Superfluid Helium Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suwen; Avaloff, D.; Nissen, J. A.; Stricker, D. A.; Lipa, J. A.

    2006-09-07

    In cryogenic applications in space, the base temperature, Tmin of the helium bath in the dewar is typically determined by the design of the porous plug and the associated plumbing. For certain experiments, the required operating temperature of the instrument is lower than the bath temperature. In the laboratory, temperatures below 1.2 K require very large pumps or the use of 3He systems. We have demonstrated a modified 4He refrigerator with a continuous fill from a superfluid helium bath with a base temperature more than 0.5 K below the bath temperature. We describe the operation as well as the mechanism of such a refrigerator. For operation in space the refrigerator would need to be equipped with a porous plug to retain the fluid.

  3. Organic synthesis by quench reactions. [in prebiotic simulation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, W. K.; Hochstim, A. R.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1975-01-01

    Study of the effects of chemical quench reactions on the formation of organic compounds at a water surface under simulated primordial earth conditions. A mixture of gaseous methane and ammonia over a water surface was exposed to an arc discharge between an electrode and the water surface, generating reactive species. Various organic molecules were formed by a subsequent quenching of these species generated on the water surface. The effects of these water-surface quench reactions were assessed by comparing the amounts of synthesized molecules to the amounts which formed during the discharge of an arc above the water level. It is concluded that the quench (or wet) discharge led to faster rates of reactions, higher-molecular-weight organic compounds, and one-order-of-magnitude larger yields than the dry discharge.

  4. Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Sheila

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

  5. Organizing High School Biology Experiences around Contemporary Bioethical Issues: An STS Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

    1997-01-01

    The need for a citizenry capable of comprehending and tackling contemporary issues related to science and technology demands science education experiences that are fundamentally different from traditional experiences in school science. Argues that high school biology experiences organized around contemporary bioethical issues can meet this need.…

  6. On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.

  7. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

  8. FIELD EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR PORTABLE VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the field operation problems associated with use of four portable volatile organic compound (VOC) detection instruments in conducting Reference Method 21 VOC screenings. The report presents the results of the field trials and summarizes the ease of use of ea...

  9. Community Organization and Mental Health; The Woodlawn Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael D.; Lewis, Judith A.

    A paraprofessional training program designed to provide community controlled mental health services to the Woodlawn community of Chicago, Illinois, is described in this monograph. The neighborhood and The Woodlawn Organization (T.W.O.A), a self help project formed in early 1960, are described from an historical perspective. Some of the areas…

  10. Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling with Spins: Review and Prospects

    E-print Network

    Daniel K. Park; Nayeli A. Rodriguez-Briones; Guanru Feng; Robabeh R. Darabad; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2015-01-05

    Application of multiple rounds of Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is an essential milestone towards the construction of scalable quantum information processing devices. However, experimental realizations of it are still in their infancy. The requirements for multiple round QEC are high control fidelity and the ability to extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based quantum devices have demonstrated high control fidelity with up to 12 qubits. On the other hand, the major challenge in the NMR QEC experiment is to efficiently supply ancilla qubits in highly pure states at the beginning of each round of QEC. Purification of qubits in NMR, or in other ensemble based quantum systems can be accomplished through Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling (HBAC). It is an efficient method for extracting entropy from qubits that interact with a heat bath, allowing cooling below the bath temperature. For practical HBAC, coupled electron-nuclear spin systems are more promising than conventional NMR quantum processors, since electron spin polarization is about $10^3$ times greater than that of a proton under the same experimental conditions. We provide an overview on both theoretical and experimental aspects of HBAC focusing on spin and magnetic resonance based systems, and discuss the prospects of exploiting electron-nuclear coupled systems for the realization of HBAC and multiple round QEC.

  11. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  12. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  13. Solvent-Free Reductive Amination: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.; Cross, Amely V.

    2015-01-01

    The reductive amination reaction between an amine and an aldehyde or ketone is an important method to add an additional alkyl group to an amine nitrogen. In this experiment, students react a selection of benzylamines with aldehydes to form the corresponding imines. These imines are reduced with a mixture of "p"-toluenesulfonic acid…

  14. Simulating Bosonic Baths with Error Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, M. P.; Cramer, M.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-09-01

    We derive rigorous truncation-error bounds for the spin-boson model and its generalizations to arbitrary quantum systems interacting with bosonic baths. For the numerical simulation of such baths, the truncation of both the number of modes and the local Hilbert-space dimensions is necessary. We derive superexponential Lieb-Robinson-type bounds on the error when restricting the bath to finitely many modes and show how the error introduced by truncating the local Hilbert spaces may be efficiently monitored numerically. In this way we give error bounds for approximating the infinite system by a finite-dimensional one. As a consequence, numerical simulations such as the time-evolving density with orthogonal polynomials algorithm (TEDOPA) now allow for the fully certified treatment of the system-environment interaction.

  15. Simulating Bosonic Baths with Error Bars.

    PubMed

    Woods, M P; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2015-09-25

    We derive rigorous truncation-error bounds for the spin-boson model and its generalizations to arbitrary quantum systems interacting with bosonic baths. For the numerical simulation of such baths, the truncation of both the number of modes and the local Hilbert-space dimensions is necessary. We derive superexponential Lieb-Robinson-type bounds on the error when restricting the bath to finitely many modes and show how the error introduced by truncating the local Hilbert spaces may be efficiently monitored numerically. In this way we give error bounds for approximating the infinite system by a finite-dimensional one. As a consequence, numerical simulations such as the time-evolving density with orthogonal polynomials algorithm (TEDOPA) now allow for the fully certified treatment of the system-environment interaction. PMID:26451538

  16. The Effect of Organic Compounds in Pot Experiments

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S.

    1915-01-01

    soda a.nd phenolphthalein. On soil No. 1956, addit ions of acid phosphate, sulphate of potash and nitrate of soda were made. ~rhe results of the experiments are given in Tables 1 and 2. Laboratory I Number. TABLE 1.-DRY WEIGHTS OF CROPS GROWN... ON SOIL NO. 1956. I Sor- I Aver-Corn. ghum. Total. age. ----1-----------,--------1-------- 1-0 2-Q 3-Ac. 4-Ac. 5-Ac. Ca. 6-Ac. Ca. 2. 5 gms Acid Phosphate (P) 1.0 gms .. ..... . .... .. .. ....... .. 18 .0 10.5 Nitrate of Soda K. 1. 0 gm...

  17. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

  18. Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

  19. Decoherence by a chaotic many-spin bath.

    PubMed

    Lages, J; Dobrovitski, V V; Katsnelson, M I; De Raedt, H A; Harmon, B N

    2005-08-01

    We numerically investigate decoherence of a two-spin system (central system) by a bath of many spins 1/2. By carefully adjusting parameters, the dynamical regime of the bath has been varied from quantum chaos to regular, while all other dynamical characteristics have been kept practically intact. We explicitly demonstrate that for a many-body quantum bath, the onset of quantum chaos leads to significantly faster and stronger decoherence compared to an equivalent non-chaotic bath. Moreover, the non-diagonal elements of the system's density matrix, the linear entropy, and the fidelity of the central system decay differently for chaotic and non-chaotic baths. Therefore, knowledge of the basic parameters of the bath (strength of the system-bath interaction, and the bath's spectral density of states) is not always sufficient, and much finer details of the bath's dynamics can strongly affect the decoherence process. PMID:16196702

  20. [Experience of medical support organization of the tank biathlon competition].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Kuvshinov, K É; Iakovlev, S V

    2013-11-01

    Authors presented information about medical support of the tank biathlon competition taking part on 12-17 August 2013 at the Alabino. Crews from Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia (The Collective Security Treaty Organization) were invited for the contest. On the basis of the idea of the contest and location of the Alabino, the Main military-medical board of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation developed and passed the Programme of medical support of the contest, gave the word to medical service of the Western Military District and central military-medical facilities about appropriation of funds. Personnel, providing the contest, was training every day during the period of preparation. Over a period of field ambulance station 73 people sought medical advice, 12 of them were sent to hospital. Authors came to conclusion the set tasks were completely fulfilled. PMID:24611301

  1. Bath salts” induced severe reversible cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Chaudari, Dhara; Lopez, Pablo; Sutherland, Michael E; Ramu, Vijay K.

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Bath salt induced cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Agitation • fever • pedal edema Medication: Intravenous nor-epinephrine for less than 6 hours Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal medicine • cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: “Bath salts” is the street name for a group of recently identified and increasingly abused stimulant synthetic cathinones that are associated with multiple systemic effects. We present a case of a patient who developed reversible dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to their use. Case Report: A 27 year old male with no past medical history was brought to emergency department with agitation. He had been inhaling and intravenously injecting “bath salts”, containing a mephedrone/Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) combination. On presentation, he was tachycardic, hypotensive and febrile. His initial labs showed an elevated white count, creatinine and creatinine phosphokinase levels. His erythrocyte sedimentation rate; C-reactive protein; urinalysis; urine drug screen; Human Immunodeficiency Virus, hepatitis, coxsackie, and influenza serology were normal. EKG showed sinus tachycardia. An echocardiogram was done which showed dilated cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction (EF) of 15–20% and global hypokinesia. A left heart catheterization was done and was negative for coronary artery disease. At a 20 week follow up, he had stopped abusing bath salts and was asymptomatic. A repeat echocardiogram showed an EF of 52%. Cocnlusions: Bath salts (MDPV, mephedrone) are synthetic cathinones with amphetamine/cocaine like properties with potential cardiotoxic effects. Cardiovascular manifestations reported include tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. “Bath salts” can also cause severe reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Prior to diagnosis, other causes of cardiomyopathy including ischemic, infectious, familial, immunological, metabolic and cytotoxic may need to be ruled out; as was done in our patient. PMID:23919103

  2. Human organ specimen banking--15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Kemper, F H

    1993-11-01

    As a reaction to the lack of information concerning ranges of a 'normal xenobiotic burden' within the population and also the aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environments, the sampling and storage of environmental materials in Germany in 1974 as a possible tool for environmental observation and early recognizing of hazards was proposed. During subsequent years the collection of human specimens was undertaken in Münster. In a pilot phase (1978-1983) conditions of optimized storage were investigated, including reliable storage temperature and container materials. Since 1985 the Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissue in Münster has been institutionalized under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety as well as the Federal Environmental Agency in Berlin. Up to 1991 about 300,000 samples had been collected and stored at -85 degrees C in a walk-in deep-freezer of 34 m3 comprising autopsy material as well as 'available' organs form living persons (e.g. blood, urine, hair, human milk, saliva, seminal plasma, sweat). Having fulfilled the tasks within the scope of environmental banking the Münster institution has proved to be an adequate scientific tool. It has been integrated into the logistic system of the Environmental Specimen Bank in Germany having the following main tasks (a) the development of Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) for sampling and sample handling, (b) evaluation of reliable analytical methods for inorganic and organic sample characterization, (c) collection of a sufficient data pool for reference ranges of xenobiotics, which are essential for environmental risk assessment, and (d) the evaluation of the efficacy of legislative xenobiotic restrictions: this could be proved for lead and some organochlorine pesticides. PMID:8272822

  3. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  4. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  5. The DuPont Experience: Strategic Planning for Information Design and Development Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuninger, Charles L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategic planning experience of the Information Design and Development organization (then called Technical Publications) in DuPont's External Affairs division. Describes why strategic planning was undertaken, the process used, logistics involved in preparing for and carrying out the process, and results. Shows that the experience can…

  6. The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)

  7. Quantum Bath Refrigeration towards Absolute Zero: Challenging the Unattainability Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolá?, M.; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Alicki, R.; Kurizki, G.

    2012-08-01

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T?0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst’s third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  8. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  9. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Karouby, Johanna

    2013-10-01

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  10. Computer Science at Bath Degree programmes in

    E-print Network

    Vorobjov, Nicolai

    Computer Science at Bath Degree programmes in Computer Science Computer Science and Mathematics Computer Science with Business #12;Computer Science programmes Programme UCaS DUration CoDe of Programme BSc (Hons) Computer Science g400 3 years BSc (Hons) Computer Science with placement year g401 4 years

  11. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  12. Psychoactive "bath salts": not so soothing.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called "bath salts" products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

  13. Psychoactive “bath salts”: not so soothing

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Lehner, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called “bath salts” products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

  14. Comments on: Asymptotic Bound for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    E-print Network

    Nayeli Azucena Rodriguez-Briones; Jun Li; Xinhua Peng; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein; Raymond Laflamme

    2015-11-17

    In a recent paper, PRL 114 100404, 2015, Raeisi and Mosca gave a limit for cooling with Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling (HBAC). Here we show how to exceed that limit by having correlation in the qubits-bath interaction.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses and toilet facilities. [Statutory Provisions]...

  16. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered to...

  17. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered to...

  18. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered to...

  19. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered to...

  20. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths shall be administered to...

  1. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...surface-active agent serving as a detergent or foaming ingredient. (b) The label of foaming detergent bath products within...adequate directions for safe use and the following...

  2. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...surface-active agent serving as a detergent or foaming ingredient. (b) The label of foaming detergent bath products within...adequate directions for safe use and the following...

  3. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...surface-active agent serving as a detergent or foaming ingredient. (b) The label of foaming detergent bath products within...adequate directions for safe use and the following...

  4. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...surface-active agent serving as a detergent or foaming ingredient. (b) The label of foaming detergent bath products within...adequate directions for safe use and the following...

  5. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...surface-active agent serving as a detergent or foaming ingredient. (b) The label of foaming detergent bath products within...adequate directions for safe use and the following...

  6. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  7. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant1

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. Method this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. Results the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. Final considerations knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation. PMID:26107829

  8. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its measurements are described.

  9. The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

  10. Electron spin dephasing due to hyperfine interactions with a nuclear spin bath.

    PubMed

    Cywi?ski, Lukasz; Witzel, Wayne M; Das Sarma, S

    2009-02-01

    We investigate pure dephasing decoherence (free induction decay and spin echo) of a spin qubit interacting with a nuclear spin bath. While for infinite magnetic field B the only decoherence mechanism is spectral diffusion due to dipolar flip-flops of nuclear spins, with decreasing B the hyperfine-mediated interactions between the nuclear spins become important. We give a theory of decoherence due to these interactions which takes advantage of their long-range nature. For a thermal uncorrelated bath we show that our theory is applicable down to B approximately 10 mT, allowing for comparison with recent experiments in GaAs quantum dots. PMID:19257553

  11. The varying effects of warm-water bathing therapies: partial bathing decreases exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing

    PubMed Central

    Ohshige, Tadasu; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kiyama, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in postural sway and tolerance to exercise before and after full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing in warm-water. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy, young adult males were subjected to full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing at 41?°C for 10 minutes. [Results] The 2-point discrimination sense value and total trajectory length significantly decreased after bathing. [Conclusion] In summary, we found that warm-water bathing sharpens plantar sensation, and thus may help to prevent falls in the elderly. Even partial forearm and lower leg bathing increased exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing. PMID:26696701

  12. The varying effects of warm-water bathing therapies: partial bathing decreases exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing.

    PubMed

    Ohshige, Tadasu; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kiyama, Ryoji

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in postural sway and tolerance to exercise before and after full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing in warm-water. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy, young adult males were subjected to full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing at 41?°C for 10 minutes. [Results] The 2-point discrimination sense value and total trajectory length significantly decreased after bathing. [Conclusion] In summary, we found that warm-water bathing sharpens plantar sensation, and thus may help to prevent falls in the elderly. Even partial forearm and lower leg bathing increased exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing. PMID:26696701

  13. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  14. Pion string evolving in a thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fan; Chen, Qichang; Mao, Hong

    2015-10-01

    By using the symmetry improved Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective formalism, we study a pion string of the O (4 ) linear sigma model at finite temperature in chiral limit. In terms of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism we reconsider the production and evolution of the pion string in a thermal bath. Finally, we estimate the pion string density and its possible signal during the chiral phase transition.

  15. Water-bath method for sonographic evaluation of superficial structures of the extremities in children.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Thapa, Mahesh; Callahan, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution sonography using a stand-off pad or a gel mound is a standard technique for the evaluation of soft-tissue structures of the hands and feet in children. However, the complex curved surfaces of the hands and feet often yield suboptimal contact between the transducer and the skin. Additionally, the small field of view, relative compressibility of the soft-tissue structures by the transducer, patient motion and discomfort from contact of the transducer with the pathology often limit conventional US evaluation. A water-bath technique overcomes these limitations. We present our experience of water-bath technique of superficial sonography in 23 children. Water-bath technique was performed with good patient cooperation and was superior to the standard technique for depiction of shallow skin ulcers, subcutaneous masses, vascular malformations, osteomyelitis and foreign bodies. PMID:23478918

  16. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.

    2009-04-01

    Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These "Classical Field Experiments" included studies on winter wheat (Broadbalk 1843), spring barley (Hoos Barley 1852) and permanent grassland (Park Grass 1856). Additional experiments were established in the 20th century to examine the value of ley-arable cropping, including the Highfield and Fosters Ley-arable experiments (1948) and the Woburn Ley-arable experiment (1938). More recently, the effects of incorporating organic manures and cereal straw have been examined. Early results quickly showed the benefits of inorganic N and P fertilisers on crop production, but the effects of contrasting land uses and management practices on soil properties emerged more slowly. Measurements of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soils taken at intervals from the long-term experiments indicate that the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation is controlled largely by the balance between the rate of organic matter inputs and its oxidation rate, and that these are strongly influenced by land use and management, soil texture (especially clay content) and climate. A recent examination of soil organic C data from two long-term grassland experiments in the UK (including Park Grass) indicates that any changes observed in soil organic C under long-term grasslands over the past 40 years are more likely to be due to changes in land use and management rather than climate change. Data from the Rothamsted Long-term experiments have been used to develop and test biogeochemical models of C and N dynamics. In particular, the Roth-C model has successfully simulated soil C dynamics in the long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere. This model uses several organic matter pools, including decomposable and resistant plant material, soil microbial biomass, humified organic matter and inert organic matter and was one of the 31 models included in the GCTE SOMNET network. The Rothamsted Long-term Experiments together with their archived samples and data have proven especially useful for examining the impact of land use and management on soil organic matter dynamics. They continue to yield important information and are an increasingly valuable experimental resource for today's scientists. Whilst their future long-term uses cannot be predicted, provided they are well maintained, the application of new scientific techniques to examine both fresh and archived samples will continue to provide information of environmental and ecological significance to future generations. Rothamsted Research receives grant-aided support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and additional support from the Lawes Agricultural Trust. Presentation of this work forms part of the ANAEE EC design study (www.anaee.com).

  17. The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

    2014-03-01

    The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters. PMID:24642437

  18. Role of initial system-bath correlation on coherence trapping

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Yu, Yan-Mei; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study the coherence trapping of a qubit correlated initially with a non-Markovian bath in a pure dephasing channel. By considering the initial qubit-bath correlation and the bath spectral density, we find that the initial qubit-bath correlation can lead to a more efficient coherence trapping than that of the initially separable qubit-bath state. The stationary coherence in the long time limit can be maximized by optimizing the parameters of the initially correlated qubit-bath state and the bath spectral density. In addition, the effects of this initial correlation on the maximal evolution speed for the qubit trapped to its stationary coherence state are also explored. PMID:26303160

  19. Role of initial system-bath correlation on coherence trapping

    E-print Network

    Ying-Jie Zhang; Wei Han; Yun-Jie Xia; Yan-Mei Yu; Heng Fan

    2015-02-09

    We study the coherence trapping of a qubit correlated initially with a non-Markovian bath in a pure dephasing channel. By considering the initial qubit-bath correlation and the bath spectral density, we find that the initial qubit-bath correlation can lead to a more efficient coherence trapping than that of the initially separable qubit-bath state. The stationary coherence in the long time limit can be maximized by optimizing the parameters of the initially correlated qubit-bath state and the bath spectral density. In addition, the effects of this initial correlation on the maximal evolution speed for the qubit trapped to its stationary coherence state are also explored.

  20. Role of initial system-bath correlation on coherence trapping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Yu, Yan-Mei; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study the coherence trapping of a qubit correlated initially with a non-Markovian bath in a pure dephasing channel. By considering the initial qubit-bath correlation and the bath spectral density, we find that the initial qubit-bath correlation can lead to a more efficient coherence trapping than that of the initially separable qubit-bath state. The stationary coherence in the long time limit can be maximized by optimizing the parameters of the initially correlated qubit-bath state and the bath spectral density. In addition, the effects of this initial correlation on the maximal evolution speed for the qubit trapped to its stationary coherence state are also explored. PMID:26303160

  1. Measurement of Smooth Muscle Function in the Isolated Tissue Bath-applications to Pharmacology Research

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Watts, Stephanie W.; Cobbett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum – if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  2. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  3. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  4. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

  5. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  6. Category-Specific Organization in the Human Brain Does Not Require Visual Experience

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Neuron Article Category-Specific Organization in the Human Brain Does Not Require Visual Experience Caramazza1,2,* 1Center for Mind/Brain Sciences (CIMeC), University of Trento, Rovereto, TN 38068, Italy 2). It is also known that occip- ital-temporal cortex in humans and nonhuman primates contains populations

  7. An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

    2004-01-01

    Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

  8. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  9. Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

  10. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzezi?ski, Micha?; Klikowicz, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors. PMID:25761524

  11. Beyond heat baths II: Framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories

    E-print Network

    Nicole Yunger Halpern

    2015-06-17

    Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family's structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilard's engine and Landauer's Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among diverse degrees of freedom. Extensive variables are associated with quantum operators that might fail to commute, introducing extra nonclassicality into thermodynamic resource theories. This generalization expands the theories' potential for modeling realistic systems with which small-scale statistical mechanics might be tested experimentally.

  12. Bath salts and other emerging toxins.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Matthew D; Baum, Carl R

    2014-01-01

    Novel classes of synthetic drugs, including synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("spice" or "K2"), have recently emerged as popular drugs of abuse. Salvia divinorum, a naturally occurring herb, has gained popularity in the last decade as a hallucinogenic as well. The legal status of these substances has been undergoing rapid changes and has been confusing to lawmakers and medical practitioners alike. We present an up-to-date information about the legality of these substances. We also discuss the historical background, chemical composition, patterns of abuse, clinical presentations, laboratory analysis, and management strategies for these drugs, with an emphasis on synthetic cathinones. PMID:24378862

  13. Bath and Shower Effect in Spinal Cord: The Effect of Time Interval

    SciTech Connect

    Philippens, Marielle E.P. Pop, Lucas A.M.; Visser, Andries G.; Peeters, Wenny J.M.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the time dependency of the sensitizing effect of a large low-dose field on a small high-dose field in the rat cervical spinal cord. Methods and materials: Irradiation experiments with a relatively low dose to a large volume (bath, 2 cm, 4 Gy) were combined with high doses to a small volume (shower, 4.7 mm, 26-43 Gy) at intervals of 8 minutes and 3, 12, and 24 hours. Both a functional score defined as motor impairment and a histologic score characterized as white matter necrosis were used as end points. Results: Application of the 4-Gy bath dose resulted in a significant decrease in 50% isoeffective dose (ED{sub 50}) from 48.7 Gy (small field) to 40.8 Gy. If the interval was extended, the ED{sub 50} increased to 44.4 (3 hours) and 44.8 Gy (12 hours), whereas a 24-hour interval resulted in a significant increase to 51.9 Gy. If the histologic end point was considered, the ED{sub 50} for all dose-response curves decreased slightly with 0.2 to 2.6 Gy without significantly changing the kinetics. Conclusions: The bath effect as applied in the bath-and-shower experiment lasted for at least 12 hours and disappeared in the 24-hour interval. This time scale clearly deviates from the repair kinetics in spinal cord derived from low-dose-rate and fractionated irradiations.

