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1

Relaxation experiments using bath-applied suberyldicholine.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of step changes in membrane potential on the end-plate conductance change produced by bath-applied suberyldicholine was studied in voltage-clamped frog muscle fibres. 2. The suberyldicholine-induced conductance increased exponentially from its previous equilibrium level to a new equilibrium level following a step hyperpolarization. 3. For low suberyldicholine concentrations the time constant of this relaxation was independent of the concentration. 4. For low suberyldicholine concentrations the voltage dependence of equilibrium conductance and relaxation time constants was identical. 5. Bungarotoxin pretreatment did not affect the responses beyond a simple reduction in their amplitude. 6. The conductance evoked by high suberyldicholine concentrations was less voltage-sensitive than that evoked by low concentrations. 7. A new model for explaining noise and relaxation data is proposed. This postulates rate-limiting binding steps followed by a voltage-dependent isomerization. PMID:301569

Adams, P R

1977-01-01

2

CdS thin films doped with metal-organic salts using chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdS thin films doped with metal-organic salts were grown on glass substrates at 90°C by the chemical bath deposition technique. Metal-organic salts such as zinc acetate, chromium acetylacetonate, ammonium fluoride, aluminum nitrate, tin acetate and indium acetate were used. The chemical bath was prepared with cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide. In the case of un-doped films, the

J. Santos Cruz; R. Castanedo Pérez; G. Torres Delgado; O. Zelaya Angel

2010-01-01

3

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

4

Bath Salts  

MedlinePLUS

Synthetic cathinones, often called “bath salts,” are powerful, illegal, and can cause hallucinations and violent behavior, among other dangerous effects. Twitter Facebook RSS 544 Exposures Jan. 1, ...

5

ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 °C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and ( N, N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

Lare, Y.; Godoy, A.; Cattin, L.; Jondo, K.; Abachi, T.; Diaz, F. R.; Morsli, M.; Napo, K.; del Valle, M. A.; Bernède, J. C.

2009-04-01

6

Bathing Beauties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In past decades, bathing beauties might have meant beautiful people on a beach, but these "bathing beauties" are actually a collection of new bathing hut designs. They are, of course, beautiful indeed, and visitors with a droll curiosity in the world of seaside architecture, leisure studies, or other seaside pursuits will certainly find this site useful. The impetus for creating such a site was a recent international beach hut design competition, which was held at the National Centre for Craft & Design in the United Kingdom. On the site, visitors can view both the winners of the competition and the other entries as well. Understandably, the other entries are just scale model designs, but there are some real pippins among their number. If beach huts aren't enough, there are also some beachfront restaurant designs and a few boathouse designs as well.

7

The behavior of organic components in copper recovery from electroless plating bath effluents using 3D electrode systems.  

PubMed

An electrochemical method was applied for the recovery of copper both from the spent solutions and from the rinse waters of electroless copper plating baths, containing copper sulfate, formaldehyde, quadrol, and NaOH. Experiments were conducted in a rotating packed cell (Rollschichtzelle) to investigate the effects of current density, electrolyte composition, temperature, and pH on the copper recovery. All the copper (final CCu=0.1 ppm) was recovered from the waste and rinse waters of chemical copper plating plants with 70% current efficiency by the electrochemical treatment in a rotating packed cell at 130 A/m2 current density, room temperature, with 5mm diameter cathode granules, with the presence of formaldehyde, and with a specific energy consumption of 3.2-3.5 kW h/kg Cu. On the other hand, final copper concentrations of 5 ppm were reached with 62% current efficiency and 5.5-5.8 kW h/kg Cu specific energy consumption, with electrolytes containing no formaldehyde. PMID:15302447

Orhan, Gökhan; Gürmen, Sebahattin; Timur, Servet

2004-08-30

8

Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")  

MedlinePLUS

... Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) DrugFacts: Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 The term “ ... Sky," "White Lightning," and “Scarface.” How Are Bath Salts Abused? Bath salts are typically taken orally, inhaled, ...

9

Effects of MetalOrganic Chemical Vapour Deposition grown seed layer on the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods by Chemical Bath Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well aligned, long and uniform ZnO nanorods have been reproducibly fabricated adopting a two-steps Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) fabrication approaches. Thin (<100nm) ZnO buffer layers have been seeded on silicon substrates by MOCVD and ZnO layers have been subsequently grown, in form of well textured nanorods, using CBD. It has been found that the

Maria Elena Fragalà; Yana Aleeva; Graziella Malandrino

2011-01-01

10

Effects of organic enrichment on sandy beach meiofauna: A laboratory microcosm experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meiofauna samples from intertidal sediments of Qingdao No.2 Bathing Beach, China, were collected for field study, and subjected to organic enrichment in a laboratory microcosm experiment for 21 d. There were three different treatments including non-organic addition as the control, low-organic enrichment (2 g DW green algae per 150 mL) and high-organic enrichment (10 g DW green algae per 150 mL). After 21 d, the meiofauna richness decreased in both organic enrichment treatments. Among the three treatments, total meiofauna abundance was significantly different, and the control groups had higher abundance than the other two treatment groups. However, the responses of the meiofauna abundance in the two organic enrichment treatments were non-significantly different. The relationship of meiofaunal abundance and nematode/copepod ratios to organic matter and oxygen level in the microcosm experiments were discussed.

Wang, Jianing; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Cong, Bingqing; Xu, Shuhui

2011-09-01

11

History of early Organizer Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the research and publication of the paper entitled: Â?Versuche zur Analyse der Induktionsmittel in der EmbryonalentwicklungÂ? [Attempts to analyse the Organizer of the Embryo] and links to other articles about these associates and their historic work.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)

2011-09-20

12

Chemical bath method for ZnS thin films preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a chemical bath method to prepare ZnS thin films on glass substrates for solar applications. The proposed method is based on the experience to deposit CdS thin films by chemical bath but replacing some chemical reagents. The bath is composed of zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide, ammonium nitrate, and thiourea. During films deposition, the chemical bath is agitated with

Andrés Iván Oliva; I. Gonza?lez-Chan; V. Rejo?n; J. Rojas; R. Patiño; D. Aguilar

2010-01-01

13

Bathing – Pleasure or Pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Bathing creates some of the highest levels of discomfort in the lives of individuals diagnosed with dementia. The present study measured,the frequency of 14 agitated behaviors during bathing in 15 elderly residents with dementia residing in a continuing care centre. Each resident was observed for four sessions of two different bathing methods, the conventional tub bath and a modification

Joshua C. Dunn; Charles H. m. Beck

14

Perspectives of Older Persons on Bathing and Bathing Disability: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Bathing is an important and potentially challenging self-care activity, and disability in bathing is associated with several adverse consequences. Little is known about older persons’ experiences with and perspectives on bathing. Objectives To understand the bathing experiences, attitudes, and preferences of older persons in order to inform the development of effective patient-centered interventions. Design Qualitative Study using the Grounded Theory framework. Participants Twenty-three community-living persons, age ? 78 years, identified from the Precipitating Events Project (PEP). Approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participant’s home. Results Three themes emerged: 1) the importance and personal significance of bathing to older persons, 2) variability in attitudes, preferences, and sources of bathing assistance, and 3) older persons’ anticipation of and responses to bathing disability. Discussion The bathing experiences described by study participants underscore the personal significance of bathing and the need to account for attitudes and preferences when designing bathing interventions. Quantitative disability assessments may not capture the bathing modifications made by older persons in anticipation of disability and may result in missed opportunities for early intervention. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of targeted, patient-centered interventions that can subsequently be tested in clinical trials. PMID:20158554

Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Gill, Thomas M.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Fried, Terri R.

2009-01-01

15

Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

1992-01-01

16

Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

Williamson, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

17

Bathing a patient in bed  

MedlinePLUS

Bed bath; Sponge bath ... Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, and increase comfort. If moving the ...

18

Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

1976-01-01

19

Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)

Chloupek-McGough, Marge

1989-01-01

20

Lean Production: Experience among Australian Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the findings of a study which investigated the adoption of lean production methods in Australian manufacturing industry. Data were gathered through a telephone survey from 51 companies representing a range of industry sectors. The study found that a large majority of the companies were practising lean production methods. Discusses the organizational changes which had occurred in the organizations as

Amrik S. Sohal; Adrian Egglestone

1994-01-01

21

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

2011-07-01

22

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

2010-07-01

23

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

2012-07-01

24

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

2014-07-01

25

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

2013-07-01

26

Mixed ether bath for electrodeposition of aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anisole added to the bath mixture improves Brenner aluminum plating bath technique. Mixture has lower bath vapor-pressure and the electro-deposits obtained have greater physical strength than deposits from the Brenner bath.

Lui, K.

1969-01-01

27

"Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

Field, Kurt W.; And Others

1979-01-01

28

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of iron sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, crystallographic and optical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature chemical deposition method has been developed to deposit iron\\/sulfur thin films onto soda lime glass substrates. The chemical bath deposition (CBD) consists of aqueous solution ferrous sulphate, disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na2EDTA), sodium thiosulphate and organic solutions of ethylenediamine and methanol. The experiments were performed at room temperature and under two different conditions. The films were

P. Prabukanthan; R. J. Soukup; N. J. Ianno; A. Sarkar; S. Kment; H. Kmentova; C. A. Kamler; C. L. Exstrom; J. Olejnicek; S. A. Darveau

2010-01-01

29

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

30

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

31

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

2013-07-01

32

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

2011-07-01

33

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

2014-07-01

34

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

2010-07-01

35

33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine....

2012-07-01

36

Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

Gregor, Richard W.

2012-01-01

37

Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

Goldstein, Steven W.

2014-01-01

38

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

39

Cognitive Ability Experiment with Photosensitive Organic Molecular Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an optical experiment which permits us to evaluate the information exchange necessary to self-induce cooperatively a well-organized pattern in a randomly activated molecular assembly. A low-power coherent beam carrying polarization and wavelength information is used to organize a surface relief grating on a photochromic polymer thin film which is photoactivated by a powerful incoherent beam. We demonstrate experimentally that less than 1% of the molecules possessing information cooperatively transmit it to the entire photoactivated polymer film.

Barille, Régis; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Ortyl, Ewelina; Kucharski, Stanislaw; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

2006-07-01

40

Organic contamination problems in the Viking molecular analysis experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal problem in interpreting the results of an organic analysis of an extraterrestrial sample is that of distinguishing contaminating material from indigenous material when unknown types and amounts of contaminants make their way into the sample being analyzed. An approach to control of sample integrity in the Viking molecular analysis experiment has been devised which it is believed, will eliminate such problems. Basically this involves (1) placing an upper limit on the amount of terrestrial contamination that can be tolerated and still allow scientifically meaningful analysis, (2) identifying the potential sources of contamination and analyzing their relative significance, (3) establishing methods to control these sources, and (4) obtaining complete information on the chemical composition of potential contaminants. Previous experience in the Apollo mission has been of great value in developing the Viking program, perhaps the most important carryover being the recognition of the importance of establishing a comprehensive contamination control program in the early stages of mission planning and hardware design.

Flory, D. A.; Oro, J.; Fennessey, P. V.

1974-01-01

41

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes...consists of a tub to be filled with liquid paraffin (wax) and maintained at an elevated...

2010-04-01

42

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath  

E-print Network

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath Jie CHEN1 on heat conduction in nanostructures exemplified by silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon/germanium nano produce consistent results with experiment in large heat bath parameter range. KEYWORDS: heat conduction

Li, Baowen

43

[Therapeutic bath and Alzheimer's disease].  

PubMed

To safeguard the quality of life of people suffering from Alzheimer's by the creation of an individual care plan, by identifying pleasurable activities or fond memories of the individual, thereby restoring a sense of present well being. The therapeutic bath, an action which might be considered somewhat straightforward, in fact enables the measurement of the capability of an elderly person to respond to stimulation by medical staff. PMID:22852495

Bourzeau, Madeleine

2012-01-01

44

Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins in Two Amino Acids  

E-print Network

Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1,2-13C2-amino acids, using the alpha protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, both carbons were cooled by about 2.5-fold, and in other experiments the polarization of C1 nearly doubled while all other spins had equilibrium polarization, indicating reduction in total entropy. The effect of adding Magnevist, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

Yuval Elias; Haggai Gilboa; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

2011-10-26

45

Deceased donor organ transplantation: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Renal transplantation (RTx) is the best therapeutic modality for patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Deceased donor organ transplantation (DDOT) accounts for <4% of RTx in India. We report 4 years single centre experience on DDOT vis-à-vis patient/graft survival, graft function in terms of serum creatinine (SCr), rejection episodes, and delayed graft function in 160 DDOT. Between January 2006 to December 2009, 160 RTx from 89 donors were performed, of which 25.2% were expanded criteria donors. Majority of the donors were brain dead due to road traffic/cerebrovascular accidents. The commonest recipient diseases leading to ESRD were chronic glomerulonephritis (49%), diabetes mellitus (10%), and benign nephrosclerosis (10%). Mean recipient/donor age was 35.6±14.68 and 44.03±18.19 years. Mean dialysis duration pretransplantation was 15.37±2.82 months. Mean cold ischemia time was 5.56±2.04 hours. All recipients received single dose rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin induction and steroids, mycophenolate mofetil/calcinueurin inhibitor for maintenance of immunosuppression. Delayed graft function was observed in 30.6% patients and 14% had biopsy proven acute rejection. Over mean follow-up of 2.35±1.24 years, patient and graft survival rates were 77.5% and 89.3% with mean SCr of 1.40±0.36 mg/dl. DDOT has acceptable graft/patient survival over 4 years follow-up and should be encouraged in view of organ shortage. PMID:21886978

Gumber, M. R.; Kute, V. B.; Goplani, K. R.; Shah, P. R.; Patel, H. V.; Vanikar, A. V.; Modi, P. R.; Trivedi, H. L.

2011-01-01

46

Oil Formation: An "Unexpected" Difficulty in an Elementary Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment involving the separation of an unknown solid organic acid and an unknown solid organic base. The experiment is designed to present the student with an unexpected difficulty, namely, the formation of a separable viscous liquid, to see how the student handles this difficulty. (MLH)

Lewis, Dennis A.

1975-01-01

47

Differences in Developmental Experiences for Commonly Used Categories of Organized Youth Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The coherence of adolescents' self-reported learning experiences between subgroups of organized youth activities within five commonly used categories was evaluated. Data for the present study come from a representative sample of eleventh grade adolescents' reports on learning experiences in an organized youth activity using the Youth Experience

Hansen, David M.; Skorupski, William P.; Arrington, Tiffany L.

2010-01-01

48

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

49

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin...

2011-04-01

50

Dermal uptake of chloroform and haloketones during bathing.  

PubMed

Dermal contact with some organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated drinking water has been established to be an important exposure route. We evaluated dermal absorption of two haloketones (1,1-dichloropropanone and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone) and chloroform while bathing, by collecting and analyzing time profiles of expired breath samples of six human subjects during and following a 30-min bath. The DBP concentrations in breath increased towards a maximum concentration during bathing. The maximum haloketone breath concentration during dermal exposure ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 microg / m(3), which was approximately two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum chloroform breath concentration during exposure. Based on a one-compartment model, the in vivo permeability of chloroform, 1,1-dichloropropanone, and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone were approximated to be 0.015, 7.5 x 10(- 4), and 4.5 x 10(- 4) cm / h, respectively. Thus, haloketones are much less permeable across human skin under normal bathing conditions than is chloroform. These findings will be useful for future assessment of total human exposure and consequent health risk of these DBPs. PMID:15316574

Xu, Xu; Weisel, Clifford P

2005-07-01

51

An experience management system for a software engineering research organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most businesses rely on the fact that their employees possess relevant knowledge and that they can apply it to the task at hand. The problem is that this knowledge is not owned by the organization. It is owned and controlled by its employees. Maintaining an appropriate level of knowledge in the organization is a very important issue. It is, however,

Victor Basili; Patricia Costa; Mikael Lindvall; Manoel Mendonca; Carolyn Seaman; Roseanne Tesoriero; Marvin Zelkowitz

2001-01-01

52

Review of organic micropollutants: local experience detection, purification, and significance  

SciTech Connect

Organic micropollutants are defined and reasons given for the present-day interest in them. The relationship between analytical methodology, purification, and water quality is stressed. The development of analytical methods over the past 14 years is described in terms of attempts to solve a complex analytical problem. The importance of solubility, chemical reactivity and the aromatic/aliphatic characteristics of the pollutants in the purification process is illustrated. The effect of organic micropollutants on water quality is discussed in terms of criteria and the unidentified potential health hazardous organic compounds in drinking water.

van Rossum, P.G.

1984-01-01

53

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

54

The Effect of Organic Compounds in Pot Experiments.  

E-print Network

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Effects of Fertilizers on the Injurious Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Effects of Carbon Black and Pyrogallic Acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Acknowledgment...'rE CHEMIST. It has been kno?wn for a long time that certain kinds of plants do poorly, or do not grow at all on acid soils. It is believed tha.t some of these acid soils contain organic acids. The addition oo organic or inorganic acids hat: been known...

Fraps, G. S.

1915-01-01

55

New system for bathing bedridden patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

1973-01-01

56

Temperature control of a cryogenic bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

Asher, I. M.

1972-01-01

57

Chaucer's Wife of Bath [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson introduces students to one of the most admired characterizations in Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," the Wife of Bath. Students read Chaucer's description of the Wife in the "General Prologue" to consider how he represents her, both as the poet of "The Canterbury Tales" and as a character in his own poem, then read the "Wife of Bath's…

2000

58

Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer…

Martin, Ned H.

1981-01-01

59

Supporting Aphasics for Capturing, Organizing and Sharing Personal Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a person, due to brain injury or another disease, suffers in his or her ability to speak, it becomes inherently cumbersome to share needs, emotions, and experiences through personal stories and social interaction. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author’s dissertation, which focuses on designing a support system to share daily experiences for people suffering from expressive aphasia.

Al Mahmud, Abdullah

60

Risk factors of sudden death in the Japanese hot bath in the senior population.  

PubMed

A series of experiments were carried out to clarify the cause of death and the risk factors related to sudden death in the Japanese senior population while bathing in a Japanese style "hot bath." The biodynamic changes while bathing were carefully monitored under actual bathing situations occurring in both the winter and summer seasons. We observed double product (DP), total peripheral blood vessel resistance (TPR), cardiac output (CO), and blood vessel compliance (COMP) by measuring blood pressure, heart rate, pulse wave, and electrocardiogram (ECG). The finding of a high level of DP in the elderly suggests that more myocardial oxygen consumption is needed than for young adults, particularly in subjects with arrhythmia. Although the values for TPR and CO changed somewhat during bathing, the changes were considered normal and to be expected. However, more significant and substantial changes were observed during the winter experiment than during the summer experiment, no doubt owing to lower temperature of the bathing room. The value of COMP did not vary significantly between winter and summer subjects. Twelve subjects in the elderly developed ECG changes while bathing such as supraventricular extrasystole or ventricular tachycardia. No clinical significance was found in the biochemical analyses of the blood obtained before and after bathing. In conclusion, some subjects in the elderly showed risky changes in the above parameters and ECG, factors which may partially explain some of the causes of the many reported cases of lapse of consciousness and unexpected sudden death in the elderly while bathing especially in the winter season. Cold climate, hot water immersion, and hydrostatic pressure may affect their physiological compensation along with existing of coronary stenosis or weakness of respiratory function as a normal consequence of advanced age. PMID:15749356

Chiba, Takashi; Yamauchi, Misa; Nishida, Naoki; Kaneko, Taeko; Yoshizaki, Katsuaki; Yoshioka, Naofumi

2005-05-10

61

Effects of bathing solution on tensile properties of the cornea.  

PubMed

The cornea is a transparent tissue with the major functions of protecting the inner contents of the eye and refracting incoming light. The biomechanical properties of the cornea strongly depend on the microstructure and composition of the stromal layer, a hydrated bio-gel. The uniaxial strip testing is a convenient and well-accepted experimental technique for characterizing corneal material parameters. It is known that the water content of specimens in this method depends on the osmolality of the bathing solution. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of different bathing solutions on uniaxial tensile material properties of the cornea. The tensile behavior of bovine corneal samples was measured in six different bathing solutions, i.e., hypertonic solution (12% NaCl solution), common preserving isotonic solutions (e.g., phosphate buffer saline, ophthalmic balanced salt solution, and 0.9% NaCl solution), hypotonic solution (distilled water), and neutral solution (mineral oil). It was observed that the bathing solution had significant influence on the tensile behavior of the corneal samples. In particular, the specimens tested in bathing solutions causing less swelling had significantly stiffer tensile properties. Furthermore, a simple mathematical model based on Voigt composite material model was developed to represent the measured solution-dependent tensile properties. The present study suggests that extra attention should be paid to corneal thickness (hydration) in uniaxial tensile experiments. It also provides important data on tensile properties of the cornea; such information could significantly contribute to improving the accuracy of numerical predictions of corneal biomechanics. PMID:24333541

Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol

2014-03-01

62

Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

Ewing, Sheila

1982-01-01

63

The Perioperative Nurse and the Organ Donation Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most OR nurses whether veteran or novice have had some exposure to organ donation; however, few are aware of what occurs outside of the surgical setting. This article provides an overview of the entire donation process, from the hours before the procedure to the steps needed for successful recovery. Particular attention is given to the care of the donor family

Kathleen T. Lilly; Vernon L. Langley

1999-01-01

64

Organ Donation and Transplantation—The Chennai Experience in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the “Transplantation of Human Organ Act” of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed

S. Shroff; S. Rao; G. Kurian; S. Suresh

2007-01-01

65

The perioperative nurse and the organ donation experience.  

PubMed

Most OR nurses whether veteran or novice have had some exposure to organ donation; however, few are aware of what occurs outside of the surgical setting. This article provides an overview of the entire donation process, from the hours before the procedure to the steps needed for successful recovery. Particular attention is given to the care of the donor family members, both preoperatively and postrecovery. PMID:11838090

Lilly, K T; Langley, V L

1999-04-01

66

Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice.  

PubMed

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. However there is no study about beneficial effects of ERW bathing. This study aimed to determine the effect of ERW bathing on the UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. For this purpose, mice were irradiated with UVB to cause skin injury, followed by individually taken a bath in ERW (ERW-bathing) and tap water (TW-bathing) for 21 d. We examined cytokines profile in acute period, and histological and ultrastructural observation of skin in chronic period. We found that UVB-mediated skin injury of ERW-bathing group was significantly low compared to TW control group in the early stage of experiment. Consistently, epidermal thickening as well as the number of dermal mast cell was significantly lowered in ERW-bathing group. Defection of corneocytes under the scanning electron microscope was less observed in ERW-bathing group than in TW-bathing group. Further, the level of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-12p70 in ERW group decreased whereas those of IL-10 increased. Collectively, our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders. This is the first report on bathing effects of ERW in UVB-induced skin injury. PMID:22040878

Yoon, Kyung Su; Huang, Xue Zhu; Yoon, Yang Suk; Kim, Soo-Ki; Song, Soon Bong; Chang, Byung Soo; Kim, Dong Heui; Lee, Kyu Jae

2011-01-01

67

Electrochemical deposition of nanocrystalline zinc on steel substrate from acid zincate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline zinc coatings were deposited from acid zincate bath containing newly synthesized condensation product. The effect of bath constituents, pH, temperature and current density on the deposit nature were investigated through Hull cell experiments. Current efficiency, throwing power, cathodic polarization and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl were studied under optimum concentration of additives. Salt spray test and electrochemical measurements showed

H. B. Muralidhara; Y. Arthoba Naik

2008-01-01

68

Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

2014-10-22

69

Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control  

E-print Network

We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through In-Phase/Quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6 GHz carrier appropriate for trapped $^{171}$Yb$^{+}$ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of an engineered bath, with the observed $T_{2}$ scaling as predicted by a quantitative model described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

A. Soare; H. Ball; D. Hayes; X. Zhen; M. C. Jarratt; J. Sastrawan; H. Uys; M. J. Biercuk

2014-03-18

70

Protective coating for salt-bath brazing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic coating, consisting of graphite, enameler's clay, and algin binder, applied to materials prior to salt bath brazing facilitates brazing process and results in superior joints. Alternate coating materials and their various proportions are given.

Francisco, A. C.; Gyorgak, C. A.

1971-01-01

71

Drops bouncing on a vibrating bath  

E-print Network

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of millimetric droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrating fluid bath. We first characterize the system experimentally, deducing the dependence ...

Bush, John W. M.

72

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath...g., hands or fingers) are placed to relieve pain and stiffness. (b) Classification....

2012-04-01

73

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath...g., hands or fingers) are placed to relieve pain and stiffness. (b) Classification....

2013-04-01

74

Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

1973-01-01

75

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

76

The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

77

Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil science research at Rothamsted dates from 1843 when John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert started the first of a series of what became long-term field experiments. The main object of these experiments was to examine the effect of inorganic and organic fertilisers and manures on crop yield and soil fertility. These \\

A. MacDonald; P. Poulton

2009-01-01

78

The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)

Blackledge, Robert D.

1974-01-01

79

The DuPont Experience: Strategic Planning for Information Design and Development Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the strategic planning experience of the Information Design and Development organization (then called Technical Publications) in DuPont's External Affairs division. Describes why strategic planning was undertaken, the process used, logistics involved in preparing for and carrying out the process, and results. Shows that the experience can…

Breuninger, Charles L.

1997-01-01

80

Experimental Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins  

E-print Network

Algorithmic cooling (AC) is a method to purify quantum systems, such as ensembles of nuclear spins, or cold atoms in an optical lattice. When applied to spins, AC produces ensembles of highly polarized spins, which enhance the signal strength in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). According to this cooling approach, spin-half nuclei in a constant magnetic field are considered as bits, or more precisely, quantum bits, in a known probability distribution. Algorithmic steps on these bits are then translated into specially designed NMR pulse sequences using common NMR quantum computation tools. The $algorithmic$ cooling of spins is achieved by alternately combining reversible, entropy-preserving manipulations (borrowed from data compression algorithms) with $selective$ $reset$, the transfer of entropy from selected spins to the environment. In theory, applying algorithmic cooling to sufficiently large spin systems may produce polarizations far beyond the limits due to conservation of Shannon entropy. Here, only selective reset steps are performed, hence we prefer to call this process "heat-bath" cooling, rather than algorithmic cooling. We experimentally implement here two consecutive steps of selective reset that transfer entropy from two selected spins to the environment. We performed such cooling experiments with commercially-available labeled molecules, on standard liquid-state NMR spectrometers. Our experiments yielded polarizations that $bypass$ $Shannon's$ $entropy$-$conservation$ $bound$, so that the entire spin-system was cooled. This paper was initially submitted in 2005, first to Science and then to PNAS, and includes additional results from subsequent years (e.g. for resubmission in 2007). The Postscriptum includes more details.

Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; José M. Fernandez; Haggai Gilboa; Jonathan A. Jones; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein; Li Xiao

2014-04-28

81

Analysis Of The Returned Samples From A Space Exposure Experiment: The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R on the International Space Station investigated the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes in space. Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features.Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment.EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS for 682 days starting in 2009. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA ARC (Bryson et al. 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1980). The UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic measurements were collected for the returned flight samples.We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and returned flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Zan; Salama, Farid; Foing, Bernard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ricco, Antonio; Jessberger, Elmar K; Schmidt, Werner; Robert, François

2014-06-01

82

STP Einstein Solid Heat Bath Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP EinsteinSolidHeatBath program simulates the exchange of energy between an Einstein solid and a heat bath. The purpose of this simulation is to determine the properties of a Einstein solid at different temperature T and to compare our results with analytical calculations of the thermodynamic properties of the Einstein solid. The default state is an Einstein solid of N=20 particles in contact with a heat bath at temperature T = 2. Additional states and parameters can be specified using the Display|Switch GUI menu item. STP EinsteinSolidHeatBath is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_EinsteinSolidHeatBath.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-05-28

83

Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant1  

PubMed Central

Objective to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. Method this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. Results the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. Final considerations knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

2014-01-01

84

Self-organization in dc glow microdischarges in krypton: modelling and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organized patterns of cathodic spots have been observed in microdischarges operated in xenon, but not in other gases. However, modelling has indicated that it is, in principle, possible to observe the patterns of spots in discharges operated in other gases provided that experimental conditions, in particular pressure, are right. In this work, self-organized patterns of cathodic spots are for the first time observed in dc glow microdischarges operated in a gas other than xenon: krypton. The experiments have been guided by the modelling. According to both the experiment and the modelling, patterns in krypton are similar to those found earlier in xenon, however occur at higher pressures.

Zhu, W.; Niraula, P.; Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S.; Santos, D. F. N.

2014-10-01

85

University of Bath Department Research Ethics Officer  

E-print Network

University of Bath Department Research Ethics Officer Role Definition, Issue 4 The University seeks of ethical issues and University procedures and specific requirements for research applications to external Framework Department Research Ethics Officers will be expected to attend an Annual Meeting and occasional

Burton, Geoffrey R.

86

21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.  

...Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled with liquid paraffin (wax) and maintained at an elevated temperature in which the patient's appendages (e.g., hands or fingers) are placed...

2014-04-01

87

[Crisis and decline of bath houses].  

PubMed

For centuries bath-houses and barber-surgeons formed such an integral part of public life that one is mystified by their vanishing from modern view with hardly any trace left. Previous authors have offered a variety of reasons for this disappearance: the bath-houses' notorious reputation, developing fuel-shortage, the "new" fashion of taking the waters and the outbreak of previously unknown contagious diseases are among those mentioned most frequently. While these factors may be valid reasons for a crisis afflicting the "hot-houses" they would hardly explain why fate overtook the barber-surgeons' entire trade. Judging from the sources available one cannot help but feel that the philosophers of the Enlightenment were largely responsible for such a dramatic change of society. Sceptical philosophy discarded the wisdom of the ancient medical authorities replacing traditional steam-bathing with "modern" cold-bathing. Society itself was subject to equally revolutionary changes: the local masters of the trade had to make room for surgeons educated at medical schools setting the stage for a new reality which has become "normal" to us. PMID:10641424

Widmann, M

1999-01-01

88

Psychoactive “bath salts”: not so soothing  

PubMed Central

Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called “bath salts” products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Lehner, Kurt R.

2012-01-01

89

INTERPRETING ORGANIC SOLUTE TRANSPORT DATA FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT USING PHYSICAL NONEQUILIBRIUM MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a field experiment, two inorganic tracers and five organic solutes were injected into an unconfined sand aquifer. Breakthrough response curves were obtained at several points downgradient of the injection zone. These response curves are analyzed using a model which assumes equ...

90

BREEDING DECISIONS WITHIN THE HERD : PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES FROM A SERVICE ACTIVITY IN THE SWEDISH AI ORGANIZATION  

E-print Network

BREEDING DECISIONS WITHIN THE HERD : PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES FROM A SERVICE ACTIVITY IN THE SWEDISH AI ORGANIZATION G. BRATT _Association for Swedish Livestock Breeding and Production, Sweden matings etc. still are and will in the future be the most important parts of AI breeding. There is

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

92

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

93

Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

2006-01-01

94

Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

2014-01-01

95

Differing Profiles of Developmental Experiences across Types of Organized Youth Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study inventoried the types of developmental and negative experiences that youth encounter in different categories of extracurricular and community-based organized activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders from 19 diverse high schools responded to a computer-administered protocol. Youth in faith-based activities reported…

Larsen, Reed W.; Hansen, David M.; Moneta, Giovanni

2006-01-01

96

General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, Maryland, looking west. - Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Southwest corner of Belair Drive and Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

97

University of Bath Carbon Management Plan working with  

E-print Network

Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP) Date: March 2011 Version number: Final, approved by Council, MarchUniversity of Bath Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 University of Bath Carbon Management 2011 #12;University of Bath Carbon Management Plan working with Page 2 Contents Glossary Foreword from

Burton, Geoffrey R.

98

Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25?C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an intermediate product of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the formation of a specific clay mineral (proto-kaolinite) occurs in the presence of a specific organic compound (succinic acid). This implies that microbial species capable of excreting succinate among their EPS may promote authigenic kaolinite formation at low temperature and neutral pH. This biological degradation process might play a crucial role for the formation of authigenic kaolinite, which is a widespread clay mineral in sedimentary environments. Fiore, S., Dumontet, S., Huertas, F.J., and Pasquale, V., 2011. Bacteria-induced crystallization of kaolinite. Applied Clay Science, 53:566-571. Linares, J., and Huertas, F., 1971. Kaolinite: Synthesis at room temperature. Science 171: 896-897.

Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

2012-04-01

99

Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically preserved before being returned to Earth for analyses. Our results suggest that with protocol modifications and future verification testing we can utilize the versatile EMCS to conduct tightly controlled experiments inside our culture cassettes for a wide variety of organisms. These physiological experiments would be designed to answer questions at the molecular level about the specific stress responses of space flight.

Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

2014-01-01

100

Quantum dynamics in classical thermal baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particular type of open quantum system dynamics is achieved by embedding a quantum system in a classical thermal bath. Such a bath can be represented in terms of the non-Hamiltonian evolution of few variables by means of the so-called Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat. The classical dynamics of the thermostat is integrated by means of time-reversible measure-preserving algorithms. In this work we show that the Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat, when applied to the dissipative evolution of a quantum spin, provides numerical results which agree with those obtained using Nosè-Hoover chains. However, since a fewer number of variables are needed to achieve the correct sampling of the canonical distribution at equilibrium, the Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat promises to be better suited for the simulation of low dimensional open quantum system on discrete grids.

Dlamini, Nkosinathi; Sergi, Alessandro

2013-11-01

101

Oscillons in a Hot Heat Bath  

E-print Network

In models of real scalar fields with degenerate double-well potentials, spherically symmetric, large amplitude fluctuations away from the vacuum are unstable. Neglecting interactions with an external environment, the evolution of such configurations may entail the development of an oscillon; a localized, non-singular, time-dependent configuration which is {\\it extremely} long-lived. In the present study we investigate numerically how the coupling to a heat bath influences the evolution of collapsing bubbles. We show that the existence and lifetime of the oscillon stage is extremely sensitive to how strongly the field is coupled to the heat bath. By modeling the coupling through a Markovian Langevin equation with viscosity coefficient $\\gamma$, we find that for $\\gamma \\gtrsim 5 \\times 10^{-4}m$, where $m$ is the typical mass scale in the model, oscillons are not observed.

Marcelo Gleiser; Richard Haas

1996-02-13

102

Spin bath narrowing with adaptive parameter estimation  

E-print Network

We present a measurement scheme capable of achieving the quantum limit of parameter estimation using an adaptive strategy that minimizes the parameter's variance at each step. The adaptive rule we propose makes the scheme robust against errors, in particular imperfect readouts, a critical requirement to extend adaptive schemes from quantum optics to solid-state sensors. Thanks to recent advances in single-shot readout capabilities for electronic spins in the solid state (such as Nitrogen Vacancy centers in diamond), this scheme can be as well applied to estimate the polarization of a spin bath coupled to the sensor spin. In turns, the measurement process decreases the entropy of the spin bath resulting in longer coherence times of the sensor spin.

Paola Cappellaro

2012-03-07

103

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17

104

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

1999-01-01

105

Attitudes of nurses to donor organ retrieval and visiting surgical teams. The Papworth experience.  

PubMed

Donor organ retrieval can be a stressful procedure for theatre nurses. These experiences may be influenced by the relationship between visiting surgical teams and nurses at donor hospitals. When donor organs are referred to Papworth Hospital and a suitable recipient identified on the waiting list, a visit to the referring hospital is organised in order to retrieve the organs. The multidisciplinary donor team is comprised of a surgeon, anaesthetist, theatre nurse and technician who may find themselves called, often at short notice, to travel anywhere in the United Kingdom. Most donors are multi-organ donors which means that surgical teams, visiting or local, will be working together retrieving the heart and/or lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, cornea, long bones and skin. This multi faceted procedure on the donor and the number of visiting medical staff in theatre, may have an impact on local theatre nurses of which the visitors should be aware. The retrieval of thoracic organs takes 3-4 hours and the team needs to leave as soon as the excised organs have been packed so that preservation is not compromised. PMID:8695939

Lloyd-Jones, H

1996-02-01

106

Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Abiotic Organics from Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable carbon isotopes can be powerful biogeochemical markers in the study of life's origins. Biogenic carbon fixation produces organics that are depleted in C-13 by about -20 to -30%0. Less attention has been paid to the isotopic signatures of abiotic processes. The possibility of abiotic processes producing organics with morphologies and isotopic signatures in the biogenic range has been at the center of recent debate over the Earth's earliest microfossils. The abiotic synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal environments is one possible source of endogenous organic matter to the prebiotic earth. Simulated hydrothermal settings have been shown to synthesize, among other things, single chain amphiphiles and simple lipids from a mix of CO, CO2, and H2. A key characteristic of these amphiphilic molecules is the ability to self-assemble in aqueous phases into more organized structures called vesicles, which form a selectively permeable boundary and serve the function of containing and concentrating other organic molecules. The ability to form cell like structures also makes these compounds more likely to be mistaken for biogenic. Hydrothermal simulation experiments were conducted from oxalic or formic acid in water at 175 C for 72 hr. The molecular and isotopic composition of the products of these reactions were determined and compared to biogenic fractionations . Preliminary results indicate isotopic fractionation during abiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in hydrothermal environments is on par with biological carbon fixation.

Stern, Jennifer C.; Summers, David P.; Kubo, Mike; Yassar, Saima

2006-01-01

107

Laboratory experiments for understanding the chemical evolution of organic matter in astrophysical ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges of our projects consist in simulating through laboratory experiments, the chemical evolution of astrophysical ices for understanding what could be the different stages of the organic matter during the life cycle of interstellar grains to their incorporation in planetary systems such as in comets or in asteroids inside the Solar System. Our experiments consist in recreating primitive or cometary ices evolution, which allow obtaining data on the chemical reactivity that occur during the evolution process (RING project), the characterization of species sublimating during the ice warming (VAHIIA project), as well as on refractory residue (RAHIIA project). All these results can then serve for space missions.

Danger, G.; Duvernay, F.; Vinogradoff, V.; Theulé, P.; Chiavassa, C.

2013-09-01

108

Vector fields for task-level distributed manipulation: experiments with organic micro actuator arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed manipulation experiments were performed using a massively-parallel, microfabricated actuator array. An organic ciliary array of thin-film polyimide bimorph microactuators exploiting combined thermal and electrostatic control was employed to implement task-level, sensorless manipulation strategies for macroscopic objects. The tasks of parts-translation, -rotation, -orientation, and -centering were demonstrated using small integrated circuit (IC) dice. Strategies were programmed in a fine-grained SIMD

Karl-friedrich Böhringer; John W. Suh; Brucerandall Donald; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

1997-01-01

109

A novel method of seminal vesicle preparation in isolated seminal vesicle experiments in the rat: ring preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel method of seminal vesicle (SV) preparation—ring preparation method—in isolated SV experiments in the rat. Rat SVs were prepared as strips and rings and applied to organ baths. The relaxation responses by sodium nitroprusside or doxazosin and contractile responses by electrical field stimulation (EFS) were recorded in both groups. We compared

H W Lee; J Y Jeong; J B Yang; D H Han; S W Lee

2009-01-01

110

Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.  

PubMed

A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 ?g C L(-1), 20 ?g C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures. PMID:23639397

Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

2013-05-17

111

Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: Sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.  

PubMed

The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1-The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2-The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3-Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4-The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid) for all SOM models containing a cavity. For models without a cavity, SAA binds to carboxylic acid stronger than to naphthalene. PMID:25486638

Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

2015-03-01

112

Beyond heat baths II: Framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories  

E-print Network

Cutting-edge experiments, which involve the nano- and quantum scales, have been united with thermodynamics, which describes macroscopic systems, via resource theories. Resource theories have modeled small-scale exchanges of heat and information. Recently, the models were extended to particle exchanges, and a family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family's structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilard's engine and Landauer's Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between informational and gravitational-energy forms, but also among varied physical degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit. Quantum operators associated with extensive variables offer opportunities to explore nonclassical noncommutation. This generalization of thermodynamic resource theories invites the modeling of realistic systems that might be harnessed to test small-scale statistical mechanics experimentally.

Nicole Yunger Halpern

2014-09-27

113

Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through in-phase or in-quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6-GHz carrier appropriate for trapped Yb171+ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of both engineered dephasing noise during free evolution and engineered amplitude noise during driven operations. In both cases, the observed reduction of coherent lifetimes matches well with quantitative models described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

Soare, A.; Ball, H.; Hayes, D.; Zhen, X.; Jarratt, M. C.; Sastrawan, J.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.

2014-04-01

114

Teaching Catalytic Antibodies to Undergraduate Students: An Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only 13 years ago, few believed that antibodies could be catalytic or that any protein could be made to order to perform a catalytic task. The field has quickly matured from initial proof of concept and demonstration of fundamental enzyme-like characteristics to one in which antibodies have catalyzed an extremely broad range of organic transformations. Now that the first catalytic antibody is commercially available, it is possible to bring these novel biocatalysts into the classroom so every student can gain hands-on experience and carry out experiments on the cutting edge of scientific discovery. This lab project deals with antibody-catalyzed aldol condensations. It includes the (i) synthesis of substrate and product; (ii) HPLC characterization of the antibody-catalyzed reaction; (iii) titration of the antibody active-site; and (iv) analysis of the kinetics of the antibody-catalyzed reaction. The lab project provides training not only in biocatalysis but in a number of related aspects of chemical and biochemical research, including organic synthesis, mechanistic organic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Students will learn the use of various experimental techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC, to monitor chemical reactions and determine kinetic parameters. They will be exposed to concepts and terminology of bioorganic chemistry, such as protein structure and function, inhibition and active-site titration, and basic principles of biocatalysis.

Shulman, Avidor; Keinan, Ehud; Shabat, Doron; Barbas, Carlos F., III

1999-07-01

115

Bath salts and other emerging toxins.  

PubMed

Novel classes of synthetic drugs, including synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("spice" or "K2"), have recently emerged as popular drugs of abuse. Salvia divinorum, a naturally occurring herb, has gained popularity in the last decade as a hallucinogenic as well. The legal status of these substances has been undergoing rapid changes and has been confusing to lawmakers and medical practitioners alike. We present an up-to-date information about the legality of these substances. We also discuss the historical background, chemical composition, patterns of abuse, clinical presentations, laboratory analysis, and management strategies for these drugs, with an emphasis on synthetic cathinones. PMID:24378862

Thornton, Matthew D; Baum, Carl R

2014-01-01

116

Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

117

Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury.

Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.

2014-01-01

118

Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

1989-01-01

119

First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

2015-01-01

120

Effects of organic enrichment on nematode assemblages in a microcosm experiment.  

PubMed

Marine nematodes from subtidal tropical sediments of Cienfuegos Bay were subjected to organic enrichment in a microcosm experiment for 32 days. Nematode abundance and diversity decreased, and the taxonomic and trophic structure was altered. The results suggested that the nematodes were not food limited in the microcosms or in their natural environment. Chemical stressors such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide derived from reduced conditions in sediments may be important factors affecting the assemblages. Hypoxic conditions occurred in all experimental units, as well as in the field, suggesting a nematode assemblage adapted to naturally enriched sediments. However, tolerant species showed a grade of sensitivity to reduced conditions. In agreement with the model by Pearson and Rosenberg (1978), we predict that further organic enrichment in sediments from Cienfuegos Bay may cause a phase shift into a strongly depleted benthic fauna and reduced conditions in water and sediments. PMID:20828806

Armenteros, Maickel; Pérez-García, José Andrés; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei; Díaz-Asencio, Lisbet; Helguera, Yusmila; Vincx, Magda; Decraemer, Wilfrida

2010-12-01

121

Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants.  

PubMed

Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and observed mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies. PMID:24365588

Hebig, Klaus H; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott J

2014-03-01

122

Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

123

Organic Matter Development and Turnover depending on Mineral Composition in an Artificial Soil Incubation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research indicates that minerals play an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). However, it is difficult to determine the effect of mineral composition on SOM development in natural soils where mineral composition is usually not well defined and initial conditions are generally unknown. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment with so-called "artificial soils" composed of mixtures of clean and well-defined model materials where the development of organic matter could be followed from known initial conditions. The artificial soils were composed of 8 different mixtures of quartz, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal, manure as carbon substrate and a microbial inoculum extracted from a natural arable soil. These mixtures were incubated in the dark and sampled 4 times over a total incubation time of 18 months. The organic matter (OM) turnover during incubation was followed by measuring CO2 respiration and C and N contents and distribution over particle size fractions with time. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis were used to determine the development of OM composition. The artificial soil mixtures developed quickly into complex, aggregated, soil-like materials. CO2 respiration was the same for all artificial soil compositions, indicating that microbial degradation was probably limited by nutrient or substrate availability. With increasing incubation time, nitrogen-rich, proteinaceous material, became enriched in the smallest particle size fraction, indicating the accumulation of microbial debris. There was some difference in the distribution of hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable N and organic carbon after 3 months of incubation depending on the type of clay mineral and charcoal presence. However, the artificial soils developed towards more similar systems with increasing incubation time. The artificial soil incubation experiment provided a useful system where the decay and turnover of the original manure substrate under the influence of microbial degradation could be studied. Because of the well-defined composition of the artificial soils this experiment gives us new insight into the dynamics of interactions between specific minerals, OM and charcoal during the decay and turnover of organic matter in a soil-like system.

Pronk, G. J.; Heister, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

2012-12-01

124

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

DOEpatents

A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

1992-05-12

125

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

DOEpatents

A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

1992-01-01

126

Cavity-assisted quantum bath engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In practice, quantum systems are never completely isolated, but instead interact with degrees of freedom in the surrounding environment, eventually leading to decoherence. Precision measurement techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and interferometry, as well as envisioned quantum schemes for computation, simulation, and data encryption, rely on the ability to prepare and preserve delicate quantum superpositions and entanglement. The conventional route to long-lived quantum coherence involves minimizing coupling to a dissipative bath. Paradoxically, it is possible to instead engineer specific couplings to a quantum environment that allow dissipation to actually preserve coherence. I will discuss our recent demonstration of quantum bath engineering for a superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the qubit to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases the state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature. We envision that future multi-qubit implementations could enable the preparation of entangled many-body states suitable for quantum simulation and computation.

Murch, Kater

2013-03-01

127

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

128

21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

129

Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-12-01

130

The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.  

PubMed

The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations. PMID:22680688

Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André

2012-05-01

131

ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

132

Transformations in organic sulfur speciation during maturation of Monterey shale: Constraints from laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect

A series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 125 to 360C at 350 bars pressure to examine variations in sulfur speciation during thermal maturation of Monterey shale. The total sediment, kerogen and bitumen from each experiment in addition to unheated representatives were analyzed via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, {sup 30}NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography and reflected light microscopy. Based on these measurements, it was possible to recognize three distinct temperature regimes, within which the type and amount of sulfur in the analyzed fractions underwent transformations: (1) between 150 and 225C significant proportion of kerogen-bound sulfur is lost probably due to the collapse of polysulfide bridges; (2) between 225 and 275C, cleavage of -S-S- and -S-C- linkages within the kerogen is believed to occur, resulting in substantial production of polar sulfur-rich bitumen; (3) above 275C total bitumen yields as well as the proportion of bitumen sulfur decrease, while C-C bond scission leads to increased yields of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The results from this study clearly and quantitatively establish a link between organically-bound sulfur, and more specifically, organic polysulfides, and the low-temperature evolution of soluble petroleum-like products (bitumen) from sulfur-rich source rocks.

Nelson, B.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Seewald, J.S. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry; Vairavamurthy, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Miknis, F.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1995-04-01

133

Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

1999-01-01

134

Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows that the methylphenanthrenes do react on short timescales, even at temperatures below what would be reached during a large earthquake. These results provide a more accurate picture of temperature rise on previously studied faults. The Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada, the Champlain thrust in Vermont, the Punchbowl fault in Southern California, and the proto-decollement on Sitkinak Island, Alaska, all show no difference in MPI-1 values between on- and off-fault samples, suggesting a lack of differential heating. Our experiments allow us to more accurately estimate the maximum temperature rise that could have occurred during fault slip without significantly altering the methylphenanthrene thermal maturity.

Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

2012-12-01

135

The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment in Iowa: Organic resilience in soil quality and profitability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological, and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The certified organic systems are designed...

136

Avalanche dynamics, surface roughening, and self-organized criticality: Experiments on a three-dimensional pile of rice  

E-print Network

Avalanche dynamics, surface roughening, and self-organized criticality: Experiments on a three-organized criticality. The avalanches that occur on the surface of a pile of rice are found to exhibit finite size scaling in their probability distribution. The critical exponents are 1.21(2) for the avalanche size

Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

137

Self-organized criticality induced by quenched disorder: Experiments on flux avalanches in NbHx films  

E-print Network

Self-organized criticality induced by quenched disorder: Experiments on flux avalanches in Nb, the avalanche sizes are power- law distributed and show finite-size scaling, as expected from self-organized criticality SOC . Furthermore, the shape of the avalanches is observed to be fractal. In the absence

Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

138

Improving homocysteine levels through balneotherapy: effects of sulphur baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for cardio-vascular diseases. Furthermore it has been associated with antioxidative status. Additionally balneotherapeutic sulphur baths have been shown to influence antioxidative status. Methods: 40 patients with degenerative osteoarthrosis were randomised into two equal groups, a treatment group, receiving stationary spa therapy plus daily sulphur baths (sulphur group) and a control group receiving

Valentin Leibetseder; Gerhard Strauss-Blasche; Franz Holzer; Wolfgang Marktl; Cem Ekmekcioglu

2004-01-01

139

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

140

HEAT CONDUCTION NETWORKS: DISPOSITION OF HEAT BATHS AND INVARIANT MEASURE  

E-print Network

HEAT CONDUCTION NETWORKS: DISPOSITION OF HEAT BATHS AND INVARIANT MEASURE ALAIN CAMANES Abstract. We consider a model of heat conduction networks consisting of oscillators in contact with heat baths the particular geometry of the chain, we work with general networks. These heat conduction networks have been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

141

Optimization of Chemical Bath Deposited Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the optimization of CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition where homogenous reactions are min- imized. The optimum parameters have enabled us to maximize the thickness of the deposited film in a single dip and to grow thicker films by periodically replenishing the concentration of reactants while the substrate remains continuously dipped in the reaction bath. Characterization

R. C. Weast; Teil B; Verlag Chemie; Lee Chow

142

University of Bath BITE SIZE GUIDE TO ETHICS IN RESEARCH  

E-print Network

University of Bath BITE SIZE GUIDE TO ETHICS IN RESEARCH We must apply the highest ethical to be conducted according to ethical principles To promote the aims of the research to extend knowledge and avoid and scholarship (http://www.bath.ac.uk/research/pdf/ethics/Allegations_of_misconduct_procedure_Oct_2009.pdf

Burton, Geoffrey R.

143

Approved by LMT, November 2006 University of Bath Archives  

E-print Network

Approved by LMT, November 2006 University of Bath Archives Special Collections Archives interests and to preserve an historical record of the University'. In addition to the archives of the institution itself, the University of Bath holds a small collection of archival material donated

Burton, Geoffrey R.

144

Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

2007-01-01

145

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2014-07-01

146

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2011-07-01

147

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2013-07-01

148

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2010-07-01

149

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2012-07-01

150

78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. DATES: Written comments...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. CPSC received no...

2013-12-06

151

Microbial control on stability of soil organic matter in drought manipulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending drought periods as a consequence of global warming affect both the amount and the activity of heterotrophic microorganisms in soil. The studies of drought effect on the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) which is microbially mediated still show controversial results mainly due to separated research approaches which do not consider the soil - plant system as a whole. We would like to discuss the results obtained within the QuaSOM experiment (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena, Germany) where continues 13C- CO2-labeling was applied during vegetation of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under deficit and optimal moisture regimes. The partitioning of plant-originated and SOM-originated carbon in heterotrophic respiration and in microbial biomass will be related to the changes in the microbial growth parameters and enzymes kinetics. The drought effect on temperature sensitivity of the enzymes responsible for the decomposition of SOM-compounds of different availability will be compared in the rhizosphere of peppermint versus bulk soil. The effect of vegetation on cycling of organic matter in soil will be considered for the contrasting moisture regimes. The changes in carbon sequestration potential due to priming effects caused by repeated drying - rewetting events will be evaluated for the short term time scale.

Blagodatskaya, E.; Schrumpf, M.; Weber, E.; Wutzler, T.; Gleixner, G.; Reichstein, M.; Trumbore, S.

2012-04-01

152

Hot spring bath and Legionella pneumonia: an association confirmed by genomic identification.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man developed pneumonia 9 days after bathing in a hot spring spa. Bilateral shadows on his chest radiograph rapidly progressed after admission. He was successfully treated with erythromycin and rifampicin. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 was recovered from an intratrachial specimen and a significant elevation was observed in a paired indirect fluorescent antibody to Legionella. Persistent slight fever and chest rentogenographic shadows resolved after administering low-dose prednisolone to treat organizing pneumonia shown by transbronchial lung biopsy. The same serotype of Legionella was recovered from the water of the hot spring spa where the man had bathed. When the extracted DNA of these two strains showed identical restriction fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we had direct evidence that hot spring spas can be a source of Legionella pneumonia. PMID:12413010

Ito, Isao; Naito, Junko; Kadowaki, Seizo; Mishima, Michiaki; Ishida, Tadashi; Hongo, Toshiharu; Ma, Ling; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2002-10-01

153

Molecular determination of infection source of a sporadic Legionella pneumonia case associated with a hot spring bath.  