  14. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically preserved before being returned to Earth for analyses. Our results suggest that with protocol modifications and future verification testing we can utilize the versatile EMCS to conduct tightly controlled experiments inside our culture cassettes for a wide variety of organisms. These physiological experiments would be designed to answer questions at the molecular level about the specific stress responses of space flight.

  15. The experiment BOSS on EXPOSE R-2, Mission Preparation Tests for Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Bauermeister, A.; Barczyk, S.; Billi, D.; Cockell, Ch.; Flemming, H. C.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2012-09-01

    In the experiment BOSS the hypothesis will be tested if the biofilm form of life with microorganisms embedded and aggregated in their EPS matrix is suited to support long-term survival of microorganisms under the harsh environmental conditions as they exist in space and on Mars and is superior to the same bacteria in the form of planktonic cultures. An additional protective role may be provided by particles associated in biofilms which may shield the organisms against radiation. The experiment will be flown on EXPOSE R-2 attached outside of the ISS on the Russian module. The experiment has participated at the Experiment verification tests and a Science verification test which have been carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities at DLR. The launch is scheduled for end of 2013.

  16. Quantum-Bath Decoherence of Hybrid Electron-Nuclear Spin Qubits

    E-print Network

    S. J. Balian

    2015-10-30

    A major problem facing the realisation of scalable solid-state quantum computing is that of overcoming decoherence - the process whereby phase information encoded in a qubit is lost as the qubit interacts with its environment. Due to the vast number of environmental degrees of freedom, it is challenging to accurately calculate decoherence times $T_2$, especially when the qubit and environment are highly correlated. Hybrid or mixed electron-nuclear spin qubits, such as donors in silicon, possess 'optimal working points' (OWPs) which are sweet-spots for reduced decoherence in magnetic fields. Analysis of sharp variations of $T_2$ near OWPs was previously based on insensitivity to classical noise, even though hybrid qubits are situated in highly correlated quantum environments, such as the nuclear spin bath of $^{29}$Si impurities. This presented limited understanding of the decoherence mechanism and gave unreliable predictions for $T_2$. I present quantum many-body calculations of the qubit-bath dynamics, which (i) yield $T_2$ for hybrid qubits in excellent agreement with experiments in multiple regimes, (ii) elucidate the many-body nature of the nuclear spin bath and (iii) expose significant differences between quantum-bath and classical-field decoherence. To achieve these, the cluster correlation expansion was adapted to include electron-nuclear state mixing. In addition, an analysis supported by experiment was carried out to characterise the nuclear spin bath for a bismuth donor as the hybrid qubit, a simple analytical formula for $T_2$ was derived with predictions in agreement with experiment, and the established method of dynamical decoupling was combined with operating near OWPs in order to maximise $T_2$. Finally, the decoherence of a $^{29}$Si spin in proximity to the hybrid qubit was studied, in order to establish the feasibility for its use as a quantum register.

  17. Evolution of organics on the Mars surface: laboratory studies with the MOMIE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé; Raulin, Francois

    The question of life on Mars remains open today, despite the negative results obtained with the Viking landers. Indeed, recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate the existence of a past environment of Mars with liquid water and mild temperatures favourable for life. Among the tracers which could indicate the presence of life on Mars, the organic molecules are of primary importance because they are necessary for the emergence of life as we know it. However, such molecules (except methane recently discovered in the atmosphere) have never been detected on Mars. A key question is therefore to know if organic molecules are indeed present, in which concentration and under which form. Indeed, even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized, those brought by exogenous sources, like interplanetary dust particles, should be present in detectable amounts. Moreover, the search for endogenous organic molecules should not be abandoned because on Earth, there are known examples of organic molecules capable to resist over periods of several billion years without any degradation. It thus appears that organic molecules could be present at the surface of Mars, even if they have significant probabilities to undergo a partial or total chemical evolution. Within the framework of the search for organic molecules by present or future space experiments on Mars, we are developing the MOMIE 1 and the MOMIE 2 projects (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to determine how the organic species could evolve at the Martian surface. We thus propose to implement this type of research by using laboratory experimental setups specifically designed to study the behaviour of organic molecules under experimental conditions simulating as close as possible the environmental conditions at the surface of Mars as we know them today. Trough the MOMIE 1 project, we present here the influence of the UV solar radiations reaching the Mars surface on various amino acids, carboxylic acids and hopanoids of astrobiological interest for Mars. The obtained results indicate that glycine, serine, the benzoic and oxalic acids do not resist a long time if they are directly exposed to UV radiations. But the mellitic acid is shown to generate organics resistant to UV radiations. This demonstrates than even if UV radiations seem destructive for most of the organics, a few ones could be transformed in such a way that their products of reaction could be present at the Mars surface. Trough the MOMIE 2 project, we will present first results of the evolution of these organics under oxidation processes which could occur at the Mars surface, due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide detected in the atmosphere.

  18. Reduced total hardness of fresh water enhances the efficacy of bathing as a treatment for amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S D; Powell, M D

    2003-10-01

    The current treatment for amoebic gill disease (AGD)-affected Atlantic salmon involves bathing sea-caged fish in fresh water, often sourced from local dams, for 3-4 h. In both a small-scale laboratory and an on-farm field experiment, the effects of water hardness on the efficacy of freshwater bathing were assessed. Results showed that soft fresh water (19.3-37.4 mg L(-1) CaCO3), whether it be naturally soft city mains water or artificially softened dam water, was more efficacious at alleviating AGD in affected fish than hard fresh water (173-236.3 mg L(-1) CaCO3). Soft freshwater bathing significantly reduced viable gill amoebae numbers (from 73.9 to 40.9% of total count) and significantly alleviated gill pathology, both gross and histological. Following bathing, gross gill pathological scores of soft freshwater bathed fish lagged 2 weeks behind hard freshwater bathed fish. Significant gill lesion fragmentation, and shedding of lesion-associated hyperplastic tissue, was accompanied by a significant reduction in AGD-affected gill filaments in soft freshwater bathed fish. Furthermore, soft freshwater bathing alleviated the blood plasma electrolyte imbalance seen in control (sea water) and hard freshwater bathed fish. This study showed that the use of soft fresh water for bathing AGD-affected Atlantic salmon could be an improvement to the current method of treatment. Not only does it reduce gill amoeba numbers, but also, it is of a therapeutic advantage with the potential to reduce bathing frequency. PMID:14653317

  19. Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Abiotic Organics from Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Summers, David P.; Kubo, Mike; Yassar, Saima

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes can be powerful biogeochemical markers in the study of life's origins. Biogenic carbon fixation produces organics that are depleted in C-13 by about -20 to -30%0. Less attention has been paid to the isotopic signatures of abiotic processes. The possibility of abiotic processes producing organics with morphologies and isotopic signatures in the biogenic range has been at the center of recent debate over the Earth's earliest microfossils. The abiotic synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal environments is one possible source of endogenous organic matter to the prebiotic earth. Simulated hydrothermal settings have been shown to synthesize, among other things, single chain amphiphiles and simple lipids from a mix of CO, CO2, and H2. A key characteristic of these amphiphilic molecules is the ability to self-assemble in aqueous phases into more organized structures called vesicles, which form a selectively permeable boundary and serve the function of containing and concentrating other organic molecules. The ability to form cell like structures also makes these compounds more likely to be mistaken for biogenic. Hydrothermal simulation experiments were conducted from oxalic or formic acid in water at 175 C for 72 hr. The molecular and isotopic composition of the products of these reactions were determined and compared to biogenic fractionations . Preliminary results indicate isotopic fractionation during abiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in hydrothermal environments is on par with biological carbon fixation.

  20. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field–atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom–atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  1. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  2. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas

    E-print Network

    Lee, Shan-Hu

    experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas system. By measuring the relative concentrations of the solute in the gas and liquid phases, Henry's lawA Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds

  3. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  4. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  5. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  6. Bath Salts: A Newly Recognized Cause of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jonathan; Parikh, Samir; Valentine, Christopher; Haddad, Nabil; Shidham, Ganesh; Rovin, Brad; Hebert, Lee; Agarwal, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Bath salts are substance of abuse that are becoming more common and are difficult to recognize due to negative toxicology screening. Acute kidney injury due to bath salt use has not previously been described. We present the case of a previously healthy male who developed acute kidney injury and dialysis dependence after bath salt ingestion and insufflation. This was self-reported with negative toxicology screening. Clinical course was marked by severe hyperthermia, hyperkalemia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria, and sepsis. We discuss signs and symptoms, differential diagnoses, potential mechanisms of injury, management, and review of the literature related to bath salt toxicity. PMID:24555135

  7. Quantum heat baths satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fialko, O

    2015-08-01

    A class of autonomous quantum heat baths satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) criteria is proposed. We show that such systems are expected to cause thermal relaxation of much smaller quantum systems coupled to one of the baths local observables. The process of thermalization is examined through residual fluctuations of local observables of the bath around their thermal values predicted by ETH. It is shown that such fluctuations perturb the small quantum system causing its decoherence to the thermal state. As an example, we investigate theoretically and numerically thermalization of a qubit coupled to a realistic ETH quantum heat bath. PMID:26382341

  8. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

  13. Insights Into Atmospheric Aqueous Organic Chemistry Through Controlled Experiments with Cloud Water Surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Ramos, A.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Seitzinger, S.

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable laboratory and field-based evidence that chemical processing in clouds and wet aerosols alters organic composition and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Single-compound laboratory experiments have played an important role in developing aqueous-phase chemical mechanisms that aid prediction of SOA formation through multiphase chemistry. In this work we conduct similar experiments with cloud/fog water surrogates, to 1) evaluate to what extent the previously studied chemistry is observed in these more realistic atmospheric waters, and 2) to identify additional atmospherically-relevant precursors and products that require further study. We used filtered Camden and Pinelands, NJ rainwater as a surrogate for cloud water. OH radical (~10-12 M) was formed by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and samples were analyzed in real-time by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Discrete samples were also analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and ESI-MS after IC separation. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Standards of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde and their major aqueous oxidation products were also analyzed, and control experiments performed. Decreases in the ion abundance of many positive mode compounds and increases in the ion abundance of many negative mode compounds (e.g., organic acids) suggest that precursors are predominantly aldehydes, organic peroxides and/or alcohols. Real-time ESI mass spectra were consistent with the expected loss of methylglyoxal and subsequent formation of pyruvate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. New insights regarding other potential precursors and products will be provided.

  14. Resting-State Retinotopic Organization in the Absence of Retinal Input and Visual Experience.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andrew S; Binda, Paola; Benson, Noah C; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E; Fine, Ione

    2015-09-01

    Early visual areas have neuronal receptive fields that form a sampling mosaic of visual space, resulting in a series of retinotopic maps in which the same region of space is represented in multiple visual areas. It is not clear to what extent the development and maintenance of this retinotopic organization in humans depend on retinal waves and/or visual experience. We examined the corticocortical receptive field organization of resting-state BOLD data in normally sighted, early blind, and anophthalmic (in which both eyes fail to develop) individuals and found that resting-state correlations between V1 and V2/V3 were retinotopically organized for all subject groups. These results show that the gross retinotopic pattern of resting-state connectivity across V1-V3 requires neither retinal waves nor visual experience to develop and persist into adulthood. Significance statement: Evidence from resting-state BOLD data suggests that the connections between early visual areas develop and are maintained even in the absence of retinal waves and visual experience. PMID:26354906

  15. Leading processes of patient care and treatment in hierarchical healthcare organizations in Sweden - process managers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Sandoff, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the roles and functions of process managers by describing Swedish process managers' experiences of leading processes involving patient care and treatment when working in a hierarchical health-care organization. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on an explorative design. The data were gathered from interviews with 12 process managers at three Swedish hospitals. These data underwent qualitative and interpretative analysis with a modified editing style. Findings - The process managers' experiences of leading processes in a hierarchical health-care organization are described under three themes: having or not having a mandate, exposure to conflict situations and leading process development. The results indicate a need for clarity regarding process manager's responsibility and work content, which need to be communicated to all managers and staff involved in the patient care and treatment process, irrespective of department. There also needs to be an emphasis on realistic expectations and orientation of the goals that are an intrinsic part of the task of being a process manager. Research limitations/implications - Generalizations from the results of the qualitative interview studies are limited, but a deeper understanding of the phenomenon was reached, which, in turn, can be transferred to similar settings. Originality/value - This study contributes qualitative descriptions of leading care and treatment processes in a functional, hierarchical health-care organization from process managers' experiences, a subject that has not been investigated earlier. PMID:25921318

  16. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  17. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity. PMID:25977851

  18. Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1--The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2--The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3--Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4--The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid) for all SOM models containing a cavity. For models without a cavity, SAA binds to carboxylic acid stronger than to naphthalene. PMID:25486638

  19. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  20. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  1. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412 Section 654.412 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing....

  2. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  3. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  4. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  5. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  6. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08a with certain changes. The...bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08. An introductory phrase in the stability performance requirements in the ASTM standard should have been removed to...

  7. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  8. Heat Bath Efficiency with Metropolis-Type Updating

    E-print Network

    Alexei Bazavov; Bernd A. Berg

    2005-04-26

    We illustrate for 4D SU(2) and U(1) lattice gauge theory that sampling with a biased Metropolis scheme is essentially equivalent to using the heat bath algorithm. Only, the biased Metropolis method can also be applied when an efficient heat bath algorithm does not exist.

  9. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  10. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  11. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  12. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  13. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  14. 5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  17. Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

  18. First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

  19. Psychological rules of communication with relatives of a potential organ donor--the Polish experience.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska-Winecka, A

    1998-01-01

    Increase of number of organs for transplantation depends on the positive attitude of the general public toward cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. This attitude is shaped as the result of education performed by mass media and as a result of individual experience of various people with the health-care service. Whenever a decision on post-mortem donation of a deceased is unknown, there are his close relations who might express his will. The aim of this article is to draw attention to several problems of psychological nature, which refer to proceeding with relatives of organ donors. A course and result of talks with relatives of a potential organ donor depend on a number of factors, which are pointed out below. Within the frames of this interaction, basic rules of effective communication are presented, including message on death of a close person in case of brain stem death diagnosis. Furthermore, examples are presented of the most frequent errors of those who talk with relatives, scope of appearing difficulties and several methods to avoid and/or overcome occurring problems. PMID:9869898

  20. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  1. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hebig, Klaus H; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott J

    2014-03-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and observed mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies. PMID:24365588

  2. Investigating the use of secondary organic aerosol as seed particles in simulation chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Wyche, K. P.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Good, N.; Monks, P. S.; Carr, T.; White, I. R.; Purvis, R. M.

    2011-06-01

    The use of ?-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol particles as seeds for smog chamber simulations has been investigated. A series of experiments were carried out in the Manchester photochemical chamber as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project to study the effect of seed particles on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from limonene photo-oxidation. Rather than use a conventional seed aerosol containing ammonium sulfate or diesel particles, a method was developed to use in-situ chamber generated seed particles from ?-caryophyllene photo-oxidation, which were then diluted to a desired mass loading (in this case 4-13 ?g m-3). Limonene was then introduced into the chamber and oxidised, with the formation of SOA seen as a growth in the size of oxidised organic seed particles from 150 to 325 nm mean diameter. The effect of the partitioning of limonene oxidation products onto the seed aerosol was assessed using aerosol mass spectrometry during the experiment and the percentage of m/z 44, an indicator of degree of oxidation, increased from around 5 to 8 %. The hygroscopicity of the aerosol also changed, with the growth factor for 200 nm particles increasing from less than 1.05 to 1.25 at 90 % RH. The detailed chemical composition of the limonene SOA could be extracted from the complex ?-caryophyllene matrix using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. High resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS) was used to determine exact molecular formulae of the seed and the limonene modified aerosol. The average O:C ratio was seen to increase from 0.32 to 0.37 after limonene oxidation products had condensed onto the organic seed.

  3. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

  8. 75 FR 31688 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements...Consumer Products or Children's Products Where...requirements. The infant bath seats testing...Acceptance of Children's Product Certifications...Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats...

  9. Parallel Combinatorial Esterification: A Simple Experiment for Use in the Second-Semester Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birney, David M.; Starnes, Stephen D.

    1999-11-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has revolutionized the way potential new drugs are discovered. This simple experiment utilizes the Fischer esterification, a common reaction in second-semester organic laboratories, to demonstrate the fundamentals of combinatorial methods. These include simultaneous synthesis of numerous compounds, a selective assay for a desired activity, and an algorithm for identifying the active structure. Using a parallel synthesis combinatorial method, each student in a lab section prepares a different ester. The targeted activity (the characteristic odor of wintergreen) is easily detected by smell. The student's enjoyment of the lab is enhanced by the preparation of several other characteristic odors as well.

  10. Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

  11. The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André

    2012-05-01

    The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations. PMID:22680688

  12. The Determination of the Stereochemistry of Erythro-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-Ethanediol: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Alex T.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment designed to illustrate the power of nuclear magnetic reasonance spectroscopy in a determination of the configurations at centers of chirality of various isomers of acyclic systems. Provides a background discussion and experimental procedure. (JM)

  13. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  14. An effective Hamiltionian approach for Donor-Bridge-Acceptor electronic transitions: exploring the role of bath memory

    E-print Network

    Bittner, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We present here a formally exact model for electronic transitions between an initial (donor) and final (acceptor) states linked by an intermediate (bridge) state. Our model incorporates a common set of vibrational modes that are coupled to the donor, bridge, and acceptor states and serves as a dissipative bath that destroys quantum coherence between the donor and acceptor. Taking the memory time of the bath as a free parameter, we calculate transition rates for a heuristic 3-state/2 mode hamiltonian system parameterized to represent the energetics and couplings in a typical organic photovoltaic system. Our results indicate that if the memory time of the bath is on the order of 10 -100 fs, a two-state kinetic (i.e. incoherent hopping) model will grossly underestimate overall transition rate.

  15. Effect of random interactions in spin baths on decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camalet, S.; Chitra, R.

    2007-03-01

    We study the decoherence of a central spin- 1/2 induced by a spin bath with intrabath interactions. Since we are interested in the cumulative effect of interaction and disorder, we study baths comprising Ising spins with random ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions between the spins. Using the resolvent operator method which goes beyond the standard Born-Markov master equation approach, we show that, in the weak coupling regime, the decoherence of the central spin at all times is entirely determined by the local-field distribution or equivalently, the dynamical structure factor of the Ising bath. We present analytic results for the Ising spin chain bath at arbitrary temperature for different distributions of the intrabath interaction strengths. We find clear evidence of non-Markovian behavior in the low temperature regime. We also consider baths described by Ising models on higher-dimensional lattices. We find that interactions lead to a significant reduction of the decoherence. An important feature of interacting spin baths is the saturation of the asymptotic Markovian decay rate at high temperatures, as opposed to the conventional Ohmic boson bath.

  16. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  17. Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows that the methylphenanthrenes do react on short timescales, even at temperatures below what would be reached during a large earthquake. These results provide a more accurate picture of temperature rise on previously studied faults. The Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada, the Champlain thrust in Vermont, the Punchbowl fault in Southern California, and the proto-decollement on Sitkinak Island, Alaska, all show no difference in MPI-1 values between on- and off-fault samples, suggesting a lack of differential heating. Our experiments allow us to more accurately estimate the maximum temperature rise that could have occurred during fault slip without significantly altering the methylphenanthrene thermal maturity.

  18. Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Seewald, J.S.; Vairavamurthy, M.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, {sup 30}NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and reflected light microscopy. Based on these measurements, it was possible to recognize three distinct temperature regimes, within which the type and amount of sulfur in the analyzed fractions underwent transformations: (1) between 150 and 225C significant proportion of kerogen-bound sulfur is lost probably due to the collapse of polysulfide bridges; (2) between 225 and 275C, cleavage of -S-S- and -S-C- linkages within the kerogen is believed to occur, resulting in substantial production of polar sulfur-rich bitumen; (3) above 275C total bitumen yields as well as the proportion of bitumen sulfur decrease, while C-C bond scission leads to increased yields of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The results from this study clearly and quantitatively establish a link between organically-bound sulfur, and more specifically, organic polysulfides, and the low-temperature evolution of soluble petroleum-like products (bitumen) from sulfur-rich source rocks.

  19. Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 3rd Edition (by Kenneth L. Williamson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeffe, Reviewed By James

    1999-11-01

    The third edition of Williamson's Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments is welcome. Williamson's lab texts trace their lineage back not only through earlier editions, but, via a multi-edition conventional-scale text (Fieser and Williamson), to Louis Fieser's 1935 lab text. All these books are characterized by well-honed, reliable experiments and innovations such as the use of high-boiling solvents to accelerate reactions and an interesting sequence of transformations based on derivatives of 1,2-diphenylethane. Another connective thread, familiar to many, is the construction and use of simple homemade devices for a variety of laboratory purposes. Williamson himself is a pioneer in the change from macroscale chemistry in the student lab to the microscale approach. His text is written to use a set of glassware designed by him. At San Francisco State University we have used this glassware since the appearance of his first microscale book. Other instructors prefer microscale glassware with ground glass joints, but we find Williamson's kit to be entirely adequate for the undergraduate lab. Moreover, it is the least expensive type available, does not break easily, and is unattractive to graduate research students, hence does not "disappear". Other innovations appearing in earlier editions include sharp attention (all of Chapter 2) to safety, and the integration of waste disposal methods into the lab experiments themselves. By having students convert waste products into less harmful and less bulky materials in the lab, the enormous costs of disposal can be reduced without postlab treatment, a step not permitted except by a licensed waste-treatment facility. Williamson is also the first or one of the first to place computational chemistry into an introductory organic lab text. In this new edition, (optional) molecular mechanics calculations remain the workhorse method. These are now used in conjunction with 20 experiments, and are supplemented in some cases by suggested semiempirical computations. Other new texts, for example that by Pavia et al. (3rd ed., 1999), take computation even further. New features in the third edition include reduction of the macroscale experimental quantities to amounts compatible with 14/20 standard-taper glassware. Additionally, there are some useful and characteristically clever equipment adaptations for microfiltration and gas phase IR spectra, a few new or updated experiments, replacement of all IR spectra by Fourier transform spectra, and routine use of 250-MHz 1H NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy is briefly discussed but not further encountered. One new feature which looks promising is called "Surfing the Web". Pertinent Web site addresses dot the book, but it would be useful if these were indexed as a group. The brief but up-to-date chapter on searching the literature includes addresses and some advice on accessing commercial databases. Regarding the lab course itself, two useful addresses are http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/organic_lab/ and Williamson's own site (under construction as I write), http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/kwilliam/microscale.shtml, where pictures of techniques and other support information will interest teachers and students alike. Williamson has always been responsive to users of his texts, and will probably be quick to incorporate new information and improved techniques at this site. There are a few areas where improvement can still be made. The chapter on IR spectroscopy, although revised, does not contain an extensive, conventional table of characteristic group frequencies. All our instructors supplement the text with standard tables. We also find the section on organic qualitative analysis to be limited and mildly difficult to use. Students must do a lot of page turning, back and forth, to find some of the tests and recipes needed. At SFSU more than half of our second-semester lab is given over to organic qual, and no single lab text except that of Pasto, Johnson, and Miller seems adequate for this purpose. These cautions aside,

  20. Self-organized criticality induced by quenched disorder: Experiments on flux avalanches in NbHx films

    E-print Network

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    Self-organized criticality induced by quenched disorder: Experiments on flux avalanches in Nb, the avalanche sizes are power- law distributed and show finite-size scaling, as expected from self-organized criticality SOC . Furthermore, the shape of the avalanches is observed to be fractal. In the absence

  1. Avalanche dynamics, surface roughening, and self-organized criticality: Experiments on a three-dimensional pile of rice

    E-print Network

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    Avalanche dynamics, surface roughening, and self-organized criticality: Experiments on a three-organized criticality. The avalanches that occur on the surface of a pile of rice are found to exhibit finite size scaling in their probability distribution. The critical exponents are 1.21(2) for the avalanche size

  2. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  3. Quantum Spin Baths Induced Transition of Decoherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pochung; Lai Chengyan; Hung, J.-T.; Mou Chungyu

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the reduced dynamics of single or two qubits coupled to an interacting quantum spin bath modeled by a XXZ spin chain. By using the method of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG), we evaluate nonperturbatively the induced decoherence and entanglement. We find that the behavior of both decoherence and entanglement strongly depend on the phase of the underlying spin bath. We show that spin baths can induce entanglement for an initially disentangled pair of qubits. We observe that entanglement sudden death only occurs in paramagnetic phase and discuss the effect of the coupling range.

  4. Uncoupling of Bacterial and Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Decomposition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4–16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot efficiently utilize tDOM and that in subarctic estuaries other factors are responsible for the removal of imported tDOM. PMID:24718626

  5. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    PubMed

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals. PMID:26673595

  6. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12?months and less than 12?years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16?weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1?year; eczema severity over 1?year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16?weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN84102309. PMID:26525422

  7. Emergence and properties of spice and bath salts: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Anita H; Seltzman, Herbert H; Carroll, F Ivy; Mascarella, S Wayne; Reddy, P Anantha

    2014-02-27

    Over the past five years the number of internet sites advertising "legal highs" has literally exploded, as have user reports of experiences (both pleasurable and frightening) with these substances and the number of emergency room visits by users. Although the majority of these "legal highs" have been described as bath salts and herbal extracts, most contain neither plant derived compounds nor components of personal hygiene products. So-called "bath salts" largely contain synthetic analogs of the natural compound Khat; spice-related materials, claimed to be "legal marijuana," are mostly synthetic analogs of cannabinoid receptor ligands that were developed as research tools. This review describes the emergence and properties of these two groups of "legal highs" from a medicinal chemist's perspective. PMID:24113072

  8. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  9. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

  10. Some final conclusions and supporting experiments related to the search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biemann, K.; Lavoie, J. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Viking molecular analysis experiment has demonstrated the absence (within the detection limits which range from levels of parts per million to below parts per billion) of organic substances in the Martian surface soil at the two Viking landing sites. Laboratory experiments with sterile and nonsterile antarctic samples further demonstrate the capability and reliability of the instrument. The circumstances under which organic components could have escaped detection, such as inaccessibility or extreme thermal stability of organic polymers, are discussed but are found to be unlikely. The inability of the instrument to detect free oxygen evolved from soil samples is pointed out.

  11. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed by the...

  12. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may continue to...

  13. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  14. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may continue to...

  15. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed by the...

  16. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed by the...

  17. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed by the...

  18. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused tickets may be redeemed by the...

  19. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may continue to...

  20. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may continue to...

  1. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may continue to...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet facilities shall be provided in the active workings of the mine when such surface facilities are not...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet facilities shall be provided in the active workings of the mine when such surface facilities are not...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet facilities shall be provided in the active workings of the mine when such surface facilities are not...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet facilities shall be provided in the active workings of the mine when such surface facilities are not...

  6. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. Noises of spin baths for qubits in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihui; Das, Anirban; Lidar, Daniel; Takahashi, Susumu

    2012-02-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing and high precision magnetometry and is an excellent platform for studying quantum spin dynamics [1,2]. Overcoming spin decoherence of NV centers is critical to the applications. Coupling to spin baths of paramagnetic impurities and nuclei is a major decoherence source for NV centers. Therefore, recent theoretical and experimental efforts have aimed at suppressing the bath noises. In this presentation, we will discuss effects of the spin baths on the qubits at different regimes including high magnetic fields where the degree of the electron spin polarization is almost complete [3]. We will also discuss dynamical decoupling sequences to investigate spin bath noises. [4pt] [1] R. Hanson et al., Science. 320, 352 (2008). [0pt] [2] G. de Lange et al., Science. 330, 60 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Takahashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 047601 (2008)

  9. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Self-replaceable thermocouple for molten steel bath - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, P.; Zellner, G.

    1971-01-01

    Thermocouple wires, consisting of tungsten-rhenium alloy protected by ablative ceramic coating, are wound on a reel and fed continuously into bath. Tests indicate accuracy and reliability are comparable to conventional devices.

  11. Locomotor Stimulant and Discriminative Stimulus Effects of “Bath Salt” Cathinones

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Taylor, Cynthia M.; Forster, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as “legal” alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable to those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liability. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly since MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits due to adverse effects from taking “bath salts”. PMID:23839026

  12. Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of 'bath salt' cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Taylor, Cynthia M; Forster, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as 'legal' alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone, and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable with those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liabilities. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than those of cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly because MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits because of adverse effects of taking 'bath salts'. PMID:23839026

  13. Effects of language experience and stimulus context on the neural organization and categorical perception of speech.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Lee, Chia-Cheng

    2015-10-15

    Categorical perception (CP) represents a fundamental process in converting continuous speech acoustics into invariant percepts. Using scalp-recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated how tone-language experience and stimulus context influence the CP for lexical tones-pitch patterns used by a majority of the world's languages to signal word meaning. Stimuli were vowel pairs overlaid with a high-level tone (T1) followed by a pitch continuum spanning between dipping (T3) and rising (T2) contours of the Mandarin tonal space. To vary context, T1 either preceded or followed the critical T2/T3 continuum. Behaviorally, native Chinese showed stronger CP as evident by their steeper, more dichotomous psychometric functions and faster identification of linguistic pitch patterns than native English-speaking controls. Stimulus context produced shifts in both groups' categorical boundary but was more exaggerated in native listeners. Analysis of source activity extracted from primary auditory cortex revealed overall stronger neural encoding of tone in Chinese compared to English, indicating experience-dependent plasticity in cortical pitch processing. More critically, "neurometric" functions derived from multidimensional scaling and clustering of source ERPs established: (i) early auditory cortical activity could accurately predict listeners' psychometric speech identification and contextual shifts in the perceptual boundary; (ii) neurometric profiles were organized more categorically in native speakers. Our data show that tone-language experience refines early auditory cortical brain representations so as to supply more faithful templates to neural mechanisms subserving lexical pitch categorization. We infer that contextual influence on the CP for tones is determined by language experience and the frequency of pitch patterns as they occur in listeners' native lexicon. PMID:26146197

  14. Effects of ultrasonic bath treatment on HMX crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.

    1996-12-31

    Ultrasonic cleaning baths, common in many chemical laboratories, have been used to disperse particle agglomerates prior to automated particle size analysis and have been proposed for disassembly of consolidated powders of crystalline HMX (cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine). This paper reports the effects of a Branson ultrasonic bath on coarse HMX crystals. Three experimental approaches are presented. The following observed effects are discussed: reduction of particle size, alteration of particle morphology, and fracture of individual crystals.

  15. HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

    The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during the Matroshka 2B experiment than in the previous phase it was not possible to attribute this observation to the lower Sun activity in 2008, since the locations inside the ISS were different. The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EUs Seventh Frame-work Programme (FP7) under Project Nr: 218817 and coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) http://www-fp7-hamlet.eu

  16. The organic builder: a public experiment in artificial chemistries and self-replication.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Tim J

    2009-01-01

    We describe some results submitted by users of the Organic Builder, a Java applet where the rules of an artificial chemistry can be chosen in order to achieve a desired behavior. Though it was initially intended as a set of challenges to be tackled as a game, the users experimented with the system far beyond this and discovered several novel forms of self-replicators. When searching for a system with certain properties such asself-replication, making the system accessible to the public through a Web site is an unusual but effective way of making scientific discoveries, credit for which must go to the users themselves for their tireless experimentation and innovation. PMID:18855569

  17. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  18. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

  19. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

  20. Microbial control on stability of soil organic matter in drought manipulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Schrumpf, M.; Weber, E.; Wutzler, T.; Gleixner, G.; Reichstein, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-04-01

    Extending drought periods as a consequence of global warming affect both the amount and the activity of heterotrophic microorganisms in soil. The studies of drought effect on the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) which is microbially mediated still show controversial results mainly due to separated research approaches which do not consider the soil - plant system as a whole. We would like to discuss the results obtained within the QuaSOM experiment (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena, Germany) where continues 13C- CO2-labeling was applied during vegetation of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under deficit and optimal moisture regimes. The partitioning of plant-originated and SOM-originated carbon in heterotrophic respiration and in microbial biomass will be related to the changes in the microbial growth parameters and enzymes kinetics. The drought effect on temperature sensitivity of the enzymes responsible for the decomposition of SOM-compounds of different availability will be compared in the rhizosphere of peppermint versus bulk soil. The effect of vegetation on cycling of organic matter in soil will be considered for the contrasting moisture regimes. The changes in carbon sequestration potential due to priming effects caused by repeated drying - rewetting events will be evaluated for the short term time scale.

  1. Experiences and outcomes of organ-sparing surgery for testicular tumour with benign tendency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bianjiang; Su, Huang; Cheng, Gong; Li, Pengchao; Hua, Lixin; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We retrospectively investigated and summarized our experiences and the outcomes of organ-sparing surgery (OSS) for testicular tumour with benign tendency. Methods: From April 2000 to March 2012, 11 selected patients with testicular tumour underwent OSS. Preoperative and postoperative organ functional and oncologic indexes were analyzed and compared. Results: All operations were completed without conversion to radical orchiectomy. Intraoperative frozen section and routine postoperative pathology showed tumours with benign tendency. The normal appearance of the scrotum and functional integrity of the testis were preserved. Preoperative and postoperative serum sex hormone levels, international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scores, and semen quality were not significantly different. Tumour recurrence or metastasis did not occur during follow-up. Conclusions: Our results showed the feasibility and safety of OSS to treat testicular tumour with benign tendency. With careful selection and rigorous follow-up, some testis tumor can be treated with OSS to maximally maintain normal appearance and function of the testis. The retrospective single-centre study and small sample size are main limitations. More evidence is needed to establish the large-scale application of OSS. PMID:26600885

  2. Probing internal bath dynamics by a Rabi oscillator-based detector

    E-print Network

    Murat Cetinbas; Joshua Wilkie

    2007-05-28

    By exact numerical and master equation approaches, we show that a central spin-1/2 can be configured to probe internal bath dynamics. System-bath interactions cause Rabi oscillations in the detector and periodic behavior of fidelity. This period is highly sensitive to the strength of the bath self-interactions, and can be used to calculate the intra-bath coupling.

  3. Mineralization of Soil Organic Matter in Two Elevated CO2 by Warming Experiments in Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.; Hovenden, M.; Williams, A.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Morgan, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Experimentally elevated atmospheric CO2 has enhanced carbon (C) allocation belowground, while ecosystem warming has led to losses of soil C due to enhanced mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Few investigations of possible interactions between elevated CO2 and temperature have been reported, but the potential for C cycling effects not to be simply additive is high. We have taken advantage of two multi-factor global change experiments being conducted in mixed C3/C4 grasslands to evaluate similarities and differences in responses of SOM mineralization rates. The TasFACE experiment in Tasmania, Australia, has been running for over 5 years, while the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA, has been running for less than 2 years. Both experiments employ mini-FACE systems (enriched plots targeted at 550 at TasFACE and 600 ppm at PHACE) and overhead ceramic infrared emitters (heated plots targeted at +2 degrees C at TasFACE and +1.5/+3 degrees day/night at PHACE). Soil samples collected after 5 years at TasFACE and at the beginning of the second year at PHACE were incubated for three weeks to evaluate changes in labile SOM pool sizes and turnover rates. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 would enhance labile SOM pool size and that warming would reduce it, and that warming would stimulate decomposition rate. Preliminary results suggested that five years of warming enhanced decomposition rate in the TasFACE soils, but only under the C4 grass species, whereas the first two months of warming had no effects on decomposition rate at PHACE. Elevated CO2 increased mineralizable C pool sizes by 10 to 30 percent, depending on depth, in the TasFACE soils, but did not significantly alter C cycling in the PHACE soils. Short experimental duration likely explained the lack of treatment effects seen at PHACE. We plan to continue conducting parallel experiments to track temporal changes in C cycling with the expectation that interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warming may appear over the long term.

  4. Substituting water for chlorofluorocarbon liquid in density measuring baths for nuclear weapon components on non-fissile alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beitscher, S.; Palachek, A.D.

    1991-09-23

    This project was part of a Rocky Flats Plant and Department of Energy weapons complex effort to reduce release of hazardous materials to the atmosphere. Experiments were performed to determine whether deionized water could be substituted for trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113) in the bath of a density measuring system. In the first experiment, 14 parts of seven types were tested: They included shells of beryllium, vanadium, titanium, stainless steel, uranium, a uranium alloy, and casting feed strips of a uranium alloy. Each part was measured for density five times in each medium. The entire experiment was repeated -- the only change being addition of a wetting agent to the water. Two additional experiments were confided to the uranium alloy casting feed strips. As a result of this study, it is recommended that CFC be discontinued as a bath medium for the part types studied in this investigation and that deionized water be substituted.

  5. Extraction of aluminum from a pickling bath with supported liquid membrane extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M. van

    1999-04-01

    Large amounts of waste are produced yearly in the galvanic and chemical surface treatment industry. Bath liquids used in the various processes lose their function due to contamination. The spent bath liquids have to be replaced and treated prior to disposal, leading to high costs and a high environmental burden. In this paper, a proposed solution to the problem is investigated: the selective removal of the contaminant with supported liquid membrane extraction. The extraction of aluminum, a contaminant at high concentrations, from a pickling bath liquid with hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid as its main components has been carried out with the basic extractants Alamine 308 and Alamine 336 in a flat sheet-supported liquid membrane setup. Aluminum transport rates were obtained in the order of 10{sup {minus}6}--10{sup {minus}5} mol/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} s), which are normal values for this technique. The extraction was not completely selective as dissolved phosphorus was coextracted. In all experiments, precipitation took place on the surface of the liquid membrane and in the bulk of the strip phase. Increasing the stripping alkalinity from pH = 8 to pH = 13 reduced the amount of precipitation in the bulk of the strip phase but caused a substantial decrease in the aluminum flux. The precipitation prevents industrial application of the systems investigated.

  6. Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, J.; Moussa, O.; Ryan, C. A.; Nayak, A.; Laflamme, R.

    2005-11-01

    The counter-intuitive properties of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information processing by enabling the development of efficient algorithms with no known classical counterparts. Harnessing this power requires the development of a set of building blocks, one of which is a method to initialize the set of quantum bits (qubits) to a known state. Additionally, fresh ancillary qubits must be available during the course of computation to achieve fault tolerance. In any physical system used to implement quantum computation, one must therefore be able to selectively and dynamically remove entropy from the part of the system that is to be mapped to qubits. One such method is an `open-system' cooling protocol in which a subset of qubits can be brought into contact with an external system of large heat capacity. Theoretical efforts have led to an implementation-independent cooling procedure, namely heat-bath algorithmic cooling. These efforts have culminated with the proposal of an optimal algorithm, the partner-pairing algorithm, which was used to compute the physical limits of heat-bath algorithmic cooling. Here we report the experimental realization of multi-step cooling of a quantum system via heat-bath algorithmic cooling. The experiment was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance of a solid-state ensemble three-qubit system. We demonstrate the repeated repolarization of a particular qubit to an effective spin-bath temperature, and alternating logical operations within the three-qubit subspace to ultimately cool a second qubit below this temperature. Demonstration of the control necessary for these operations represents an important step forward in the manipulation of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance qubits.

  7. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  8. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  9. Bath salts: they are not what you think.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M; Halter, Margaret J; Levine, Ciara

    2012-02-01

    Psychoactive bath salts are a relatively new group of designer drugs sold as tablets, capsules, or powder and pur-chased in places such as tobacco and convenience stores, gas stations, head shops, and the Internet. Bath salts are stimulant agents that mimic cocaine,lysergic acid diethylamide, methamphetamine, or methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy). The most common bath salts are the cathinone derivatives 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone(MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone(mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone). The drugs cause intense stimulation, eu-phoria, elevated mood, and a pleasurable "rush" Tachycardia, hypertension,peripheral constriction, chest pain, hallucinations, paranoia, erratic behavior,inattention, lack of memory of substance use, and psychosis have been observed in those who have used bath salts. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration recently exercised an emergency authority to name three key ingredients in bath salts as Schedule I, thereby making them illegal to possess or sell in the United States. Nursing implications related to both clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:22439144

  10. Environmental and behavioral conditions of bathing among elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuji; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tochihara, Yutaka; Nagai, Yumiko; Ito, Hiromitsu; Yoshitake, Shiro

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the bathing conditions of elderly Japanese, and sought to find factors relating to regional differences in death rates from bathtub accidents. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 11 areas of Japan. Questionnaires including questions regarding the length of time since houses had been built, types of facilities, and subjects' indoor thermal sensations and behavior while bathing were distributed to detached houses in each area twice, once in summer and once in winter. Completed questionnaires were collected from approximately 160 elderly people over 65 years old. Information regarding thermal sensations of rooms in winter revealed that a prefabricated bath and insulating window glass eased the cold in the bathroom. Unexpectedly, more subjects in the southern region than in the northern region reported being cold or a little cold while bathing in winter. In the present study, thermal sensations and behaviors while bathing seemed to be more affected by facilities and the location of houses than by the sex and age of the subjects. PMID:17435371

  11. University of Bath Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Modified Organisms Regulations 1992. The Committee is responsible for assessing risks prior a further committee with an area of responsibility for animal experimentation: · Genetic Modification Safety Committee The main responsibility of the Genetic Modification Safety Committee is to advise those carrying

  12. Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1997-12-01

    Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 106 eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

  13. Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

  14. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

    2012-11-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

  15. Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects result in an irreversible spreading of free electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible spreading produces a detectable effect on the electron interference.

  16. Electron Spin Decoherence in Silicon Carbide Nuclear Spin Bath

    E-print Network

    Li-Ping Yang; Christian Burk; Mattias Widmann; Sang-Yun Lee; Jörg Wrachtrup; Nan Zhao

    2014-09-16

    In this paper, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of $^{29}\\rm{Si}$ ($p_{\\rm{Si}}=4.7\\%$) is about 4 times larger than that of $^{13}{\\rm C}$ ($p_{\\rm{C}}=1.1\\%$), the electron spin coherence time of defect centers in SiC nuclear spin bath in strong magnetic field ($B>300~\\rm{Gauss}$) is longer than that of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in $^{13}{\\rm C}$ nuclear spin bath in diamond. The reason for this counter-intuitive result is the suppression of heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

  17. System-reservoir theory with anharmonic baths: a perturbative approach

    E-print Network

    Bhadra, Chitrak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of a general system coupled to a reservoir consisting of nonlinear oscillators, based on perturbation theory at the classical level. We extend the standard Zwanzig approach of elimination of bath degrees of freedom order by order in perturbation. We observe that the Fluctuation Dissipation Relation (FDR) in its standard form for harmonic baths gets modi?ed due to the nonlinearity and this is manifested through higher powers of kBT in the expression for two-time noise correlation.As an aside, we also observe that the ?rst moment of the noise arising from a nonlinear bath can be non-zero, even in absence of any external drive, if the reservoir potential is asymmetric with respect to one of its minima, about which one builds up the perturbation theory.

  18. Entanglement Sharing and Decoherence in the Spin-Bath

    E-print Network

    Christopher M. Dawson; Andrew P. Hines; Ross H. McKenzie; G. J. Milburn

    2005-03-10

    The monogamous nature of entanglement has been illustrated by the derivation of entanglement sharing inequalities - bounds on the amount of entanglement that can be shared amongst the various parts of a multipartite system. Motivated by recent studies of decoherence, we demonstrate an interesting manifestation of this phenomena that arises in system-environment models where there exists interactions between the modes or subsystems of the environment. We investigate this phenomena in the spin-bath environment, constructing an entanglement sharing inequality bounding the entanglement between a central spin and the environment in terms of the pairwise entanglement between individual bath spins. The relation of this result to decoherence will be illustrated using simplified system-bath models of decoherence.

  19. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

  20. Quantum energy and coherence exchange with discrete baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiceanu, M.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Coherence and quantum average energy exchange are studied for a system particle as a function of the number N of constituents of a discrete bath model. The time evolution of the energy and coherence, determined via the system purity (proportional to the linear entropy of the quantum statistical ensemble), are obtained solving numerically the Schrödinger equation. A new simplified stochastic Schrödinger equation is derived which takes into account the discreteness of the bath. The environment (bath) is composed of a finite number N of uncoupled harmonic oscillators (HOs), characterizing a structured bath, for which a non-Markovian behavior is expected. Two distinct physical situations are assumed for the system particle: the HO and the Morse potential. In the limit N?? the bath is assumed to have an ohmic, sub-ohmic or super-ohmic spectral density. In the case of the HO, for very low values of N (?10) the mean energy and purity oscillate between HO and bath indefinitely in time, while for intermediate and larger values (N?10?500) they start to decay with two distinct time regimes: exponential for relatively short times and power-law for larger times. In the case of the Morse potential we only observe an exponential decay for large values of N while for small N’s, due to the anharmonicity of the potential, no recurrences of the mean energy and coherences are observed. Wave packet dynamics is used to determine the evolution of the particle inside the system potentials. For both systems the time behavior of a non-Markovianity measure is analyzed as a function of N and is shown to be directly related to the time behavior of the purity.

  1. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

  3. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

  4. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  5. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  6. A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

  7. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

  8. Planetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space exposure

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    ) on the EXPOSE facility on the International Space Station (ISS). For the small fluence that was collected during; International Space Station; Photo-stability 1. Introduction Carbon chemistry in space occurs most efficientlyPlanetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383­400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space

  9. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  10. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

  11. Acid copper sulfate plating bath: Control of chloride and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Borhani, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Plated-through holes in high-reliability printed wiring boards require a ductile copper plate of uniform consistency. The level of control of the chemical constituents in the electroplating solutions dictates the physical properties of the copper plate. To improve the control of the chemical bath constituents, in-situ methods for electrochemically determining copper and chloride in acid copper sulfate baths were developed. A solid-state ion-selective electrode was used for the chloride ion and proved to be more reproducible than conventional silver chloride turbidimetric methods. The use of a copper solid-state ion-selective electrode in-situ was also successful in this application.

  12. Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments

    E-print Network

    So, Shu K.

    . © 2006 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2348640 I. INTRODUCTION Organic electronics has film is of special importance in organic electronics. Optical time-of-flight TOF technique is, perhaps, the most widely used method of quantifying the conductivity of organic electronic materials.5 In TOF

  13. Hydrothermal alteration experiments: tracking the path from interstellar to chondrites organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic molecules are detected in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The origin of these organics, whether formed prior the accretion phase, or in-situ on the parent body, is still a matter of debate. We have investigated experimentally the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecules submitted to hydrothermal conditions, mimicking asteroidal alteration (T<200°C). In particular, we want to assess the potential catalytic role of clays minerals in the polymerization/degradation of organics. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, compound of C-N bonds) is used as a plausible interstellar precursors from icy grains. Experimental products reveal a large diversity of molecules, including nitrogen organic molecules similar to those found in chondrites.

  14. Relation between creep compliance and elastic modulus in organic-rich shales observed through laboratory experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Hiroki; Zoback, Mark

    2013-04-01

    We studied the ductile creep behavior of organic-rich shales from shale gas reservoirs in North America through laboratory triaxial experiments to better understand controls on the physical behavior of these rocks over time and the effect of creep on other rock properties. Laboratory experiments conducted at room-temperature conditions show that creep deformation observed at in-situ differential stress conditions is approximately linear with the applied differential pressure. The creep behavior is also anisotropic such that creep occurs more in the bedding-perpendicular direction than in the bedding-parallel direction. The reduction in sample volume during creep suggests that the creep is accommodated by a small amount of pore compaction occurring in the clay-aggregates and/or the relatively porous kerogen in the rock. Thus, the tendency to creep (creep compliance) is generally observed to increases with clay and kerogen volume. However, the strongest correlation is found between creep compliance and Young's modulus. A strong negative correlation between creep compliance and elastic Young's modulus exists regardless of the sample orientation and despite the wide range of sample mineralogy (5-50% clay, 5-60% quartz-feldspar-pyrite, 0-80% carbonates). This correlation is quite interesting as inelastic creep and elastic stiffness depend on somewhat different physical attributes. We attempt to quantitatively explain the correlation between creep behavior and elastic stiffness by appealing to a stress-partitioning that occurs between the soft components (clay and kerogen) and stiff components (quartz, feldspar, pyrite, carbonates) of the shale rock. First, the stress-partitioning occurring within the soft and stiff components is quantified based on the rock composition, elastic properties of the individual components, and the overall average Young's modulus of the rock. By combining the stress-partitioning behavior with knowledge that the creep behavior is linear against the applied stress, we forward calculate the creep compliance of the whole rock. Results show that when creep is linear against stress, a unique relation between creep compliance and elastic modulus can be established for rocks with similar mineral assemblages, consistent with our laboratory results. Thus, our results provide insights into how creep behaviors of poly-mineralic rocks can be re-constructed from the creep properties of the individual phases composing the rock.