PubMed

To determine the infection source of a sporadic Legionella pneumonia case associated with a hot spring bath, we used five molecular methods, including repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), ribotyping, restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), and macrorestriction endonuclease analysis (MREA) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. L. pneumophila serogroup (SG) 3 strain EY 3702, isolated from an intratracheal specimen of a 71-year-old Japanese female who developed pneumonia after nearly drowning in a hot spring spa bath, produced rep-PCR and AP-PCR fingerprints identical to those of L. pneumophila SG 3 strains EY 3768 and EY 3769 isolated from the bath water. Four epidemiologically unrelated L. pneumophila SG 3 strains showed different rep-PCR or AP-PCR fingerprints from those of the three EY strains (EY 3702, 3768, and 3769). The three EY strains were also genotypically indistinguishable by ribotyping with EcoRI and PstI, by REA with EcoRI or HindIII, and by MREA with NotI. Based on these results, we identified the bath water of the hot spring spa as the source of infection of this patient, even though the viable number of the organisms in the bath water was low (3 CFU/100 ml) when determined 27 days after her nearly drowning. PMID:9130230

Miyamoto, H; Jitsurong, S; Shiota, R; Maruta, K; Yoshida, S; Yabuuchi, E

1997-01-01

154

Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

1993-02-01

155

Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.  

PubMed

In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

2014-09-01

156

The effect of salt bath cementation on mechanical behavior of hot-rolled and cold-drawn SAE 8620 and 16MnCr5 steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of salt bath cementation on mechanical behavior of SAE 8620 and 16MnCr5 cementation steels, which are widely used in industry, was investigated. The experiments were carried out with hot rolled and cold rolled specimens. The cementation processes were performed in NaCN salt bath at 920 °C temperature for 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Abrasive wear tests

?lyas Ye?en; Metin Usta

2010-01-01

157

Measurement of bubble characteristics in a molten iron bath at 1600 °C using an electroresistivity probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-needle, electroresistivity probe was developed to measure bubble characteristics such as gas holdup, bubble frequency, and bubble rising velocity in a molten iron bath at 1600 °C. The probe’s electrode was made of a 0.5-mm platinum wire coated with ZrO2 cement and an outer coat of alumina as insulator. The life of this probe at 1600 °C was 15 to 20 minutes, making it possible to systematically measure bubble characteristics. The measured values of the bubble characteristics were compared with their respective empirical correlations derived from cold model experiments. Good agreement between the measured values and the empirical correlations was seen for each bubble characteristic. This electroresistivity probe allows us to measure bubble characteristics in actual metallurgical reactors with gas injection at high bath temperatures.

Iguchi, Manabu; Kawabata, Hirotoshi; Nakajima, Keiji; Morita, Zen-Ichiro

1995-02-01

158

Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

159

Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

160

6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

161

Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

162

9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

163

Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

164

WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

165

21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products....

2011-04-01

166

21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products....

2010-04-01

167

From Zeno to anti-Zeno regime: Decoherence-control dependence on the quantum statistics of the bath  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate through exact solutions that a spin bath leads to stronger (faster) dephasing of a qubit than a bosonic bath with an identical bath-coupling spectrum. This difference is due to the spin-bath ''dressing'' by the coupling. Consequently, the quantum statistics of the bath strongly affects the pulse sequences required to dynamically decouple the qubit from its bath.

Bhaktavatsala Rao, D. D.; Kurizki, Gershon [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2011-03-15

168

Psychoactive "bath salts" intoxication with methylenedioxypyrovalerone.  

PubMed

Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. PMID:22682791

Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A

2012-09-01

169

Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films Grown By Chemical Bath Deposition Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdS thin films were deposited by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing CdSO4, thiourea and ammonia. The effect of annealing in air on the optical properties of CdS thin films was investigated. The quality of CBD CdS thin films was analyzed at different condition of temperature, concentration of reactants and deposition time. The optical band gap of

S. Erat; H. Metin

2007-01-01

170

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic ''how to'' approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1986-01-01

171

Control of precious-metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis is included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1983-07-01

172

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W. G.

173

Geochemistry of volatile organic compounds in seawater: Mesocosm experiments with 14C-model compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of ten radiotracer experiments were conducted in controlled experimental ecosystems (mesocosms) to investigate the behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in seawater. Time-series measurements of the redistribution of 14C-activity within several major pools - dissolved, particulate, intermediate metabolite, and CO 2 - in the ecosystem made possible an evaluation of the rates of processes - volatilization, biodegradation, Sorption and sedimentation - acting to remove VOC from seawater in summer. The behavior of the model 14C-VOC fell into three categories. Aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, naphthalene) were subject to both volatilization and biodegradation, with mineralization dominating in summer. Chlorinated C 2-hydrocarbons (tetrachloroethylene) and chlorinated benzenes (chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) were affected only by volatilization and were relatively resistant to biodegradation. Of all the model VOC studied, only aliphatic hydrocarbons (decane and octadecane) were sorbed onto suspended paniculate matter; however, the primary route of loss from the water column appeared to be biodegradation rather than sedimentation. The mesocosm-derived removal rate constants were then applied to estimate summer VOC residence times in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island of about 1 day for aromatic hydrocarbons, 1 week for the chlorinated VOC and about 1 day for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Residence times in winter might be on the order of 1 week for all VOC.

Wakeham, Stuart G.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Doering, Peter H.

1986-06-01

174

Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

1997-01-01

175

The FLAME Deluge: organic aerosol emission ratios from combustion chamber experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high level of variability has been identified amongst organic aerosol (OA) emission ratios (ER) from biomass burning (BB) under ambient conditions. However, it is difficult to assess the influences of potential drivers for this variability, given the wide range of conditions associated with wildfire measurements. Chamber experiments performed under controlled conditions provide a means of examining the effects of different fuel types and combustion conditions on OA emissions from biomass fuels. ERs have been characterised for 67 burns during the second Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME II), involving 19 different species from 6 fuel types widely consumed in BB events in the US each year. Average normalised dOA/dCO ratios show a high degree of variability, both between and within different fuel types and species, typically exceeding variability between separate plumes in ambient measurements. Relationships with source conditions were found to be complex, with little consistent influence from fuel properties and combustion conditions for the entire range of experiments. No strong correlation across all fires was observed between dOA/dCO and modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is used as an indicator of the proportional contributions of flaming and smouldering combustion phases throughout each burn. However, a negative correlation exists between dOA/dCO and MCE for some coniferous species, most notably Douglas fir, for which there is also an apparent influence from fuel moisture content. Significant contrasts were also identified between combustion emissions from different fuel components of additional coniferous species. Changes in fire efficiency were also shown to dramatically alter emissions for fires with very similar initial conditions. Although the relationship with MCE is variable between species, there is greater consistency with the level of oxygenation in OA. The ratio of the m/z 44 fragment to total OA mass concentration (f44) as measured by aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) provides an indication of oxygenation as influenced by combustion processes at source, with dOA/dCO decreasing with increasing f44 for all fuel types. Inconsistencies in the magnitude of the effects associated with each potential influence on dOA/dCO emphasise the lack of a single dominant control on fire emissions, and a dependency on both fuel properties and combustion conditions.

Jolleys, Matthew; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; McMeeking, Gavin; Lee, Taehyoung; Sullivan, Amy; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Collett, Jeff

2014-05-01

176

Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.  

PubMed

The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

2014-03-01

177

Development of a System for Temperature Profile Characterization of Baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid baths are the main calibration equipment to directly affect the measurement uncertainty in temperature calibrations. Therefore, the characteristics of baths need to be well investigated and understood. The temperature profile and stability of liquid baths are one of the most important contributions to the calibration uncertainty of platinum resistance thermometers, digital thermometers, liquid-in-glass thermometers, and thermocouples. Commercial baths only present stability and uniformity data in two dimensions in general; however, thermometers and thermocouples are immersed into the body of the bath, so the depth or z-axis is also very important. In this study, a measurement system has been designed using three-stepper motors and a data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS is developed using object-oriented algorithms to form a three-dimensional (3-D) scanning system. The 3-D scanning system is home-made and used in conjunction with a reference platinum thermometer. The temperature profiles and stability of several types of baths: water, oil, and salt were obtained in the temperature range from 30 °C to 450 °C. Therefore, this contributed toward a more accurate uncertainty budget evaluation.

Torun, Mehmet Kemalettin; Ince, Ahmet T.

2011-12-01

178

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2001-07-10

179

Organic geochemical studies of soils from the Rothamsted classical experiments — VI. The occurrence and source of organic acids in an experimental grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lipid extracts (TLEs) of grass (aerial and sub-aerial, Holcus lanatus) from a plot on a long-term grassland experiment, and associated soil, along with the organic fraction of the TLE hydrolysates and the hydrolysates of the solvent extracted vegetation have been separated into fractions containing specific compound classes and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The

Ian D. Bull; Chris J. Nott; Pim F. van Bergen; Paul R. Poulton; Richard P. Evershed

2000-01-01

180

ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

181

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

182

Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

2011-01-01

183

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

184

Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

185

Planetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space exposure  

E-print Network

) on the EXPOSE facility on the International Space Station (ISS). For the small fluence that was collected during; International Space Station; Photo-stability 1. Introduction Carbon chemistry in space occurs most efficientlyPlanetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383­400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space

186

Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics  

E-print Network

Small-scale heat exchanges have recently been modeled with resource theories intended to extend thermodynamics to the nanoscale and quantum regimes. We generalize these theories to exchanges of quantities other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d-majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from, and we bound the work cost of creating, a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

Nicole Yunger Halpern; Joseph M. Renes

2014-09-13

187

Hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids synthesized by water-bath microwave: synthesis and desulfurization.  

PubMed

Water-bath microwave method was used for hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) synthesis to study the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) from the flue gas. The results showed that the water-bath microwave method has some advantages of short reaction time and good yields. The synthesis of ethanolamine lactate ILs was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design (L(9)(3(4))). Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the molar ratio of ammonium/acid is the most significant variable, and the optimized preparation conditions are under 338 K, wave power of 300 W for 30 min with the molar ratio 1:1.1 (ethanolamine vs. lactic acid). At the same condition, the yield of the other ILs was over 90% except dimethyl ethanolamine-based ILs. Results showed that the solubility of SO(2) in ethanolamine lactate ILs was 0.51 (mole fraction), higher than others. Ethanolamine lactate ILs was a better absorbent for SO(2). The optimal temperature for the absorption and desorption process were 298 and 363 K, respectively. The optimal desorption time was 60 min. It was also found that water-bath microwave can improve the release of the absorbed SO(2) from ILs. PMID:20092942

Zhai, Linzhi; Zhong, Qin; He, Chuan; Wang, Juan

2010-05-15

188

Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland.  

PubMed

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000-40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-03-01

189

Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-01-01

190

Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

2014-06-01

191

T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12  

SciTech Connect

This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; /Indiana U.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

2012-02-11

192

Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of…

Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

2014-01-01

193

Long-Term Experience With World Health Organization Grade III (Malignant) Meningiomas at a Single Institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes for patients with Grade III meningiomas as defined by the 2007 World Health Organization standards. Methods and Materials: The slides from patients who had been treated at the Cleveland Clinic for malignant meningiomas were reviewed by a single neuropathologist. The data from 13 patients treated between 1984 and 2006 satisfied the World Health Organization 2007

Lewis A. Rosenberg; Richard A. Prayson; Joung Lee; Chandana Reddy; Samuel T. Chao; Gene H. Barnett; Michael A. Vogelbaum; John H. Suh

2009-01-01

194

Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath  

SciTech Connect

The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects result in an irreversible spreading of free electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible spreading produces a detectable effect on the electron interference.

Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V., E-mail: markiz4@yandex.ru

2012-12-15

195

Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

2011-08-01

196

Electron Spin Decoherence in Silicon Carbide Nuclear Spin Bath  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of $^{29}\\rm{Si}$ ($p_{\\rm{Si}}=4.7\\%$) is about 4 times larger than that of $^{13}{\\rm C}$ ($p_{\\rm{C}}=1.1\\%$), the electron spin coherence time of defect centers in SiC nuclear spin bath in strong magnetic field ($B>300~\\rm{Gauss}$) is longer than that of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in $^{13}{\\rm C}$ nuclear spin bath in diamond. The reason for this counter-intuitive result is the suppression of heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

Li-Ping Yang; Christian Burk; Mattias Widmann; Sang-Yun Lee; Jörg Wrachtrup; Nan Zhao

2014-09-16

197

Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes  

SciTech Connect

We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang, E-mail: qshi@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-04-07

198

The politics of combating the organ trade: lessons from the Israeli and Pakistani experience.  

PubMed

Israel and Pakistan--two major participants in the global organ trade--enacted legislative prohibitions on the trade at roughly the same time. The article highlights three influences that brought about this change of policy in both countries: advocacy by local physicians coupled with media coverage and reinforced by the international medical community. The analysis also explains why the two countries have differed with respect to the enforcement of the organ-trade prohibition. The insights from the Israeli and Pakistani cases will be of use for the transplant community's efforts against organ trafficking. PMID:23675678

Efrat, A

2013-07-01

199

Quantum energy and coherence exchange with discrete baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherence and quantum average energy exchange are studied for a system particle as a function of the number N of constituents of a discrete bath model. The time evolution of the energy and coherence, determined via the system purity (proportional to the linear entropy of the quantum statistical ensemble), are obtained solving numerically the Schrödinger equation. A new simplified stochastic Schrödinger equation is derived which takes into account the discreteness of the bath. The environment (bath) is composed of a finite number N of uncoupled harmonic oscillators (HOs), characterizing a structured bath, for which a non-Markovian behavior is expected. Two distinct physical situations are assumed for the system particle: the HO and the Morse potential. In the limit N?? the bath is assumed to have an ohmic, sub-ohmic or super-ohmic spectral density. In the case of the HO, for very low values of N (?10) the mean energy and purity oscillate between HO and bath indefinitely in time, while for intermediate and larger values (N?10?500) they start to decay with two distinct time regimes: exponential for relatively short times and power-law for larger times. In the case of the Morse potential we only observe an exponential decay for large values of N while for small N’s, due to the anharmonicity of the potential, no recurrences of the mean energy and coherences are observed. Wave packet dynamics is used to determine the evolution of the particle inside the system potentials. For both systems the time behavior of a non-Markovianity measure is analyzed as a function of N and is shown to be directly related to the time behavior of the purity.

Galiceanu, M.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

2014-12-01

200

Environmental factors and the development of Bath Spa, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal water springs at Bristol and Bath in west England have come under close scrutiny since the closure of Bath Spa in 1978. In order to protect the hot springs from dewatering and loss of pressure due to largescale quarrying and deep drilling, it is necessary to identify the sources and routes whereby the thermal water travels to its resurgences in the Avon valley. Control over deep water movements is exercised by the structure and size of the aquifers and aquicludes, modified by zones of Quaternary—Recent fracturing along which water movements have not been restricted or blocked by mineralization.

Kellaway, G. A.

1994-10-01

201

Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

2000-01-01

202

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

203

Microcosm experiments to control anaerobic redox conditions when studying the fate of organic micropollutants in aquifer material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural processes occurring in subsurface environments have proven to effectively remove a number of organic pollutants from water. The predominant redox conditions revealed to be one of the controlling factors. However, in the case of organic micropollutants the knowledge on this potential redox-dependent behavior is still limited. Motivated by managed aquifer recharge practices microcosm experiments involving aquifer material, settings potentially feasible in field applications, and organic micropollutants at environmental concentrations were carried out. Different anaerobic redox conditions were promoted and sustained in each set of microcosms by adding adequate quantities of electron donors and acceptors. Whereas denitrification and sulfate-reducing conditions are easily achieved and maintained, Fe- and Mn-reduction are strongly constrained by the slower dissolution of the solid phases commonly present in aquifers. The thorough description and numerical modeling of the evolution of the experiments, including major and trace solutes and dissolution/precipitation of solid phases, have been proven necessary to the understanding of the processes and closing the mass balance. As an example of micropollutant results, the ubiquitous beta-blocker atenolol is completely removed in the experiments, the removal occurring faster under more advanced redox conditions. This suggests that aquifers constitute a potentially efficient alternative water treatment for atenolol, especially if adequate redox conditions are promoted during recharge and long enough residence times are ensured.

Barbieri, Manuela; Carrera, Jesús; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Ayora, Carlos; Cama, Jordi; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Tobella Brunet, Joana; Hernández García, Marta

2011-11-01

204

College Students' Attitudes towards Living Organisms: The Influence of Experience and Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the attitude variations between students who had direct experiences with another living thing and those who did not. All students who had direct experiences with another living thing showed a higher mean value in all the attitude categories that showed more concern for another species. Confirms the importance of students having direct…

Yore, Lola Boeck; Boyer, Stan

1997-01-01

205

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

206

A Summary Report of Work Experience Education Program Effectiveness and Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed to gather perceptual data from students, coordinators, and supervisors involved in work experience education in Alberta, Canada. Two questionnaires were designed by the researcher to obtain information on the priorities and the perceived attainment of benefits of work experience and on selected organizational variables (e.g.,…

Germscheid, R. D.

207

Markovian master equation for a classical particle coupled with arbitrary strength to a harmonic bath.  

PubMed

We consider a classical point particle bilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath. Assuming that the evolution of the particle is monitored on a timescale which is longer than the characteristic bath correlation time, we derive the Markovian master equation for the probability density of the particle. The relaxation operator of this master equation is evaluated analytically, without invoking the perturbation theory and the approximation of weak system-bath coupling. When the bath correlation time tends to zero, the Fokker-Planck equation is recovered. For a finite bath correlation time, the relaxation operator contains contributions of all orders in the system-bath coupling. PMID:25481131

Gelin, Maxim F

2014-12-01

208

A novel organ donor facility: a decade of experience with liver donors.  

PubMed

Transplant surgeons have historically traveled to donor hospitals, performing complex, time-sensitive procedures with unfamiliar personnel. This often involves air travel, significant delays, and frequently occurs overnight.In 2001, we established the nation's first organ recovery center. The goal was to increase efficiency,reduce costs and reduce surgeon travel. Liver donors and recipients, donor costs, surgeon hours and travel time, from April 1,2001 through December 31,2011 were analyzed. Nine hundred and fifteen liver transplants performed at our center were analyzed based on procurement location (living donors and donation after cardiac death donors were excluded). In year 1, 36% (9/25) of donor procurements occurred at the organ procurement organization (OPO) facility, rising to 93%(56/60) in the last year of analysis. Travel time was reduced from 8 to 2.7 h (p<0.0001), with a reduction of surgeon fly outs by 93% (14/15) in 2011. Liver organ donor charges generated by the donor were reduced by37% overall for donors recovered at the OPO facility versus acute care hospital. Organs recovered in this novel facility resulted in significantly reduced surgeon hours, air travel and cost. This practice has major implications for cost containment and OPO national policy and could become the standard of care. PMID:24612713

Doyle, M B M; Vachharajani, N; Wellen, J R; Lowell, J A; Shenoy, S; Ridolfi, G; Jendrisak, M D; Coleman, J; Maher, M; Brockmeier, D; Kappel, D; Chapman, W C

2014-03-01

209

Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

1977-01-01

210

Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

2012-01-01

211

MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

212

Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of

Isaiah O. Oladeji; Lee Chow

1996-01-01

213

MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. NOTE THE WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

214

UNIVERSITY OF BATH Process: Ethical Implications of Research Activity  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF BATH Process: Ethical Implications of Research Activity DREO Department Research Ethics Officer Form EIRA1 Ethical Implications of Research Activity Form EIRA2 Annual Monitoring Report to the University Ethics Committee RS1 Form to accompany all research proposals RSU Research Support & Funding Form

Burton, Geoffrey R.

215

MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

216

Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch  

E-print Network

Gyroscopically Stabilized Oscillators and Heat Baths Anthony M. Bloch #3; Department of Mathematics@research.bell-labs.com November 25, 2003 Abstract In this paper we analyze the stability of a gyroscopic oscillator interacting a #12;nite gyroscopic oscillator model of a particle on a rotating disc and a particle in a magnetic #12

Bloch, Anthony

217

Procedures for Evaluating Bathing Facility Slip and Fall Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bathing facility slip and fall injuries are a significant part of the great number of slip and fall accidents that occur each year in the United States. As a consequence, they are an important factor in personal injury allegations in both litigation and insurance claims. One of the key problems faced both by attorneys and insurance adjustors, however, is sufficient

Melvin M. Friedlander

218

19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

219

13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

220

9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

221

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

222

Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

1980-01-01

223

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

224

Work Organization, Control and the Experience of Work in Call Centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the integration of telephone and VDU technologies, call centres are not uniform in terms of work organization. It is suggested that diversity can best be understood by reference to a range of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Consequently, perspectives that treat all call centres as if they were the same hybrids of customization and routinization are rejected, along with over-optimistic

Phil Taylor; G. Mulvey; J. Hyman; Peter Bain

2002-01-01

225

CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) f...

226

Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments Using CQESTR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil carbon (C) models are useful for examining the complex interactions between climate, crop, and soil management practices and their influences on long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC). The CQESTR model was developed to evaluate the effect of agricultural management practices on short- a...

227

Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this presentation, Burton and Bailey, discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing knowledge sharing systems in organizations. Bailey provides a tool using imagery and collage for identifying and utilizing the diverse values and beliefs of individuals and groups. Burton reveals findings from a business research study that examines how social construction influences knowledge sharing among task oriented groups.

Burton, Y. C.; Bailey, T.

2000-01-01

228

Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of School Organization: Fundamental Inconsistencies between Expectations and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservice teacher-candidates enrolled in teacher education programs across Canada are exposed to the nuances of school organization during their practice-teaching assignments. Although the literature is full of scholarship about the concerns of new teachers, less attention has been given to school organizational factors as sources of dissonance…

Cherubini, Lorenzo

2009-01-01

229

Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

2007-01-01

230

Searching for life on Mars: degradation of surfactant solutions used in organic extraction experiments.  

PubMed

Life-detection instruments on future Mars missions may use surfactant solutions to extract organic matter from samples of martian rocks. The thermal and radiation environments of space and Mars are capable of degrading these solutions, thereby reducing their ability to dissolve organic species. Successful extraction and detection of biosignatures on Mars requires an understanding of how degradation in extraterrestrial environments can affect surfactant performance. We exposed solutions of the surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80), Zonyl FS-300, and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-[3-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)propyl]methylsiloxane] (PDMSHEPMS) to elevated radiation and heat levels, combined with prolonged storage. Degradation was investigated by measuring changes in pH and electrical conductivity and by using the degraded solutions to extract a suite of organic compounds spiked onto grains of the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Results indicate that the proton fluences expected during a mission to Mars do not cause significant degradation of surfactant compounds. Solutions of PS80 or PDMSHEPMS stored at -20 °C are able to extract the spiked standards with acceptable recovery efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies for spiked standards decrease progressively with increasing temperature, and prolonged storage at 60°C renders the surfactant solutions ineffective. Neither the presence of ascorbic acid nor the choice of solvent unequivocally alters the efficiency of extraction of the spiked standards. Since degradation of polysorbates has the potential to produce organic compounds that could be mistaken for indigenous martian organic matter, the polysiloxane PDMSHEPMS may be a superior choice of surfactant for the exploration of Mars. PMID:25192400

Court, Richard W; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C; Sephton, Mark A

2014-09-01

231

Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1975-01-01

232

78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath Seats AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. The Office of Management...consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler products. These...

2013-08-30

233

The dissection room experience: A factor in the choice of organ and whole body donation--a Nigerian survey.  

PubMed

The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to body and organ donation were studied. The participants were broken into categories according to degree of exposure to human dissection. Participants who were never exposed to the dissection experience showed more willingness to donate their bodies than those who were exposed. With the exception of the physiotherapy department, the students and professionals from the health science departments who were exposed to the dissection room but never engaged in dissection showed the most unwillingness to donate their bodies (P < 0.001). An unwillingness to donate oneself was noted as one of the negative impacts associated with exposure to the dissection room. Willingness to donate an organ correlated positively with the level of exposure to the dissection room (P < 0.001). Most of the reasons for unwillingness were traceable to negative perceptions of the dissection room as a result of poor and disrespectful management of the human cadavers. PMID:23650046

Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N; Agu, Augustine U

2014-01-01

234

Landau-Zener population control and dipole measurement of a two-level-system bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunneling two-level systems (TLSs), present in dielectrics at low temperatures, have been recently studied for fundamental understanding and superconducting device development. According to a recent theory by Burin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.157002], the TLS bath of any amorphous dielectric experiences a distribution of Landau-Zener transitions if exposed to simultaneous fields. In this experiment we measure amorphous insulating films at millikelvin temperatures with a microwave field and a swept electric field bias using a superconducting resonator. We find that the maximum dielectric loss per microwave photon with the simultaneous fields is approximately the same as that in the equilibrium state, in agreement with the generic material theory. In addition, we find that the loss depends on the fields in a way which allows for the separate extraction of the TLS bath dipole moment and density of states. This method allows for the study of the TLS dipole moment in a diverse set of disordered films, and provides a technique for continuously inverting their population.

Khalil, M. S.; Gladchenko, S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Burin, A. L.; Osborn, K. D.

2014-09-01

235

South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com All about the 'bath salts' that aren't really for your bath  

E-print Network

hallucinogen not to be confused with synthetic marijuana. Both are designer drugs, but fake pot is sold as herbal incense and promises -- but does not always deliver -- a marijuana-like high. It's easy to tell't handle. It can make them stronger." #12;Easy to get Like synthetic marijuana, "bath salts" are sold

Belogay, Eugene A.

236

Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper  

PubMed Central

The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artifact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artifact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures which are disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies assessing the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations of blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of the data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models is thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate. It is concluded that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations. PMID:25667570

Gainotti, Guido

2015-01-01

237

Quantitation of Organics in Supercritical Fluid Aging Experiments Using FTIR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Aging is a natural process in which hydrophobic organic contaminants slowly accumulate in the mineral pores and organic matter of soils and sediments. Contaminants in aged soils exhibit decreased bioavailability and slow release to the environment. Therefore, aging may have a significant influence on the applicability and effectiveness of remediation strategies (e.g., bioremediation and natural attenuation) and the accuracy of numerical transport models. Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that circulating supercritical carbon dioxide can be used to rapidly prepare artificially aged materials for studying slow-release behavior. In this investigation, FTIR spectroscopy was evaluated as a means of monitoring the progress of the aging process in real time. Solvent interferences, measurement sensitivity for selected halocarbons and the influence of temperature and pressure on the FTIR spectra were assessed. Application of this methodology to monitoring the incorporation of carbon tetrachloride into natural soils will be discussed.

Thompson, Christopher J.; Riley, Robert G.; Amonette, James E.; Gassman, Paul L.