  15. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk soil. Differences in the abundance of lignin monomers, hydroxyl acids, n-alkanols and n-fatty acid methyl esters measured by GC MS before and after the incubation indicated selective degradation and preservation patterns at the molecular scale.

  16. Fertilization effects on soil organic matter turnover in a long term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioacchini, Paola; Giordani, Gianni; Montecchio, Daniela; Nastri, Anna; Triberti, Loretta; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural management practices such as residues application, level and kind of fertilization and amendment, tillage intensity can affect the capacity of soil to sequester and incorporate carbon (C). These practices also influence both above-ground and below-ground plant production and, as a consequence, the amount of C that enters the soil. However, studing the dyamics of C inputs in soils and the effects of the agricultural management practices on C incorporation in soil organic matter (SOM) requires long-term field experiments. The long-term field experiment in Cadriano, at the University of Bologna, Italy, started in 1966 and still in progress, compares two continuous rotations of corn and wheat, interacting with two cattle manure supplies (M0: no manure - M1: 20 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material) and two mineral NP rates (N0P0: no NP fertilizers - N1P1: 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 plus 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 for wheat and maize, respectively). The experimental design is a split-plot replicated twice, with fertilizer sub-plots of 56 m2 of area each. The field is annually ploughed to 40 cm depth. Crop residues are always removed, with the exception of roots and stubbles. By using the delta 13C technique we measured the amount of corn-derived C retained over a 36-years period in total soil organic C (SOC) and in the humic fraction that is referred as the most stable pool of SOC. These amounts were compared with the total inputs of belowground C (roots and rhizodepositions) in order to highlight if the capacity of soil to stabilize the new C inputs can be affected by the different fertilization practices. The results showed that the amount of corn-derived C in SOC increased in the following order: control (20.5%), Mineral (25%) Manure (29.4%), the same trend was observed for the humic fraction. On the contrary the cumulative C input over the same period followed a different order, the highest was obtained for the mineral treatment, than for the manure and the control treatment. The higher C input measured with the mineral fertilization did not imply also a greater C stabilization, probably because the greater availability of nutrients could have stimulated greater mineralization processes. The manure seems to be able to stabilize more C possibly through a greater level of microbial biomass and activity, that in this situation was not probably limited by either nutrients or energy source. In the control (C0) the deficiency of both nutrients and energy source could have slowed down the C mineralization, thus leading more corn-derived C in the soil. Therefore the fertilization management not only affects the plant production and the C input to soil, but also the C mineralization and the capacity of soil to stabilize C, and this must be carefully considered and taken into account since it deeply influences the potentaility of soil for C sequestration. The research was carried out with funds provided by MIUR (PRIN prot. 2007J5Z9LK_003)

  17. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Urolithiasis in ankylosing spondylitis: Correlation with Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) and Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI)

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Sasan; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Mahmoud, Mahdi i; Paragomi, Pedram; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Farhadi, Elham; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased incidence of renal stone has been reported in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but unlike some well-known renal involvements, they have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of AS with urolithiasis and also the relation between urinary stone and severity markers. Methods: One hundred-sixty three AS patients were included in a cross-sectional study from Iranian AS association, Iran Rheumatology Center and Rheumatology Clinic of Shariati Hospital in Tehran. Prevalence of urolithiasis in AS patients was compared with results of a nationwide survey in Iran. Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) and bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were determined for assessment of disease severity. Results: Urolithiasis was observed in 11.7% of AS patients versus 5.7% of normal population (p=0.001). After the elimination of corticosteroid effect, the prevalence of urolithiasis was still higher in AS patients than normal population but without maintaining significant difference. Significant higher values of BASFI, BASMI, BASDAI scores were observed in AS with urolithiasis than AS without urolithiasis. Conclusion: The results confirmed the association of AS with urolithiasis. However, this may be partly due to the effect of other factors such as corticosteroid. Moreover, urolithiais is accompanied with more severe diseases. PMID:24009925

  19. Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragar, Igor; Cywi?ski, ?ukasz

    2015-04-01

    We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of ? pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

  20. Exploring Atmospheric Aqueous Chemistry (and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation) through OH Radical Oxidation Experiments, Droplet Evaporation and Chemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Sullivan, A.; Häkkinen, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Tan, Y.; McNeill, V. F.; Collett, J. L.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.; Sareen, N.; Carlton, A. G.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gas phase photochemistry fragments and oxidizes organic emissions, making water-soluble organics ubiquitous in the atmosphere. My group and others have found that several water-soluble compounds react further in the aqueous phase forming low volatility products under atmospherically-relevant conditions (i.e., in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols). Thus, secondary organic aerosol can form as a result of gas followed by aqueous chemistry (aqSOA). We have used aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments coupled with product analysis and chemical modeling to validate and refine the aqueous chemistry of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid. The resulting chemical model has provided insights into the differences between oxidation chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. Further, we conducted droplet evaporation experiments to characterize the volatility of the products. Most recently, we have conducted aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments with ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases to identify additional atmospherically-important precursors and products. Specifically, we scrubbed water-soluble gases from the ambient air in the Po Valley, Italy using four mist chambers in parallel, operating at 25-30 L min-1. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments and control experiments were conducted with these mixtures (total organic carbon ? 100 ?M-C). OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were generated by photolyzing H2O2. Precursors and products were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ion chromatography (IC), IC-ESI-MS, and ultra high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chemical modeling suggests that organic acids (e.g., oxalate, pyruvate, glycolate) are major products of OH radical oxidation at cloud-relevant concentrations, whereas organic radical - radical reactions result in the formation of oligomers in wet aerosols. Products of cloud chemistry and droplet evaporation have effective vapor pressures that are orders of magnitude lower when ammonium hydroxide is present (pH 7) than without (at lower pH). In Po Valley experiments, nitrogen-containing organics were prominent precursors and intermediates. Pyruvate and oxalate were among the products. Importantly, formation of aqSOA helps to explain the high O/C ratios found in atmospheric aerosols. While uncertainties remain large, global modeling suggests that aqSOA is comparable in magnitude to SOA formed through gas phase chemistry and vapor pressure driven partitioning (gasSOA).

  1. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, N.; Yang, W.; Ho, S. W.; Hu, J. L.; Wan, J. T. K.; Liu, R. B.

    2011-12-23

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  3. A to Stirred-Liquid-Bath-Based Blackbody Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yuan, Z.; Hao, X.; Wang, T.; Duan, Y.

    2015-08-01

    At the national facility for blackbody source radiance temperature calibration of the National Institute of Metrology, China, a stirred liquid bath blackbody was developed for use as a radiance temperature reference source, which has a temperature range from to . This blackbody source consists of a stirred liquid bath, a blackbody cavity, a standard capsule platinum resistance thermometer, and a dry-air purging system. The cavity is cylindrical with grooves on the inner wall. The cavity is 80 mm in diameter, with a depth of 520 mm, and is immersed in a bath filled with a water-ethylene glycol mixture. The average normal emissivity of the cavity is calculated to be better than 0.9999 with V grooves and when painted with Nextel 811-21 coating. The temperature stability of the blackbody source is over a period of 20 min, and the temperature uniformity of the cavity bottom is . The standard uncertainty of the radiance temperature of the stirred liquid bath blackbody source is estimated to be.

  4. UNIVERSITY OF BATH REGULATIONS FOR STUDENTS 2014/15

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    and are required to update their contact details, normally via the Registration On Line system, as soon as possibleUNIVERSITY OF BATH REGULATIONS FOR STUDENTS 2014/15 Regulation Page 1 Registration 2 2 Fees 3 3 by Statute 2.1. #12;- 2 - 1. REGISTRATION 1.1 All students, both undergraduate and graduate, are required

  5. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES NEXT TO THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Continuous bath temperature measurements in Al electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuxian, Qiu; Jingjiang, Li; Xiaoli, Cui; Grjotheim, Kai; Kvande, Halvor; Øye, Harald A.

    1994-08-01

    This article describes the importance of temperature monitoring in aluminum electrolysis cells. The challenge of getting long-term performance from thermocouples is discussed, and appropriate examples are given of information of value to cell operations derived from bath temperature measurements.

  11. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... the language the Commission is adding to this section of the ASTM standard. 0 In FR Doc. 2010-13073..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard...

  14. 16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, P.O. Box 0700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428; telephone 610-832-9585; www.astm.org. You may... provisions of ASTM F 1967-08a, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Infant Bath Seats,...

  15. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. NOTE THE WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR INFANT BATH SEATS...F1967-11a, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Infant...U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Room 820, 4330...301-504-7923, or at the National Archives and Records...

  17. Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch

    E-print Network

    Bloch, Anthony

    Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch #3; Department of Mathematics@research.bell-labs.com November 25, 2003 Abstract In this paper we analyze the stability of a gyroscopic oscillator interacting a #12;nite gyroscopic oscillator model of a particle on a rotating disc and a particle in a magnetic #12

  18. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  19. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  2. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  4. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered...

  5. Enantiomeric derivatization on the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard ExoMars 2018: how to unravel martian chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Morisson, M.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of homochirality in life on Earth remains unknown. The answer to this question lies in the study of chirality elsewhere in the Solar System. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment aboard Curiosity established the presence of organic molecules indigenous to a clay-rich sample on Mars [1]. However, SAM does not have the ability to separate between the enantiomers of potential medium- or high- molecular weight organic molecules. One of the wet chemistry experiments to be used in the MOMA instrument of the Exomars mission is designed for the extraction and identification of refractory organic chemical components in solid samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), while keeping the chiral center of the molecules intact [2]. This derivatization technique, using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent, will allow MOMA to separate the enantiomers of molecules of interest for astrobiology, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids. We present here the results of laboratory experiments which display the feasability and limitations of the detection of an enantiomeric excess of complex organic molecules in various analog samples, depending on the mineralogy of the Mars analog solid sample.

  6. Nonradiative relaxation processes in condensed phases: Quantum versus classical baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. A.; Rabani, Eran; Berne, B. J.

    1999-03-01

    We consider the problem of calculating the nonradiative multiphonon transition rate between two electronic states of an impurity embedded in a condensed-phase environment, where all the nuclear degrees of freedom of the bath are taken in the harmonic approximation, and the two electronic states are coupled to the bath diagonally and off-diagonally. The diagonal coupling term includes displacements of the equilibrium positions of the bath modes, the frequency shifts, and Duschinsky rotations of the bath modes between the two electronic states. We consider two forms of the off-diagonal coupling term—the first assumes that this term is independent of the nuclear degrees of freedom, and thus the coupling between the two diabatic electronic states is taken to be a constant; the second is based on the Born-Oppenheimer method in which the off-diagonal coupling term between the two adiabatic electronic states is taken to be a function of the bath momenta operators. This general model is used to examine the accuracy of several commonly used mixed quantum-classical approximations where the two electronic states are treated quantum mechanically while the bath modes are treated classically. We use the lowest-order perturbation theory to calculate the transition rate between the two electronic states, which is given in terms of the Fourier transform of the off-diagonal coupling-element time correlation function. Following the methodology of Kubo and Toyozawa, we obtain an analytic solution for the fully quantum mechanical time correlation function, and extend our method [S. A. Egorov, E. Rabani and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1407 (1998)] to obtain its mixed quantum-classical counterpart. It is shown that the nonradiative transition rate between the two electronic states calculated using the mixed quantum-classical treatment can deviate by several orders of magnitude from the exact quantum mechanical result. However, the agreement is improved when the classical time propagation of the bath modes is performed with the arithmetic average of the ground- and excited-state nuclear Hamiltonians, and thermal averaging over the initial classical distribution is replaced with the averaging over the corresponding Wigner distribution.

  7. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

  8. Characteristics of metal fluctuation caused by bath-metal interface oscillation in aluminum electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Naijun; Li, Hesong

    2010-11-01

    Bath-metal interface oscillation reduces the stability and efficiency of Hall-Héroult cells. However, the oscillation characteristics have not been understood in detail. A well-designed probe and an online monitor system were designed for monitoring the metal fluctuation. Experiments and analyses show the metal fluctuation can be captured, and a corresponding relationship between anode-cathode distance (ACD) and anode rod voltage drop (UD) have been found. The stack phenomena of the fluctuation have been found as well. Analysis shows that the wave length (around 8 m in this experiment) is much bigger than the anode size; however, the wave velocity (around 0.27 m/s in this experiment) is relatively low. Because of the waves transmitting, anode current changes periodically but the cell voltage remains near constant when the metal is fluctuating.

  9. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takatoshi E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu

    2014-06-28

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies’ thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts – the reorganization shift – to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates.

  10. A time convolution less density matrix approach to the nonlinear optical response of a coupled system-bath complex

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Marten Knorr, Andreas

    2010-04-15

    Time convolution less density matrix theory (TCL) is a powerful and well established tool to investigate strong system-bath coupling for linear optical spectra. We show that TCL equations can be generalised to the nonlinear optical response up to a chosen order in the optical field. This goal is achieved via an time convolution less perturbation scheme for the reduced density matrices of the electronic system. In our approach, the most important results are the inclusion of a electron-phonon coupling non-diagonal in the electronic states and memory effects of the bath: First, the considered model system is introduced. Second, the time evolution of the statistical operator is expanded with respect to the external optical field. This expansion is the starting point to explain how a TCL theory can treat the response up to in a certain order in the external field. Third, new TCL equations, including bath memory effects, are derived and the problem of information loss in the reduced density matrix is analysed. For this purpose, new dimensions are added to the reduced statistical operator to compensate lack of information in comparison with the full statistical operator. The theory is benchmarked with a two level system and applied to a three level system including non-diagonal phonon coupling. In our analysis of pump-probe experiments, the bath memory is influenced by the system state occupied between pump and probe pulse. In particular, the memory of the bath influences the dephasing process of electronic coherences developing during the time interval between pump and probe pulses.

  11. Modeling SOA formation from alkanes and alkenes in chamber experiments: effect of gas/wall partitioning of organic vapors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéphanie La, Yuyi; Camredon, Marie; Ziemann, Paul; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hodzic, Alma; Aumont, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Oxidation products of Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) are expected to be the major precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Laboratory experiments were conducted this last decade in the Riverside APRC chamber to study IVOC oxidative mechanisms and SOA formation processes for a large set of linear, branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons (Ziemann, 2011). This dataset are used here to assess the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) (Aumont et al., 2005). The simulated SOA yields agree with the general trends observed in the chamber experiments. They are (i) increasing with the increasing carbon number; (ii) decreasing with increasing methyl branch number; and (iii) increasing for cyclic compounds compared to their corresponding linear analogues. However, simulated SOA yields are systematically overestimated regardless of the precursors, suggesting missing processes in the model. In this study, we assess whether gas-to-wall partitioning of organic vapors can explain these model/observation mismatches (Matsunaga and Ziemann, 2010). First results show that GECKO-A outputs better match the observations when wall uptake of organic vapors is taken into account. Effects of gas/wall partitioning on SOA yields and composition will be presented. Preliminary results suggest that wall uptake is a major process influencing SOA production in the Teflon chambers. References Aumont, B., Szopa, S., Madronich, S.: Modelling the evolution of organic carbon during its gas-phase tropospheric oxidation: development of an explicit model based on a self generating approach. Atmos.Chem.Phys., 5, 2497-2517 (2005). P. J. Ziemann: Effects of molecular structure on the chemistry of aerosol formation from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of alkanes and alkenes, Int. Rev.Phys.Chem., 30:2, 161-195 (2011). Matsunaga, A., Ziemann, P. J.: Gas-wall partitioning of organic compounds in a Teflon film chamber and potential effects on reaction product and aerosol yield measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 44:10, 881-892 (2010).

  12. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  13. Cardiac infection and sepsis in 3 intravenous bath salts drug users.

    PubMed

    Belton, Patrick; Sharngoe, Tenzing; Maguire, F Michael; Polhemus, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The street drug "bath salts" are psychoactive mixtures of cathinone derivatives. We report 3 cases of disseminated Staphylococcus aureus infection with cardiac involvement (2 endocarditis and 1 pericarditis), secondary to intravenous bath salts use. PMID:23418275

  14. Organizing for Student Success: The University College Model. The First Year Experience Monograph Series No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenbeck, Scott E.; Jackson, Barbara; Smith, Maggy; Ward, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Organizing for Student Success draws on data from more than 50 institutions to provide insight into how university colleges are organized, the initiatives they house, and the practices in place to ensure their effectiveness. Twenty case studies from 15 different campuses offer an in-depth understanding of institutional practice. Ultimately,…

  15. Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of…

  16. On Organizing Educational Research Communication in Europe: Past Experiences and Possible Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    In this note I will comment on the development of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) as a European educational research organization and the current situation. In doing so I will put forward a few matters concerning the social and intellectual organization of the EERA and the visibility of educational research in Europe.

  17. Water bath & air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-06-18

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan.

  18. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  19. Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

    2005-01-01

    Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

  20. Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 2: Microscale Indirect Electrolytic Destruction of Organic Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, M. M.; Pike, R. M.; Szafran, Z.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this experiment is to destroy, at the microscale level, a sample of surrogate organic waste by generating a powerful oxidizer at the anode of an electrochemical cell. This generated species oxidizes the waste to harmless products. The oxidizer can then be regenerated and recycled. Specifically, this experiment utilizes a redox mediator with a high standard potential (i.e., the Co (III/II) couple, E° = 1.82 V) to destroy a surrogate organic waste (e.g., glycerin or acetic acid) by converting it into CO2 and water. Students can observe the end of the reaction signaled by a color change of the electrolytic medium (from pink to gray-light purple) as well as the evolution of CO2 which precipitates CaCO3 from a Ca(OH)2 solution. The Co(II) solution and the electrodes can then be reused.

  1. The politics of combating the organ trade: lessons from the Israeli and Pakistani experience.

    PubMed

    Efrat, A

    2013-07-01

    Israel and Pakistan--two major participants in the global organ trade--enacted legislative prohibitions on the trade at roughly the same time. The article highlights three influences that brought about this change of policy in both countries: advocacy by local physicians coupled with media coverage and reinforced by the international medical community. The analysis also explains why the two countries have differed with respect to the enforcement of the organ-trade prohibition. The insights from the Israeli and Pakistani cases will be of use for the transplant community's efforts against organ trafficking. PMID:23675678

  2. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  3. Bath Institute for Complex Systems Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers) http://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers Bath BA2 7AY United Kingdom Abstract: We consider a model of directed polymers on a regular tree

  4. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  5. Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Fluidized Sand Bath and a Steam Chamber for Reactor Heating

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Fluidized Sand Bath and a Steam Chamber for Reactor Heating States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Both fluidized sand baths and steam chambers have been used in this study, the steam chamber can heat reactors to temperature in a tenth of the time sand baths can, can

  6. Pre-biotic organic synthesis: laboratory simulation experiments and their significance for the origin of life in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael H.

    2011-10-01

    It is commonly assumed that the origin of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere in the solar system was preceded by the synthesis and accumulation of organic compounds essential for life as we know it (e.g. amino acids, sugars, purines, pyrimidines, etc.) by non-biological processes. Over the past century, laboratory simulation experiments using a variety of inorganic precursors and energy sources have resulted in the synthesis of some, but not all of the compounds required for life. More importantly, the mechanisms by which these simple organic compounds initially combined to form the more complex structures (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) upon which all life is based remain elusive. Here we report a summary of the progress to date concerning pathways for the pre-biotic synthesis of organic matter and their significance for the origin of life in the solar system.

  7. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from the "24-hour bath"].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murakami, K; Ishii, N; Kwon, H H

    2000-01-01

    The "24-HOUR BATH" is an apparatus which circulates the bath water, keeps it clean and warm, and makes it possible to take a bath at any time during the day or night. It consists of apparatus for cleaning (sponge or mesh filter and filter material), heating (ceramic heater), and sterilizing (UV lamp). Recently, three cases of skin disease due to M. avium infection in private homes, in which "24-HOUR BATH" water was suspected to be the source of infection, have been reported. We attempted to isolate M. avium complex from the water (32 specimens), sponge filter (29 specimens), and filter material (32 specimens) of the "24-HOUR BATH". One hundred-ml samples of bath water, and 50-ml samples of rinse from a sponge filter or filter material were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Sediment was suspended in distilled water and a smear was prepared, and then digested and decontaminated with 2% sodium hydroxide. The processed specimens were cultured on 2% Ogawa medium containing ofloxacin (1 microgram/ml) and ethambutol (2.5 micrograms/ml) for 8 weeks at 37 degrees C. Positive smears were 3 (9.4%), 25 (86.2%) and 25 (78.1%) specimens from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. A few bacterial clumps were observed, especially in the sponge specimens. The number of positive culture was 5 (15.6%), 24 (82.8%) and 25 (78.1%) from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. Among them the number of Runyon's Group III-positive cultures was 5 (100%), 22 (91.7%) and 20 (80%) in the water, sponge, and filter material specimens, respectively. In most cases, cultures were positive for both the sponge and filter material specimens. All of the Group III mycobacteria were smooth, grew at 28, 37, 42, and 45 degrees C, negative for niacin, nitrate reductase, semiquantitative catalase, urease and Tween80 hydrolysis, and positive for 68 degrees C catalase. All of the strains reacted with M. avium complex AccuProbe and M. avium AccuProbe, but none of the strains reacted with M. intracellulare AccuProbe. Therefore, all the Group III isolates were identified as M. avium by the culture, biochemical and genetical characteristics. PMID:10689814

  8. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

  9. Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, C.C.; Neff, J.C.; Townsend, A.R.; Hood, E.

    2004-01-01

    Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

  10. John Dewey on Democracy, Education, Experience, and Communication: Implications for Adult Education in Developing Democratic Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    John Dewey's reflections regarding education, experience, and communication remain relevant to all educators, especially educators and trainers in the field of human resource development (HRD). Dewey viewed education as a process of growing in meaning. He stated, "all genuine education comes about through experience." Another essential concept in…

  11. Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David B.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

  12. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  13. The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

    2008-01-01

    Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

  14. Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoluzzi, M.; Di Leonardo, R.; Angelani, L.

    2013-10-01

    E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

  15. Efficient heat-bath sampling in Fock space

    E-print Network

    Holmes, Adam; Umrigar, C J

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for sampling many-body quantum states in Fock space. The algorithm efficiently samples states with probability approximately proportional to an arbitrary function of the second-quantized Hamiltonian matrix element connecting the sampled state to the current state. We apply the new sampling algorithm to the recently-developed Semistochastic Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo method (S-FCIQMC), a semistochastic implementation of the power method for projecting out the ground state energy in a basis of Slater determinants. The heat-bath sampling requires modest additional computational time and memory compared to uniform sampling but results in newly-spawned weights that are approximately of the same magnitude, thereby greatly improving the efficiency of projection. A comparison in efficiency between uniform and approximate heat-bath sampling is performed on the all-electron nitrogen dimer at equilibrium in Dunning's cc-pVXZ basis sets with X in {D, T, Q, 5}, demonstrati...

  16. Concatenated dynamical decoupling in a solid-state spin bath

    E-print Network

    Witzel, W M

    2007-01-01

    Concatenated dynamical decoupling (CDD) pulse sequences hold much promise as a strategy to mitigate decoherence in quantum information devices. It is important to investigate the actual performance of these dynamical decoupling strategies in real systems that are promising qubit candidates. In this Letter, we compute the echo decay of concatenations of the Hahn echo sequence for a solid-state electronic spin qubit in a nuclear spin bath. We use a cluster expansion technique and find that increasing orders of the expansion must be included with each concatenation of the pulse sequence. The simple pair approximation, previously used to study restoration, through CDD, of coherence lost to a mesoscopic spin bath, fails to accurately compute CDD echo decay of a solid-state spin qubit.

  17. Concatenated dynamical decoupling in a solid-state spin bath

    E-print Network

    W. M. Witzel; S. Das Sarma

    2007-12-13

    Concatenated dynamical decoupling (CDD) pulse sequences hold much promise as a strategy to mitigate decoherence in quantum information processing. It is important to investigate the actual performance of these dynamical decoupling strategies in real systems that are promising qubit candidates. In this Rapid Communication, we compute the echo decay of concatenations of the Hahn echo sequence for a solid-state electronic spin qubit in a nuclear spin bath using a cluster expansion technique. We find that each level of concatenation reverses the effect of successive levels of intrabath fluctuations. On the one hand, this advances CDD as a versatile and realistic decoupling strategy. On the other hand, this invalidates, as overly optimistic, results of the simple pair approximation used previously to study restoration, through CDD, of coherence lost to a mesoscopic spin bath.

  18. Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths

    E-print Network

    M. Paoluzzi; R. Di Leonardo; L. Angelani

    2013-07-30

    {\\it E. coli} bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

  19. Nonequilibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2009-06-15

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined.

  20. Transformation of polymetallic dust in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (field experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with an X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that the ash matter from the organic horizons (after ignition) of control and experimental plots mainly (>85%) consists of different soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (particularly magnetite). From 10% to 15% of particles in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (Albic Rustic Podzol) of the experimental plot were represented by polymetallic ball-shaped dust particles that were preserved in the soil without significant transformation for 14 years after their artificial application. The total contents of Cu, Pb, As, and Ni in the organic horizon on the experimental plot were 22-100 times higher than those in the control; the contents of Zn and Fe were 2-5 times higher. The sequence of chemical elements according to their total contents in the samples of control and experimental plots was different. The portion of available forms of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, and Co) compounds extractable with 1.0 M HCl averaged 20-30% of their total contents in the soil. More than 80% of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals were concentrated in the organic horizon of contaminated podzol soil, which represents the biogeochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants down the soil profile. Durable fixation of heavy metals in the organic horizon and their weak migration into the mineral soil layers significantly hamper the processes of self-purification of contaminated soils.

  1. Giving a Newborn a Bath in her Parents' Presence.

    PubMed

    Didry, Pascale; Didry, Emmanuelle

    2015-11-01

    Today, Sophie is working on the maternity ward. She is going to give Manon, David and Laura's first born, a bath. Manon was born on the day before. She weighs 3.350kg and is 49cm long. She has already got a lot of fuzzy brown hair. Both parents are looking forward to watching and learning how to care for their new baby. PMID:26548395

  2. An Infinite Level Atom coupled to a Heat Bath

    E-print Network

    Martin Könenberg

    2011-01-13

    We consider a $W^*$-dynamical system $(\\Mg,\\taug)$, which models finitely many particles coupled to an infinitely extended heat bath. The energy of the particles can be described by an unbounded operator, which has infinitely many energy levels. We show existence of the dynamics $\\taug$ and existence of a $(\\beta,\\taug)$ -KMS state under very explicit conditions on the strength of the interaction and on the inverse temperature $\\beta$.

  3. Purification of spent chromium bath by membrane electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Korzenowski, C; Rodrigues, M A S; Bresciani, L; Bernardes, A M; Ferreira, J Z

    2008-04-15

    The present study deals with the purification of spent chromium bath contaminated by trivalent chromium, iron and aluminum. The ionic transfer of Fe(III) depends on the presence of chloride ions on the pH while aluminum transfer is not affected by chromium(III) chloride. Five different commercial cation-exchange membranes were used. Nafion and PC-SK membranes showed the best results for trivalent iron and aluminum transfer. PMID:17854988

  4. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  5. Pharmacokinetics of propofol in rainbow trout following bath exposure.

    PubMed

    Gomu?ka, P; Fornal, E; Berecka, B; Szmagara, A; Ziomek, E

    2015-01-01

    Propofol, 2,6-diisopropylphenol, seems to be a good candidate as a fish anaesthetic, however, no study regarding propofol influence on fish has yet been reported. The aim of this study was to examine propofol pharmacokinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following bath exposure. Fish (n = 100) were exposed to an aqueous propofol bath at 12°C and 17°C; propofol concentration in the bath was 10 mg L(-1). Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined using LC-MS, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Propofol was absorbed quickly at both temperatures. Its concentration reached 13.8 ± 2.7 ?g mL(-1) and 16.1 ± 2.1 ?g mL(-1) at 12°C and 17°C, respectively, during the first minute of exposure. Blood plasma propofol decreased rapidly to 6.8 ± 0.7 ?g mL(-1) and 6.3 ± 2.2 ?g mL(-1) at 12°C and 17°C respectively, during the first 10 minutes of the recovery. The half-life time of propofol was 1.5 h and 1.1 h at 12°C and 17°C, respectively. We found propofol anaesthesia in trout effective and safe. However, it caused a gradual decrease of respiratory rate, and therefore a specific anaesthesia protocol should be developed. PMID:25928922

  6. Unusual swelling of a polymer in a bacterial bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, A.; Löwen, H.

    2014-07-01

    The equilibrium structure and dynamics of a single polymer chain in a thermal solvent is by now well-understood in terms of scaling laws. Here, we consider a polymer in a bacterial bath, i.e., in a solvent consisting of active particles which bring in nonequilibrium fluctuations. Using computer simulations of a self-avoiding polymer chain in two dimensions which is exposed to a dilute bath of active particles, we show that the Flory-scaling exponent is unaffected by the bath activity provided the chain is very long. Conversely, for shorter chains, there is a nontrivial coupling between the bacteria intruding into the chain which may stiffen and expand the chain in a nonuniversal way. As a function of the molecular weight, the swelling first scales faster than described by the Flory exponent, then an unusual plateau-like behaviour is reached and finally a crossover to the universal Flory behaviour is observed. As a function of bacterial activity, the chain end-to-end distance exhibits a pronounced non-monotonicity. Moreover, the mean-square displacement of the center of mass of the chain shows a ballistic behaviour at intermediate times as induced by the active solvent. Our predictions are verifiable in two-dimensional bacterial suspensions and for colloidal model chains exposed to artificial colloidal microswimmers.

  7. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-07-14

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation. PMID:26178090

  8. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  9. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-12-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

  10. Efficiency bounds for quantum engines powered by non-thermal baths

    E-print Network

    Wolfgang Niedenzu; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Abraham G. Kofman; Gershon Kurizki

    2015-08-26

    We analyse the operation principles and performance bounds of quantum engines whose working fluid (WF) is energised by a non-thermal bath. We show that such a bath (e.g., a squeezed or coherently displaced thermal bath) can render the WF state non-passive, i.e., capable of storing and delivering work. This non-passivity converts the heat engine into a thermo-mechanical machine that is powered by mechanical work, as well as heat, from the non-thermal bath. Its efficiency is unrestricted by the Carnot bound, which only applies to heat engines. By contrast, for certain WF--bath interactions and non-thermal bath states the WF thermalises. The machine then operates as a heat engine, but its Carnot bound may correspond to a higher temperature than its thermal-bath counterpart.

  11. EXPERIENCES OF THE LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR A LARGE SCIENTIFIC MEETING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the history and organization of the combined meeting of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America, the VI International Solanaceae Conference, and the III Solanaceae Genomics Conference. The unifying theme of these three groups is the science of the Solanaceae...

  12. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

  13. Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

  14. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  15. Contradictory Aspects of Organized Youth Sport: Challenging and Fostering Sibling Relationships and Participation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an interpretive study that sought to understand how organized sport at the community level influences sibling relationships and interactions. The meanings of the participants' sport involvement, in relation to their siblings', was also examined using a constructivist approach to grounded theory.…

  16. Cytochrome P460 Genes from the Methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, David J.; Zahn, James A.; Hooper, Alan B.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    1998-01-01

    P460 cytochromes catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. They have been isolated from the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (R. H. Erickson and A. B. Hooper, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 275:231–244, 1972) and the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (J. A. Zahn et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:5879–5887, 1994). A degenerate oligonucleotide probe was synthesized based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome P460 and used to identify a DNA fragment from M. capsulatus Bath that contains cyp, the gene encoding cytochrome P460. cyp is part of a gene cluster that contains three open reading frames (ORFs), the first predicted to encode a 59,000-Da membrane-bound polypeptide, the second predicted to encode a 12,000-Da periplasmic protein, and the third (cyp) encoding cytochrome P460. The products of the first two ORFs have no apparent similarity to any proteins in the GenBank database. The overall sequence similarity of the P460 cytochromes from M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea was low (24.3% of residues identical), although short regions of conserved residues are present in the two proteins. Both cytochromes have a C-terminal, c-heme binding motif (CXXCH) and a conserved lysine residue (K61) that may provide an additional covalent cross-link to the heme (D. M. Arciero and A. B. Hooper, FEBS Lett. 410:457–460, 1997). Gene probing using cyp indicated that a cytochrome P460 similar to that from M. capsulatus Bath may be present in the type II methanotrophs Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylocystis parvus OBBP but not in the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylomicrobium albus BG8, and Methylomonas sp. strains MN and MM2. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies against cytochrome P460 from M. capsulatus Bath indicated that the expression level of cytochrome P460 was not affected either by expression of the two different methane monooxygenases or by addition of ammonia to the culture medium. PMID:9851984

  17. Searching for life on Mars: degradation of surfactant solutions used in organic extraction experiments.

    PubMed

    Court, Richard W; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C; Sephton, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Life-detection instruments on future Mars missions may use surfactant solutions to extract organic matter from samples of martian rocks. The thermal and radiation environments of space and Mars are capable of degrading these solutions, thereby reducing their ability to dissolve organic species. Successful extraction and detection of biosignatures on Mars requires an understanding of how degradation in extraterrestrial environments can affect surfactant performance. We exposed solutions of the surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80), Zonyl FS-300, and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-[3-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)propyl]methylsiloxane] (PDMSHEPMS) to elevated radiation and heat levels, combined with prolonged storage. Degradation was investigated by measuring changes in pH and electrical conductivity and by using the degraded solutions to extract a suite of organic compounds spiked onto grains of the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Results indicate that the proton fluences expected during a mission to Mars do not cause significant degradation of surfactant compounds. Solutions of PS80 or PDMSHEPMS stored at -20 °C are able to extract the spiked standards with acceptable recovery efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies for spiked standards decrease progressively with increasing temperature, and prolonged storage at 60°C renders the surfactant solutions ineffective. Neither the presence of ascorbic acid nor the choice of solvent unequivocally alters the efficiency of extraction of the spiked standards. Since degradation of polysorbates has the potential to produce organic compounds that could be mistaken for indigenous martian organic matter, the polysiloxane PDMSHEPMS may be a superior choice of surfactant for the exploration of Mars. PMID:25192400

  18. Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artifact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artifact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures which are disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies assessing the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations of blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of the data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models is thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate. It is concluded that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations. PMID:25667570

  19. What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations.

    PubMed

    Milkman, Katherine L; Akinola, Modupe; Chugh, Dolly

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how discrimination manifests before individuals formally apply to organizations or how it varies within and between organizations. We address this knowledge gap through an audit study in academia of over 6,500 professors at top U.S. universities drawn from 89 disciplines and 259 institutions. In our experiment, professors were contacted by fictional prospective students seeking to discuss research opportunities prior to applying to a doctoral program. Names of students were randomly assigned to signal gender and race (White, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Chinese), but messages were otherwise identical. We hypothesized that discrimination would appear at the informal "pathway" preceding entry to academia and would vary by discipline and university as a function of faculty representation and pay. We found that when considering requests from prospective students seeking mentoring in the future, faculty were significantly more responsive to White males than to all other categories of students, collectively, particularly in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions. Counterintuitively, the representation of women and minorities and discrimination were uncorrelated, a finding that suggests greater representation cannot be assumed to reduce discrimination. This research highlights the importance of studying decisions made before formal entry points into organizations and reveals that discrimination is not evenly distributed within and between organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867167

  20. Assessing the effect of humic acid redox state on organic pollutant sorption by combined electrochemical reduction and sorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, Michael; Brunner, Sibyl H; Schwarzenbach, René P; Sander, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is a major sorbent for organic pollutants in soils and sediments. While sorption under oxic conditions has been well investigated, possible changes in the sorption capacity of a given NOM induced by reduction have not yet been studied. Reduction of quinones to hydroquinones, the major redox active moieties in NOM, increases the number of H-donor moieties and thus may affect sorption. This work compares the sorption of four nonionic organic pollutants of different polarities (naphthalene, acetophenone, quinoline, and 2-naphthol), and of the organocation paraquat to unreduced and electrochemically reduced Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA). The redox states of reduced and unreduced LHA in all sorption experiments were stable, as demonstrated by a spectrophotometric 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction assay. The sorption isotherms of the nonionic pollutants were highly linear, while paraquat sorption was strongly concentration dependent. LHA reduction did not result in significant changes in the sorption of all tested compounds, not even of the cationic paraquat at pH 7, 9, and 11. This work provides the first evidence that changes in NOM redox state do not largely affect organic pollutant sorption, suggesting that current sorption models are applicable both to unreduced and to reduced soil and sediment NOM. PMID:22372874

  1. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

  2. Forging community partnerships to improve health care: the experience of four Medicaid managed care organizations.

    PubMed

    Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Rodin, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Some managed care organizations (MCOs) serving Medicaid beneficiaries are actively engaging in community partnerships to meet the needs of vulnerable members and nonmembers. We found that the history, leadership, and other internal factors of four such MCOs primarily drive that focus. However, external factors such as state Medicaid policies and competition or collaboration among MCOs also play a role. The specific strat­egies of these MCOs vary but share common goals: (1) improve care coordination, access, and delivery; (2) strengthen the community and safety-net infrastructure; and (3) prevent illness and reduce disparities. The MCOs use data to identify gaps in care, seek community input in designing interventions, and commit resources to engage community organiza­tions. State Medicaid programs can promote such work by establishing goals, priorities, and guidelines; providing data analysis and technical assistance to evaluate local needs and community engagement efforts; and convening stakeholders to collaborate and share best practices. PMID:23634464

  3. Hydro-environmental modelling for bathing water compliance of an estuarine basin.

    PubMed

    Kashefipour, S M; Lin, B; Harris, E; Falconer, R A

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, considerable investment has been committed to sewerage infrastructure and new sewage treatment plants in the catchment surrounding an estuarine basin along the north-west coast of England. Although this capital investment has resulted in a marked reduction in the input of bacterial loads, relatively high counts of faecal indicator organisms are still being encountered in the coastal receiving waters, and the local bathing waters continue to fail on occasions to comply with the European Community (EC) Bathing Water Directive (1976) mandatory standards. Details are given herein of a comprehensive modelling study aimed at quantifying the impact of various bacterial inputs into the estuary and surrounding coastal waters on the bathing water quality. The model domain includes the coastal area and the entire estuary (namely the Ribble) up to the tidal limits of its tributaries. Faecal coliforms have been used as the main water quality indicator organisms. The numerical model developed for this study combines a depth integrated two-dimensional coastal model and a cross-sectionally integrated one-dimensional river model, and is capable of predicting water surface elevations, velocity fields and faecal coliform concentration distributions across the entire model domain. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using water level and velocity measurements from three surveys and then validated against measured data from three other surveys. In order to predict the faecal coliform concentration distributions, variable faecal coliform decay rates were used, i.e. different values of decay rates were applied to the coastal and riverine waters, for day- and nighttime, and for wet and dry weather conditions. The maximum and minimum decay rates used were 2.32/day and 0.71/day for the dry and wet weather surveys, respectively. The model was then applied to (i) assess the impact of previous discharge strategies and investigate the effectiveness of future capital investment works and (ii) predict the impact of a range of strategic options, including: the effects of adding UV treatment, constructing storm water storage tanks and incorporating various combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharge scenarios for different weather conditions. PMID:12044085

  4. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosol in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. A.; Snyder, D. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Schauer, J. J.

    2007-07-01

    Organic carbon (OC) comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Mexico City. Daily and select 12-h PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and peripheral sites in Mexico City from 17-30 March 2006. Samples were analyzed for OC and elemental carbon (EC) using thermal-optical filter-based methods. Real-time water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was collected at the peripheral site. Organic compounds, particularly molecular markers, were quantified by soxhlet extraction with methanol and dichloromethane, derivitization, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS). A chemical mass balance model (CMB) based on molecular marker species was used to determine the relative contribution of major sources to ambient OC. Motor vehicles, including diesel and gasoline, consistently accounted for 47% of OC in the urban area and 31% on the periphery. The daily contribution of biomass burning to OC was highly variable, and ranged from 5-30% at the urban site and 11-50% at the peripheral site. The remaining OC unapportioned to primary sources showed a strong correlation with WSOC and was considered to be secondary in nature. Comparison of temporally resolved OC showed that contributions from primary aerosol sources during daylight hours were not significantly different from nighttime. This study provides quantitative understanding of the important sources of OC during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign.

  5. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosol in Mexico City during the MILAGRO experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. A.; Snyder, D. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Schauer, J. J.

    2008-03-01

    Organic carbon (OC) comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Mexico City. Daily and select 12-h PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and peripheral sites in Mexico City from 17-30 March 2006. Samples were analyzed for OC and elemental carbon (EC) using thermal-optical filter-based methods. Real-time water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was collected at the peripheral site. Organic compounds, particularly molecular markers, were quantified by soxhlet extraction with methanol and dichloromethane, derivitization, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS). A chemical mass balance model (CMB) based on molecular marker species was used to determine the relative contribution of major sources to ambient OC. Motor vehicles, including diesel and gasoline, consistently accounted for 49% of OC in the urban area and 32% on the periphery. The daily contribution of biomass burning to OC was highly variable, and ranged from 5-26% at the urban site and 7-39% at the peripheral site. The remaining OC unapportioned to primary sources showed a strong correlation with WSOC and was considered to be secondary in nature. Comparison of temporally resolved OC showed that contributions from primary aerosol sources during daylight hours were not significantly different from nighttime. This study provides quantitative understanding of the important sources of OC during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign.

  6. Asymmetric Epoxidation: A Twinned Laboratory and Molecular Modeling Experiment for Upper-Level Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational…

  7. Class Matters: The Experiences of Female College Students in a Greek-Letter Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Helen-Grace

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study documents the experiences of 15 women from different social class backgrounds who are members of a women's fraternity/sorority at a large, public, institution located in an urban area in the Mid-West. The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between social class and the nature and impact of the…

  8. Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have…

  9. Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

  10. Roles of visual experience and intrinsic mechanism in the activity-dependent self-organization of orientation maps: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Miyashita, Masanobu; Ribot, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that functional maps in the mammalian visual cortex such as ocular dominance columns and orientation columns are formed depending on neural activity. There is still, however, controversy on how much visual experience contributes to the map formation during development. In the present study, we address this issue from mathematical modeling and experimental investigation. Using a model of activity-dependent self-organization of geniculo-cortical afferent inputs, we showed that spontaneous activity in the LGN can produce orientation maps, while the exposure to drifting gratings results in sharply segregated orientation maps as observed in cat visual cortex. The restricted exposure to a single orientation of the grating led to the over-representation of the exposed orientation, which was moderated by the contribution of learning based on the spontaneous activity. These theoretical results were confirmed by intrinsic optical recordings from area 18 of kittens reared under various visual conditions. PMID:15555871

  11. Experiments on ?34S mixing between organic and inorganic sulfur species during thermal maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amrani, Alon; Said-Ahamed, Ward; Lewan, Michael D.; Aizenshtat, Zeev

    2006-01-01

    Reduced sulfur species were studied to constrain isotopic exchange-mixing with synthetic polysulfide cross-linked macromolecules (PCLM), model sulfur containing molecules and natural sulfur-rich kerogen, asphalt and oil of the Dead Sea area. PCLM represents protokerogens that are rich in sulfur and thermally unstable. Mixing rates of PCLM with HS-(aq) (added as (NH4)2S(aq)) at low to moderate temperatures (50–200 °C) are rapid. Elemental sulfur and H2S(gas) fully mix isotopes with PCLM during pyrolysis conditions at 200 °C. During these reactions significant structural changes of the PCLM occur to form polysulfide dimers, thiolanes and thiophenes. As pyrolysis temperatures or reaction times increase, the PCLM thermal products are transformed to more aromatic sulfur compounds. Isotopic mixing rates increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature and time. Polysulfide bonds (S–S) in the PCLM are responsible for most of these structural and isotopic changes because of their low stability. Conversely, sulfur isotope mixing does not occur between dibenzothiophene (aromatic S) or hexadecanthiol (C–SH) and HS-(aq) at 200 °C after 48 h. This shows that rates of sulfur isotope mixing are strongly dependent on the functionality of the sulfur in the organic matter. The order of isotopic mixing rates for organic matter is kerogen > asphalt > oil, which is inverse to their sulfur thermal stability. Asphalt and oil with more refractory sulfur show significantly lower isotopes mixing rates than the kerogen with more labile sulfur. Based on the findings of the present study we suggest that sulfur isotopes mixing can occur from early diagenesis into catagenesis and result in isotopic homogenization of the inorganic and organic reduced sulfur pools.

  12. Soil-solution partitioning of DOC in acid organic soils: Results from a UK field acidification and alkalization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulehle, Filip; Jones, Timothy; Burden, Annette; Evans, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle and has profound impacts on water chemistry and metabolism in lakes and rivers. Reported increases of DOC concentration in surface waters across Europe and Northern America have been attributed to several drivers; from changing climate and land-use to eutrophication and declining acid deposition. The last of these suggests that acidic deposition suppressed the solubility of DOC, and that this historic suppression is now being reversed by reducing emissions of acidifying pollutants. We studied a set of four parallel acidification and alkalization experiments in organic rich soils which, after three years of manipulation, have shown clear soil solution DOC responses to acidity change. We tested whether these DOC concentration changes were related to changes in the acid/base properties of DOC. Based on laboratory determination of DOC site density (S.D. = amount of carboxylic groups per milligram DOC) and charge density (C.D. = organic acid anion concentration per milligram DOC) we found that the change in DOC soil-solution partitioning was tightly related to the change in degree of dissociation (? = C.D./S.D. ratio) of organic acids (R2=0.74, p<0.01). Carbon turnover in soil organic matter (SOM), determined by soil respiration and ?-D-glucosidase enzyme activity measurements, also appears to have some impact on DOC leaching, via constraints on the actual supply of available DOC from SOM; when the turnover rate of C in SOM is low, the effect of ? on DOC leaching is reduced. Thus, differences in the magnitude of DOC changes seen across different environments might be explained by interactions between physicochemical restrictions of DOC soil-solution partitioning, and SOM carbon turnover effects on DOC supply.

  13. Detrital Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter in Soils: A Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtha, K.; Crow, S.; Yano, Y.; Kaushal, S.; Sulzman, E.; Sollins, P.