2004-03-31

238

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

239

Adsorption of propane, propylene and isobutane on a metal–organic framework: Molecular simulation and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of propane\\/propylene mixtures is the most energy-intensive operation practiced in the petrochemical industry. Adsorptive processes are currently viewed as a promising alternative to cryogenic distillation for the separation of these mixtures. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using a new metal–organic framework material, CuBTC, in adsorptive separation processes, particularly in a simulated moving bed (SMB) context

Nabil Lamia; Miguel Jorge; Miguel A. Granato; Filipe A. Almeida Paz; Hubert Chevreau; Alírio E. Rodrigues

2009-01-01

240

Detrital Controls on Soil Solution N and Dissolved Organic Matter in Soils: A Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established a long-term field study in an old growth coniferous forest at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA,\\u000a to address how detrital quality and quantity control soil organic matter accumulation and stabilization. The Detritus Input\\u000a and Removal Treatments (DIRT) plots consist of treatments that double leaf litter, double woody debris inputs, exclude litter\\u000a inputs, or remove root inputs

K. Lajtha; S. E. Crow; Y. Yano; S. S. Kaushal; E. Sulzman; P. Sollins; J. D. H. Spears

2005-01-01

241

Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on and off channels in mudpuppy retina. III. A model of ganglion cell receptive field organization based on chloride-free experiments  

PubMed Central

A chloride-free environment produces selective changes in the retinal network which include a separation of on and off channels. The identification of chloride-sensitive and insensitivie neuronal activity permits identification of some of the connections and intervening polarities of synaptic interactions which are expressed in ganglion cell receptive field organization. These experiments support previous suggestions that surround antagonism is dependent on horizontal cell activity. In addition they suggest a model of the neuronal connections which subserve on-center, off-center, and on-off ganglion cells. Experimental tests of the on-off ganglion cell model favor the idea that this type of ganglion cell receives inhibitory input from amacrine cells and excitatory activation from depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells. PMID:932670

1976-01-01

242

AN EXPERIMENT IN TEACHING TOPOGRAPHICAL ORIENTATION AND SPATIAL ORGANIZATION TO CONGENITALLY BLIND CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS RESEARCH ATTEMPTED TO ESTABLISH A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF CONGENITALLY TOTALLY BLIND CHILDREN AND TO TEST THE POSSIBILITY OF MEETING THESE PROBLEMS WITH A SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAM IN GENERAL ORIENTATION AND SPACE PERCEPTION. A SAMPLE OF 60 CHILDREN WAS SELECTED FOR THE EXPERIMENT. THESE SUBJECTS WERE WITHOUT ADDITIONAL…

ASCARELLI, ANNA; GARRY, RALPH

243

Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have…

Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

244

Class Matters: The Experiences of Female College Students in a Greek-Letter Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study documents the experiences of 15 women from different social class backgrounds who are members of a women's fraternity/sorority at a large, public, institution located in an urban area in the Mid-West. The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between social class and the nature and impact of the…

Ryan, Helen-Grace

2009-01-01

245

Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

2008-01-01

246

33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

2013-07-01

247

33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

2011-07-01

248

33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.  

... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

2014-07-01

249

33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation... Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds. Vessels...the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore in...

2012-07-01

250

INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

251

Primary and secondary gaseous organic carbon in Paris plume during the MEGAPOLI summer experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, an intensive field campaign was conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009. The main objective of the campaign was to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol and the role of organic gas-phase precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to describe their evolution in the megacity plume. Observed gaseous organic carbon include a large dataset of primary and secondary VOCs of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin (monofunctionnal and bifunctionnal alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones). Instruments were simultaneously deployed on ground-based platforms (MILEAGE) at two urban and suburban sites and one mobile platform (the French ATR-42 aircraft). Flights were designed to describe the urban plume ageing by performing several legs at increasing distances from the city centre. Techniques include on-line sampling and analysis by GC-FID and PTR-MS (on-board the aircraft) at high-time resolution and off-line sampling on carbonaceous cartridges and 2.4-DNPH-cartridges at 3-hour-time resolution. These measurements are collocated with other relevant trace gases measurements (O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOy) and meteorological parameters. First, the spatial and temporal variability of VOC from urban to regional scale is discussed regarding environmental conditions (air masses origin, meteorology, chemical regimes and photochemical ageing based on various photochemical clocks) and with respect to their sources. Then, the SOA forming potential of air masses is determined from laboratory determined particle-yields and observed gaseous organic precursors.

Ait-Helal, Warda; Borbon, Agnès.; Colomb, Aurélie; Michoud, Vincent; Afif, Charbel; Fronval, Isabelle; Leonardis, Thierry; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine

2010-05-01

252

Soil-solution partitioning of DOC in acid organic soils: Results from a UK field acidification and alkalization experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle and has profound impacts on water chemistry and metabolism in lakes and rivers. Reported increases of DOC concentration in surface waters across Europe and Northern America have been attributed to several drivers; from changing climate and land-use to eutrophication and declining acid deposition. The last of these suggests that acidic deposition suppressed the solubility of DOC, and that this historic suppression is now being reversed by reducing emissions of acidifying pollutants. We studied a set of four parallel acidification and alkalization experiments in organic rich soils which, after three years of manipulation, have shown clear soil solution DOC responses to acidity change. We tested whether these DOC concentration changes were related to changes in the acid/base properties of DOC. Based on laboratory determination of DOC site density (S.D. = amount of carboxylic groups per milligram DOC) and charge density (C.D. = organic acid anion concentration per milligram DOC) we found that the change in DOC soil-solution partitioning was tightly related to the change in degree of dissociation (? = C.D./S.D. ratio) of organic acids (R2=0.74, p<0.01). Carbon turnover in soil organic matter (SOM), determined by soil respiration and ?-D-glucosidase enzyme activity measurements, also appears to have some impact on DOC leaching, via constraints on the actual supply of available DOC from SOM; when the turnover rate of C in SOM is low, the effect of ? on DOC leaching is reduced. Thus, differences in the magnitude of DOC changes seen across different environments might be explained by interactions between physicochemical restrictions of DOC soil-solution partitioning, and SOM carbon turnover effects on DOC supply.

Oulehle, Filip; Jones, Timothy; Burden, Annette; Evans, Chris

2013-04-01

253

Uptake of organic emergent contaminants in spath and lettuce: an in vitro experiment.  

PubMed

Although a myriad of organic microcontaminants may occur in irrigation waters, little attention has been paid to their incorporation in crops. In this work, a systematic approach to assess the final fate of both ionizable and neutral organic contaminants taken up by plants is described. In vitro uptake of triclosan (TCS), hydrocinnamic acid (HCA), tonalide (TON), ibuprofen (IBF), naproxen (NPX), and clofibric acid (CFA) were studied in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L) and spath ( Spathiphyllum spp.) as model plants. After 30 days incubation, analyte depletion from the culture medium was 85-99% (lettuce) and 51-81% (spath). HCA, NPX, and CFA exhibited the highest depletion rate in both plant species. Lettuce plant tissue analysis revealed an accumulation of all compounds except for HCA. These compounds reached a peak in tissue concentration followed by a sudden drop, probably due to the plant detoxification system and analyte depletion from the culture medium. Kinetic characterization of the uptake and detoxification processes was fitted to a pseudo-first-order rate. Compounds with a carboxylic group in their structure exhibited higher uptake rates, possibly due to the contribution of an ion trap effect. Molecular weight and log K(ow) played a direct role in uptake in lettuce, as proven by the significant correlation of both properties to depletion and by the correlation of molecular weight to kinetic uptake rates. PMID:22293031

Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Renault, Quentin; Matamoros, Víctor; Cañameras, Núria; Bayona, Josep Maria

2012-02-29

254

Long-Term Experience With World Health Organization Grade III (Malignant) Meningiomas at a Single Institution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes for patients with Grade III meningiomas as defined by the 2007 World Health Organization standards. Methods and Materials: The slides from patients who had been treated at the Cleveland Clinic for malignant meningiomas were reviewed by a single neuropathologist. The data from 13 patients treated between 1984 and 2006 satisfied the World Health Organization 2007 definition of Grade III meningioma. A total of 24 surgeries were performed, including 13 primary, 7 salvage, and 4 second salvage. Also, 14 courses of radiotherapy (RT) were administered, including fractionated RT in 3 patients after primary surgery, fractionated RT in 4 patients after salvage surgery, salvage stereotactic radiosurgery to six separate areas in 3 patients, and salvage intensity-modulated RT in 1 patient. Results: From the primary surgery, the median survival was 3.4 years, the 5-year survival rate was 47.2%, and the 8-year survival rate was 12.2%. The median time to recurrence was 9.6 months. A trend was seen toward longer survival for patients who had received adjuvant RT after initial surgery compared with those treated with surgery alone. Two patients developed radiation necrosis, and three had surgical complications. Conclusion: This is one of the few studies reporting the outcomes for malignant meningioma patients according to recent definitions. Our results are consistent with existing reports of the overall poor outcomes for atypical and malignant meningioma patients. From the available data, surgical resection followed by RT and salvage therapy can lead to extended survival.

Rosenberg, Lewis A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Prayson, Richard A. [Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, Joung [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Reddy, Chandana; Chao, Samuel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Barnett, Gene H.; Vogelbaum, Michael A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)], E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

2009-06-01

255

Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed on the CERN cyclotron. Pion capture in Ta, Re, and Bi, quadrupole moments, nuclear gamma transitions, pion absorption in the nucleus, neutron multiplicity and angular momentum, and charged particles emission after pion absorption were studied.

Konijn, J.

256

Optimization of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulfide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is known to be an excellent heterojunction partner of p-type cadmium telluride (CdTe) or p-type copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) due essentially to its high electron affinity. It is widely used as a window material in high efficiency thin-film solar cells based on CdTe or CuInSe{sub 2} owing to its transparency and photoconductivity among other properties. The authors report the optimization of CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition where homogeneous reactions are minimized. The optimum parameters have enabled them to maximize the thickness of the deposited film in a single dip and to grow thicker films by periodically replenishing the concentration of reactants while the substrate remains continuously dipped in the reaction bath. Characterization results reveal the deposited CdS films exhibit improved optical and electrical properties.

Oladeji, I.O.; Chow, L. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-07-01

257

The effect of correlated bath fluctuations on exciton transfer  

PubMed Central

Excitation dynamics of various light harvesting systems have been investigated with many theoretical methods including various non-Markovian descriptions of dissipative quantum dynamics. It is typically assumed that each excited state is coupled to an independent thermal environment, i.e., that fluctuations in different environments are uncorrelated. Here the assumption is dropped and the effect of correlated bath fluctuations on excitation transfer is investigated. Using the hierarchy equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics it is shown for models of the B850 bacteriochlorophylls of LH2 that correlated bath fluctuations have a significant effect on the LH2 ? LH2 excitation transfer rate. It is also demonstrated that inclusion of static disorder is crucial for an accurate description of transfer dynamics. PMID:21385000

Strümpfer, Johan; Schulten, Klaus

2011-01-01

258

Primary and secondary gaseous organic carbon in suburban Paris during the MEGAPOLI experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1950, the amount of people living in urban areas has not stopped increasing. Indeed, the urban population has risen from 30% to 50% of the world population within 50 years. An increasing number of megacities has also been observed. These urban areas are of a great important since they concentrate not only human being, but also high intensity activities which could end up emitting large amount of pollutants and, thus, threatening people health. In this context, the FP7 MEGAPOLI project aims to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosols and the role of organic gas-phase precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to describe their evolution in the megacity plume. Two intensive field campaigns were conducted in the Greater Paris region during the summer 2009 and the winter 2010. Primary and secondary VOCs of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins (monofunctionnal and bifunctionnal alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, aldehydes and ketones), were measured at a suburban site in Paris (SIRTA). This wide range of carbonaceous compounds, from C2 to C16, includes species well-known to be secondary organic aerosol (SOAs) precursors, which have as many impacts on the climate as the gaseous compounds. Based on a source-receptor approach, the chemical signature of VOCs highlights that the SIRTA site is impacted by three kinds of influences: Paris urban outflow with higher levels of anthropogenic compounds, oceanic and/or continental air masses transported over long distances with high concentrations in secondary VOCs, southern/south-eastern plumes with significant amounts of biogenic compounds. First we will identify the primary and secondary origins of VOCs emissions and evaluate their contribution. Then, we will investigate the SOA formation regarding its potential VOC precursors. Good correlations have been observed several times during the summer campaign between anthropogenic (aromatics and heavy alkanes >C12) and/or biogenic (isoprene and/or pinenes and limonene) VOCs and the oxygenated fraction of organic aerosol (OOA) factor derived from the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) results.

Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; Michoud, V.; Colomb, A.; Afif, C.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Bechara, J.; Gros, V.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A. S.; Locoge, N.

2011-12-01

259

Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

2014-07-01

260

Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin-bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence  

PubMed Central

We present pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments which enable us to characterize the coupling between bismuth donor spin-qubits in Si and the surrounding spin-bath of 29Si impurities which provides the dominant decoherence mechanism (nuclear spin diffusion) at low temperatures (< 16 K). Decoupling from the spin-bath is predicted and cluster correlation expansion simulations show near-complete suppression of spin diffusion, at optimal working points. The suppression takes the form of sharply peaked divergences of the spin diffusion coherence time, in contrast with previously identified broader regions of insensitivity to classical fluctuations. ENDOR data shows anisotropic contributions are comparatively weak, so the form of the divergences is independent of crystal orientation. PMID:23082071

Balian, S. J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Mohammady, M. H.; Morley, G. W.; Witzel, W. M.; Kay, C. W. M.; Monteiro, T. S.

2012-01-01

261

Stripping of copper coatings from steel in Cr(VI)-free commercial bath.  

PubMed

In this work the electrochemical characteristics of copper and steel in chromate, cyanide, and phosphate baths as well as in a commercial bath (ENSTRIP S-180), in the absence of chromium and cyanides were determined. Average rates of copper coatings stripping from steel in the above mentioned baths and the baths influence on the morphology of steel surfaces were described. It was found that the commercial bath ENSTRIP S-180 could be successfully used for stripping of copper coatings from steel elements. PMID:19272703

Simka, Wojciech; Nawrat, Ginter; Nieuzy?a, ?ukasz; Krzaka?a, Agnieszka

2009-08-30

262

Steady cone-jet electrosprays in liquid insulator baths.  

PubMed

This study shows that conducting liquids can be electrosprayed in steady cone-jet mode inside liquid insulator baths. Experimental results show that the current emitted from the meniscus fits well the scaling laws given in the literature for electrosprays in air at atmospheric pressure or vacuum. The technique may be of interest in obtaining fine liquid-liquid emulsions of uniformly sized droplets in the nanometric range. PMID:14985028

Barrero, A; López-Herrera, J M; Boucard, A; Loscertales, I G; Márquez, M

2004-04-01

263

An Infinite Level Atom coupled to a Heat Bath  

E-print Network

We consider a $W^*$-dynamical system $(\\Mg,\\taug)$, which models finitely many particles coupled to an infinitely extended heat bath. The energy of the particles can be described by an unbounded operator, which has infinitely many energy levels. We show existence of the dynamics $\\taug$ and existence of a $(\\beta,\\taug)$ -KMS state under very explicit conditions on the strength of the interaction and on the inverse temperature $\\beta$.

Martin Könenberg

2011-01-13

264

Large area Cds thin film grown by chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) thin films are often deposited on glass substrates coated with TCO layers by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) or sputter techniques in industrial because in-line production integration. It is seldom reported that CdS is deposited by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) batch process. The bottleneck of CBD for commercial application is its low production rate and waste water

Guogen Liu; Zimeng Cheng; Robert B Barat; Jingong Pan; George E Georgiou; Ken K. Chin

2011-01-01

265

Chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnS thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using the mixed aqueous solutions of zinc acetate, thiourea and tri-sodium citrate, where tri-sodium citrate was used as the complexing agent. The thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption. The as-deposited thin films were surface homogeneous with pure wurtzite

Jie Cheng; Dong Bo Fan; Hao Wang; Bing Wei Liu; Yong Cai Zhang; Hui Yan

2003-01-01

266

Novel approach to the chemical bath deposition of chalcogenide semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) generates has been successfully employed for the fabrication of II–VI semiconductor thin films. Thin film polycrystalline solar cells, such as the BP Solar ‘Apollo’ CdS:CdTe heterojunction device, offer the potential for low cost solar energy conversion. The large scale exploitation of these devices is partly dependent on a reduction of the potential environmental impact of the

D. S. Boyle; A. Bayer; M. R. Heinrich; O. Robbe; P. O'Brien

2000-01-01

267

Computational organic chemistry: bridging theory and experiment in establishing the mechanisms of chemical reactions.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions, especially catalysis, has been an important and active area of computational organic chemistry, and close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists represent a growing trend. This Perspective provides examples of such productive collaborations. The understanding of various reaction mechanisms and the insight gained from these studies are emphasized. The applications of various experimental techniques in elucidation of reaction details as well as the development of various computational techniques to meet the demand of emerging synthetic methods, e.g., C-H activation, organocatalysis, and single electron transfer, are presented along with some conventional developments of mechanistic aspects. Examples of applications are selected to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of these techniques. Some challenges in the mechanistic studies and predictions of reactions are also analyzed. PMID:25568962

Cheng, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Xu, Liping; Wu, Yun-Dong

2015-02-11

268

Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

2011-09-01

269

Unusual swelling of a polymer in a bacterial bath  

E-print Network

The equilibrium structure and dynamics of a single polymer chain in a thermal solvent is by now well-understood in terms of scaling laws. Here we consider a polymer in a bacterial bath, i.e. in a solvent consisting of active particles which bring in nonequilibrium fluctuations. Using computer simulations of a self-avoiding polymer chain in two dimensions which is exposed to a dilute bath of active particles, we show that the Flory-scaling exponent is unaffected by the bath activity provided the chain is very long. Conversely, for shorter chains, there is a nontrivial coupling between the bacteria intruding into the chain which may stiffen and expand the chain in a nonuniversal way. As a function of the molecular weight, the swelling first scales faster than described by the Flory exponent, then an unusual plateau-like behaviour is reached and finally a crossover to the universal Flory behaviour is observed. As a function of bacterial activity, the chain end-to-end distance exhibits a pronounced non-monotonicity. Moreover, the mean-square displacement of the center of mass of the chain shows a ballistic behaviour at intermediate times as induced by the active solvent. Our predictions are verifiable in two-dimensional bacterial suspensions and for colloidal model chains exposed to artificial colloidal microswimmers.

Andreas Kaiser; Hartmut Löwen

2014-06-11

270

Unusual swelling of a polymer in a bacterial bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium structure and dynamics of a single polymer chain in a thermal solvent is by now well-understood in terms of scaling laws. Here, we consider a polymer in a bacterial bath, i.e., in a solvent consisting of active particles which bring in nonequilibrium fluctuations. Using computer simulations of a self-avoiding polymer chain in two dimensions which is exposed to a dilute bath of active particles, we show that the Flory-scaling exponent is unaffected by the bath activity provided the chain is very long. Conversely, for shorter chains, there is a nontrivial coupling between the bacteria intruding into the chain which may stiffen and expand the chain in a nonuniversal way. As a function of the molecular weight, the swelling first scales faster than described by the Flory exponent, then an unusual plateau-like behaviour is reached and finally a crossover to the universal Flory behaviour is observed. As a function of bacterial activity, the chain end-to-end distance exhibits a pronounced non-monotonicity. Moreover, the mean-square displacement of the center of mass of the chain shows a ballistic behaviour at intermediate times as induced by the active solvent. Our predictions are verifiable in two-dimensional bacterial suspensions and for colloidal model chains exposed to artificial colloidal microswimmers.

Kaiser, A.; Löwen, H.

2014-07-01

271

Electron spin decoherence in silicon carbide nuclear spin bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Rapid Communication, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of 29Si (pSi=4.7 % ) is about four times larger than that of 13C (pC=1.1 % ), the electron spin coherence time of defect centers in SiC nuclear spin bath in a strong magnetic field (B >300 G ) is longer than that of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in 13C nuclear spin bath in diamond. In addition to the smaller gyromagnetic ratio of 29Si, and the larger bond length in SiC lattice, a crucial reason for this counterintuitive result is the suppression of the heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in a finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

Yang, Li-Ping; Burk, Christian; Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Zhao, Nan

2014-12-01

272

Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

2012-10-01

273

Pseudogap and singlet formation in organic and cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudogap phase occurring in cuprate and organic superconductors is analyzed based on the dynamical cluster approximation approach to the Hubbard model. In this method a cluster embedded in a self-consistent bath is studied. With increasing Coulomb repulsion, U, the antinodal point [k =(?,0)] displays a gradual suppression of spectral density of states around the Fermi energy which is not observed at the nodal point [k =(?/2,?/2)]. The opening of the antinodal pseudogap is found to be related to the internal structure of the cluster and the much weaker bath-cluster couplings at the antinodal than nodal point. The role played by internal cluster correlations is elucidated from a simple four-level model. For small U, the cluster levels form Kondo singlets with their baths leading to a peak in the spectral density. As U is increased a localized state is formed localizing the electrons in the cluster. If this cluster localized state is nondegenerate, the Kondo effect is destroyed and a pseudogap opens up in the spectra at the antinodal point. The pseudogap can be understood in terms of destructive interference between different paths for electrons hopping between the cluster and the bath. However, electrons at the nodal points remain in Kondo states up to larger U since they are more strongly coupled to the bath. The strong correlation between the (?,0) and the (0,?) cluster levels in the localized state leads to a large correlation energy gain, which is important for localizing electrons and opening up a pseudogap at the antinodal point. Such a scenario is in contrast with two independent Mott transitions found in two-band systems with different bandwidths in which the localized cluster electron does not correlate strongly with any other cluster electron for intermediate U. The important intracluster sector correlations are associated with the resonating valence bond character of the cluster ground state containing d-wave singlet pairs. The low-energy excitations determining the pseudogap have suppressed d-wave pairing, indicating that the pseudogap can be related to breaking very short-range d-wave pairs. Geometrical frustration on the anisotropic triangular lattice relevant to ?-(BEDT-TTF)2X leads to a switch in the character of the ground state of the cluster at intermediate hopping ratios t'/t˜0.7. Electron doping of the frustrated square lattice destroys the pseudogap, in agreement with photoemission experiments on cuprates, due to a larger Schrieffer-Wolff exchange coupling, JK, and a stronger cluster-bath coupling for the antinodal point.

Merino, J.; Gunnarsson, O.

2014-06-01

274

Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

Meer, Sneer

2002-06-01

275

Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-12-01

276

Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond  

PubMed Central

Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond at room temperature that is composed of electron spins of substitutional nitrogen impurities. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, by combining spin bath control with dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for fundamental studies on decoherence and enable novel avenues for spin-based magnetometry and quantum information processing. PMID:22536480

de Lange, Gijs; van der Sar, Toeno; Blok, Machiel; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Hanson, Ronald

2012-01-01

277

Transformation and stabilization of pyrogenic organic matter in a temperate forest field experiment.  

PubMed

Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) decomposes on centennial timescale in soils, but the processes regulating its decay are poorly understood. We conducted one of the first studies of PyOM and wood decomposition in a temperate forest using isotopically labeled organic substrate, and quantified microbial incorporation and physico-chemical transformations of PyOM in situ. Stable-isotope (¹³C and ¹?N) enriched PyOM and its precursor wood were added to the soil at 2 cm depth at ambient (N0) and increased (N+) levels of nitrogen fertilization. The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) of added PyOM or wood were tracked through soil to 15 cm depth, in physically separated soil density fractions and in benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) molecular markers. After 10 months in situ, more PyOM-derived C (>99% of initial 13C-PyOM) and N (90% of initial ¹?N-PyOM) was recovered than wood derived C (48% of 13C-wood) and N(89% under N0 and 48% under N+). PyOM-C and wood-C migrated at the rate of 126 mm yr ?¹ with 3-4% of PyOMC and 4-8% of wood-C recovered below the application depth. Most PyOM C was recovered in the free light fraction(fLF) (74%), with 20% in aggregate-occluded and 6% in mineral associated fractions – fractions that typically have much slower turnover times. In contrast, wood C was recovered mainly in occluded (33%) or dense fraction (27%).PyOM addition induced loss of native C from soil (priming effect), particularly in fLF (13%). The total BPCA-C content did not change but after 10 months the degree of aromatic condensation of PyOM decreased, as determined by relative contribution of benzene hexa-carboxylic acid (B6CA) to the total BPCA C. Soil microbial biomass assimilated 6-10% of C from the wood, while PyOM contributions was negligible (0.14–0.18%). The addition of N had no effect on the dynamics of PyOM while limited effect on wood. PMID:25544969

Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Maestrini, Bernardo; Bird, Jeffrey A; Torn, Margaret S; Schmidt, Michael W I

2014-05-01

278

Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. PMID:25307048

Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

2014-10-13

279

Characterization of dissolved organic matter during reactive transport: A column experiment with spectroscopic detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al and Fe oxy-hydroxide minerals have been implicated in dissolved organic matter (DOM) stabilization. DOM solutions from a Pinus ponderosa forest floor (PPDOM) were used to irrigate polypropylene columns, 3.2 cm long by 0.9 cm diameter (total volume 2.0 cm3), that were packed with quartz sand (QS), gibbsite-quartz sand (Al-QS), and goethite-quartz sand (Fe-QS) mixtures. To investigate the mobilization and fractionation of DOM during reactive transport, effluent solutions were characterized by UV-Vis absorbance and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopies. Magnitude of PPDOM sorption followed the trend Al-QS > Fe-QS > QS during the initial transport. Effluent pH values suggest that ligand exchange is a primary mechanism for PPDOM sorption onto oxy-hydroxide minerals. Low molar absorptivity values were observed in effluent solutions of early pore volumes, indicating preferential mobilization of compounds with low aromatic character. Compounds traditionally characterized by EEM spectroscopy as being more highly humified were favorably absorbed onto the gibbsite and goethite surfaces. Humification index values (HIX) were also correlated with DOM aromaticity. HIX results suggest that the presence of low mass fractions of oxy-hydroxide minerals affect the preferential uptake of high molar mass constituents of PPDOM during reactive transport.

Vazquez, A.; Hernández, S.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.

2010-12-01

280

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

281

Avoiding bias effects in NMR experiments for heteronuclear dipole-dipole coupling determinations: principles and application to organic semiconductor materials.  