    2004-12-01

    We established a long-term field study in an old growth coniferous forest at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, to address how detrital quality and quantity control soil organic matter accumulation and stabilization. The Detritus Input and Removal Treatments (DIRT) plots consist of treatments that double leaf litter, double woody debris inputs, exclude litter inputs, or remove root inputs via trenching. We measured changes in soil solution chemistry with depth, and conducted long-term incubations of bulk soils and soil density fractions from different treatments in order to elucidate effects of detrital inputs on the relative amounts and lability of different soil C pools. In the field, the effect of adding woody debris was to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in O-horizon leachate and at 30 cm, but not at 100 cm, compared to control plots, suggesting increased rates of DOC retention with added woody debris. DOC concentrations decreased through the soil profile in all plots to a greater degree than did dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), most likely due to preferential sorption of high C:N hydrophobic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in upper horizons; %hydrophobic DOM decreased significantly with depth, and hydrophilic DOM had a much lower and narrower C:N ratio. Although laboratory extracts of different litter types showed differences in DOM chemistry, percent hydrophobic DOM did not differ among detrital treatments in the field, suggesting microbial equalization of DOM leachate in the field. In long-term laboratory incubations, light fraction material did not have higher rates of respiration than heavy fraction or bulk soils, suggesting that physical protection or N availability controls different turnover times of heavy fraction material, rather than differences in chemical lability. Soils from plots that had both above- and below-ground litter inputs excluded had significantly lower DOC loss rates, and a non-significant trend for lower respiration rates . Soils from plots with added wood had similar respiration and DOC loss rates as control soils, suggesting that the additional DOC sorption observed in the field in these soils was stabilized in the soil and not readily lost upon incubation.

  14. Oregon's experiment in health care delivery and payment reform: coordinated care organizations replacing managed care.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven W; Bernell, Stephanie L; Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff; Ranit, Claire M

    2015-02-01

    To control Medicaid costs, improve quality, and drive community engagement, the Oregon Health Authority introduced a new system of coordinated care organizations (CCOs). While CCOs resemble traditional Medicaid managed care, they have differences that have been deliberately designed to improve care coordination, increase accountability, and incorporate greater community governance. Reforms include global budgets integrating medical, behavioral, and oral health care and public health functions; risk-adjusted payments rewarding outcomes and evidence-based practice; increased transparency; and greater community engagement. The CCO model faces several implementation challenges. If successful, it will provide improved health care delivery, better health outcomes, and overall savings. PMID:25480844

  15. A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.

    1998-05-01

    A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone (5) from benzil (1) and 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone (2). In version (high base concentration) a mixture of 5 and the diastereomeric 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-ones 3 and 4 are produced, while in the other (low base concentration) a mixture of 1, 2, 3, and 4 results. The experiment is typically carried out in conjunction with the previously reported preparation/dehydration of 3, thus the students provide themselves with authentic samples of 3 and 5. Using these, plus authentic samples of 1 and 2 which are made available, students are able to identify all of the components in the equilibrium mixtures, except 4, by TLC analysis. In the case of 4, students are expected to propose a reasonable structure for this compound based on the observed chemistry and the spectroscopic evidence which is provided (i.e., NMR, IR and mass spectra). The experiment lends itself nicely to either the traditional or problem-solving approach, and it also opens up opportunities for collaborative learning.

  16. Growing experience with mTOR inhibitors in pediatric solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ganschow, R; Pape, L; Sturm, E; Bauer, J; Melter, M; Gerner, P; Höcker, B; Ahlenstiel, T; Kemper, M; Brinkert, F; Sachse, M M; Tönshoff, B

    2013-11-01

    Controlled trials of mTOR inhibitors in children following solid organ transplantation are scarce, although evidence from prospective single-arm studies is growing. Everolimus with reduced CNI therapy has been shown to be efficacious and safe in de novo pediatric kidney transplant patients in prospective trials. Prospective and retrospective data in children converted from CNI therapy to mTOR inhibition following kidney, liver, or heart transplantation suggest preservation of immunosuppressive efficacy. Good renal function has been maintained when mTOR inhibitors are used de novo in children following kidney transplantation or after conversion to mTOR inhibition with CNI minimization. mTOR inhibition with reduced CNI exposure is associated with a low risk for developing infection in children. Growth and development do not appear to be impaired during low-dose mTOR inhibition, but more studies are required. No firm conclusions can be drawn as to whether mTOR inhibitors should be discontinued in children requiring surgical intervention or whether mTOR inhibition delays progression of hepatic fibrosis after pediatric liver transplantation. In conclusion, current evidence suggests that use of mTOR inhibitors in children undergoing solid organ transplantation is efficacious and safe, but a number of issues remain unresolved and further studies are required. PMID:24004351

  17. Cerebral organization for language in deaf and hearing subjects: Biological constraints and effects of?experience

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Helen J.; Bavelier, Daphne; Corina, David; Rauschecker, Josef; Karni, Avi; Lalwani, Anil; Braun, Allen; Clark, Vince; Jezzard, Peter; Turner, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral organization during sentence processing in English and in American Sign Language (ASL) was characterized by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 4 T. Effects of deafness, age of language acquisition, and bilingualism were assessed by comparing results from (i) normally hearing, monolingual, native speakers of English, (ii) congenitally, genetically deaf, native signers of ASL who learned English late and through the visual modality, and (iii) normally hearing bilinguals who were native signers of ASL and speakers of English. All groups, hearing and deaf, processing their native language, English or ASL, displayed strong and repeated activation within classical language areas of the left hemisphere. Deaf subjects reading English did not display activation in these regions. These results suggest that the early acquisition of a natural language is important in the expression of the strong bias for these areas to mediate language, independently of the form of the language. In addition, native signers, hearing and deaf, displayed extensive activation of homologous areas within the right hemisphere, indicating that the specific processing requirements of the language also in part determine the organization of the language systems of the brain. PMID:9448260

  18. [Intensification of Microbial Decomposition of Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste: Laboratory and Field Experiments].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, A A; Kevbrina, M V; Kallistova, A Yu; Nekrasova, V K; Litti, Yu V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Methods of intensifying the anaerobic microbial decomposition of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) on an MSW landfill and in anaerobic reactors were studied. It was discovered that it is preferable for the initiation and stabilization of the process of anaerobic digestion of organic waste in laboratory bioreactors at 20 and 50 degrees C to use a mixture of activated suspension of soil from the anaerobic zone of the landfill and digested sewage sludge. Stimulation of methanogenesis was shown in field conditions when digested sewage sludge was added directly into the upper layer of anaerobic zone of the landfill. The investigation of methane production during fermentation of concentrated food waste with a mixture of excessive activated sludge in the laboratory under thermophilic conditions (50 degrees C) has shown that the main problem at the first stage of the process was the acidification of the digested mixture due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. It was shown that for stable operation of the bioreactor under thermophilic conditions the amount of inoculum added during the start up should be no less than 30%-50%--based on volatile suspended solids. A sharp decrease in the digestion temperature from 50 to 20 degrees C did not cause methanogenesis termination, since the thermophilically fermented biomass contained both thermophilic and mesophilic methanogens. PMID:26353402

  19. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (?-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the ?-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the ?-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  20. Quantum speed limit in a qubit-spin-bath system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lu; Shao, Bin; Wei, Yong-Bo; Zou, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the behavior of quantum speed limit (QSL) time for a typical non-Markovian system, a central spin coupled to a spin star configuration. We connect the QSL time with an external control and show that the effectiveness of the external magnetic field, as well as the coupling strength, is related to the fundamental bounds that affect the maximum speed at which a quantum system can evolve in its state space. We also demonstrate that a spin bath with larger size may shorten the QSL time, while the upper state population plays an important role for the acceleration of quantum evolution in the memory surrounding.

  1. Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

  2. Generalized energy equipartition in harmonic oscillators driven by active baths

    E-print Network

    Claudio Maggi; Matteo Paoluzzi; Nicola Pellicciotta; Alessia Lepore; Luca Angelani; Roberto Di Leonardo

    2015-06-26

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  3. Entanglement dynamics of two qubits in a common bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang; Nori, Franco

    2012-06-01

    We derive a set of hierarchical equations for qubits interacting with a Lorentz-broadened cavity mode at zero temperature, without using the rotating-wave, Born, and Markovian approximations. We use this exact method to reexamine the entanglement dynamics of two qubits interacting with a common bath, which was previously solved only under the rotating-wave and single-excitation approximations. With the exact hierarchy equation method used here, double excitations due to counter-rotating-wave terms are found to have remarkable effects on the dynamics and the steady-state entanglement.

  4. The Production of Electricity out of a Heat Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeff, Roderich W.

    2011-12-01

    In order to clarify the dispute between Loschmidt and Boltzmann/Maxwell concerning the existence of a temperature gradient in insulated vertical columns of gas, liquid or solids, macroscopic measurements of the temperature distribution in air, water and solids were performed. A negative temperature gradient, cold at the top and warm at the bottom, is found in insulated vertical tubes, while the outside environment has a reverse gradient. This is explainable by the influence of gravity. It allows the production of electricity out of a heat bath.

  5. Generalized Energy Equipartition in Harmonic Oscillators Driven by Active Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  6. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  7. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  8. Outcome following organ removal from poisoned donors: experience with 12 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hantson, P; Vekemans, M C; Squifflet, J P; Mahieu, P

    1995-01-01

    From 1975 to 1993, our University Hospital performed 2789 graft procedures. During the same period, 12 poisoned, "brain-dead" patients were considered as organ donors. The toxic substances involved were: methaqualone (n = 1), benzodiazepine alone (n = 1), benzodiazepine plus tricyclic antidepressants (n =1), tricyclic antidepressants alone (n = 1), barbiturates (n = 2), insulin (n = 2), carbon monoxide (n = 1), cyanide (n = 1), methanol (n = 1), and acetaminophen (n = 1). From these intoxicated persons, 32 organ transplants were obtained, but only 23 could be followed for 1 month and only 20 for 1 year. The outcome at 1 month was favorable in 20 of the 23 patients. Two heart transplant patients died with 24h after grafting from stroke and acute heart failure, respectively. Preoperative hepatic encephalopathy was not corrected after grafting and was directly responsible for the death of a liver transplant patient. After 1 year, 15 of the 20 recipients were still alive. Chronic hepatic graft rejection led to a fatal outcome in one recipient and to second grafting in another. Finally, one recipient died from delayed neoplasia. Based on our experience, organ procurement may be considered in a few select cases of acute poisoning. Attention should, however, be drawn to possible graft damage due to some poisons. PMID:7626177

  9. Optical detection of charge carriers in multilayer organic light-emitting diodes: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, K.; Nikitenko, V. R.; Bässler, H.; Elschner, A.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated a multilayer organic light-emitting diode with 1,3,5-tris (N,N-bis-(4-methoxyphenyl)aminophenyl)-benzene acting as the hole transporting layer (HTL) and tris (8-hydroxy-quinolinolato) aluminum (Alq3) as the electron transporting layer. Positive charge carriers in the HTL were detected optically as a function of the applied bias. It was found that a hole injecting layer, consisting of 3,4 polyethylene-dioxy-thiophene doped with polystyrenesulfonate, forms an ohmic contact to the HTL by inducing a thin layer of holes in the interfacial region. An analytical model is developed to describe the observed carrier concentrations as well as the current-brightness-voltage characteristics quantitatively.

  10. The role of health professional organizations in improving maternal and newborn health: The FIGO LOGIC experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David J

    2015-10-01

    The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health improved the internal and external capacity of eight national professional organizations of obstetrics and gynecology in six African and two Asian countries. The initiative was funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and had three key objectives: to support the eight FIGO member associations to strengthen their capacity to work effectively; to influence national policies on maternal and newborn health; and to work toward improving clinical practice in this area. Through improved capacity, and underpinned by Memoranda of Understanding with their governments, the associations influenced national policy in maternal and newborn health, impacted clinical care through the development of over forty national clinical guidelines, delivered national curricula, trained clinical and management staff, and led the development of national maternal death and near-miss review programs. PMID:26433513

  11. Removal of organic films from solid surfaces using aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants. 1: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudoin, S.P.; Grant, C.S.; Carbonell, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    An important step in the production of printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) is the postsolder removal of flux residues from the surface. Traditionally, this has been accomplished using CFC-113-based solutions, but the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Acts have forced the development of alternative cleaners. This is a study of the mechanisms by which aqueous solutions of a nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol mono-n-dodecyl either (C{sub 12}E{sub 5})) remove films of flux residues (abietic acid in isopropyl alcohol) from PWA surfaces. Cleaning rates were studied in a rotating disk apparatus to control hydrodynamic conditions. The cleaning process followed a three-step mechanism. In the first stage, surfactant liquefies the organic by partitioning into the film. In the second and third stages, shear stresses at the PWA surface remove aggregates of the surfactant-laden liquefied AA from the bulk AA film and the PWA substrate, respectively.

  12. Column Experiments Investigating Wetting and Drying of Soil and Consumption of Organic Contaminants for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Schueth, C.; Wefer-Roehl, A.; Kuebeck, C.

    2014-12-01

    The EU FP7 project MARSOL seeks to address water scarcity challenges in arid regions. Within this framework, we conduct a series of experiments to evaluate the potential for water quality improvement and changes in hydraulic conductivity when managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is performed by infiltrating treated wastewater in soils that do not have high potential for sorption. For example, in the Attica (Athens and vicinity) region of Greece, the bedrock is mostly marble, resulting in calcite-rich soils that present little potential for sorption of contaminants to mineral surfaces. This leaves consumption of organic contaminants by microbes as the critical mechanism for water quality improvement, when treated wastewater is infiltrated through such soils. In order to enhance the potential for contaminant consumption by aerobic bacteria in a way that would be realistic to later perform in an infiltration basin, we conduct experiments using a series of wetting and drying cycles. The experimental setup consists of 90-cm long soil columns, fitted with oxygen sensors, time-domain reflectometry sensors (to measure moisture content), sampling ports, oxidation-reduction probes, and head observation tubes. We use the data collected from these sensors and features of the experimental setup to answer the following questions: 1. Does hydraulic conductivity change, from formation of a biofilm or dissolution of calcite (or both)? 2. Are organic contaminants consumed? 3. What effect do wetting and drying cycles have on consumption of organic contaminants? 4. How long can infiltration of treated wastewater last, before oxygen is consumed and conditions become reducing? These questions are investigated by observing the hydraulic head and outflow, performing tracer tests, taking samples from the sampling ports and outflow for chemical analyses, and measuring moisture content and oxygen concentration, in the course of performing multiple wetting and drying cycles. These column experiments will be used to evaluate the potential for new MAR applications in areas facing water scarcity challenges. In the future the experiments will be expanded to test multiple soils and optimize both the soil type and infiltration patterns in order to best obtain water quality improvements through MAR.

  13. Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction. PMID:24550123

  14. Experimental study of pharmacokinetics of external, whole-body bathing application of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Komoda, Masayo; Akagi, Keita; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    As a novel method improving the safety of conventional oral ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we conceived an idea called the "whole-body bathing method". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. To evaluate the feasibility of the method, we investigated the IVM concentration in the skin and plasma after bathing rats in a fluid containing 100 ng/mL of IVM. After the bathing, the concentration of IVM in the skin was more than 400 ng/g wet weight and was maintained until 8 h after the bathing. The concentration was clearly higher than that in patients taking IVM p.o. as previously reported; IVM was not detected in plasma in the present study. Thus, the method would be a preferable drug delivery system for the skin application of IVM compared with p.o. administration. PMID:25492083

  15. Different early rearing experiences have long term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Stephanie L.; Bennett, Allyson J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition, however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that mother-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain morphology in chimpanzees and suggests potential differences in the development of white matter expansion and myelination. PMID:24206013

  16. Motivation to dust-bathe of laying hens housed in cages and in aviaries.

    PubMed

    Colson, S; Arnould, C; Michel, V

    2007-03-01

    New housing systems for commercial egg production, furnished cages and non-cage systems, should improve the welfare of laying hens. In particular, thanks to the presence of a litter area, these new housing systems are thought to satisfy the dust-bathing motivation of hens more than in conventional cages, in which no litter area is present. However, although apparently obvious, there is no concrete evidence that non-cage systems, particularly aviaries, satisfy hens' motivation to dust-bathe and thus improve hens' welfare in terms of dust-bathing behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare hens' dust-bathing motivation when housed for a long time under similar conditions to commercial conditions in laying aviaries (with litter) and in conventional cages (without litter). Three treatments were compared: hens reared in floor pens then housed in conventional cages, hens reared in furnished floor pens then housed in a laying aviary, and hens reared in rearing aviaries then housed in a laying aviary. All three treatments provided access to litter during the rearing period. After transfer to the laying systems, access to litter was maintained for the aviary hens but stopped for the cage hens. Twelve groups of four hens per treatment were tested 36 to 43 weeks after transfer. The hens were placed in sawdust-filled testing arenas, and latency to dust-bathe, duration and number of dust baths, and number of hens dust-bathing were recorded. Latency to dust-bathe was shorter, dust baths were longer and more numerous and more hens dust-bathed among cage hens than among aviary hens. Our results indicate that hens' motivation to dust-bathe was more satisfied in laying aviaries than in conventional cages. Thus, laying aviaries improve hens' welfare in term of dust-bathing behaviour compared with conventional cages. PMID:22444341

  17. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. PMID:25307048

  18. Forced gradient infiltration experiments: effect on the release processes of mobile particles and organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagels, B.; Reichel, K.; Totsche, K. U.

    2009-04-01

    Mobile colloidal and suspended matter is likely to affect themobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the unsaturatedsoil zone at contaminated sites. We studied the release of mobile (organic) particles (MOPs), which include among others dissolved and colloidal organic matter in response to forced sprinkling infiltration and multiple flow interrupts using undisturbed zero-tensionlysimeters. The aim was to assess the effect of these MOPs on the exportof PAHs and other contaminants in floodplain soils. Seepage water samples were analyzed for dissolvedand colloidal organic carbon (DOC), PAH, suspended particles, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity,zeta potential and surface tension in the fraction smaller 0.7 m. In additional selected PAH were analysed in the size fraction > 0.7 m. Bromide was used as a conservative tracer to determine the flow regime. First arrival of bromide was detected 3.8 hours after start of irrigation. The concentration gradually increased and reached a level of C/C0=0.1 just before the flow interrupt (FI). After flow was resumed, effluent bromide concentration was equal to the concentration before the FI. Ongoing irrigation caused a breakthrough wave, which continuously increased until the bromide concentration reached ~100% of the input concentration. A high-intensity rain event of 4 L m -2 h-1 upon summer-dried lysimeters results in a release of particles in a the size of 250-400 nm. In addition it seems that with the initial exported seepage water surface-active agents are released which is indicated by the decrease of the surface to 60 mN m-1 (Pure water: 72mN m-1). The turbidity values range from 8-14 FAU. The concentration of DOC is about 30-40 mg L-1 in the initial effluent fractions and equilibrates to 15 mg L-1 with ongoing percolation. The PAHs in the fraction < 0.7 m amount to 0.02 g L-1, and 0.05 g L-1 in the fraction > 0.7 m. After establishing steady state flow conditions, first arrival of bromide was detected after 6 hours of irrigation. If uniform flow at water-saturated conditions were assumed, first arrival of bromide would be expected not earlier than 16 hours (approx. 0.3 pv) after start of irrigation. The much earlier arrival points to the fact, that transport along preferential flow paths controls part of the bromide transport. Round 30% of the total infiltrated solution remains in the lysimeter and might comprise ~ 70% of the water holding capacity of the micro- and mesopores (equivalent pore diameter < 0.2 m and 200- 0.3 m, resp.). Flow and transport in response to the simulated heavy rain event seem to be controlled by the macropores. This in turn affects the release of PAHs, in particular those associated with particles. Singular events, like the studied heavy rain events, drying/rewetting or freezing/thawing cycles seem to be the most prominent trigger of PAH mobilization and transport in surface soil horizon not only at floodplain sites.

  19. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  20. Organization of Hospital Nursing, Provision of Nursing Care, and Patient Experiences With Care in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bruyneel, Luk; Li, Baoyue; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Dumitrescu, Irina; Smith, Herbert L.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Aiken, Linda H.; Sermeus, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates previously isolated findings of nursing outcomes research into an explanatory framework in which care left undone and nurse education levels are of key importance. A moderated mediation analysis of survey data from 11,549 patients and 10,733 nurses in 217 hospitals in eight European countries shows that patient care experience is better in hospitals with better nurse staffing and a more favorable work environment in which less clinical care is left undone. Clinical care left undone is a mediator in this relationship. Clinical care is left undone less frequently in hospitals with better nurse staffing and more favorable nurse work environments, and in which nurses work less overtime and are more experienced. Higher proportions of nurses with a bachelor’s degree reduce the effect of worse nurse staffing on more clinical care left undone. PMID:26062612

  1. Organization of Hospital Nursing, Provision of Nursing Care, and Patient Experiences With Care in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, Luk; Li, Baoyue; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Dumitrescu, Irina; Smith, Herbert L; Sloane, Douglas M; Aiken, Linda H; Sermeus, Walter

    2015-12-01

    This study integrates previously isolated findings of nursing outcomes research into an explanatory framework in which care left undone and nurse education levels are of key importance. A moderated mediation analysis of survey data from 11,549 patients and 10,733 nurses in 217 hospitals in eight European countries shows that patient care experience is better in hospitals with better nurse staffing and a more favorable work environment in which less clinical care is left undone. Clinical care left undone is a mediator in this relationship. Clinical care is left undone less frequently in hospitals with better nurse staffing and more favorable nurse work environments, and in which nurses work less overtime and are more experienced. Higher proportions of nurses with a bachelor's degree reduce the effect of worse nurse staffing on more clinical care left undone. PMID:26062612

  2. Synthesis and Resolution of the Atropisomeric 1,1'-Bi-2-Naphthol: An Experiment in Organic Synthesis and 2-D NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kendrew K. W.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is presented. It is seen that the experiment regarding the synthesis and resolution of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphtol presents a good experiment for teaching organic synthesis and NMR spectroscopy and provides a strategy for obtaining enantiopure compounds from achiral starting materials.

  3. Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

  4. Understanding Small-Molecule Interactions in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Coupling Experiment with Theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Britt, David K; Brown, Craig M; Haranczyk, Maciej; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Smit, Berend; Long, Jeffrey R; Queen, Wendy L

    2015-10-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained much attention as next-generation porous media for various applications, especially gas separation/storage, and catalysis. New MOFs are regularly reported; however, to develop better materials in a timely manner for specific applications, the interactions between guest molecules and the internal surface of the framework must first be understood. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is presented, which proves essential for the elucidation of small-molecule interactions in a model MOF system known as M2 (dobdc) (dobdc(4-) = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, or Zn), a material whose adsorption properties can be readily tuned via chemical substitution. It is additionally shown that the study of extensive families like this one can provide a platform to test the efficacy and accuracy of developing computational methodologies in slightly varying chemical environments, a task that is necessary for their evolution into viable, robust tools for screening large numbers of materials. PMID:26033176

  5. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

  6. Charge Photogeneration Experiments and Theory in Aggregated Squaraine Donor Materials for Improved Organic Solar Cell Efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Susan Demetra

    Fossil fuel consumption has a deleterious effect on humans, the economy, and the environment. Renewable energy technologies must be identified and commercialized as quickly as possible so that the transition to renewables can happen at a minimum of financial and societal cost. Organic photovoltaic cells offer an inexpensive and disruptive energy technology, if the scientific challenges of understanding charge photogeneration in a bulk heterojunction material can be overcome. At RIT, there is a strong focus on creating new materials that can both offer fundamentally important scientific results relating to quantum photophysics, and simultaneously assist in the development of strong candidates for future commercialized technology. In this presentation, the results of intensive materials characterization of a series of squaraine small molecule donors will be presented, as well as a full study of the fabrication and optimization required to achieve >4% photovoltaic cell efficiency. A relationship between the molecular structure of the squaraine and its ability to form nanoscale aggregates will be explored. Squaraine aggregation will be described as a unique optoelectronic probe of the structure of the bulk heterojunction. This relationship will then be utilized to explain changes in crystallinity that impact the overall performance of the devices. Finally, a predictive summary will be given for the future of donor material research at RIT.

  7. Non-defendable resources affect peafowl lek organization: a male removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Jalme, Michel Saint; Sorci, Gabriele

    2007-01-10

    A lekking mating system is typically thought to be non-resource based with male providing nothing to females but genes. However, males are thought to clump their display sites on areas where they are more likely to encounter females, which may depend on non-defendable resource location. We tested this hypothesis on a feral population of peacocks. In agreement, we found that, within the lek, display site proximity to food resources had an effect on female visitation rate and male mating success. The attractiveness of display sites to male intruders was explained by the distance to the feeding place and by the female visitation rate. We randomly removed 29 territorial males from their display sites. Display sites that were more attractive to male intruders before removal remained highly attractive after removal and display sites closer to the feeding area attracted the attention of intruders significantly more after removal. Similarly, display sites that were more visited by females before removal remained more visited after removal, suggesting again that the likelihood of encountering females is determined by the display site location. Overall, these results are in agreement with non-defendable resources affecting lek spatial organization in the peafowl. PMID:17074448

  8. Genomic Insights into Methanotrophy: The Complete Genome Sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15383840

  9. Direct Observation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation during Cloud Condensation-Evaporation Cycles (SOAaq) in Simulation Chamber Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doussin, J. F.; Bregonzio-Rozier, L.; Giorio, C.; Siekmann, F.; Gratien, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Pangui, E.; Tapparo, A.; Kalberer, M.; Monod, A.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) undergo many reactions in the atmosphere and form a wide range of oxidised and water-soluble compounds. These compounds can partition into atmospheric water droplets, and react within the aqueous phase producing higher molecular weight and/or less volatile compounds which can remain in the particle phase after water evaporation and thus increase the organic aerosol mass (Ervens et al., 2011; Altieri et al., 2008; Couvidat et al., 2013). While this hypothesis is frequently discussed in the literature, so far, almost no direct observations of such a process have been provided.The aim of the present work is to study SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation during cloud condensation-evaporation cycles.The experiments were performed during the CUMULUS project (CloUd MULtiphase chemistry of organic compoUndS in the troposphere), in the CESAM simulation chamber located at LISA. CESAM is a 4.2 m3 stainless steel chamber equipped with realistic irradiation sources and temperature and relative humidity (RH) controls (Wang et al., 2011). In each experiment, isoprene was allowed to oxidize during several hours in the presence on nitrogen oxides under dry conditions. Gas phase compounds were analyzed on-line by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), NOx and O3 analyzers. SOA formation was monitored on-line with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The experimental protocol was optimised to generate cloud events in the simulation chamber, which allowed us to generate clouds lasting for ca. 10 minutes in the presence of light.In all experiments, we observed that during cloud formation, water-soluble gas-phase oxidation products (e.g., methylglyoxal, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and glycolaldehyde) readily partitioned into cloud droplets and new SOA mass was promptly produced which partly persisted after cloud evaporation. Chemical composition, elemental ratios and density of SOA, measured with the HR-ToF-AMS, were compared before, during cloud formation and after cloud evaporation.

  10. Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport of the respective compounds. Concentrations of almost all micropollutants decreased with increasing soil passage. However, since compounds transported by processes 2 & 3 can be re-mobilized by changing water chemistry, the importance of a diligent characterisation of aquifer material and raw water is apparent for risk assessment. The experiments were conducted within the context of the project GABARDINE, funded by the European Commission.

  11. How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

    2011-09-01

    PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via "calls for proposals", which are sent out each half year via the "Digital User Office (DUO)" (see http://duo.web.psi.ch). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the "Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)" consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time allocation is handled more directly and in time in order to fulfill the companies' demands. Here, the confidentiality plays a more important role than in scientific studies that are done with the aim of a free publication. It has been possible to earn money regularly from the industrial projects in order to cover the salary cost of some positions within the NIAG group. The permanent improvement of the methodology and performance in neutron imaging is a third major activity of the NIAG team. Running projects in this direction are the permanent insert of a grating interferometry device, improved energy selection with the help of single graphite crystals and utilization of the beam line BOA at SINQ for the energy range between 4 and 15 Å.

  12. Experience with Fosfomycin for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Sekeres, Jennifer; Hall, Gerri S.; van Duin, David

    2012-01-01

    Fosfomycin has shown promising in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary pathogens; however, clinical data are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with MDR pathogens treated with fosfomycin tromethamine. Charts for 41 hospitalized patients with a urine culture for an MDR pathogen who received fosfomycin tromethamine from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed. Forty-one patients had 44 urinary pathogens, including 13 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp), 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates, 7 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 9 others. In vitro fosfomycin susceptibility was 86% (median MIC, 16 ?g/ml; range, 0.25 to 1,024 ?g/ml). Patients received an average of 2.9 fosfomycin doses per treatment course. The overall microbiological cure was 59%; failure was due to either relapse (24%) or reinfection UTI (17%). Microbiological cure rates by pathogen were 46% for CR-Kp, 38% for P. aeruginosa, 71% for VRE, 57% for ESBL producers, and 100% for others. Microbiological cure (n = 24) was compared to microbiological failure (n = 17). There were significantly more solid organ transplant recipients in the microbiological failure group (59% versus 21%; P = 0.02). None of the patients in the microbiological cure group had a ureteral stent, compared to 24% of patients within the microbiological failure group (P = 0.02). Fosfomycin demonstrated in vitro activity against UTIs due to MDR pathogens. For CR-KP, there was a divergence between in vitro susceptibility (92%) and microbiological cure (46%). Multiple confounding factors may have contributed to microbiological failures, and further data regarding the use of fosfomycin for UTIs due to MDR pathogens are needed. PMID:22926565

  13. Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Alan D.; Selby, David; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Houzay, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of the 187Re-187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re-Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re-Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re-Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental abundance data reveal limited transfer of Re and Os into the bitumen from a Type III kerogen in comparison to Type II-S kerogen (0.02% vs. 3.7%), suggesting that these metals are very tightly bound in Type III kerogen structure. The 187Os/188Os data from the pyrolysis generated Phosphoria bitumens display minor variation (4%) across the experimental temperatures, with values similar to that of the source rock. This indicates that the isotopic composition of the bitumen reflects the isotopic composition of the source rock at the time of petroleum generation. These data further support the premise that the Os isotopic composition of oils and bitumens can be used to fingerprint petroleum deposits to specific source rocks. Oil generated through the hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not contain appreciable quantities of Re or Os (?120 and ?3 ppt, respectively), in contrast to natural oils (2-50 ppb and 34-288 ppt for Re and Os, respectively), which may suggest that kinetic parameters are fundamental to the transfer of Re and Os from source rocks to oils. From this we hypothesise that, at the temperatures employed in hydrous pyrolysis, Re and Os are assimilated into the extracted rock as a result of cross-linking reactions.

  14. Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, A.D.; Selby, D.; Lewan, M.D.; Lillis, P.G.; Houzay, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of the 187Re–187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re–Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re–Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re–Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental abundance data reveal limited transfer of Re and Os into the bitumen from a Type III kerogen in comparison to Type II-S kerogen (0.02% vs. 3.7%), suggesting that these metals are very tightly bound in Type III kerogen structure. The 187Os/188Os data from the pyrolysis generated Phosphoria bitumens display minor variation (4%) across the experimental temperatures, with values similar to that of the source rock. This indicates that the isotopic composition of the bitumen reflects the isotopic composition of the source rock at the time of petroleum generation. These data further support the premise that the Os isotopic composition of oils and bitumens can be used to fingerprint petroleum deposits to specific source rocks. Oil generated through the hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not contain appreciable quantities of Re or Os (~120 and ~3 ppt, respectively), in contrast to natural oils (2–50 ppb and 34–288 ppt for Re and Os, respectively), which may suggest that kinetic parameters are fundamental to the transfer of Re and Os from source rocks to oils. From this we hypothesise that, at the temperatures employed in hydrous pyrolysis, Re and Os are assimilated into the extracted rock as a result of cross-linking reactions.

  15. [Experience in organizing the surgical work of a garrison hospital in an armed conflict].

    PubMed

    Ulunov, A D; Tatarin, S N; Ivantsov, V A; Teslenko, Iu A; Ismailov, R M; Fokin, Iu N; Lukashov, O V

    2000-02-01

    The authors have summarized organizational experience of surgical work of garrison military hospital strengthened with specialized brigades during the period of armed conflict in Republic of Dagestan (August-September, 1999). From the start of active actions in order to render assistance specialized surgical teams from district military hospital equipped with special kits (at the rate of 7 operations/day during a week) were sent to garrison hospital. In this armed conflict there are features characterising both mine-and-explosive war in Afghanistan and sniper war in Chechen Republic resulting in increase in the number of seriously wounded (up to 46.7%) casualties during Botlikhski? operation constituted 1:4, Novolakski? (Kadarski?)--1:5. Bullet injuries were fatal in 49.4% of the cases, fragmentation (including MET)--50.6%. During 1.5 month of hospital work there were performed 303 surgical interventions. 22.7% of slightly wounded from local garrisons were treated in garrison hospitals. Treatment results--postoperative lethality in gunshot trauma at the given stage constituted 1.1%. PMID:10870437

  16. Plant uptake of organic pollutants from soil: bioconcentration estimates based on models and experiments.

    PubMed

    McKone, Thomas E; Maddalena, Randy L

    2007-12-01

    The role of terrestrial vegetation in transferring chemicals from soil and air into specific plant tissues (e.g., stems, leaves, and roots) is still not well characterized. We provide here a critical review of plant-to-soil bioconcentration ratio (BCR) estimates based on models and experimental data. This review includes the conceptual and theoretical formulations of the BCR, constructing and calibrating empirical and mathematical algorithms to describe this ratio and the experimental data used to quantify BCRs and calibrate the model performance. We first evaluate the theoretical basis for the BCR concept and BCR models and consider how lack of knowledge and data limit reliability and consistency of BCR estimates. We next consider alternate modeling strategies for BCR. A key focus of this evaluation is the relative contributions to overall uncertainty from model uncertainty versus variability in the experimental data used to develop and test the models. As a case study, we consider a single chemical, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and focus on variability of bioconcentration measurements obtained from 81 experiments with different plant species, different plant tissues, different experimental conditions, and different methods for reporting concentrations in the soil and plant tissues. We use these observations to evaluate both the magnitude of experimental variability in plant bioconcentration and compare this to model uncertainty. Among these 81 measurements, the variation of the plant-to-soil BCR has a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.5 and a coefficient of variation (CV; i.e., ratio of the arithmetic standard deviation to the mean) of 1.7. These variations are significant but low relative to model uncertainties, which have an estimated GSD of 10, with a corresponding CV of 14. PMID:18020673

  17. Multitracer experiment to evaluate the attenuation of selected organic micropollutants in a karst aquifer.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias

    2015-02-15

    The increasing pressure on drinking water resources necessitates an efficient management of potential and actual drinking water resources. Karst aquifers play a key role in the supply of the world's population with drinking water. Around one quarter of all drinking water is produced from these types of aquifers. Unfortunately due to the aquifer characteristics with extremely high hydraulic conductivities and short residence times, these systems are vulnerable to contamination. For successful management, a fundamental understanding of mass transport and attenuation processes with respect to potential contaminants is vital. In this study, a multitracer experiment was performed in a karst aquifer in SW-Germany for determining the attenuation capacity of a karst environment by assessing the environmental fate of selected relevant micropollutants. Uranine, acesulfame and carbamazepine were injected into a sinkhole as reference tracers together with the reactive compounds atenolol, caffeine, cyclamate, ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen). The breakthrough of the tracers was monitored at a karst spring at a distance of ca. 3 km. The breakthrough curves of the reactive compounds were interpreted relative to the reference substances. No significant retardation was found for any of the investigated micropollutants. The determined half-lives of the reactive compounds range from 38 to 1,400 h (i.e. persistent within the investigation period) in the following order (from high to no observed attenuation): paracetamol>atenolol?ibuprofen>caffeine?cyclamate. The attenuation rates are generally in agreement with studies from other environmental compartments. The occurrence of the biotransformation product atenolol acid served as evidence for in-situ biodegradation within the aquifer system. PMID:25460968

  18. The reaction between solid iron and liquid Al-Zn baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverian, J. H.; Marder, A. R.; Notis, M. R.

    1988-05-01

    The reaction which occurred between iron panels and Al-Zn baths during hot dipping was investigated. Three baths were studied: 45Al-55Zn, 55Al-45Zn, and 75Al-25Zn (in wt pct) in the temperature range of 570 to 655 °C. The reaction between the iron panel and the Al-Zn bath was very severe and in all cases the iron panel was totally consumed by the bath in less than two minutes. The rapid attack of the iron panels by the Al-Zn baths was attributed to two separate causes depending on growth conditions. First, in some panels the intermediate layer which formed between the iron panel and the molten bath was nonadherent. This resulted in the direct contact of the molten bath with the iron panel at a nonequilibrium interface, which presented a large driving force and little inhibition for the reaction. Second, in panels containing an adherent alloy layer, the layer had channels of liquid Zn which extended from the molten bath to the iron panel. These channels allowed rapid transport of Zn and Al to the iron panel which resulted in a very high reaction rate. The controlling step in the reaction between the iron panel and molten Al-Zn bath was the diffusion rate of Al in the molten bath to the surface of the iron panel. The diffusion coefficient of Al in the molten bath was found to be in the range of 1 × 10-5 to 5 × 10-5 cm2/s. Microstructural, electron microprobe, and X-ray diffraction data are presented to support the above-mentioned mechanisms and conclusions.

  19. A convergent adaptive method for elliptic eigenvalue problems and numerical experiments

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    and I.G. Graham Bath Institute For Complex Systems Preprint 14/08 (2008) httpA convergent adaptive method for elliptic eigenvalue problems and numerical experiments S. Giani://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;2 #12;A CONVERGENT ADAPTIVE METHOD FOR ELLIPTIC EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS AND NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS S

  20. Metabolic model of lead kinetics based upon measured organ burdens during chronic exposure experiments with infant and juvenile baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the kinetics of lead metabolism in the infant and juvenile baboon has been developed based upon data from chronic exposure experiments in this non-human primate. The model of lead metabolism presents in quantitative terms the rates of uptake, distribution and elimination that lead may undergo during its passage through the organism. The organs of accumulation are defined as compartments, each of which is defined as a quantity of tissue that behaves kinetically like a distinct, homogeneous, well mixed pool in terms of lead concentration. The flow of lead between the compartments of accumulation is described by a series of differential equations. Elimination rate coefficients, expressed in terms of the biological half-life for each compartment have been estimated. The model describes the observed build-up and accumulation of lead in the major body compartments of the infant and juvenile baboon. The model indicates that: the biological half-life of lead in blood of the very young animals is shorter than that of the older animals; there is a higher rate of uptake of lead in the soft tissues and in the bones of rapidly growing animals; and there is an inverse relationship between the quality of lead administered and the amount of lead absorbed, i.e., as exposure increases the rate of absorption decreases. The model derived for the older animals accurately predicts the accumulation and retention of lead in adult humans under normal exposure conditions.

  1. Asymptotic Bound for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-01

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system.

  2. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium bearing salt baths waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-12-31

    The salt flux issuing from the electrofining of plutonium metal or alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt processes promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on an electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as Cl2 gas followed by its trapping on soda lime cartridge; a complete oxidative dissolution of refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the backend: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions.

  3. Entanglement dynamics of two qubits coupled individually to Ohmic baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Liwei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qing-Hu; Zhao, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Developed originally for the Holstein polaron, the Davydov D1 ansatz is an efficient, yet extremely accurate trial state for time-dependent variation of the spin-boson model [N. Wu, L. Duan, X. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084111 (2013)], 10.1063/1.4792502. In this work, the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational procedure utilizing the Davydov D1 ansatz is implemented to study entanglement dynamics of two qubits under the influence of two independent baths. The Ohmic spectral density is used without the Born-Markov approximation or the rotating-wave approximation. In the strong coupling regime finite-time disentanglement is always found to exist, while at the intermediate coupling regime, the entanglement dynamics calculated by Davydov D1 ansatz displays oscillatory behavior in addition to entanglement disappearance and revival.

  4. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: an emerging designer drug phenomenon.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-02-27

    Synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as 'bath salts', became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that dysregulation of central monoamine systems is a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  5. Asymptotic bound for heat-bath algorithmic cooling.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-13

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system. PMID:25815911

  6. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as ‘bath salts’, became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate dysregulation of central monoamine systems are a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  7. Investigation of spatial distribution of sound field parameters in ultrasound cleaning baths under the influence of cavitation.

    PubMed

    Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Koch, Christian

    2006-12-22

    Ultrasound cleaning baths fitting the full range from micromechanical components up to large machine parts, are regularly used in industry and in the lab. Despite the large number of applications, generally approved principles and objective criteria for parameter settings which allow an efficient operation are non-existent. The empirical selections of the running parameters often impede an optimization in terms of produce and reproducibility. One proposal for an objective description of the processes is the characterization of the sound field in the cleaning bath, which causes cavities, and subsequently, the cleaning process. Sound field measurements in the appropriate frequency range from 20kHz up to more then 1MHz incorporate a number of problems, such as large sensors disturbing the sound field, a lack of accuracy and the risk of being destroyed by cavitation bubbles. Measurement systems based on optical fiber tips and piezo-electrical hydrophones will be presented, which fulfil the accuracy requirements and withstand ultrasound fields with high power and cavitation. The spatial distribution of sound field parameters such as positive and negative peak pressure, amplitudes of fundamentals, harmonics and sub-harmonics as well as the energy density and spectral density in several frequency ranges are determined in experiments. Finally, the determined field parameters are related to the cavitation effects by means of photometric analysis of perforated aluminium foil. Perforations as well as intentions are analyzed and quantified from scanner images of the exposed foil samples using special image processing software. The experiments indicate clear differences in the structure of the sound fields and the spectral properties between the several types of cleaning baths, transducer arrangements and excitations. PMID:16781752

  8. Bath Institute for Complex Systems On Landau theory and symmetric energy landscapes for phase

    E-print Network

    Zimmer, Johannes

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems On Landau theory and symmetric energy landscapes for phase://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;On Landau theory and symmetric energy landscapes for phase transitions Kai Hormann and Johannes complex energy landscapes of phase transitions. For the sake of clarity and brevity the exposition

  9. Effectiveness of Mailing "Bathing without a Battle" to All US Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleson, Diane C.; Sloane, Philip D.; Cohen, Lauren W.

    2006-01-01

    An educational CD-ROM/video program was developed to educate nursing home staff about two research-based techniques for reducing agitation and aggression during bathing of persons with Alzheimer's disease, including person-centered showering and the towel bath. This educational program was distributed free of charge to all 15,453 US nursing homes…

  10. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  11. Bath Institute for Complex Systems Decay at infinity for parabolic equations

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems Decay at infinity for parabolic equations Oliver C. Schn://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;#12;DECAY AT INFINITY FOR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS OLIVER C. SCHN ¨URER AND HARTMUT R. SCHWETLICK infinity. For a class of advection-diffusion equations with a spa- tially dependent velocity field, we

  12. Copper sulfate foot baths on dairies and crop toxicities – What are the risks?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  13. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities – What are the Risks?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  14. Bath Institute for Complex Systems Young measure flow as a model for damage

    E-print Network

    Zimmer, Johannes

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems Young measure flow as a model for damage Marc Oliver Rieger://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;Young measure flow as a model for damage Marc Oliver Rieger and Johannes Zimmer Abstract Models. Connections are made to recent variational models for fracture. Keywords Young measures, varifolds, damage

  15. Coherence and Control of Quantum Registers Based on Electronic Spin in a Nuclear Spin Bath

    E-print Network

    Hodges, Jonathan S.

    We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as ...

  16. Comments on Extraction of Work from a Single Thermal Bath in the Quantum Regime

    E-print Network

    Elias P. Gyftopoulos; Michael R. von Spakovsky

    2007-06-20

    In a PRL [1], the authors claim to show that "the Clausius inequality can be violated, and that it is even possible to extract work from a thermal bath by cyclic variations of a parameter ("perpetuum mobile"), and that the physical cause for this behavior is traced back to quantum coherence in the presence of the nonequilibrium bath (sic)".

  17. Comments on Extraction of Work from a Single Thermal Bath in the Quantum Regime

    E-print Network

    Gyftopoulos, Elias P

    2007-01-01

    In a PRL [1], the authors claim to show that "the Clausius inequality can be violated, and that it is even possible to extract work from a thermal bath by cyclic variations of a parameter ("perpetuum mobile"), and that the physical cause for this behavior is traced back to quantum coherence in the presence of the nonequilibrium bath (sic)".

  18. Averaged master equation for a quantum system coupled to a heat bath with fluctuating energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Elmar G.

    1998-01-01

    A master equation for a quantum system coupled to a heat bath with stochastically fluctuating energy levels is derived by making use of the ensemble averaging and the averaging with respect to a stochastic process in the bath. Relaxation terms are determined in the Born approximation with respect to the system-bath interaction and the damping parameters related to a relaxation kernel are specified. In parallel with the spectral strength of the bath, the damping parameters determine the transient times for the Markovian description creating the physical origin of the slippage [A. Suarez, R. Sibey, and I. Oppenheim, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5101 (1992)]. The influence of energy fluctuations of the bath is analyzed for a two-level system including the solution of the corresponding non-Markovian equation for the level population difference. The conditions for the formation of Boltzmann's thermal ratio between steady-state populations are evaluated as well.

  19. Toward a Full Simulation of the Basic Oxygen Furnace: Deformation of the Bath Free Surface and Coupled Transfer Processes Associated with the Post-Combustion in the Gas Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Djambazov, G.; Pericleous, K.; Ghazal, G.; Gardin, P.

    2013-06-01

    The present article treats different phenomena taking place in a steelmaking converter through the development of two separate models. The first model describes the cavity produced at the free surface of the metal bath by the high-speed impinging oxygen jet. The model is based on a zonal approach, where gas compressibility effects are taken into account only in the high velocity jet region, while elsewhere the gas is treated as incompressible. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to follow the deformation of the bath free surface. Calculations are presented for two- and three-phase systems and compared against experimental data obtained in a cold model experiment presented in the literature. The influence on the size and shape of the cavity of various parameters and models (including the jet inlet boundary conditions, the VOF advection scheme, and the turbulence model) is studied. Next, the model is used to simulate the interaction of a supersonic oxygen jet with the surface of a liquid steel bath in a pilot-scale converter. The second model concentrates on fluid flow, heat transfer, and the post-combustion reaction in the gas phase above the metal bath. The model uses the simple chemical reaction scheme approach to describe the transport of the chemical species and takes into account the consumption of oxygen by the bath and thermal radiative transfer. The model predictions are in reasonable agreement with measurements collected in a laboratory experiment and in a pilot-scale furnace.

  20. ["Risk factors for childhood depression"--research design, implementation, proceedings: history of 13 years: experience in grant preparation, writing, organization in connection with an American NIMH Grant].

    PubMed

    Vetró, Agnes; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Besnyo, Márta; Csorba, János; Daróczy, Gabriella; Dombóvári, Edit; Kiss, Eniko; Gádoros, Jmúlia; Kaczvinszky, Emília; Kapornai, Krisztina; Mayer, László; Rimay, Tímea; Skultéty, Dóra; Szabó, Krisztina; Tamás, Zsuzsanna; Székely, Judit; Kovács, Mária

    2009-01-01

    The authors summarize their experiences in research organization accumulated during 13 years. At first they outline preliminary studies which are prerequisites of high prestige international grants. Then they describe the huge administrative apparatus dedicated - besides skilled professionals - for the construction and organization of the research, the management, continuous checking and evaluation of data in such a multisite study. Finally, they report on the scientific results obtained after 13 years of hard work. PMID:19542566

  1. Dinitrogen fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen fueled primary production and particulate export during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, H.; Moutin, T.; L'Helguen, S.; Leblanc, K.; Hélias, S.; Grosso, O.; Leblond, N.; Charrière, B.; Bonnet, S.