PubMed

Carbon-proton dipole-dipole couplings between bonded atoms represent a popular probe of molecular dynamics in soft materials or biomolecules. Their site-resolved determination, for example, by using the popular DIPSHIFT experiment, can be challenged by spectral overlap with nonbonded carbon atoms. The problem can be solved by using very short cross-polarization (CP) contact times, however, the measured modulation curves then deviate strongly from the theoretically predicted shape, which is caused by the dependence of the CP efficiency on the orientation of the CH vector, leading to an anisotropic magnetization distribution even for isotropic samples. Herein, we present a detailed demonstration and explanation of this problem, as well as providing a solution. We combine DIPSHIFT experiments with the rotor-directed exchange of orientations (RODEO) method, and modifications of it, to redistribute the magnetization and obtain undistorted modulation curves. Our strategy is general in that it can also be applied to other types of experiments for heteronuclear dipole-dipole coupling determinations that rely on dipolar polarization transfer. It is demonstrated with perylene-bisimide-based organic semiconductor materials, as an example, in which measurements of dynamic order parameters reveal correlations of the molecular dynamics with the phase structure and functional properties. PMID:23780575

Kurz, Ricardo; Cobo, Marcio Fernando; de Azevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro; Sommer, Michael; Wicklein, André; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Hempel, Günter; Saalwächter, Kay

2013-09-16

282

How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via "calls for proposals", which are sent out each half year via the "Digital User Office (DUO)" (see http://duo.web.psi.ch). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the "Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)" consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time allocation is handled more directly and in time in order to fulfill the companies' demands. Here, the confidentiality plays a more important role than in scientific studies that are done with the aim of a free publication. It has been possible to earn money regularly from the industrial projects in order to cover the salary cost of some positions within the NIAG group. The permanent improvement of the methodology and performance in neutron imaging is a third major activity of the NIAG team. Running projects in this direction are the permanent insert of a grating interferometry device, improved energy selection with the help of single graphite crystals and utilization of the beam line BOA at SINQ for the energy range between 4 and 15 Å.

Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

2011-09-01

283

Experience with Fosfomycin for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Organisms  

PubMed Central

Fosfomycin has shown promising in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary pathogens; however, clinical data are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with MDR pathogens treated with fosfomycin tromethamine. Charts for 41 hospitalized patients with a urine culture for an MDR pathogen who received fosfomycin tromethamine from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed. Forty-one patients had 44 urinary pathogens, including 13 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp), 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates, 7 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 9 others. In vitro fosfomycin susceptibility was 86% (median MIC, 16 ?g/ml; range, 0.25 to 1,024 ?g/ml). Patients received an average of 2.9 fosfomycin doses per treatment course. The overall microbiological cure was 59%; failure was due to either relapse (24%) or reinfection UTI (17%). Microbiological cure rates by pathogen were 46% for CR-Kp, 38% for P. aeruginosa, 71% for VRE, 57% for ESBL producers, and 100% for others. Microbiological cure (n = 24) was compared to microbiological failure (n = 17). There were significantly more solid organ transplant recipients in the microbiological failure group (59% versus 21%; P = 0.02). None of the patients in the microbiological cure group had a ureteral stent, compared to 24% of patients within the microbiological failure group (P = 0.02). Fosfomycin demonstrated in vitro activity against UTIs due to MDR pathogens. For CR-KP, there was a divergence between in vitro susceptibility (92%) and microbiological cure (46%). Multiple confounding factors may have contributed to microbiological failures, and further data regarding the use of fosfomycin for UTIs due to MDR pathogens are needed. PMID:22926565

Sekeres, Jennifer; Hall, Gerri S.; van Duin, David

2012-01-01

284

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

285

Impact of Ag and Al?O? nanoparticles on soil organisms: in vitro and soil experiments.  

PubMed

In vitro analyses were conducted to assess the impact of Al2O3 and Ag nanoparticles on two common soil bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Al2O3 nanoparticles did not show significant toxicity at any dose or time assayed, whereas exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Ag nanoparticles for 48 h caused bactericidal effects. Moreover, alterations at the morphological level were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); Ag but not Al2O3 nanoparticles evoked the entrance of B. cereus cells in an early sporulation stage and both nanoparticles penetrated P. stutzeri cells. At the molecular level, a dramatic increase (8.2-fold) in katB gene expression was found in P. stutzeri following Al2O3 nanoparticles exposure, indicative of an oxidative stress-defence system enhancement in this bacterium. In the microcosm experiment, using two different natural soils, Al2O3 or Ag nanoparticles did not affect the Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity endpoints growth, survival, or reproduction. However, differences in microbial phylogenetic compositions were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The use of katB- and pykA-based sequences showed that the microbial transcriptional response to nanoparticle exposure decreased, suggesting a decrease in cellular activity. These changes were attributable to both the nanoparticles treatment and soil characteristics, highlighting the importance of considering the soil matrix on a case by case basis. PMID:24374587

Fajardo, C; Saccà, M L; Costa, G; Nande, M; Martin, M

2014-03-01

286

Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport of the respective compounds. Concentrations of almost all micropollutants decreased with increasing soil passage. However, since compounds transported by processes 2 & 3 can be re-mobilized by changing water chemistry, the importance of a diligent characterisation of aquifer material and raw water is apparent for risk assessment. The experiments were conducted within the context of the project GABARDINE, funded by the European Commission.

Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

287

Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful application of the 187Re-187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re-Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re-Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re-Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental abundance data reveal limited transfer of Re and Os into the bitumen from a Type III kerogen in comparison to Type II-S kerogen (0.02% vs. 3.7%), suggesting that these metals are very tightly bound in Type III kerogen structure. The 187Os/188Os data from the pyrolysis generated Phosphoria bitumens display minor variation (4%) across the experimental temperatures, with values similar to that of the source rock. This indicates that the isotopic composition of the bitumen reflects the isotopic composition of the source rock at the time of petroleum generation. These data further support the premise that the Os isotopic composition of oils and bitumens can be used to fingerprint petroleum deposits to specific source rocks. Oil generated through the hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not contain appreciable quantities of Re or Os (?120 and ?3 ppt, respectively), in contrast to natural oils (2-50 ppb and 34-288 ppt for Re and Os, respectively), which may suggest that kinetic parameters are fundamental to the transfer of Re and Os from source rocks to oils. From this we hypothesise that, at the temperatures employed in hydrous pyrolysis, Re and Os are assimilated into the extracted rock as a result of cross-linking reactions.

Rooney, Alan D.; Selby, David; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Houzay, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

288

Evaluating Re-Os systematics in organic-rich sedimentary rocks in response to petroleum generation using hydrous pyrolysis experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Successful application of the 187Re–187Os geochronometer has enabled the determination of accurate and precise depositional ages for organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS) as well as establishing timing constraints of petroleum generation. However, we do not fully understand the systematics and transfer behaviour of Re and Os between ORS and petroleum products (e.g., bitumen and oil). To more fully understand the behaviour of Re–Os systematics in both source rocks and petroleum products we apply hydrous pyrolysis to two immature hydrocarbon source rocks: the Permian Phosphoria Formation (TOC = 17.4%; Type II-S kerogen) and the Jurassic Staffin Formation (TOC = 2.5%; Type III kerogen). The laboratory-based hydrous pyrolysis experiments were carried out for 72 h at 250, 300, 325 and 350 °C. These experiments provided us with whole rock, extracted rock and bitumen and in some cases expelled oil and asphaltene for evaluation of Re–Os isotopic and elemental abundance. The data from these experiments demonstrate that the majority (>95%) of Re and Os are housed within extracted rock and that thermal maturation does not result in significant transfer of Re or Os from the extracted rock into organic phases. Based on existing thermodynamic data our findings suggest that organic chelating sites have a greater affinity for the quadravalent states of Re and Os than sulphides. Across the temperature range of the hydrous pyrolysis experiments both whole rock and extracted rock 187Re/188Os ratios show small variations (3.3% and 4.7%, for Staffin, respectively and 6.3% and 4.9% for Phosphoria, respectively). Similarly, the 187Os/188Os ratios show only minor variations for the Staffin and Phosphoria whole rock and extracted rock samples (0.6% and 1.4% and 1.3% and 2.2%). These isotopic data strongly suggest that crude oil generation through hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not disturb the Re–Os systematics in ORS as supported by various studies on natural systems. The elemental abundance data reveal limited transfer of Re and Os into the bitumen from a Type III kerogen in comparison to Type II-S kerogen (0.02% vs. 3.7%), suggesting that these metals are very tightly bound in Type III kerogen structure. The 187Os/188Os data from the pyrolysis generated Phosphoria bitumens display minor variation (4%) across the experimental temperatures, with values similar to that of the source rock. This indicates that the isotopic composition of the bitumen reflects the isotopic composition of the source rock at the time of petroleum generation. These data further support the premise that the Os isotopic composition of oils and bitumens can be used to fingerprint petroleum deposits to specific source rocks. Oil generated through the hydrous pyrolysis experiments does not contain appreciable quantities of Re or Os (~120 and ~3 ppt, respectively), in contrast to natural oils (2–50 ppb and 34–288 ppt for Re and Os, respectively), which may suggest that kinetic parameters are fundamental to the transfer of Re and Os from source rocks to oils. From this we hypothesise that, at the temperatures employed in hydrous pyrolysis, Re and Os are assimilated into the extracted rock as a result of cross-linking reactions.

Rooney, A.D.; Selby, D.; Lewan, M.D.; Lillis, P.G.; Houzay, J.-P.

2012-01-01

289

Plant uptake of organic pollutants from soil: bioconcentration estimates based on models and experiments.  

PubMed

The role of terrestrial vegetation in transferring chemicals from soil and air into specific plant tissues (e.g., stems, leaves, and roots) is still not well characterized. We provide here a critical review of plant-to-soil bioconcentration ratio (BCR) estimates based on models and experimental data. This review includes the conceptual and theoretical formulations of the BCR, constructing and calibrating empirical and mathematical algorithms to describe this ratio and the experimental data used to quantify BCRs and calibrate the model performance. We first evaluate the theoretical basis for the BCR concept and BCR models and consider how lack of knowledge and data limit reliability and consistency of BCR estimates. We next consider alternate modeling strategies for BCR. A key focus of this evaluation is the relative contributions to overall uncertainty from model uncertainty versus variability in the experimental data used to develop and test the models. As a case study, we consider a single chemical, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and focus on variability of bioconcentration measurements obtained from 81 experiments with different plant species, different plant tissues, different experimental conditions, and different methods for reporting concentrations in the soil and plant tissues. We use these observations to evaluate both the magnitude of experimental variability in plant bioconcentration and compare this to model uncertainty. Among these 81 measurements, the variation of the plant-to-soil BCR has a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.5 and a coefficient of variation (CV; i.e., ratio of the arithmetic standard deviation to the mean) of 1.7. These variations are significant but low relative to model uncertainties, which have an estimated GSD of 10, with a corresponding CV of 14. PMID:18020673

McKone, Thomas E; Maddalena, Randy L

2007-12-01

290

Multitracer experiment to evaluate the attenuation of selected organic micropollutants in a karst aquifer.  

PubMed

The increasing pressure on drinking water resources necessitates an efficient management of potential and actual drinking water resources. Karst aquifers play a key role in the supply of the world's population with drinking water. Around one quarter of all drinking water is produced from these types of aquifers. Unfortunately due to the aquifer characteristics with extremely high hydraulic conductivities and short residence times, these systems are vulnerable to contamination. For successful management, a fundamental understanding of mass transport and attenuation processes with respect to potential contaminants is vital. In this study, a multitracer experiment was performed in a karst aquifer in SW-Germany for determining the attenuation capacity of a karst environment by assessing the environmental fate of selected relevant micropollutants. Uranine, acesulfame and carbamazepine were injected into a sinkhole as reference tracers together with the reactive compounds atenolol, caffeine, cyclamate, ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen). The breakthrough of the tracers was monitored at a karst spring at a distance of ca. 3 km. The breakthrough curves of the reactive compounds were interpreted relative to the reference substances. No significant retardation was found for any of the investigated micropollutants. The determined half-lives of the reactive compounds range from 38 to 1,400 h (i.e. persistent within the investigation period) in the following order (from high to no observed attenuation): paracetamol>atenolol?ibuprofen>caffeine?cyclamate. The attenuation rates are generally in agreement with studies from other environmental compartments. The occurrence of the biotransformation product atenolol acid served as evidence for in-situ biodegradation within the aquifer system. PMID:25460968

Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias

2015-02-15

291

Decoherence of a quantum memory coupled to a collective spin bath  

E-print Network

We study the quantum dynamics of a single qubit coupled to a bath of interacting spins as a model for decoherence in solid state quantum memories. The spin bath is described by the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model and the bath spins are subjected to a transverse magnetic field. We investigate the qubit interacting via either an Ising- or an XY-type coupling term to subsets of bath spins of differing size. The large degree of symmetry of the bath allows us to find parameter regimes where the initial qubit state is revived at well defined times after the qubit preparation. These times may become independent of the bath size for large baths and thus enable faithful qubit storage even in the presence of strong coupling to a bath. We analyze a large range of parameters and identify those which are best suited for quantum memories. In general we find that a small number of links between qubit and bath spins leads to less decoherence and that systems with Ising coupling between qubit and bath spins are preferable.

Richard Walters; Stephen R. Clark; Dieter Jaksch

2009-07-08

292

Decoherence of a quantum memory coupled to a collective spin bath  

E-print Network

We study the quantum dynamics of a single qubit coupled to a bath of interacting spins as a model for decoherence in solid state quantum memories. The spin bath is described by the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model and the bath spins are subjected to a transverse magnetic field. We investigate the qubit interacting via either an Ising- or an XY-type coupling term to subsets of bath spins of differing size. The large degree of symmetry of the bath allows us to find parameter regimes where the initial qubit state is revived at well defined times after the qubit preparation. These times may become independent of the bath size for large baths and thus enable faithful qubit storage even in the presence of strong coupling to a bath. We analyze a large range of parameters and identify those which are best suited for quantum memories. In general we find that a small number of links between qubit and bath spins leads to less decoherence and that systems with Ising coupling between qubit and bath spins are preferable.

Walters, Richard; Jaksch, Dieter

2009-01-01

293

Metabolic model of lead kinetics based upon measured organ burdens during chronic exposure experiments with infant and juvenile baboons  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of the kinetics of lead metabolism in the infant and juvenile baboon has been developed based upon data from chronic exposure experiments in this non-human primate. The model of lead metabolism presents in quantitative terms the rates of uptake, distribution and elimination that lead may undergo during its passage through the organism. The organs of accumulation are defined as compartments, each of which is defined as a quantity of tissue that behaves kinetically like a distinct, homogeneous, well mixed pool in terms of lead concentration. The flow of lead between the compartments of accumulation is described by a series of differential equations. Elimination rate coefficients, expressed in terms of the biological half-life for each compartment have been estimated. The model describes the observed build-up and accumulation of lead in the major body compartments of the infant and juvenile baboon. The model indicates that: the biological half-life of lead in blood of the very young animals is shorter than that of the older animals; there is a higher rate of uptake of lead in the soft tissues and in the bones of rapidly growing animals; and there is an inverse relationship between the quality of lead administered and the amount of lead absorbed, i.e., as exposure increases the rate of absorption decreases. The model derived for the older animals accurately predicts the accumulation and retention of lead in adult humans under normal exposure conditions.

Mallon, R.P.

1983-01-01

294

Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the "Landau-Zener resummation" of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

2014-08-01

295

Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.  

PubMed

Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (?-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the ?-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the ?-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing. PMID:25388947

Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

2014-11-12

296

Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

1973-01-01

297

Chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnS thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using the mixed aqueous solutions of zinc acetate, thiourea and tri-sodium citrate, where tri-sodium citrate was used as the complexing agent. The thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption. The as-deposited thin films were surface homogeneous with pure wurtzite structure and the optical band gap of the film was estimated to be 3.53 eV.

Cheng, Jie; Fan, Dong Bo; Wang, Hao; Liu, Bing Wei; Cai Zhang, Yong; Yan, Hui

2003-07-01

298

The Asymptotic Cooling of Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling  

E-print Network

The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely heat-bath algorithmic cooling(HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman et al. in, the limit however remained unknown for the past decade. Here for the first time we find this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system.

Sadegh Raeisi; Michele Mosca

2014-07-11

299

Generalized Energy Equipartition in Harmonic Oscillators Driven by Active Baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

2014-12-01

300

Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2.5 bar) to avoid uncontrolled calcite precipitation, and accordingly the pipeline path was designed. Non-linear phenomena that may originate calcite precipitation, such as phase separation and pressure waves, were discussed. The pipeline and the thermal bath are planned to be built next year.

Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

2013-04-01

301

Generalized energy equipartition in harmonic oscillators driven by active baths  

E-print Network

We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

Claudio Maggi; Matteo Paoluzzi; Nicola Pellicciotta; Alessia Lepore; Luca Angelani; Roberto Di Leonardo

2014-11-06

302

Generalized energy equipartition in harmonic oscillators driven by active baths.  

PubMed

We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape. PMID:25526168

Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

2014-12-01

303

A Simple Method for the Calibration of an Open Surface Water Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration and testing of open surface water bath is a new technique and may be used for other liquid bath testing. Due to some critical circumstances the bath is not covered by the manufacturing company so is prone to the effects of surrounding environmental conditions. Due to this effect, bath temperature is not stable and calibration and testing cannot be performed under these conditions. For this type of calibration the reference instruments should measure temperature with very high levels of accuracy. A Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT), with super thermometer (indicator), is used for high accuracy calibration. Oil-filled flasks are used as a secondary medium to calibrate the bath and to reduce the evaporation, and instability in the temperature measurements. Therefore, on the basis of stable temperature with good precision and minimum uncertainty, the proposed method is found to be suitable for the calibration of open surface water baths.

Ghazanfar Ali, Muhammad

2013-12-01

304

Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction. PMID:24550123

Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

2014-02-01

305

Chemical deposition of ZnO films from ammonium zincate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited from ammonium zincate bath following a chemical dipping technique. Films in the thickness range 0.25–4.0?m could be prepared by varying the ammonium zincate bath concentration (in the range 0.03–1.5M) and number of dipping (0–200). Higher values of bath concentration produced nonadherent and poor quality films. The film growth rate was found to be

P. Mitra; J. Khan

2006-01-01

306

Skin Tolerance of a New Bath Oil Containing St. John’s Wort Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. Objective: To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. Methods: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective

J. Reuter; C. Huyke; H. Scheuvens; M. Ploch; K. Neumann; T. Jakob; C. M. Schempp

2008-01-01

307

A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise  

SciTech Connect

This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)

2011-03-15

308

Achievable polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling  

E-print Network

Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for many algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling is a method to increase the purity of set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the state when no more entropy can be extracted. In particular we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization of the purified qubit and corresponding state of the whole system for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed. It is however possible to reach higher polarization while starting with other states with higher polarization, thus our result provides an achievable lower bound. We also give an upper bound of the number of steps needed to get a certain required polarization.

Nayeli Azucena Rodríguez-Briones; Raymond Laflamme

2014-12-20

309

Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

2010-01-01

310

Hydroxyapatite cement resistant to fragmentation following full cerebrospinal fluid bathing.  

PubMed

Prolonged cerebrospinal fluid bathing of cranioplasty cement frequently results in breakdown of the cement implants. A 5-year-old boy with a history of severe head trauma at 2 weeks of age presented with marked protrusion of the entire superior temporal bone and inferior parietal bone. The defect was elevated by more than 1 cm and was associated with a 4.5 x 3-cm skull defect located above and behind the right ear. There also was pulsatile tissue at the depths of the defect. A computed tomographic scan taken of the head revealed an expanding skull fracture from a dural defect with underlying brain herniation. The cranial lesion was repaired with OsteoVation hydroxyapatite cement. Within 8 weeks, the fluid encased the cranioplasty site. This resolved following implantation of a shunting device. At 2 and 12 months after the repair, the implant was still palpably solid without breakdown and did not fragment despite the prolonged bathing in cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:18216703

Muhonen, Michael G; Lonyai, Anna; Westhout, Franklin D

2008-01-01

311

Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath  

SciTech Connect

We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

Zarea, Mehdi, E-mail: m-zarea@northwestern.edu; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)] [Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

2014-01-14

312

Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

Zarea, Mehdi; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

2014-01-01

313

Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film form 0.2 to 0.5 mum with improved quality. A novel chemical activated diffusion of Cd into ZnS thin film at temperature lower than 100°C is also developed. This in conjunction with thermal activated diffusion at 400°C has enabled us to synthesize Cd1-xZn xS thin films suitable for solar cells from CBD grown CdS/ZnS multilayer. The potential application of the new Cd1-xZnxS/CdS/CdTe solar cell structure is also demonstrated. The unoptimized structure grown on transparent conducting oxide coated soda lime glass of 3mm thickness with no antireflection coating yielded a 10% efficiency. This efficiency is the highest ever recorded in any Cd1-xZnxS film containing CdTe solar cells.

Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

314

Organic Laboratory Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

Smith, Sherrel

1990-01-01

315

Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment  

PubMed Central

A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2–3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (?14C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO2 efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. ?14C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO2 sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45–55 cm thaw depth), while CO2 from the ambient snow areas was ~100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration ?14C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO2 in the atmosphere. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-009-1556-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20084398

Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

316

Release of Reactive Halogen Species from Sea-Salt Aerosols under Tropospheric Conditions with/without the Influence of Organic Matter in Smog-Chamber Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments to investigate the release of reactive halogen species from sea-salt aerosol and the influence of organic matter were performed in an aerosol smog-chamber (3500 l), made of Teflon film (FEP 200A, Dupont). Smog chamber facilities at lowered temperature (coolable down to -25°C) enable us to simulate these reactions under polar, tropospheric conditions. First experiments were performed to investigate the production of atomic Br and Cl without the impact of organic aerosol. Br and Cl play an important role in atmospheric ozone depletion, particularly regarding ozone depletion events (bromine explosion) during polar spring. In these studies, the aerosol was generated by atomizing salt solutions containing the typical Br/Cl ratio of 1/660 in seawater by an ultrasonic nebulizer and increasing the Br content up to sixfold. To ensure the aqueous surface of the aerosol, the experiments were performed at relative humidities above 76%. We determined the atomic Cl and OH-radical concentrations from the simultaneous consumption of four reference hydrocarbons. The Br-radical concentration was calculated on the basis of ozone depletion. Organic aerosol may take part in these reaction cycles by halogenation and production of volatile organic halogens. Further experiments are planned to add organic aerosol for mechanistic and kinetic studies on the influence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and humic-like substances (HULIS) on bromine explosion. The formation of the secondary organic aerosol and the determination of possible halogenated gaseous and solid organic products will be studied using longpath-FTIR, DRIFTS, ATR-FTIR, GC-FID, GC-ECD, GC-MS, TPD-MS and DMA-CNC.

Balzer, N.; Behnke, W.; Bleicher, S.; Krueger, H.; Ofner, J.; Siekmann, F.; Zetzsch, C.

2008-12-01

317

Climate effect on soil enzyme activities and dissolved organic carbon in mountain calcareous soils: a soil-transplant experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain soils store huge amounts of carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) which may be highly vulnerable to the strong climate changes that mountain areas currently experience worldwide. Climate modifications are expected to impact microbial activity which could change the rate of SOM decomposition/accumulation, thereby questioning the net C source/sink character of mountain soils. To simulate future climate change expected in the 21st century in the calcareous pre-Alps, 15 blocks (30 cm deep) of undisturbed soil were taken from a mountain pasture located at 1400 m a.s.l. (Marchairuz, Jura, Switzerland) and transplanted into lysimeters at the same site (control) and at two other sites located at 1000 m a.s.l. and 600 m a.s.l. (5 replicates per site). This transplantation experiment which started in 2009 simulates a climate warming with a temperature increase of 4° C and a decreased humidity of 40 % at the lowest site. In this study, we used soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) as functional indicators of SOM decomposition to evaluate the effect of climate change on microbial activity and SOM dynamics along the seasons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also measured to quantify the assimilable carbon for microorganism. In autumn 2012, a first sampling step out of four (winter, spring and summer 2013) has been realized. We extracted 15 cm deep soil cores from each transplant (x15) and measured (i) DOC and (ii) the activities of nine different enzymes. Enzymes were chosen to represent the degradation of the most common classes of biogeochemical compounds in SOM. ?-glucosidase, ?-D-cellubiosidase, ?-Xylosidase, N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase, lipase, phenoloxidase respectively represented the degradation of sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and lignin. Moreover, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was used to provide an estimate of global microbial activity and phosphatase was used to estimate phosphorus mineralization. The autumn results showed no differences for global microbial activity along the climate gradient (0.37 nKatal g-1 dry soil), no differences and a very low activity for leucine aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase and ?-Xylosidase (about 0.09 nKatal g-1 dry soil) and no differences for cellulose, chitin and phosphorus mineralization. Conversely, we measured a greater activity at the highest elevation site for lipase and phenoloxydase (ANOVA test, p

Puissant, Jérémy; Cécillon, Lauric; Mills, Robert T. E.; Gavazov, Konstantin; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Brun, Jean-Jacques

2013-04-01

318

Organic contaminant distributions in sediments, polychaetes (Nereis virens) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) from a laboratory food chain experiment.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River, NJ, USA, for 70 days. These polychaetes were then fed to the American lobster, Homarus americanus, for up to 112 days. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzothiophene (TCDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several chlorinated pesticides were accumulated by polychaetes following exposure to the contaminated sediment. Some of these contaminants were also accumulated by lobsters which were exposed to the contaminated sediment and/or fed contaminated polychaetes. Only the lesser chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs (mostly tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners) and 2,4,6,8-TCDT were detected in the polychaetes and lobster. Significant alterations were noted in the PCB patterns found in both species, particularly the lobster. The non-ortho-substituted PCBs (such as congeners 77 and 126) became enriched in the PCB mixtures of the polychaetes and especially the lobsters relative to the sediment, probably because these congeners were not metabolized. These congeners and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalents of the PCB mixtures were enriched by a factor of about six in the lobsters relative to the sediment. Elimination of PCB congeners containing vicinal hydrogens in the meta-para region is consistent with cytochrome P450IIB-type metabolism. Based on the concentration trends for some PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticide ratios measured in the lobsters during this experiment, it appears that this metabolic system is inducible in the American lobster. PMID:11444012

Pruell, R J; Taplin, B K; McGovern, D G; McKinney, R; Norton, S B

2000-02-01

319

Language organization and temporal correlations in the spiking activity of an excitable laser: Experiments and model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method, based on symbolic analysis, to characterize the temporal correlations of the spiking activity exhibited by excitable systems. The technique is applied to the experimentally observed dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuations regime, where the laser intensity displays irregular trains of sudden dropouts that can be interpreted as excitable pulses. Symbolic analysis transforms the series of interdropout time intervals into sequences of words, which represent the local ordering of a certain (small) number of those intervals. We then focus on the transition probabilities between pairs of words, showing that certain transitions are overrepresented (resulting in others being underrepresented) with respect to the surrogate series, provided the laser injection current is above a critical value. These experimental observations are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of the delay-differential Lang-Kobayashi model that is commonly used to describe this laser system, which supports the fact that the language organization reported here is generic and not a particular feature of the specific laser employed or the experimental time series analyzed. We also present results of simulations of the phenomenological nondelayed Eguia-Mindlin-Giudici(EMG) model and find that in this model the agreement between the experiments and the simulations is good at a qualitative, but not at a quantitative, level.