    2015-07-01

    In the oligotrophic ocean characterized by nitrate (NO3-) depletion in surface waters, dinitrogen (N2) fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can represent significant nitrogen (N) sources for the ecosystem. In this study, we deployed large in situ mesocosms in New Caledonia in order to investigate (1) the contribution of N2 fixation and DON use to primary production (PP) and particle export and (2) the fate of the freshly produced particulate organic N (PON), i.e., whether it is preferentially accumulated and recycled in the water column or exported out of the system. The mesocosms were fertilized with phosphate (PO43-) in order to prevent phosphorus (P) limitation and promote N2 fixation. The diazotrophic community was dominated by diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs) during the first part of the experiment for 10 days (P1) followed by the unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria UCYN-C for the last 9 days (P2) of the experiment. N2 fixation rates averaged 9.8 ± 4.0 and 27.7 ± 8.6 nmol L-1 d-1 during P1 and P2, respectively. NO3- concentrations (< 0.04 ?mol L-1) in the mesocosms were a negligible source of N, indicating that N2 fixation was the main driver of new production throughout the experiment. The contribution of N2 fixation to PP was not significantly different (p > 0.05) during P1 (9.0 ± 3.3 %) and P2 (12.6 ± 6.1 %). However, the e ratio that quantifies the efficiency of a system to export particulate organic carbon (POCexport) compared to PP (e ratio = POCexport/PP) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P2 (39.7 ± 24.9 %) than during P1 (23.9 ± 20.2 %), indicating that the production sustained by UCYN-C was more efficient at promoting C export than the production sustained by DDAs. During P1, PON was stable and the total amount of N provided by N2 fixation (0.10 ± 0.02 ?mol L-1) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the total amount of PON exported (0.10 ± 0.04 ?mol L-1), suggesting a rapid and probably direct export of the recently fixed N2 by the DDAs. During P2, both PON concentrations and PON export increased in the mesocosms by a factor 1.5-2. Unlike in P1, this PON production was not totally explained by the new N provided by N2 fixation. The use of DON, whose concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 5.3 ± 0.5 ?mol L-1 to 4.4 ± 0.5 ?mol L-1, appeared to be the missing N source. The DON consumption (~ 0.9 ?mol L-1) during P2 is higher than the total amount of new N brought by N2 fixation (~ 0.25 ?mol L-1) during the same period. These results suggest that while DDAs mainly rely on N2 fixation for their N requirements, both N2 fixation and DON can be significant N sources for primary production and particulate export following UCYN-C blooms in the New Caledonia lagoon and by extension in the N-limited oceans where similar events are likely to occur.

  2. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area. 334.782 Section 334...REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted...

  3. Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Nicole S; Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2010-07-01

    A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2-3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (Delta(14)C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO(2) efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Delta(14)C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO(2) sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45-55 cm thaw depth), while CO(2) from the ambient snow areas was approximately 100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration Delta(14)C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO(2) in the atmosphere. PMID:20084398

  4. Distribution of Phytoplankton and Particulate Organic Carbon in the Beaufort Sea during the 2014 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yang, E. J.; Cetinic, I.; Kang, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon in the newly emerging marginal ice zone in the Beaufort Sea are assessed from autonomous Seaglider surveys in summer 2014 as part of the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) Experiment, an international project sponsored by ONR. In late July 2014 four Seagliders were deployed in the Beaufort Sea to follow the retreat of the MIZ. Sampling in open water, through the MIZ and under the ice is expected through mid-September, with gliders navigating under ice from moored acoustic sound sources embedded in the MIZ autonomous observing array. The sensor suite carried by Seagliders include temperature, temperature microstructure, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, and multi-spectral downwelling irradiance. A rigorous sensor inter-calibration program with simultaneous ship CTD and glider profiles is an essential component of glider deployment and recovery protocol, as well as during opportunistic glider encounters with the IBRV Araon during August. Ship-based water sampling will allow construction of regional libraries of optical proxies for chlorophyll, pigment spectral absorption coefficient, and particulate organic carbon. Since irradiance under the ice is dependent on ice thickness and presence of melt ponds and leads, phytoplankton distribution is expected to vary spatially. Both the vertical and horizontal distributions of pigment spectral absorption coefficients are expected to play a role in the feedback between phytoplankton and ice melt. Glider data will allow us to apply a light and chlorophyll primary productivity model to estimate and compare phytoplankton productivity under various ice-cover and ice-free conditions.

  5. Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment

    PubMed Central

    Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2–3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (?14C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO2 efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. ?14C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO2 sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45–55 cm thaw depth), while CO2 from the ambient snow areas was ~100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration ?14C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO2 in the atmosphere. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-009-1556-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20084398

  6. Climate effect on soil enzyme activities and dissolved organic carbon in mountain calcareous soils: a soil-transplant experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, Jérémy; Cécillon, Lauric; Mills, Robert T. E.; Gavazov, Konstantin; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Brun, Jean-Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Mountain soils store huge amounts of carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) which may be highly vulnerable to the strong climate changes that mountain areas currently experience worldwide. Climate modifications are expected to impact microbial activity which could change the rate of SOM decomposition/accumulation, thereby questioning the net C source/sink character of mountain soils. To simulate future climate change expected in the 21st century in the calcareous pre-Alps, 15 blocks (30 cm deep) of undisturbed soil were taken from a mountain pasture located at 1400 m a.s.l. (Marchairuz, Jura, Switzerland) and transplanted into lysimeters at the same site (control) and at two other sites located at 1000 m a.s.l. and 600 m a.s.l. (5 replicates per site). This transplantation experiment which started in 2009 simulates a climate warming with a temperature increase of 4° C and a decreased humidity of 40 % at the lowest site. In this study, we used soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) as functional indicators of SOM decomposition to evaluate the effect of climate change on microbial activity and SOM dynamics along the seasons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also measured to quantify the assimilable carbon for microorganism. In autumn 2012, a first sampling step out of four (winter, spring and summer 2013) has been realized. We extracted 15 cm deep soil cores from each transplant (x15) and measured (i) DOC and (ii) the activities of nine different enzymes. Enzymes were chosen to represent the degradation of the most common classes of biogeochemical compounds in SOM. ?-glucosidase, ?-D-cellubiosidase, ?-Xylosidase, N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase, lipase, phenoloxidase respectively represented the degradation of sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and lignin. Moreover, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was used to provide an estimate of global microbial activity and phosphatase was used to estimate phosphorus mineralization. The autumn results showed no differences for global microbial activity along the climate gradient (0.37 nKatal g-1 dry soil), no differences and a very low activity for leucine aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase and ?-Xylosidase (about 0.09 nKatal g-1 dry soil) and no differences for cellulose, chitin and phosphorus mineralization. Conversely, we measured a greater activity at the highest elevation site for lipase and phenoloxydase (ANOVA test, p

  7. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  8. Acid Cleaning Labware Procedure Personal Protective Equipment: When preparing or using the acid bath long pants, closed

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    . Prepare acid bath: 10% hydrochloric, or 10% nitric acid. · Add 9 parts Milli-Q water to bath containerAcid Cleaning Labware Procedure Personal Protective Equipment: When preparing or using the acid bath long pants, closed toed shoes, lab coat, safety glasses, and gloves must be worn. Thick blue acid

  9. Microbial and nutrient pollution of coastal bathing waters in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Daby, D; Turner, J; Jago, C

    2002-02-01

    The coastal pollution problem in Mauritius is exacerbated by the hydrogeology of the volcanic substratum. Bacterial contamination of bathing waters and nutrients, water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at three different spatial and temporal scales along the coastline of Mauritius during 1997-1998. Standard techniques for water sample collection and analysis set by the American Public Health Association [APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Washington, DC: APHA, 1995.] were used at: (a) 16 sites around the island over a period of 7 months; (b) 12 stations along a recreational beach over an 18-month period; and (c) at an underground freshwater seepage point over 1 day. Total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), and faecal streptococci (FS) contamination reported during all surveys varied randomly (e.g., with maximum densities in the ranges of 346-2020 TC, 130-2000 FC, and 180-1040 FS at one site) and at times exceeded the established EEC and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) standards for bathing water (e.g., in >90% of samples) to qualify for beach closure. Computed FC:FS ratios were used to pinpoint human faecal matter as the main source of contamination. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations in seepage water were high (3600-9485, 38-105, and 9950-24,775 microg l(-1), respectively) and a cause for concern when compared with levels (5-845, 5-72, and 35-6570 microg l(-1), respectively) in cleaner lagoon water samples. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (for TC and NO3: r=.75, P<.02; for TC and PO4: r=.779, P<.02; for TC and SiO4: r=.731, P<.05; for FC and NO3: r=.773, P<.02; for FC and SiO4: r=.727, P<.05; for FS and SiO4: r=.801 P<.01) between microbial densities and nutrients recorded, confirming the pathogen-contaminated water to be highly eutrophic. There is an urgency for Mauritius to properly address the issue of sewage treatment and wastewater discharge to safeguard its coastal environment, public health, and tourism expansion. PMID:11868664

  10. Farmers' valuation of incentives to produce genetically modified organism-free milk: Insights from a discrete choice experiment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, J A; Latacz-Lohmann, U

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in a genetically modified organism (GMO)-free milk production scheme offered by some German dairy companies. The empirical analysis is based upon discrete choice experiments with 151 dairy farmers from 2 regions in Germany. A conditional logit estimation reveals a strong positive effect of the price premium on offer. Reliable feed monitoring and free technical support increase the likelihood of scheme adoption, the latter however only in farms that have been receiving technical support in other fields. By contrast, any interference with the entrepreneurial autonomy of farmers, through pre-arranged feed procurement or prescriptive advice on the part of the dairy company, lowers acceptance probabilities. Farmers' attitudes toward cultivation of genetically modified soy, their assessment of the market potential of GMO-free milk and future feed prices were found to be significant determinants of adoption, as are farmer age, educational status, and current feeding regimens. Respondents requested on average a mark-up of 0.80 eurocents per kilogram of milk to accept a contract. Comparison of the estimates for the 2 regions suggests that farmers in northern Germany are, on average, more likely to convert to genetically modified-free production; however, farmers in the south are, ceteris paribus, more responsive to an increase in the price premium offered. A latent class model reveals significant differences in the valuation of scheme attributes between 2 latent classes of adopters and nonadopters. PMID:26342979

  11. [The experience in organizing the medical support of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War on the northern maritime theater].

    PubMed

    Chernikov, O G; Cherny?, V S; Mishin, Iu A; Soshkin, P A; Fisun, A V

    2014-05-01

    The medical support of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War had a number of features. The Intensity of power of the fighting, the meteorological conditions, the composition of convoy's forces, the kind of enemy's weapon - had a significant impact on the structure of losses in personnel. The main type of medical care on the ships of 2-3rd rank was predoctor care. On the large and small antisubmarine ships and torpedo boats - it was first aid. The factor which has been affecting the amount of assistance - was a one-time inflow of a significant number of victims. Medical-evacuation provision of the convoys was carried out by the ships medical service without the use of amplification and sanitary ships. The most part of the wounded were taken to the coastal fleet hospitals later than 12 hours after the wound. The war experience has shown that in the distant convoys qualified surgical assistance may be provided in case of organizing it in this convoy and in case of using high-speed vehicles. PMID:25286561

  12. Investigation of “Bath Salts” Use Patterns Within an Online Sample of Users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Bath salts” are synthetic stimulant “legal highs” that have recently been banned in the U.S. Epidemiological data regarding bath salts use are limited. In the present study, 113 individuals in the U.S. reporting use of bath salts completed an anonymous, online survey characterizing demographic, experiential, and psychological variables. Respondents were more often male, 18–24 years old, and Caucasian/white with some college education. Past year use was typically low (? 10 days), but marked by repeated dosing. Intranasal was the most frequently reported administration route and subjective effects were similar to other stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines). Bath salts use was associated with increased sexual desire and sexual HIV risk behavior, and met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for disordered use in more than half of respondents. Bath salts use persists in the U.S. despite federal bans of cathinone-like constituents. Self-reported stimulant-like effects of bath salts suggest their use as substitutes for traditional illicit stimulants. Data revealed more normative outcomes vis-à-vis extreme accounts by media and medical case reports. However, indications of product abuse potential and sexual risk remain, suggesting bath salts pose potential public health harm. PMID:25364987

  13. Investigation of "bath salts" use patterns within an online sample of users in the United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    "Bath salts" are synthetic stimulant "legal highs" that have recently been banned in the US. Epidemiological data regarding bath salts use are limited. In the present study, 113 individuals in the US reporting use of bath salts completed an anonymous, online survey characterizing demographic, experiential, and psychological variables. Respondents were more often male, 18-24 years old, and Caucasian/White with some college education. Past-year use was typically low (? 10 days), but marked by repeated dosing. Intranasal was the most frequently reported administration route and subjective effects were similar to other stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines). Bath salts use was associated with increased sexual desire and sexual HIV risk behavior, and met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for disordered use in more than half of respondents. Bath salts use persists in the US despite federal bans of cathinone-like constituents. Self-reported stimulant-like effects of bath salts suggest their use as substitutes for traditional illicit stimulants. Data revealed more normative outcomes vis-à-vis extreme accounts by media and medical case reports. However, indications of product abuse potential and sexual risk remain, suggesting bath salts pose potential public health harm. PMID:25364987

  14. On the energy efficiency of microwave-assisted organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Razzaq, Tahseen; Kappe, C Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The energy consumed for four different organic transformations carried out under microwave and conventional heating under otherwise identical reaction conditions was measured with the aid of a Wattmeter. In the case of open-vessel reflux processing, microwave dielectric heating required significantly more energy than conventional techniques using oil baths or heating mantles. This is a consequence of the comparably low energy efficiency of the magnetron in converting electrical to microwave energy. Significant savings in energy were experienced by taking advantage of sealed-vessel microwave processing at high temperatures. When comparing a conventionally heated reflux experiment with a microwave-heated experiment using a superheated solvent in a sealed vessel, reaction times were reduced significantly from hours to minutes. The energy savings in these instances are, however, largely connected to the reduced reaction time and are not an inherent feature of microwave heating. PMID:18605675

  15. Mechanisms of carrier transport induced by a microswimmer bath.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of a V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanism itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modeling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used. PMID:25347885

  16. Heat current characteristics in nanojunctions with superconducting baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettinger, David; Chitra, R.; Restrepo, Juliana

    2014-10-01

    As a fundamental requisite for thermotronics, controlling heat flow has been a longstanding quest in solid state physics. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in nanoscale hybrid systems as possible candidates for thermal devices. In this context, we study the heat current in the simplest hybrid device of a two level system weakly coupled to two heat baths. We use the reduced density matrix approach together with a simple Born-Markov approximation to calculate the heat current in the steady state. We consider different kinds of reservoirs and show that the nature of the reservoir plays a very important role in determining the thermal characteristics of the device. In particular, we investigate the effectiveness of a conventional superconductor as a reservoir with regard to manipulating the heat current. In the emergent temperature characteristics, we find that superconductivity in the reservoirs leads to enhanced thermal currents and that the superconducting phase transition is clearly visible in the heat current. We observe negative differential thermal conductance and a pronounced rectification of the heat current, making this a good building block for a quantum thermal diode.

  17. Noncanonical statistics of a finite quantum system with non-negligible system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D. Z.; Li, Sheng-Wen; Liu, X. F.; Sun, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The canonical statistics describes the statistical properties of an open system by assuming its coupling with the heat bath is infinitesimal in comparison with the total energy in thermodynamic limit. In this paper, we generally derive a noncanonical density matrix for the open system with a finite coupling to the heat bath, which deforms the energy shell to effectively modify the conventional canonical way. The obtained noncanonical distribution reflects the back action of system on the bath and thus depicts the statistical correlations between two subsystems by the mutual information as a result of energy conservation.

  18. Preparation and Analysis of Cyclodextrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks: Laboratory Experiments Adaptable for High School through Advanced Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Merry K.; Angle, Samantha R.; Northrop, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    ?-Cyclodextrin can assemble in the presence of KOH or RbOH into metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) with applications in gas adsorption and environmental remediation. Crystalline CD-MOFs are grown by vapor diffusion and their reversible adsorption of CO[subscript 2](g) is analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The experiment can be…

  19. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  20. Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).…

  1. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  2. Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

  3. Figure S1: Average MAC values observed after evaporation/redissolution of SOA+AS solutions at different rotary evaporator bath temperatures. Despite the weak dependence of the evaporation-induced

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Figure S1: Average MAC values observed after evaporation/redissolution of SOA+AS solutions at different rotary evaporator bath temperatures. Despite the weak dependence of the evaporation-induced increase in MAC on the evaporation temperature, we conducted all of the experiments at 50°C in order

  4. Bacteriological and virological quality of seawater bathing areas along the Tyrrhenian coast.

    PubMed

    Aulicino, F A; Orsini, P; Carere, M; Mastrantonio, A

    2001-03-01

    Monitoring was carried out during summer 1997 along a selected area of the Tyrrhenian coast near the Tiber river mouth. Fifty-eight seawater samples, collected from 19 stations, were examined for coliforms, streptococci, Enteroviruses, Salmonellae, coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis phages, Pseudomonas, alophilic Vibrios, Aeromonas and yeasts. Salmonellae and coliphages were isolated in 3 and 12 out of 58 samples, respectively. Enteroviruses and Bacteroides fragilis phages were not isolated. Reoviruses were isolated only from 2 out of 58 samples. A limited number of samples of the northern stations located near the Tiber and other river mouths exceeded the guide values for bathing water by the EU Directive. All the southern stations, located near canals, were of very good microbiological quality. Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas and yeasts were isolated from all stations and their values in 100 ml of seawater were 10-10(6), 10-10(6), 0-10(6) and 1-10(3), respectively. An extensive disinfection practice carried out on domestic wastes, which are discharged in rivers and canals, probably brought pollution levels of most stations to values within the bacterial standards. The spread of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, etc. showed that all the coastal area studied was characterized by the presence of organic matter coming from land that can support the presence of opportunistic pathogens and other microbial flora. PMID:11260783

  5. Analysis of Molecular Geochemistry of Soil Organic Matter from 17-year Reciprocal Transplant Experiment in Arid Ecosystem: Simulated Climate Pertubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M.; Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Successful development of chemical profiles that link soil carbon vulnerability and resilience to climate change would greatly facilitate assessment of soil ecosystems response to global climate change. Additionally these signatures could be used to support the design of sustainable agricultural and food/energy crop security practices. We test this possibility using soils obtained from a 17-year reciprocal soil transplant experiment between two elevations in the arid environment of eastern Washington [1]. 30-cm diameter soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between the upper and lower sites. Cores were also transplanted in place to control for disturbance. Extracted subcores were incubated in environmental chambers and measured microbial respiration revealed statically a significant decrease in respiratory response as a function of temperature in cores transferred from low elevation to high elevation. We use ultra high resolution mass spectrometry to identify thousands of organic molecules and changes in geochemistry that would indicate the vulnerability of the soil ecosystem to climate perturbation. In our experiments we used methanol extraction followed by direct injection to 12 T ESI FT-ICR MS to identify about 4000 of individual compounds in about 200 mg soils at sub ppm mass accuracy. Chemical formulae were assigned to approximately 65% of the measured peaks using a modified Kujawinski pipeline and second order Kendrick transformations [2] resulted in approximately 75% assigned peaks. Our preliminary analysis finds that while the bulk C content of soils from the cooler, wetter conditions at the upper elevation is approximately twice that of the warmer, drier conditions at lower elevation, the molecular soil geochemistry is remarkably similar. Detailed analysis reveals subtle differences in the lipid, carbohydrate, and condensed hydrocarbon compositional makeup of the soil. Additionally, of the more than 17,000 individual compounds identified approximately 50% contain N which is atypical geochemistry of soil obtained from other ecosystems. 1. Bond-Lamberty B, Bolton H, Fansler SJ, Liu C, Smith JL, and Bailey VL, 2014, Global Change Biology, in review. 2. Roach PJ, Laskin L, and Laskin A, 2011, Analytical Chemistry 83:4924-4929.

  6. "Bath salts" intoxication: a new recreational drug that presents with a familiar toxidrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christine; Heyd, Christopher; Butler, Chris; Yarema, Mark

    2014-03-01

    It is important for emergency physicians to be aware of new psychoactive agents being used as recreational drugs. "Bath salts," which include 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone, and methylone, are the newest recreational stimulants to appear in Canada. There are currently more than 12 synthetic cathinones marketed as bath salts and used with increasing frequency recreationally. Although these drugs are now illegal in Canada, they are widely available online. We present a case report and discuss bath salts intoxication and its anticipated sympathomimetic toxidrome, treatment strategies, and toxicologic analysis, Treatment should not rely on laboratory confirmation. Since the laboratory identification of such drugs varies by institution and toxicologic assay, physicians should not misconstrue a negative toxicology screen as evidence of no exposure to synthetic cathinones. Illicit bath salts represent an increasing public health concern that involves risk to the user, prehospital personnel, and health care providers. PMID:24626125

  7. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  8. Drops walking on a vibrating bath: towards a hydrodynamic pilot-wave theory

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of droplets walking on a vertically vibrating fluid bath. Several walking states are reported, including pure resonant walkers that bounce ...

  9. BATHING BEACH MONITORING PROTOCOLS/COMMUNICATING SWIMMING ACTIVITY RISK TO THE PUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated that five water ...

  10. Surface modification of 2205 duplex stainless steel by low temperature salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Runbo; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Si; Li, Mingxing; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

    2013-04-01

    2205 stainless steel was modified by salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C in this study. The microstructure, surface hardness and erosion-corrosion resistance were systematically evaluated. Salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C can form a nitrocarburized layer, and with the treated time prolong, the thickness of the layer increased. By nitrocarburizing within 8 h, only expanded austenite (S phase) formed. With treated time increased, CrN gradually diffused from the places where there were ferrite grains in the layer before nitrocarburizing. Besides, the depth increased with the nitrocarburized time and the layer grew approximately conforms to the parabolic rate law. Salt bath nitrocarburizing can effectively improve the surface hardness of 2205 DSS. The erosion-corrosion resistance was improved by salt bath nitrocarburizing and the 16 h treated sample had the best erosion-corrosion behavior.

  11. Quantum many-body theory for qubit decoherence in a finite-size spin bath

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wen; Liu Renbao

    2008-11-07

    We develop a cluster-correlation expansion theory for the many-body dynamics of a finite-size spin bath in a time scale relevant to the decoherence of a center spin or qubit embedded in the bath. By introducing the cluster correlation as the evolution of a group of bath spins divided by the correlations of all the subgroups, the propagator of the whole bath is factorized into the product of all possible cluster correlations. Each cluster-correlation term accounts for the authentic (non-factorizable) collective excitations within that group. Convergent results can be obtained by truncating the cluster-correlation expansion up to a certain cluster size, as verified in an exactly solvable spin-chain model.

  12. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral...surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of...

  13. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral...surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of underground...

  14. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral...surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of underground...

  15. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral...surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of underground...

  16. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral...surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of...

  17. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2009-0064] Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document...

  18. Dissipative quantum dynamics with the surrogate Hamiltonian approach. A comparison between spin and harmonic baths

    E-print Network

    Koch, Christiane

    and harmonic baths David Gelmana) Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Laboratoire Aime´ Cotton, Campus d'Orsay Ba^t. 505, Orsay Cedex, 91405, France Ronnie Kosloffc) Fritz Haber

  19. The University of Bath Research Strategy Research excellence for us means

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    The University of Bath Research Strategy Research excellence for us means: Conducting, social and cultural impact of our research. Promoting external engagement, enterprise and innovation process. To ensure effective publication, dissemination and communication of our research, and engagement

  20. Structural and mutagenesis studies of soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    E-print Network

    Chatwood, Lisa L., 1979-

    2004-01-01

    The solution structure for the 27 kDa flavin binding domain of soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was solved by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a two domains, an FAD ...