Rubido, Nicolas; Tiana-Alsina, Jordi; Torrent, M. C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Masoller, Cristina

2011-08-01

320

Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

1996-11-01

321

Strong-field spatial interference in a tailored electromagnetic bath  

E-print Network

Light scattered by a regular structure of atoms can exhibit interference signatures, similar to the classical double-slit. These first-order interferences, however, vanish for strong light intensities, restricting potential applications. Here, we show how to overcome these limitations to quantum interference in strong fields. First, we recover the first-order interference in strong fields via a tailored electromagnetic bath with a suitable frequency dependence. At strong driving, the optical properties for different spectral bands are distinct, thus extending the set of observables. We further show that for a two-photon detector as, e.g., in lithography, increasing the field intensity leads to twice the spatial resolution of the second-order interference pattern compared to the weak-field case.

M. Macovei; J. Evers; G. -x. Li; C. H. Keitel

2006-06-19

322

Resonator-assisted quantum bath engineering of a flux qubit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with the controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of the Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99% and the required time on the order of magnitude of a microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao

2015-01-01

323

Strong-field spatial interference in a tailored electromagnetic bath.  

PubMed

Light scattered by a regular structure of atoms can exhibit interference signatures, similar to the classical double-slit. These first-order interferences, however, vanish for strong light intensities, restricting potential applications. Here, we show how to overcome these limitations to quantum interference in strong fields. First, we recover the first-order interference in strong fields via a tailored electromagnetic bath with a suitable frequency dependence. At strong driving, the optical properties for different spectral bands are distinct, thus extending the set of observables. We further show that for a two-photon detector as, e.g., in lithography, increasing the field intensity leads to twice the spatial resolution of the second-order interference pattern compared to the weak-field case. PMID:17358766

Macovei, Mihai; Evers, Jörg; Li, Gao-xiang; Keitel, Christoph H

2007-01-26

324

A large aperture blackbody bath for calibration of thermal imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imagers are becoming widely used instruments for noncontact absolute temperature measurements as opposed to previous practice when they were mostly used to measure temperature differences. To assure accurate and reliable absolute temperature measurements, a calibration procedure including evaluation of the thermal imager entire field of view (FOV) is needed. The challenge was to construct a large aperture blackbody, covering the complete FOV of the thermal imager and having better stability and non-uniformity than the thermal sensitivity of the imager. The blackbody calibration bath was designed on hypothesis analogous to the multi zone furnace, where the role of electrical heaters was superseded by electrically controlled valves. The experimental work showed that the designed system enables traceable calibration of thermal imagers in the temperature range from 10 to 70 °C with the expanded uncertainty of 0.2 °C, while further investigations are needed to cover ranges beyond that.

Miklavec, A.; Pušnik, I.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

2013-02-01

325

Transport coefficients of a quantum system interacting with a squeezed heat bath  

SciTech Connect

The analytical expressions for the time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients are presented for the case of coupling in coordinates between the collective subsystem and a squeezed heat bath. The effects of initial phase-sensitive and -insensitive correlations of the heat bath on the diffusion coefficients, fluctuations, and decoherence are studied. The interplay between friction and decoherence is discussed.

Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

2006-07-15

326

CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS  

EPA Science Inventory

The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

327

Chemical bath deposition of thin film cadmium selenide for photoelectrochemical cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical bath deposition provides an attractive, low cost method of producing cadmium chalcogenide thin films. Intimate contact between the bath solution and the substrate material permits uniform deposition on substrates of complex geometry, presently difficult with spray pyrolysis, vacuum evaporation, or electrodeposition techniques. For CdSe, rigorous control of deposition conditions promotes the formation of a hexagonal, specularly reflecting deposit rather

R. A. Boudreau; R. D. Rauh

1983-01-01

328

Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport  

SciTech Connect

We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

Segal, Dvira [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)] [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

2014-04-28

329

The Problem of Defining Sovereynetee in the Wife of Bath's Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Umberto Eco defines truly great works of literature as Sacred Woods, explaining that “In order to become a Sacred Wood, a wood must be tangled and twisted like the forests of the Druids, and not orderly like a French garden.” 1 The enduring fascination of the Wife of Bath’s Tale 2 is surely based on the fact that it is

Susanne Sara Thomas

2006-01-01

330

Rabi oscillations, decoherence, and disentanglement in a qubit-spin-bath system: exact dynamics  

E-print Network

We examine the influence of environmental interactions on simple quantum systems by obtaining the exact reduced dynamics of a qubit coupled to a one-dimensional spin bath. In contrast to previous studies, both the qubit-bath coupling and the nearest neighbor intrabath couplings are taken as the spin-flip XX-type. We first study the Rabi oscillations of a single qubit with the spin bath prepared in a spin coherent state, finding that nonresonance and finite intrabath interactions have significant effects on the qubit dynamics. Next, we discuss the bath-induced decoherence of the qubit when the bath is initially in the ground state, and show that the decoherence properties depend on the internal phases of the spin bath. By considering two independent copies of the qubit-bath system, we finally probe the disentanglement dynamics of two noninteracting entangled qubits. We find that entanglement sudden death appears when the spin bath is in its critical phase. We show that the single-qubit decoherence factor is an upper bound for the two-qubit concurrence.

Ning Wu; Arun Nanduri; Herschel Rabitz

2014-05-19

331

Sulphur bath and mud pack treatment for rheumatoid arthritis at the Dead Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis in a stage of active disease were treated for two weeks at a spa hotel. The patients were divided into four groups of 10. Group I was treated with daily mud packs, group II with daily hot sulphur baths, group III with a combination of mud packs and hot sulphur baths, and

S Sukenik; D Buskila; L Neumann; A Kleiner-Baumgarten; S Zimlichman; J Horowitz

1990-01-01

332

Comment on `Energy transfer, entanglement and decoherence in a molecular dimer interacting with a phonon bath'  

E-print Network

We show that the influence of the shared phonon bath considered in H. Hossein-Nejad and G. D. Scholes, New J. Phys. 12, 065045 (2010) on the exciton transfer in a two-molecule system can be reproduced by that of an independent bath model.

James Lim; Mark Tame; Ki Hyuk Yee; Joong-Sung Lee; Jinhyoung Lee

2013-12-16

333

Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

2007-01-01

334

Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

2013-01-01

335

WORKSHOP ON ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF COOPERATIVE WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. (TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE, AUGUST 14-SEPTEMBER 1, 1967). FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIRTY-NINE TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL TEACHERS AND SUPERVISORS FROM 19 STATES PARTICIPATED IN A WORKSHOP TO PLAN AND EXECUTE A COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION OF THE COOPERATIVE WORK EXPERIENCE PLAN OF EDUCATION RELATIVE TO TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. THE WORKSHOP ORGANIZATION INCLUDED CONSULTANT PRESENTATIONS,…

HARRIS, JAMES N.; SHERARD, AUSTELL O.

336

Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

337

Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

2012-01-01

338

Toward a Full Simulation of the Basic Oxygen Furnace: Deformation of the Bath Free Surface and Coupled Transfer Processes Associated with the Post-Combustion in the Gas Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article treats different phenomena taking place in a steelmaking converter through the development of two separate models. The first model describes the cavity produced at the free surface of the metal bath by the high-speed impinging oxygen jet. The model is based on a zonal approach, where gas compressibility effects are taken into account only in the high velocity jet region, while elsewhere the gas is treated as incompressible. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to follow the deformation of the bath free surface. Calculations are presented for two- and three-phase systems and compared against experimental data obtained in a cold model experiment presented in the literature. The influence on the size and shape of the cavity of various parameters and models (including the jet inlet boundary conditions, the VOF advection scheme, and the turbulence model) is studied. Next, the model is used to simulate the interaction of a supersonic oxygen jet with the surface of a liquid steel bath in a pilot-scale converter. The second model concentrates on fluid flow, heat transfer, and the post-combustion reaction in the gas phase above the metal bath. The model uses the simple chemical reaction scheme approach to describe the transport of the chemical species and takes into account the consumption of oxygen by the bath and thermal radiative transfer. The model predictions are in reasonable agreement with measurements collected in a laboratory experiment and in a pilot-scale furnace.

Doh, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Djambazov, G.; Pericleous, K.; Ghazal, G.; Gardin, P.

2013-06-01

339

A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.  

PubMed

Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. PMID:21077881

Heyward, P M

2010-12-01

340

Report Shows That "Bath Salts" Drugs Were Involved in Nearly 23,000 Emergency Department Visits in One Year  

MedlinePLUS

... Give your feedback today. Report shows that “Bath Salts” drugs were involved in nearly 23,000 emergency ... 2013 A new national report reveals that “bath salts,” a group of drugs containing amphetamine-type stimulants, ...

341

Electron-transfer ion/ion reactions of doubly protonated peptides: effect of elevated bath gas temperature.  

PubMed

In this study, the electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) behavior of cations derived from 27 different peptides (22 of which are tryptic peptides) has been studied in a 3D quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Ion/ion reactions between peptide cations and nitrobenzene anions have been examined at both room temperature and in an elevated temperature bath gas environment to form ETD product ions. From the peptides studied, the ETD sequence coverage tends to be inversely related to peptide size. At room temperature, very high sequence coverage (approximately 100%) was observed for small peptides (< or =7 amino acids). For medium-sized peptides composed of 8-11 amino acids, the average sequence coverage was 46%. Larger peptides with 14 or more amino acids yielded an average sequence coverage of 23%. Elevated-temperature ETD provided increased sequence coverage over room-temperature experiments for the peptides of greater than 7 residues, giving an average of 67% for medium-sized peptides and 63% for larger peptides. Percent ETD, a measure of the extent of electron transfer, has also been calculated for the peptides and also shows an inverse relation with peptide size. Bath gas temperature does not have a consistent effect on percent ETD, however. For the tryptic peptides, fragmentation is localized at the ends of the peptides suggesting that the distribution of charge within the peptide may play an important role in determining fragmentation sites. A triply protonated peptide has also been studied and shows behavior similar to the doubly charged peptides. These preliminary results suggest that for a given charge state there is a maximum size for which high sequence coverage is obtained and that increasing the bath gas temperature can increase this maximum. PMID:16131079

Pitteri, Sharon J; Chrisman, Paul A; McLuckey, Scott A

2005-09-01

342

33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...Shipbuilding, Conversion and Repair, USN, Bath, Maine or his/her authorized...

2012-07-01

343

Composition and properties of ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition from acidic and basic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc sulfide thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on soda lime glass, silicon and gallium phosphide substrates using an acidic (acetic acid-thioacetamide), and ammonia (thiourea or thioacetamide) baths. The thickness of the films varied from a few nm to 100 nm. Films deposited using the acidic bath showed a smaller concentration of Zn-O bonds and are much

Liudmila V. Makhova; Igor Konovalov; Rüdiger Szargan; Nurdin Aschkenov; Mathias Schubert; Thomas Chassé

2005-01-01

344

Acid Cleaning Labware Procedure Personal Protective Equipment: When preparing or using the acid bath long pants, closed  

E-print Network

. Prepare acid bath: 10% hydrochloric, or 10% nitric acid. · Add 9 parts Milli-Q water to bath containerAcid Cleaning Labware Procedure Personal Protective Equipment: When preparing or using the acid bath long pants, closed toed shoes, lab coat, safety glasses, and gloves must be worn. Thick blue acid

Paytan, Adina

345

Investigation of "bath salts" use patterns within an online sample of users in the United States.  

PubMed

"Bath salts" are synthetic stimulant "legal highs" that have recently been banned in the US. Epidemiological data regarding bath salts use are limited. In the present study, 113 individuals in the US reporting use of bath salts completed an anonymous, online survey characterizing demographic, experiential, and psychological variables. Respondents were more often male, 18-24 years old, and Caucasian/White with some college education. Past-year use was typically low (? 10 days), but marked by repeated dosing. Intranasal was the most frequently reported administration route and subjective effects were similar to other stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines). Bath salts use was associated with increased sexual desire and sexual HIV risk behavior, and met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for disordered use in more than half of respondents. Bath salts use persists in the US despite federal bans of cathinone-like constituents. Self-reported stimulant-like effects of bath salts suggest their use as substitutes for traditional illicit stimulants. Data revealed more normative outcomes vis-à-vis extreme accounts by media and medical case reports. However, indications of product abuse potential and sexual risk remain, suggesting bath salts pose potential public health harm. PMID:25364987

Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

2014-01-01

346

Cardiac Bidomain Bath-Loading Effects during Arrhythmias: Interaction with Anatomical Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Cardiac tissue is always surrounded by conducting fluid, both in vivo (blood) and in experimental preparations (Tyrode's solution), which acts to increase conduction velocity (CV) close to the tissue-fluid interface, inducing transmural wavefront curvature. Despite its potential importance, computer modeling studies focused on arrhythmia mechanisms have previously not accounted for these bath-loading effects. Here, we investigate the increase in CV and concomitant change in transmural wavefront profiles upon both propagation and arrhythmia dynamics within models of differing anatomical complexity. In simplified slab models, in absence of transmural fiber rotation, bath-loading induced transmural wavefront curvature dominates, significantly increasing arrhythmia complexity compared to no bath. In the presence of fiber rotation, bath-loading effects are less striking and depend upon propagation direction: the bath accentuates natural concave curvature caused by transmurally rotating fibers, but attenuates convex curvature, which negates overall impact upon arrhythmia complexity. Finally, we demonstrate that the high degree of anatomical complexity within whole ventricular models modulates bath-loading induced transmural wavefront curvature. However, key is the increased surface CV that dramatically reduces both arrhythmia inducibility and resulting complexity by increasing wavelength and reducing the available excitable gap. Our findings highlight the importance of including bath-loading effects during arrhythmia mechanism investigations, which could have implications for interpreting and comparing simulation results with experimental data where such effects are inherently present. PMID:22208185

Bishop, Martin J.; Vigmond, Edward; Plank, Gernot

2011-01-01

347

NATURAL GRADIENT EXPERIMENT ON SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A SAND AQUIFER. 3. RETARDATION ESTIMATES AND MASS BALANCES FOR ORGANIC SOLUTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The long-term behavior of five organic solutes during transport over a period of 2 years in ground water under natural gradient conditions was characterized quantitatively by means of moment estimates. Total mass was conserved for two of the organic compounds, carbon tetrachlorid...

348

Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

2011-01-01

349

Are Organic Falls Bridging Reduced Environments in the Deep Sea? - Results from Colonization Experiments in the Gulf of Cádiz  

PubMed Central

Organic falls create localised patches of organic enrichment and disturbance where enhanced degradation is mediated by diversified microbial assemblages and specialized fauna. The view of organic falls as “stepping stones” for the colonization of deep-sea reducing environments has been often loosely used, but much remains to be proven concerning their capability to bridge dispersal among such environments. Aiming the clarification of this issue, we used an experimental approach to answer the following questions: Are relatively small organic falls in the deep sea capable of sustaining taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblages over demographically relevant temporal scales? Are there important depth- or site-related sources of variability for the composition and structure of these assemblages? Is the proximity of other reducing environments influential for their colonization? We analysed the taxonomical and trophic diversity patterns and partitioning (?- and ?-diversity) of the macrofaunal assemblages recruited in small colonization devices with organic and inorganic substrata after 1-2 years of deployment on mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cádiz. Our results show that small organic falls can sustain highly diverse and trophically coherent assemblages for time periods allowing growth to reproductive maturity, and successive generations of dominant species. The composition and structure of the assemblages showed variability consistent with their biogeographic and bathymetric contexts. However, the proximity of cold seeps had limited influence on the similarity between the assemblages of these two habitats and organic falls sustained a distinctive fauna with dominant substrate-specific taxa. We conclude that it is unlikely that small organic falls may regularly ensure population connectivity among cold seeps and vents. They may be a recurrent source of evolutionary candidates for the colonization of such ecosystems. However, there may be a critical size of organic fall to create the necessary intense and persistent reducing conditions for sustaining typical chemosymbiotic vent and seep organisms. PMID:24098550

Cunha, Marina R.; Matos, Fábio L.; Génio, Luciana; Hilário, Ana; Moura, Carlos J.; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F.

2013-01-01

350

Are organic falls bridging reduced environments in the deep sea? - results from colonization experiments in the Gulf of Cádiz.  

PubMed

Organic falls create localised patches of organic enrichment and disturbance where enhanced degradation is mediated by diversified microbial assemblages and specialized fauna. The view of organic falls as "stepping stones" for the colonization of deep-sea reducing environments has been often loosely used, but much remains to be proven concerning their capability to bridge dispersal among such environments. Aiming the clarification of this issue, we used an experimental approach to answer the following questions: Are relatively small organic falls in the deep sea capable of sustaining taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblages over demographically relevant temporal scales? Are there important depth- or site-related sources of variability for the composition and structure of these assemblages? Is the proximity of other reducing environments influential for their colonization? We analysed the taxonomical and trophic diversity patterns and partitioning (?- and ?-diversity) of the macrofaunal assemblages recruited in small colonization devices with organic and inorganic substrata after 1-2 years of deployment on mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cádiz. Our results show that small organic falls can sustain highly diverse and trophically coherent assemblages for time periods allowing growth to reproductive maturity, and successive generations of dominant species. The composition and structure of the assemblages showed variability consistent with their biogeographic and bathymetric contexts. However, the proximity of cold seeps had limited influence on the similarity between the assemblages of these two habitats and organic falls sustained a distinctive fauna with dominant substrate-specific taxa. We conclude that it is unlikely that small organic falls may regularly ensure population connectivity among cold seeps and vents. They may be a recurrent source of evolutionary candidates for the colonization of such ecosystems. However, there may be a critical size of organic fall to create the necessary intense and persistent reducing conditions for sustaining typical chemosymbiotic vent and seep organisms. PMID:24098550

Cunha, Marina R; Matos, Fábio L; Génio, Luciana; Hilário, Ana; Moura, Carlos J; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F

2013-01-01

351

Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath.  

PubMed

Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of a V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used. PMID:25347885

Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor; Lowen, Hartmut

2014-10-20

352

Mechanisms of carrier transport induced by a microswimmer bath  

E-print Network

Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

Andreas Kaiser; Andrey Sokolov; Igor S. Aranson; Hartmut Löwen

2014-08-08

353

Noncanonical statistics of a finite quantum system with non-negligible system-bath coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The canonical statistics describes the statistical properties of an open system by assuming its coupling with the heat bath is infinitesimal in comparison with the total energy in thermodynamic limit. In this paper, we generally derive a noncanonical density matrix for the open system with a finite coupling to the heat bath, which deforms the energy shell to effectively modify the conventional canonical way. The obtained noncanonical distribution reflects the back action of system on the bath and thus depicts the statistical correlations between two subsystems by the mutual information as a result of energy conservation.

Xu, D. Z.; Li, Sheng-Wen; Liu, X. F.; Sun, C. P.

2014-12-01

354

Figure S1: Average MAC values observed after evaporation/redissolution of SOA+AS solutions at different rotary evaporator bath temperatures. Despite the weak dependence of the evaporation-induced  

E-print Network

Figure S1: Average MAC values observed after evaporation/redissolution of SOA+AS solutions at different rotary evaporator bath temperatures. Despite the weak dependence of the evaporation-induced increase in MAC on the evaporation temperature, we conducted all of the experiments at 50°C in order

Nizkorodov, Sergey

355

[Experience in organization of joint actions of expert divisions during the accident at P.S. Podporozniy Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station].  

PubMed

The authors illustrate positive experience in organization and coordination of joint actions of expert divisions of different sectors during the accident at P.S. Podporozniy Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station in August 2009. Special emphasis is laid on the participation of experts of quick-reaction teams formed by territorial forensic medical bureaus, mobile and supporting forces from the adjacent regions. PMID:20560514

Kolkutin, V V; Ivanov, P L; Fetisov, V A; Afanas'ev, S A; Dorozhkin, O A; Vognerubov, R N; Kuznetsov, T L

2010-01-01

356

Drops walking on a vibrating bath: towards a hydrodynamic pilot-wave theory  

E-print Network

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of droplets walking on a vertically vibrating fluid bath. Several walking states are reported, including pure resonant walkers that bounce ...

Bush, John W. M.

357

Hot gets hotter through long-range contact with a cold bath  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of a small long-range interacting system, in contact with a large long-range thermal bath. Our analysis reveals the existence of striking anomalies in the energy flux between the bath and the system. In particular, we find that the evolution of the system is not influenced by the kinetic temperature of the bath, as opposed to what happens for short-range collisional systems. As a consequence, the system may get hotter also when its initial temperature is larger than the bath temperature. This observation is explained quantitatively in the framework of the collisionless Vlasov description of dynamics and shown to be universally valid whenever the Vlasov picture applies, from cosmology to plasma physics.

De Buyl, Pierre; Fanelli, Duccio; Nardini, Cesare; Patelli, Aurelio; Piazza, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

2012-01-01

358

Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack  

PubMed Central

Bath-induced paroxysmal events in infants and children can be triggered by various etiologies, including cardiological, neurological, and metabolic causes. It is important to ascertain the underlying cause for such events as this significantly affects the child's management and prognosis. We present the case of a 19-month-old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of apnea, cyanosis, and reduced level of consciousness in response to bathing. Through detailed history and investigation, the diagnosis of water reflex epilepsy was made. Treatment with carbamazepine and adjustment of the bathing technique have prevented further episodes from occurring, and the child's growth and development are progressing normally. Conclusion Water reflex epilepsy can mimic a range of other conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. Children with water reflex epilepsy can achieve a good quality of life with modified bathing and appropriate antiepileptic medication.

Stutchfield, C.J.; Loh, N.R.

2014-01-01

359

Long time evolution of a spin interacting with a spin bath in arbitrary magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a completely different method to calculate the evolution of a spin interacting with a sufficient large spin bath, especially suitable for treating the central spin model in a quantum dot (QD). With only an approximation on the envelope of central spin, the symmetry can be exploited to reduce a huge Hilbert space which cannot be calculated with computers to many small ones which can be solved exactly. This method can be used to calculate spin-bath evolution for a spin bath containing many (say, 1000) spins, without a perturbative limit such as strong magnetic field condition, and works for long-time regime with sufficient accuracy. As the spin-bath evolution can be calculated for a wide range of time and magnetic field, an optimal dynamic of spin flip-flop can be found, and more sophisticated approaches to achieve extremely high polarization of nuclear spins in a QD could be developed.

Zhao, YuKang; Zhao, MeiSheng; Chen, ZengBing

2014-07-01

360

75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2009-0064] Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...

2010-06-15

361

Company Name: General Dynamics Bath Iron Works Web Site: https://www.gdbiw.com  

E-print Network

Business, and Logistics, Supply Chain, Management System Integration Planning, Non-Destructive Technical/Manufacturing Brief Company Overview: Part of General Dynamics Marine Systems, Bath Iron Works is a full service

New Hampshire, University of

362

Heat transport in harmonic oscillator systems with correlated baths: Application to optomechanical arrays  

E-print Network

We investigate the transport of phonons between $N$ harmonic oscillators in contact with independent thermal baths and coupled to a common oscillator, and derive an expression for the steady state heat flow between the oscillators in the weak coupling limit. We apply these results to an optomechanical array consisting of a pair of mechanical resonators coupled to a single quantised electromagnetic field mode by radiation pressure as well as to thermal baths with different temperatures. In the weak coupling limit this system is shown to be equivalent to two mutually-coupled harmonic oscillators in contact with an effective common thermal bath in addition to their independent baths. The steady state occupation numbers and heat flows are derived and discussed in various regimes of interest.

André Xuereb; Alberto Imparato; Aurélien Dantan

2014-11-07

363

Low Temperature Salt Bath Hardening of AISI 201 Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt bath hardening at low temperature was applied in order to enhance the surface hardness of AISI 201 stainless steel. The structure and properties of the hardened layer were investigated, such as microstructure, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The experiment results show that the treatment temperature plays an importance role in the microstructure and properties of the hardened layer. If the treatment temperature is below 460°C, the hardened layer was a face centre tetragonal (fct) structure without chromium nitride precipitation. The corrosion resistance of hardened layer is better than the matrix and as good as AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. If the temperature rises above 460 °C the precipitation show up and the corrosion resistance gets worse. The hardness and thickness of the layer increase as the raising of treatment temperature. The test of wear resistance shows that the amount of wear reduces rapidly after hardening treatment and the worn morphology of the surface behaves abrasive wear while that of AISI 201 stainless steel behaves adhesive wear.

Luo, H. S.; Zhao, C.

364

Stabilization of photon collapse and revival dynamics by a non-Markovian phonon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state-based light emitters such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been demonstrated to be versatile candidates to study the fundamentals of light-matter interaction. In contrast to optics with isolated atomic systems, in the solid-state dissipative processes are induced by the inherent coupling to the environment and are typically perceived as a major obstacle toward stable performances in experiments and applications. In this theoretical model study we show that this is not necessarily the case. In fact, in certain parameter regimes, the memory of the solid-state environment can enhance coherent quantum optical effects. In particular, we demonstrate that the non-Markovian coupling to an incoherent phonon bath can exhibit a stabilizing effect on the coherent QD cavity-quantum electrodynamics by inhibiting irregular oscillations and allowing for regular collapse and revival patterns. For self-assembled GaAs/InAs QDs at low photon numbers we predict dynamics that deviate dramatically from the well-known atomic Jaynes-Cummings model. Even if the required sample parameters are not yet available in recent experimental achievements, we believe our proposal opens the way to a systematic and deliberate design of photon quantum effects via specifically engineered solid-state environments.

Carmele, Alexander; Knorr, Andreas; Milde, Frank

2013-10-01

365

New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments.  

PubMed

A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m(-3) in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m(-3) in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure. PMID:20152261

Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernández, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F; Grimalt, Joan O

2010-03-01

366

Kinetic study on Zn(O,OH)S thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper kinetic study for chemical bath deposition (CBD) of Zn(O,OH)S thin films was done. Zn(O,OH)S thin films were deposited from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, sodium citrate and ammonia. The influence of synthesis conditions on the growth rate and morphological properties of the as-grown Zn(O,OH)S thin films are presented. The Avrami–Erofeev equation was used to study growth

W. Vallejo; M. Hurtado; G. Gordillo

2010-01-01

367

Mathematical model simulating the growth of compound semiconductor thin films via chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical bath deposition is a thin film technique in which compound semiconductor thin films of typically 0.02–1?m thickness are deposited on the substrates immersed in dilute baths containing metal ions and a source of sulfide or selenide ions. Many I–VI, II–VI, IV–VI, and V–VI semiconductors are included in the list of materials deposited by this technique. However, a mathematical model

P. K Nair; P Parmananda; M. T. S Nair

1999-01-01

368

Direct Fabrication of Oriented MnS Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oriented thin films of manganese sulfide (MnS) have been deposited by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, which was a soft solution-processing route for preparation of semiconductor thin films. By varying deposition conditions (e.g. bath temperature, concentration ratio of Mn2+ ions to CH3-CS-NH2 and concentration ratio of Mn2+ ions to C6H5Na3O7), the effects of synthetic conditions on the properties

Dong Bo Fan; Hao Wang; Yong Cai Zhang; Jie Cheng; Hui Yan; Masahiro Yoshimura

2004-01-01

369

Study on ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported the deposition and structural characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing thiourea, ZnSO4 and ammonia in aqueous solution on common glass substrates. The solution concentration and annealing condition played a very important role on transmissivity, homogeneity, crystal and transmissivity of ZnS thin films. Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron

Limei ZHOU; Yuzhi XUE; Jianfeng LI

2009-01-01

370

Transient analysis on the process of chemical bath deposition cadmium sulfide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexagonal CdS thin films with a strong (002) orientation is successfully prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique using the reaction between CdCl2, CS(NH2)2. A commonly available CBD system has been successfully modified with wetting agent (poly-glycol) without agitation. In this paper, Studies have been made to understand the effect of bath temperature on the transient process and the

Xuguang Li; Xiaobing Dong; Yi Yin

2007-01-01

371

Fabrication and Optical Constants of CdMnS Ternary Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin CdMnS films were deposited from chemical baths on glass substrates using aqueous conc. Ammonia as a complexing agent. The baths were kept under uniform temperature in an electric oven for periods of 30 and 60 minutes ranging between 70 0 and 90 0 C. The deposited thin films were characterized with Spectro UV-VIS RS spectrophotometers. The thin films showed

C. I. Oriaku; F. I. Ezema; Michael Okpara

372

Characteristics of Ni–P alloy electrodeposited from a sulfamate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of H3PO3 concentration on Ni–P electrodeposition from sulfamate bath and the material properties of the deposit with heat treatment were investigated. With increasing H3PO3 concentration in the bath, the phosphorus content in the deposit increased, while the current efficiency slowly decreased and stress in the deposit increased. This result seems to be related to the increase of hydrogen

Moo Hong Seo; Joung Soo Kim; Woon Suk Hwang; Dong Jin Kim; Seong Sik Hwang; Byung Sun Chun

2004-01-01

373

Determination of hydrogen contamination of depleted uranium in a triple carbonate salt bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cast Depleted uranium (DU) ingots are placed in a stainless steel rack and submerged into a triple carbonate salt bath at 625\\/degree\\/C. After soaking for 1 to 2 hours (i.e., 1 hr. min., 2 hr. max.), the ingot and rack are removed from the salt bath and taken to the roll table where the ingot is removed from the rack

Hammetter

1987-01-01

374

Ni-Cr-P plating bath time dependent characterization by ion chromatography  

E-print Network

Ni-Cr-P PLATING BATH TIME DEPENDENT CHARACTERIZATION BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis by RALPH EDWARD FAXEL, JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Chemical Enginrering Ni-Cr-P PLATING BATH TIME DEPENDENT CHARACTERIZATION BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis RALPH EDWARD FAXEL, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chair of Committee...

Faxel, Ralph Edward

2012-06-07

375

The dynamics and shapes of a viscous sheet spreading on a moving liquid bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the shape and dynamics of a floating viscous sheet formed by a jet falling on a static or moving bath under partial wetting conditions. For a static bath, the viscous sheet has a circular shape and spreads with a uniform thickness that is surprisingly larger than the static Langmuir equilibrium thickness. This thickening effect seems to be linked to a peculiarity of the oil used for the bath, which is in situation of total wetting on the sheet surface, and climbs the sheet a bit like a macroscopic "precursor film" that increases dissipation at the sheet perimeter. For a moving bath, the viscous sheet evolves from an ellipse to a ribbon, a transient remarkable pear shape being observed between these two states. A simple kinematic model of advection of the spreading sheet by the bath predicts very well the characteristics of the ribbon regime. Convected sheets whose shape is reminiscent of pendant drops in 2D are also observed at higher bath velocity, with interesting pinch off phenomena.

Sebilleau, J.; Lebon, L.; Limat, L.; Quartier, L.; Receveur, M.

2010-10-01

376

Exact dynamics of quantum correlations of two qubits coupled to bosonic baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two qubits in two independent baths and a common bath with the Lorentzian spectrum are studied exactly in the numerical sense within the hierarchy approach. The effects of the counter-rotating-wave terms from the system-bath coherence on these quantum correlations are systematically discussed and comparisons with previous ones under the rotating-wave approximation are also performed. For two independent baths, beyond the weak system-bath coupling, the counter-rotating-wave terms essentially change evolutions of both the entanglement and quantum discord. With increase of the coupling, revival of the entanglement after a period of complete disentanglement is suppressed dramatically and finally disappears, and the quantum discord becomes smaller monotonically. For the common bath, the entanglement is also suppressed by the counter-rotating-wave terms, but the quantum discord shows quite different behaviors if initiated from spin-correlated states. In the non-Markovian regime, the quantum discord is almost not influenced by the counter-rotating-wave terms and is generally finite in the long-time evolution at arbitrary coupling while in the Markovian regime, it is significantly enhanced with the strong coupling.

Wang, Chen; Chen, Qing-Hu

2013-10-01

377

Sub-exponential spin-boson decoherence in a finite bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the decoherence of a two-level system coupled to harmonic baths of 4-21 degrees of freedom, to baths with internal anharmonic couplings, and to baths with an additional 'solvent shell' (modes coupled to other bath modes, but not to the system). The discrete spectral densities are chosen to mimic the highly fluctuating spectral densities computed for real systems such as proteins. System decoherence is computed by exact quantum dynamics. With realistic parameter choices (finite temperature, reasonably large couplings), sub-exponential decoherence of the two-level system is observed. Empirically, the time-dependence of decoherence can be fitted by power laws with small exponents. Intrabath anharmonic couplings are more effective at smoothing the spectral density and restoring exponential dynamics, than additional bath modes or solvent shells. We conclude that at high temperature, the most important physical basis for exponential decays is anharmonicity of those few bath modes interacting most strongly with the system, not a large number of oscillators interacting with the system. We relate the current numerical simulations to models of anharmonically coupled oscillators, which also predict power law dynamics. The potential utility of power law decays in quantum computation and condensed phase coherent control are also discussed.

Wong, V.; Gruebele, M.

2002-11-01

378

The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the Delta9, Delta10, and Delta11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 C cells and the lowest in 50 C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

Jahnke, Linda L.

1992-01-01

379

The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the delta 9, delta 10 and delta 11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 degrees C cells and the lowest in 50 degrees C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

Jahnke, L. L.

1992-01-01

380

The response of abyssal organisms to low pH conditions during a series of CO2-release experiments simulating deep-sea carbon sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of low-pH, high-pCO2 conditions on deep-sea organisms were examined during four deep-sea CO2 release experiments simulating deep-ocean C sequestration by the direct injection of CO2 into the deep sea. We examined the survival of common deep-sea, benthic organisms (microbes; macrofauna, dominated by Polychaeta, Nematoda, Crustacea, Mollusca; megafauna, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Pisces) exposed to low-pH waters emanating as a dissolution plume from pools of liquid carbon dioxide released on the seabed during four abyssal CO2-release experiments. Microbial abundance in deep-sea sediments was unchanged in one experiment, but increased under environmental hypercapnia during another, where the microbial assemblage may have benefited indirectly from the negative impact of low-pH conditions on other taxa. Lower abyssal metazoans exhibited low survival rates near CO2 pools. No urchins or holothurians survived during 30-42 days of exposure to episodic, but severe environmental hypercapnia during one experiment (E1; pH reduced by as much as ca. 1.4 units). These large pH reductions also caused 75% mortality for the deep-sea amphipod, Haploops lodo, near CO2 pools. Survival under smaller pH reductions (?pH<0.4 units) in other experiments (E2, E3, E5) was higher for all taxa, including echinoderms. Gastropods, cephalopods, and fish were more tolerant than most other taxa. The gastropod Retimohnia sp. and octopus Benthoctopus sp. survived exposure to pH reductions that episodically reached -0.3 pH units. Ninety percent of abyssal zoarcids (Pachycara bulbiceps) survived exposure to pH changes reaching ca. -0.3 pH units during 30-42 day-long experiments.

Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Brewer, P. G.; Seibel, B. A.; Drazen, J. C.; Tamburri, M. N.; Whaling, P. J.; Kuhnz, L.; Pane, E. F.

2013-08-01

381

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

382

Rate of Family Refusal of Organ Donation in Dead-Brain Donors: the Iranian Tissue Bank Experience  

PubMed Central

Background: The growing gap between organ supply and demand remains a worldwide serious problem. Losing dead-brain donor organs can be attributed to several reasons including un-recognition of potential donor by ICU staff, death before official declaration of brain death and high refusal rate of deceased donors' families. Objective: To study the trend of dead-brain patients' relatives refusal of organ donation from 2007 to 2011. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of all patients who had been introduced as brain death to the organ procurement unit (OPU) of Iranian Tissue Bank between April 2007 and April 2012 according to preliminary neurological exam performed in the hospital of origin. The refusal rate of dead-brain patients' families and its reasons was evaluated. Results: A total of 874 ICU admitted patients with severe brain injury (Glasgow coma score <7) was introduced to our center and were visited by the coordinator team during April 2007 to April 2012. 412 (47%) patients were excluded from the study mainly due to unsuitability for donation according to the approved medical protocols (n=205) and not fulfilling the brain death criteria (n=66). The families of the remaining cases (n=462) had been interviewed 343 (74.2%) of whom permitted donation. The mean±SD age of donors was 29.8±13.2 years; the male/female ratio was almost 2. The most common reason of brain death was traffic collision (n=120; 56.3%) and cerebrovascular accidents (n=40; 18.8%). The refusal rate from 2007 to 2011 has decreased respectively, from 30.4% to 20% in Tehran, and from 57.1% to 51.6% in other cities. The overall refusal rate was 25.8%. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that more level of expertise of the coordinator team and continuous public education, would result in higher rate of consent to organ donation. PMID:25013656

Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M.; Khodadadi, A.; Tirgar, N.; Riazi, N.

2013-01-01

383

Particulate organic matter quality influences nitrate retention and denitrification in stream sediments: evidence from a carbon burial experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic carbon supply is linked to nitrogen transformation in ecosystems. However, the role of organic carbon quality in nitrogen processing is not as well understood. We determined how the quality of particulate organic carbon (POC) influenced nitrogen transformation in stream sediments by burying identical quantities of varying quality POC (northern red oak (Quercus rubra) leaves, red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves, red maple wood) in stream mesocosms and measuring the effects on nitrogen retention and denitrification compared to a control of combusted sand. We also determined how POC quality affected the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen concentration in groundwater. Nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) retention were assessed by comparing solute concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. Denitrification was measured by in situ changes in N2 concentrations (using MIMS) and by acetylene block incubations. POC quality was measured by C:N and lignin:N ratios and DOC quality was assessed by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. POC quality had strong effects on nitrogen processing. Leaf treatments had much higher nitrate retention, TDN retention and denitrification rates than the wood and control treatments and red maple leaf burial resulted in higher nitrate and TDN retention rates than burial of red oak leaves. Leaf, but not wood, burial drove pore water to severe hypoxia and leaf treatments had higher DOC production and different DOC chemical composition than the wood and control treatments. We think that POC quality affected nitrogen processing in the sediments by influencing the quantity and quality of DOC and redox conditions. Our results suggest that the type of organic carbon inputs can affect the rates of nitrogen transformation in stream ecosystems.

Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn A.; Parr, Thomas B.

2014-01-01

384

Organic geochemical studies of soils from the Rothamsted Classical Experiments—IV. Preliminary results from a study of the effect of soil pH on organic matter decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lipid extracts and solvent insoluble organic matter in soils from the Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, U.K. were studied to determine the effect of pH on the preservation\\/degradation of plant derived biomolecules. Analyses involved high temperature-gas chromatography (HT-GC), HT-GC–mass spectrometry (HT-GC–MS), GC combustion–isotope ratio MS (GCC–IRMS) and flash pyrolysis–GC (Py–GC) and Py–GC–MS. The plots selected for

Pim F van Bergen; Chris J Nott; Ian D Bull; Paul R Poulton; Richard P Evershed

1998-01-01

385

Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

Clark, T. B.

1985-01-01

386

Hydrogen adsorption strength and sites in the metal organic framework MOF5: Comparing experiment and model calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen adsorption in porous, high surface area, and stable metal organic frameworks (MOF’s) appears a novel route towards hydrogen storage materials [N.L. Rosi, J. Eckert, M. Eddaoudi, D.T. Vodak, J. Kim, M. O’Keeffe, O.M. Yaghi, Science 300 (2003) 1127; J.L.C. Rowsell, A.R. Millward, K. Sung Park, O.M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 5666; G. Ferey, M. Latroche, C.

F. M. Mulder; T. J. Dingemans; H. G. Schimmel; A. J. Ramirez-Cuesta; G. J. Kearley

2008-01-01

387

Adsorption of CO 2 in metal organic frameworks of different metal centres: Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations compared to experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Grand Canonical Monte Carlo study has been performed in order to compare the different CO2 adsorption mechanisms between two members of the MIL-n family of hybrid metal-organic framework materials. The MIL-53 (Al)\\u000a and MIL-47 (V) systems were considered. The results obtained confirm that there is a structural interchange between a large\\u000a pore and narrow pore forms of MIL-53 (Al),

Naseem A. Ramsahye; Guillaume Maurin; Sandrine Bourrelly; Philip L. Llewellyn; Thomas Devic; Christian Serre; Thierry Loiseau; Gerard Ferey

2007-01-01

388

Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs. PMID:25250820

Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

2014-09-24

389

Deep-Sea Nematodes Actively Colonise Sediments, Irrespective of the Presence of a Pulse of Organic Matter: Results from an In-Situ Experiment  

PubMed Central

A colonisation experiment was performed in situ at 2500 m water depth at the Arctic deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN to determine the response of deep-sea nematodes to disturbed, newly available patches, enriched with organic matter. Cylindrical tubes,laterally covered with a 500 µm mesh, were filled with azoic deep-sea sediment and 13C-labelled food sources (diatoms and bacteria). After 10 days of incubation the tubes were analysed for nematode response in terms of colonisation and uptake. Nematodes actively colonised the tubes,however with densities that only accounted for a maximum of 2.13% (51 ind.10 cm?2) of the ambient nematode assemblages. Densities did not differ according to the presence or absence of organic matter, nor according to the type of organic matter added. The fact that the organic matter did not function as an attractant to nematodes was confirmed by the absence of notable 13C assimilation by the colonising nematodes. Overall, colonisationappears to be a process that yields reproducible abundance and diversity patterns, with certain taxa showing more efficiency. Together with the high variability between the colonising nematode assemblages, this lends experimental support to the existence of a spatio-temporal mosaic that emerges from highly localised, partially stochastic community dynamics. PMID:21526147

Guilini, Katja; Soltwedel, Thomas; van Oevelen, Dick; Vanreusel, Ann

2011-01-01

390

The influence of mineralogy on recovering organic acids from Mars analogue materials using the “one-pot” derivatization experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids, will require a chemical extraction and a derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed a "one-pot" extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment instrument suite on NASA's the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The temperature and duration of the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 °C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analog materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analog materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals, and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA. The combination of pyrolysis and two different wet-chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars.

Stalport, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2012-07-01

391

Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-006-9235-3 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

2013-07-01

392

Characteristics of Sudden Bath-Related Death Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Methods Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Results Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). Conclusions The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2015-01-01

393

Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

2014-01-01

394

The role of iron in the diagenesis of organic carbon and nitrogen in sediments: A long-term incubation experiment  

E-print Network

-term incubation experiment Andrew Barber a,1 , Karine Lalonde a,1 , Alfonso Mucci b , Yves Gélinas a, a GEOTOP to reducible iron oxides (Lalonde et al., 2012). These strong iron­OC complexes, formed within the oxic layer

395

Comparing the Effects of Swaddled and Conventional Bathing Methods on Body Temperature and Crying Duration in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Maintaining body temperature and reducing stress are important challenges in bathing preterm infants. Swaddle bathing, which includes in itself the principles of developmental care, can be used as a low-stress and appropriate bathing method for premature infants. Given the limitations of the researches carried out on this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on body temperature and crying duration in premature infants. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 50 premature infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) who were eligible for the study were divided by random allocation into two experimental and control groups. The infants in the experimental group were bathed using the swaddle bathing method and the infants in the control group were bathed using the conventional bathing method. Body temperature was measured 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the bath. To record the crying, the infants' faces were filmed during the bath. The data were analyzed using chi-squared test, independent t-test, paired t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean temperature loss was significantly less in the swaddle-bathed newborns compared to the conventionally-bathed newborns. Furthermore, crying time was significantly less in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of swaddled bathing in maintaining body temperature and reducing stress, it can be used as an appropriate bathing method in NICU. PMID:25276751

Edraki, Mitra; Paran, Maryam; Montaseri, Sedigheh; Razavi Nejad, Mostajab; Montaseri, Zohre

2014-01-01

396

Model Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A human is a complicated organism, and it is considered unethical to do many kinds of experiments on human subjects. For these reasons, biologists often use simpler âÃÂÃÂmodelâÃÂàorganisms that are easy to keep and manipulate in the laboratory. Despite ob

2009-04-14

397

Dissolved organic carbon in peat porewater increases with warming: a field manipulation experiment in a northern temperate bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies conducted across northern Europe and North America have shown increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lake and stream water in recent decades. While there is little consensus as to the exact mechanisms for the increases in DOC, hypotheses converge on such climate change factors as warming, increased precipitation variability, and changes in atmospheric deposition, and their effects on catchment processes. In this study, we tested the effects of warming on peat porewater composition by actively warming a peatland with infrared lamps mounted 1.24 m above the peat surface for two years. Mean growing season peat temperatures in the warmed plots (n=5) were 1.9 ± 0.4 °C warmer than the control plots at 5 cm depth (t statistic = 5.03, p = 0.007). Mean porewater DOC concentrations measured throughout the growing season were 15% higher in the warmed plots (73.9 ± 3.6 mg L-1) than in the control plots (64.1 ± 2.9 mg L-1) at 25 cm (t statistic = 3.50, p = 0.01). While total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations were not affected by the warming, changes in dissolved organic N followed the trends in DOC. DOC from the warmed plots decayed nearly twice as fast as control plot DOC in 2 month laboratory incubations, and had a higher relative abundance of low molecular weight organic matter associated with cellulose and aminosugars (as determined by ultra high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). Complementary research of ecosystem C cycling at the site also showed warming increased net primary production, and together with preliminary analysis of changes in extracellular enzymes suggest that at least part of the increased DOC concentrations observed with warming was derived from microbial/plant interactions in the rhizosphere.

Kane, E. S.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Kratz, C. J.; Hribljan, J. A.; Johnson, C. P.; Pypker, T. G.; Chimner, R. A.

2010-12-01

398

How human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing: the experience of the VENESAT-1 ground segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Built in cooperation with the P.R of China, in October 29th of 2008, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela launched its first Telecommunication Satellite, the so called VENESAT-1 (Simón Bolívar Satellite), which operates in C (covering Center America, The Caribbean Region and most of South America), Ku (Bolivia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela) and Ka bands (Venezuela). The launch of VENESAT-1 represents the starting point for Venezuela as an active player in the field of space science and technology. In order to fulfill mission requirements and to guarantee the satellite's health, local professionals must provide continuous monitoring, orbit calculation, maneuvers preparation and execution, data preparation and processing, as well as data base management at the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment, which includes both a primary and backup site. In summary, data processing and real time data management are part of the daily activities performed by the personnel at the ground segment. Using published and unpublished information, this paper presents how human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing, by analyzing the proposed organizational structure for the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment. We have found that the proposed units within the organizational structure reflect 3 key issues for mission management: Satellite Operations, Ground Operations, and Site Maintenance. The proposed organization is simple (3 hierarchical levels and 7 units), and communication channels seem efficient in terms of facilitating information acquisition, processing, storage, flow and exchange. Furthermore, the proposal includes a manual containing the full description of personnel responsibilities and profile, which efficiently allocates the management and operation of key software for satellite operation such as the Real-time Data Transaction Software (RDTS), Data Management Software (DMS), and Carrier Spectrum Monitoring Software (CSM) within the different organizational units. In all this process, the international cooperation has played a key role for the consolidation of its space capabilities, especially through the continuous and arduous exchange of information, documentation and expertise between Chinese and Venezuelan personnel at the ground stations. Based on the principles of technology transfer and human training, since 1999 the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has shown an increasing interest in developing local space capabilities for peaceful purposes. According to the analysis we have performed, the proposed organizational structure of the VENESAT-1 ground segment will allow the country to face the challenges imposed by the operation of complex technologies. By enhancing human resource organization, this proposal will help to fulfill mission requirements, and to facilitate the safe access, processing and storage of satellite data across the organization, during both nominal and potential contingency situations.

Acevedo, Romina; Orihuela, Nuris; Blanco, Rafael; Varela, Francisco; Camacho, Enrique; Urbina, Marianela; Aponte, Luis Gabriel; Vallenilla, Leopoldo; Acuña, Liana; Becerra, Roberto; Tabare, Terepaima; Recaredo, Erica

2009-12-01

399

Applications of the generalized Langevin equation: Towards a realistic description of the baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized Langevin equation (GLE) method, as developed previously [L. Stella et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 134303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.134303], is used to calculate the dissipative dynamics of systems described at the atomic level. The GLE scheme goes beyond the commonly used bilinear coupling between the central system and the bath, and permits us to have a realistic description of both the dissipative central system and its surrounding bath. We show how to obtain the vibrational properties of a realistic bath and how to convey such properties into an extended Langevin dynamics by the use of the mapping of the bath vibrational properties onto a set of auxiliary variables. Our calculations for a model of a Lennard-Jones solid show that our GLE scheme provides a stable dynamics, with the dissipative/relaxation processes properly described. The total kinetic energy of the central system always thermalizes toward the expected bath temperature, with appropriate fluctuation around the mean value. More importantly, we obtain a velocity distribution for the individual atoms in the central system which follows the expected canonical distribution at the corresponding temperature. This confirms that both our GLE scheme and our mapping procedure onto an extended Langevin dynamics provide the correct thermostat. We also examined the velocity autocorrelation functions and compare our results with more conventional Langevin dynamics.

Ness, H.; Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

2015-01-01

400

Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

2008-01-01

401

Quantitative and qualitative changes in primary and secondary stem organization of Aristolochia macrophylla during ontogeny: functional growth analysis and experiments  

PubMed Central

The anatomy of young and old stems of Aristolochia macrophylla has been investigated for a better understanding of how secondary growth processes cause changes in the stem anatomy of a lianescent plant. In A. macrophylla, following an increase in volume of secondary vascular tissues, the cortical tissues are deformed and the outer sclerenchymatous cylinder ruptures. Morphometric measurements prove that the inner zone of the cortical parenchymatous tissue is compressed prior to the rupture of the outer sclerenchymatous cylinder. After the rupture has occurred, the radial width of the inner primary cortex slightly increases again. This could be caused by strain relaxation, suggesting that the inner primary cortex mechanically behaves similarly to cellular technical foam rubbers. Two different experiments were undertaken to test the outer cortical cylinders mechanically. The outer cortical cylinders comprise the outer sclerenchymatous cortical tissue and a collenchymatous sheath underneath the epidermis and the epidermis. In a first experiment, transverse compression loads were applied to the outside of the cortical cylinders causing ovalization of the cylinder until failure. This experiment allowed the Young's Modulus of the outer cortical cylinders to be determined. In a second set of experiments, radial hydraulic pressure was applied to the inside of the cortical cylinders, mimicking the mechanical effects of internal growth processes. The increase of the internal pressure finally led to rupture of the cortical cylinders. The circumferential stresses acting on the inner surface of the cortical cylinders were calculated. These data allow quantitative estimates of the radial and circumferential pressures effected by vascular secondary growth processes during ontogeny in A. macrophylla stems. The experimental results further indicate that the outer sclerenchymatous cylinder is the main contributor to mechanical stability of young A. macrophylla stems. PMID:18573799

Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

2008-01-01

402

Effect of enhanced pCO2 levels on the production of dissolved organic carbon and transparent exopolymer particles in short-term bioassay experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that increasing levels of pCO2 in the surface ocean will lead to more partitioning of the organic carbon fixed by marine primary production into the dissolved rather than the particulate fraction. This process may result in enhanced accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface ocean and/or concurrent accumulation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs), with important implications for the functioning of the marine carbon cycle. We investigated this in shipboard bioassay experiments that considered the effect of four different pCO2 scenarios (ambient, 550, 750 and 1000 ?atm) on unamended natural phytoplankton communities from a range of locations in the northwest European shelf seas. The environmental settings, in terms of nutrient availability, phytoplankton community structure and growth conditions, varied considerably between locations. We did not observe any strong or consistent effect of pCO2 on DOC production. There was a significant but highly variable effect of pCO2 on the production of TEPs. In three of the five experiments, variation of TEP production between pCO2 treatments was caused by the effect of pCO2 on phytoplankton growth rather than a direct effect on TEP production. In one of the five experiments, there was evidence of enhanced TEP production at high pCO2 (twice as much production over the 96 h incubation period in the 750 ?atm treatment compared with the ambient treatment) independent of indirect effects, as hypothesised by previous studies. Our results suggest that the environmental setting of experiments (community structure, nutrient availability and occurrence of phytoplankton growth) is a key factor determining the TEP response to pCO2 perturbations.

MacGilchrist, G. A.; Shi, T.; Tyrrell, T.; Richier, S.; Moore, C. M.; Dumousseaud, C.; Achterberg, E. P.

2014-07-01

403

Total quantum Zeno effect and intelligent states for a two-level system in a squeezed bath  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that, by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two-level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states that display total Zeno effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

Mundarain, D.; Stephany, J. [Departmento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

2006-11-15

404

Effect of turnover rate on the change of concentration of an unstable compound in a dip coating bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of turnover rate on the change of concentration of unstable (degradable) compounds in a dip coating bath during\\u000a a continuous coating process was theoretically calculated as a function of the degradation rate of the compound. It is assumed\\u000a that the bath is replenished by the same coating material as that in the original bath to maintain the volume

Tatsuo Sato; Monsanto Agriculh

2000-01-01

405

Experiment #4 Dippen Nanolithography on Responsive Materials  

E-print Network

and rinse each with water and place them in a new water bath at the same temperature for 30 minutes markings) off samples with acetone followed by water Air dry each piece to insure there is no organic not to boil the solution Once mixed heat solution to 8090 degrees Celsius Place samples in heated solution

La Rosa, Andres H.

406

On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds emitted from automobiles by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: Laboratory experiments and a field measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds in automobile exhaust were carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a chassis dynamometer. Diesel vehicles with oxidation catalyst system (diesel vehicle A) and with diesel PM-NOx reduction system ((diesel vehicle B) and a gasoline vehicle were used as a test vehicle. In the case of the diesel vehicle A, the emissions of nitromethane, nitrophenol (NPh), C7-, C8-, C9-, and C10-nitrophenols, and dihydroxynitrobenzenes (DHNB) were observed in the diesel exhaust from the experiment under the constant driving at 60 km hr-1. Temporal variations of mixing ratios for nitromethane, NPh, and DHNB along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during a transient driving cycle. The time-resolved measurement revealed that the nitromethane emission was strongly correlated with the emissions of CO, benzene, and acetone, which are relatively quickly produced in acceleration processes and appeared as sharp peaks. On the other hand, the NPh emission was moderately correlated with the emissions of acetic acid and phenol, which peaks were broad. The emission of nitromethane was observed from the exhaust of the diesel vehicle B but the emission of other nitro organic compounds was not observed. This suggests that the emission of nitro organic compounds besides nitromethane may depend on the diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices. The emission of nitromethane was also observed from the exhaust of the gasoline vehicle with cold start. An in-situ measurement of nitro organic compounds and their related VOCs was carried out at the crossing of an urban city, Kawasaki. Nitromethane was observed at the crossing and we found that the concentration of nitrometane varied rapidly. During the measurement, the maximum of the concentration of nitrometane reached 5 ppbv. Not only nitrophenols but also nitroaromatics were sometimes detected in the field measurement.

Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Fushimi, A.; Sato, K.; Sekimoto, K.; Yamada, H.; Hori, S.; Shimono, A.; Hikida, T.

2011-12-01

407

Using in-situ spectrophotometric sensors to monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration: our S::CAN experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon, (DOC), is the component of the organic carbon that can pass through a membrane filter, with the accepted maximum pore size of 0.7 ?m. There is growing interest in high resolution time series of such data e.g. heterotrophic respiration of DOC in freshwater systems can fuel atmospheric CO2 efflux so observing variation in DOC concentration, [DOC], is meaningful. Field deployable sensors, capable of measuring [DOC] on a continuous basis, have the potential to provide us with a far higher resolution time series data than we can obtain through manual sampling. At a catchment area draining Europe's largest windfarm, Whitelee, we have deployed an S::CAN Spectrolyser. This device scans wavelengths from 200 to 735nm, generating a spectral fingerprint and then, using an inbuilt algorithm, returns a value for the DOC concentration, termed DOC-equivalent, [DOC-eq]. The Spectrolyser also estimates other parameters such as total organic carbon and the true colour of the water. Unfortunately, our field Spectrolyser [DOC] are different from lab based measurement of [DOC] of the same field filtered samples (measured using a Thermalox high temperature catalytic oxidation system). Comparing 28 lab measured [DOC] with Spectrolyser [DOC-eq] shows an average difference of 7.6 mg/l C. Here we discuss our interpretation of why this disparity exists and how to accommodate this offset such that accuracy is improved. We have tried various methods of keeping the lens and path length clean through brushing, acid cleaning and the recent installation of a high pressure air hose (recommended by S::CAN). We will compare output before and after this installation. Further complexity is added because light may be absorbed by other components of the field sample, such as particulate material, and this could compromise the estimated [DOC-eq]. [DOC] may be estimated using absorption measurements made at 254nm and 340nm (Tipping et al, 2009). We have implemented this formula using 255 and 340nm (the closest wavelengths) to compare the results with the automatically generated [DOC-eq], and also our laboratory measurements. As a field-deployed sensor measuring unfiltered samples, to compensate for turbidity we have incorporated the asborption measurement at 735nm in the calculation. With this approach, the average difference between lab measured and calculated decreases to 4.5mg/l. Tipping, E., et al. (2009), Quantification of natural DOM from UV absorption at two wavelengths. Environmental Chemistry, 6,6, 472-476.

Coleman, Martin; Waldron, Susan; Scott, Marian; Drew, Simon

2013-04-01

408

NMR 13C-isotopic enrichment experiments to study carbon-partitioning into organic solutes in the red alga Grateloupia doryphora.  

PubMed

The red alga Grateloupia doryphora Montagne (Howe) (Cryptonemiales, Halymeniaceae) was used as a model to investigate the effects of changes in seawater salinity on the intracellular low-molecular-weight organic compounds. Carbon-partitioning into major organic solutes was followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on living algae incubated in NaH13CO3-enriched seawater, and by high resolution 1H and 13C NMR experiments performed on 13C-enriched algal extracts. NMR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses both demonstrated that floridoside level was the most affected by changes in salinity: it rose under the hypersaline treatment and decreased under hyposaline one. Moreover, at low salinity, the high labeling of floridoside (45.3% 13C-enrichment for C1) together with its low concentrations both provided evidence of great increase in the de novo biosynthesis and turnover rate. Our experiments also demonstrated a high incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into amino acids, especially glutamate, under hypoosmotic conditions. On the other hand, isethionic acid and N-methyl-methionine sulfoxide were only partly labeled, which indicates they do not directly derive from carbon photoassimilation. In algae exposed to high salinity, elevated concentrations of floridoside coupled to a low labeling (9.4%) were observed. These results suggest that hyperosmotic conditions stimulated floridoside biosynthesis from endogen storage products rather than from carbon assimilation through photosynthesis. PMID:15061080

Simon-Colin, Christelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Pichon, Roger; Deslandes, Eric

2004-01-01

409

Bio-inspired transition metal-organic hydride conjugates for catalysis of transfer hydrogenation: experiment and theory.  

PubMed

Taking inspiration from yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH), a benzimidazolium (BI(+) ) organic hydride-acceptor domain has been coupled with a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) metal-binding domain to afford a novel multifunctional ligand (L(BI+) ) with hydride-carrier capacity (L(BI+) +H(-) ?L(BI) H). Complexes of the type [Cp*M(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ]2 (M=Rh, Ir) have been made and fully characterised by cyclic voltammetry, UV/Vis spectroelectrochemistry, and, for the Ir(III) congener, X-ray crystallography. [Cp*Rh(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ]2 catalyses the transfer hydrogenation of imines by formate ion in very goods yield under conditions where the corresponding [Cp*Ir(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ] and [Cp*M(phen)Cl][PF6 ] (M=Rh, Ir) complexes are almost inert as catalysts. Possible alternatives for the catalysis pathway are canvassed, and the free energies of intermediates and transition states determined by DFT calculations. The DFT study supports a mechanism involving formate-driven Rh?H formation (90?kJ?mol(-1) free-energy barrier), transfer of hydride between the Rh and BI(+) centres to generate a tethered benzimidazoline (BIH) hydride donor, binding of imine substrate at Rh, back-transfer of hydride from the BIH organic hydride donor to the Rh-activated imine substrate (89?kJ?mol(-1) barrier), and exergonic protonation of the metal-bound amide by formic acid with release of amine product to close the catalytic cycle. Parallels with the mechanism of biological hydride transfer in yADH are discussed. PMID:25504622

McSkimming, Alex; Chan, Bun; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Ball, Graham E; Colbran, Stephen B

2015-02-01

410

Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition  

PubMed Central

CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established. PMID:22754325

Daud, Mohd Norizam Md; Zakaria, Azmi; Jafari, Atefeh; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zainal, Zulkarnain

2012-01-01

411

Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the heat bath for two Brownian particles.  

PubMed

We propose a new look at the heat bath for two Brownian particles, in which the heat bath as a "system" is both perturbed and sensed by the Brownian particles. Nonlocal thermal fluctuations give rise to bath-mediated static forces between the particles. Based on the general sum rule of the linear response theory, we derive an explicit relation linking these forces to the friction kernel describing the particles' dynamics. The relation is analytically confirmed in the case of two solvable models and could be experimentally challenged. Our results point out that the inclusion of the environment as a part of the whole system is important for micron- or nanoscale physics. PMID:24856686

De Bacco, Caterina; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Sekimoto, Ken

2014-05-01

412

Two-bath spin-boson model: Phase diagram and critical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin-boson model, describing a two-level system coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators, is a generic model for quantum dissipation, with manifold applications. It has also been studied as a simple example for an impurity quantum phase transition. Here, we present a detailed study of a U(1)-symmetric two-bath spin-boson model, where two different components of an SU(2) spin 1/2 are coupled to separate dissipative baths. Nontrivial physics arises from the competition of the two dissipation channels, resulting in a variety of phases and quantum phase transitions. We employ a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to determine the properties of both the stable phases and the quantum critical points. In particular, we find a critical intermediate-coupling phase which is bounded by a continuous quantum phase transition which violates the quantum-to-classical correspondence.

Bruognolo, Benedikt; Weichselbaum, Andreas; Guo, Cheng; von Delft, Jan; Schneider, Imke; Vojta, Matthias

2014-12-01

413

Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.  

PubMed

Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269

Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

2014-06-01

414

Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive  

PubMed Central

Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath. PMID:23844379

?ahin, Bünyamin

2013-01-01

415

Observation of an anomalous decoherence effect in a quantum bath at room temperature  

PubMed Central

The decoherence of quantum objects is a critical issue in quantum science and technology. It is generally believed that stronger noise causes faster decoherence. Strikingly, recent theoretical work suggests that under certain conditions, the opposite is true for spins in quantum baths. Here we report an experimental observation of an anomalous decoherence effect for the electron spin-1 of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in high-purity diamond at room temperature. We demonstrate that, under dynamical decoupling, the double-transition can have longer coherence time than the single-transition even though the former couples to the nuclear spin bath as twice strongly as the latter does. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results confirms the controllability of the weakly coupled nuclear spins in the bath, which is useful in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. PMID:22146389

Huang, Pu; Kong, Xi; Zhao, Nan; Shi, Fazhan; Wang, Pengfei; Rong, Xing; Liu, Ren-Bao; Du, Jiangfeng

2011-01-01

416

Bath-tub vortex attenuation with the increase of in-vessel water level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the study of a bath-tub vortex formed in water flowing out through the hole in a vessel's bottom, a methodology was developed that enables controlling the change of in-vessel water level by continuous replenishment. The controlled rate of replenishment enables not only compensating for the loss of drained water and maintaining it at a constant level, but also increasing such a level. Enhancement of water level at different times after the formation of the bath-tub vortex leads to the gradual extinction of the vortex until its complete disappearance when a certain critical level of water in the vessel is achieved. A bath-tub vortex shape with a decrease of in-vessel water level and increase differs significantly.

Meshkov, E. E.; Sirotkin, A. A.

2013-07-01

417

A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

2014-07-01

418

Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

2010-01-01

419

Zeno and anti-Zeno effect for a two-level system in a squeezed bath  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the appearance of Zeno or anti-Zeno effects in an exponentially decaying system. We consider the quantum dynamics of a continuously monitored two level system interacting with a squeezed bath. We find that the behavior of the system depends critically on the way in which the squeezed bath is prepared. For specific choices of the squeezing phase the system shows Zeno or anti-Zeno effects in conditions for which it would decay exponentially if no measurements were done. This result allows for a clear interpretation in terms of the equivalent spin system interacting with a fictitious magnetic field.

Mundarain, D. F.; Stephany, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela)

2006-04-15

420

Decoherence and dynamical decoupling control of nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in nuclear spin baths  

E-print Network

We theoretically study the decoherence and the dynamical decoupling control of nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in high-purity diamond, where the hyperfine interaction with $^{13}$C nuclear spins is the dominating decoherence mechanism. The decoherence is formulated as the entanglement between the electron spin and the nuclear spins, which is induced by nuclear spin bath evolution conditioned on the electron spin state. The nuclear spin bath evolution is driven by elementary processes such as single spin precession and pairwise flip-flops. The importance of different elementary processes in the decoherence depends on the strength of the external magnetic field.

Zhao, Nan; Liu, Ren-Bao

2011-01-01

421

Decoherence and dynamical decoupling control of nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in nuclear spin baths  

E-print Network

We theoretically study the decoherence and the dynamical decoupling control of nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in high-purity diamond, where the hyperfine interaction with $^{13}$C nuclear spins is the dominating decoherence mechanism. The decoherence is formulated as the entanglement between the electron spin and the nuclear spins, which is induced by nuclear spin bath evolution conditioned on the electron spin state. The nuclear spin bath evolution is driven by elementary processes such as single spin precession and pairwise flip-flops. The importance of different elementary processes in the decoherence depends on the strength of the external magnetic field.

Nan Zhao; Sai-Wah Ho; Ren-Bao Liu

2011-08-11

422

Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).  

PubMed

Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

1999-01-01

423

Hospital Organization and Importance of an Interventional Radiology Inpatient Admitting Service: Italian Single-Center 3-Year Experience  

SciTech Connect

In June 2005 a Complex Operating Unit of Interventional Radiology (COUIR), consisting of an outpatient visit service, an inpatient admitting service with four beds, and a day-hospital service with four beds was installed at our department. Between June 2005 and May 2008, 1772 and 861 well-screened elective patients were admitted to the inpatient ward of the COUIR and to the Internal Medicine Unit (IMU) or Surgery Unit (SU) of our hospital, respectively, and treated with IR procedures. For elective patients admitted to the COUIR's inpatient ward, hospital stays were significantly shorter and differences between reimbursements and costs were significantly higher for almost all IR procedures compared to those for patients admitted to the IMU and SU (Student's t-test for unpaired data, p < 0.05). The results of the 3-year activity show that the activation of a COUIR with an inpatient admitting service, and the better organization of the patient pathway that came with it, evidenced more efficient use of resources, with the possibility for the hospital to save money and obtain positive margins (differences between reimbursements and costs). During 3 years of activity, the inpatient admitting service of our COUIR yielded a positive difference between reimbursements and effective costs of Euro 1,009,095.35. The creation of an inpatient IR service and the admission of well-screened elective patients allowed short hospitalization times, reduction of waiting lists, and a positive economic outcome.

Simonetti, Giovanni [University Hospital of Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy (Italy); Bollero, Enrico [University Hospital of Tor Vergata (Italy); Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, School of Medicine (Italy); Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel, E-mail: danielkonda@yahoo.com; Bartolucci, Alberto; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Mammucari, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello [University Hospital of Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy (Italy); D'Alba, Fabrizio [University Hospital of Tor Vergata (Italy); Masala, Salvatore [University Hospital of Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2009-03-15

424

Biological Experiment and Clinical Tests on Mammotropic Action Of Muyingle — A New Type of Healthfood Prepared from Marine Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muyingle is a new type of health food prepared from marine organisms. The mammotropic action of Muyingle was investigated by studying its effect on mammary glands and pituitary glands of lactating mice and the survival rate of suckling mice. The results showed that the mammotropic action of Muyingle was very effective. The survival rates of suckling mice were 92.90% for the treated group and 0 for the control group ( p<0.01). The weights of mammary gland were 163 ± 51.1mg/10g (weight of mouse) for the treated group and 98.5 ± 18.4 mg/10 g for the control group ( p<0.01). Histological examinations suggested that mammary glands from the treated group were at the secreting stages, while those from the control group were at the resting stages. Clinical tests also demonstrated that Muyingle was highly effective in promoting lactation and improving the quality of the puerpera's milk. The efficiency was up to 86.7%.

Li, Ba-fan; Hao, Lin-hua; Liu, Xiang-dong

1996-12-01

425

The Effect of Organic Solvents and Other Parameters on Trypsin-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Na-Benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide. A Project-Oriented Biochemical Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of enzymatic catalysis is a classical biochemistry experiment for undergraduate classes. We propose the utilization of the serine protease trypsin to discuss several parameters affecting enzyme catalysis. Hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate Na -benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) was followed by spectrophotometric monitoring. The optimal pH and temperature values were found to be 8.0 and 40 °C, respectively. Km and Vmax values were obtained by adjustment to Michaelis-Menten, Lineweaver-Burke, and Hanes equations. We then investigated the effect of organic solvents (a series of alcohols) on the hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate. The reaction rate was reduced in the presence of methanol and further reduced by ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol, when compared to the data obtained with buffer. Finally the students were asked to measure the molar absorptivity of p-nitrophenol in the presence of the alcohols employed for the kinetic experiments. Thus they could learn that the value of this parameter varies with the solvent. These experiments were designed as a project-oriented approach to teach biochemistry methodologies and theoretical aspects of enzyme kinetics. They took about four months with four to six hours per week spent in the laboratory.

Correia, L. C.; Bocewicz, A. C.; Esteves, S. A.; Pontes, M. G.; Versieux, L. M.; Teixeira, S. M. R.; Santoro, M. M.; Bemquerer, M. P.

2001-11-01

426

Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic Carbon (DOC) in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm), together with solute concentrations required to undertake end member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l-1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16-28) and SUVA (2.7-3.6 l mg-1 m-1) was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l-1). This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9-4.5 l mg-1 m-1 and DOC:DON ratio 35-43). We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls and provides evidence that DOC biogeochemistry must be incorporated in modelling to predict the impacts of changes in DOC delivery to aquatic systems.

Stutter, M. I.; Dunn, S. M.; Lumsdon, D. G.

2012-01-01

427

The experiments in this course are examples of real-life problems which make use of organic chemistry in various ways and have impact on diverse businesses and industries. Each  

E-print Network

is to read the entire package for each experiment and to write a simple, but detailed, list of instructions experiment package are augmented by the Techniques Manual (TM). The Techniques Manual is The Organic Chem Lab Survival Manual by J.W. Zubrick (6th or 7th edition, John Wiley and Sons, ). The weekly lectures

Houston, Paul L.

428

A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

2013-01-01

429

Effect of Sulfur Baths on Antioxidative Defense Systems, Peroxide Concentrations and Lipid Levels in Patients with Degenerative Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Due to possible antiinflammatory effects, sulfur baths are widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Previously it was demonstrated that drinking cures with sulfur can improve the antioxidative defense system and lower the peroxide levels of patients with chronic degenerative osteoarthritis. Objective: This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of 3-week therapy with sulfur baths on

C. Ekmekcioglu; G. Strauss-Blasche; F. Holzer; W. Marktl

2002-01-01

430

Influence of the thickness on structural, optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium sulfide films of different thicknesses were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The XRD patterns show that the films are of hexagonal phase with preferred (002) orientation and the grain size increases with the thickness of the film. The band gap of the films was calculated from

Joel Pantoja Enr??quez; Xavier Mathew

2003-01-01

431

CdS thin film prepared by shallow chemical bath deposition for low cost CIGS thin film solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was well-known that the n-type buffer layer grown by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique showed the highest efficiency for CIGS thin film solar cell. However, CBD process showed a serious drawback of producing considerable of waste solution and low yield. In this study, a novel technique called shallow chemical bath deposition (SCBD) was employed to grown Cadmium sulfide

Wei-Tse Hsu; Chien-Chih Chiang; Tsung-Kai Yeh; Chun-Wen Lan; Song-Yeu Tsai

2011-01-01

432

Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium sources  

E-print Network

Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium January 2008 Abstract A comprehensive study of the effect of cadmium sources on chemical bath deposited cadmium sulfide thin films is reported. Four different cadmium sources; cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride

Chow, Lee

433

Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm), together with solute concentrations required to undertake end-member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l-1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16-28) and SUVA (2.7-3.6 l mg-1 m-1) was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l-1). This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9-4.5 l mg-1 m-1 and DOC:DON ratio 35-43). We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This preliminary evidence is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls on the nature of DOC delivered to streams. Although our study is based only on two storms of very different hydrological and biogeochemical periods, this should promote wider study of DOC biogeochemical alteration in headwaters so that this be better incorporated in modelling to predict the impacts of changes in DOC delivery to, and fate in, aquatic systems.

Stutter, M. I.; Dunn, S. M.; Lumsdon, D. G.

2012-06-01

434

Fluid Flow Modeling of Arc Plasma and Bath Circulation in DC Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model describing the flow field, heat transfer and the electromagnetic phenomenon in a DC electric arc furnace has been developed. First the governing equations in the arc plasma region are solved and the calculated results of heat transfer, current density and shear stresses on the anode surface are used as boundary conditions in a model of molten bath.

Feng-hua WANG; Zhi-jian JIN; Zi-shu ZHU

2006-01-01

435

BATH. VIEW FACING NORTH Camp H.M. Smith and Navy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BATH. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

436

No-Drag String Configurations for Steadily Moving Quark-Antiquark Pairs in a Thermal Bath  

E-print Network

We investigate the behavior of stationary string configurations on a five-dimensional AdS black hole background which correspond to quark-antiquark pairs steadily moving in an N=4 super Yang-Mills thermal bath. There are many branches of solutions, depending on the quark velocity and separation as well as on whether Euclidean or Lorentzian configurations are examined.

Philip C. Argyres; Mohammad Edalati; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz

2007-01-09

437

New and clean strategy for the determination of Cu2+ in electroless copper plating baths.  

PubMed

This article concerns a new and clean strategy for the determination of Cu(2+) in electroless copper plating baths with differential spectrophotometry. With this strategy, the problem of too high absorbance of Cu(2+) under plating conditions has been solved. We investigated the influence of copper sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, nickel sulfate, sodium citrate, polyglycol, temperature and pH on the absorption spectrum of Cu(2+) in electroless copper plating baths. Five grams per litre of CuSO(4).5H(2)O solution was selected as the reference solution. Experimental results prove that, this strategy has the merits of fast and high accuracy compared to the traditional techniques. Linearly dependent coefficient of the working curve is 0.9999 and the components in the formula have no obvious effect on the detection of Cu(2+) under experimental conditions. Therefore, we can directly move solutions from the EC plating baths for detection, after that the sample can still go back to the baths without any pollution from the plating process to the environment. PMID:17317278

Liu, Rutao; Zong, Wansong; Gao, Canzhu; Chi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Lijun

2007-09-01

438

The untold truth about "bath salt" highs: A case series demonstrating local tissue injury.  

PubMed

The epidemic of injecting cathinone derivatives, marketed as "bath salts", by intravenous drug users among inner city Dubliners led to an associated rise in soft tissue complications. The spectrum of the cases encountered, ranging from self-limiting cellulitis to extensive abscess formation, at a single institution is described. PMID:22079081

Dorairaj, J J; Healy, C; McMenamin, M; Eadie, P A

2012-02-01

439

Investigation of nanocrystalline zinc–nickel alloy coatings in an alkaline zincate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline zinc–nickel alloy coatings obtained from an alkaline zincate bath containing a laboratory-made additive were investigated in this paper. The effects of the additive content and the cathode current density on the grain sizes of the coatings were studied. SEM and TEM observations and XRD analysis were performed to examine the microstructure (grain size) and phase composition of the coatings.

G. Y. Li; J. S. Lian; L. Y. Niu; Z. H. Jiang

2005-01-01

440

New and clean strategy for the determination of Cu 2+ in electroless copper plating baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article concerns a new and clean strategy for the determination of Cu 2+ in electroless copper plating baths with differential spectrophotometry. With this strategy, the problem of too high absorbance of Cu 2+ under plating conditions has been solved. We investigated the influence of copper sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, nickel sulfate, sodium citrate, polyglycol, temperature and pH on the absorption spectrum of Cu 2+ in electroless copper plating baths. Five grams per litre of CuSO 4·5H 2O solution was selected as the reference solution. Experimental results prove that, this strategy has the merits of fast and high accuracy compared to the traditional techniques. Linearly dependent coefficient of the working curve is 0.9999 and the components in the formula have no obvious effect on the detection of Cu 2+ under experimental conditions. Therefore, we can directly move solutions from the EC plating baths for detection, after that the sample can still go back to the baths without any pollution from the plating process to the environment.

Liu, Rutao; Zong, Wansong; Gao, Canzhu; Chi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Lijun

2007-09-01

441

Thermal Conductivity of One-Dimensional Lattices with Self-Consistent Heat Baths  

E-print Network

Thermal Conductivity of One-Dimensional Lattices with Self-Consistent Heat Baths: A Heuristic and breathers. KEYWORDS: heat conduction, classical transport, Langevin dynamics DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.78.044001 1. Introduction Heat conduction exhibits diversified behaviors for one- dimensional lattices in terms of heat

Li, Baowen

442

Statistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal fluctuations  

E-print Network

Statistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Stochastic equations for work and heat exchanged between the two circuits Abstract We study both experimentally and theoretically the statistical properties of the energy exchanged

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM SALTS ON A MODIFIED CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION OF CADMIUM SULFIDE THIN FILMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simply modified bath deposition technique has been successfully used to deposit uniform CdS thin films using cadmium chloride or cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, and thiourea as the sulfur source on glass substrates. Both the traditional magnetic agitation and the frequent substrate vibration by hand were done simultaneously during the deposition. Various properties of the deposited films

X. B. XU; S. Y. HUANG; J. B. CHU; H. B. ZHU; Z. SUN; Y. W. CHEN; S. M. HUANG

2008-01-01

444

Growth and physical properties of CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the preparation of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films by chemical bath deposition. The influence of the solution temperature is investigated in this study. We suggest that activation energy of the deposition rate measurement can be a tool for determining the nature of the deposition mechanism. We found that at low solution temperature, the growth mechanism proceeds

H. Moualkia; S. Hariech; M. S. Aida; N. Attaf; E. L. Laifa

2009-01-01

445

Influence of Cadmium Salts on a Modified Chemical Bath Deposition of Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simply modified bath deposition technique has been successfully used to deposit uniform CdS thin films using cadmium chloride or cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, and thiourea as the sulfur source on glass substrates. Both the traditional magnetic agitation and the frequent substrate vibration by hand were done simultaneously during the deposition. Various properties of the deposited films

X. B. Xu; S. Y. Huang; J. B. Chu; H. B. Zhu; Z. Sun; Y. W. Chen; S. M. Huang

2008-01-01

446

Optimization and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) thin films produced by chemical bath deposition (CBD) are often very thin. This is because CBD is a limited source growth process. In addition, the heterogeneous reaction that is responsible for the growth of the film competes with the homogenous reaction that depletes the reactants and forms CdS particulates that tend to reduce the quality of the

Isaiah O. Oladeji; Lee Chow

1996-01-01

447

Influence of the ultrasonic agitation on chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic agitation was applied during the chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films. Ultrasonication resulted in a large difference in surface morphology, growth rate, and optical properties of CdS films. There were virtually no colloidal particles adsorbed on the surface. The surface roughness measured by atomic force microscopy was reduced by a factor of two. Band gap energy increased to

Jun Young Choi; Kang-Jin Kim; Donghwan Kim

1997-01-01

448

Patterned thin film transistors incorporating chemical bath deposited cadmium sulfide as the active layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film transistors incorporating patterned cadmium sulfide as the active layer were fabricated. The cadmium sulfide was deposited via chemical bath deposition. A fluorosilane surface modifier printed by microcontact stamping was used to define isolated semiconductor patches without a liftoff procedure. Mobility values of 0.1–1 cm2\\/Vs with on\\/off ratios exceeding 107 have been measured.

J. S. Meth; S. G. Zane; K. G. Sharp; S. Agrawal

2003-01-01

449

A Raman spectroelectrochemical investigation of chemical bath deposited Cu x S thin films and their modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin copper sulfide films were deposited from a chemical bath onto glass, silicon, gold and platinum substrates. Films were modified by aging the deposit under ambient conditions, annealing in air, soaking in cupric ion solution, or by fixing the electrode potential. The structure of the deposited film was investigated using neutron reflectometry, Raman scattering, electrochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Deposited

Carolyn G. Munce; Gretel K. Parker; Stephen A. Holt; Gregory A. Hope

2007-01-01

450

Properties of cadmium sulfide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition with ultrasonication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic agitation was applied during the chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films. Ultrasonication resulted in a dramatic difference in surface morphology, growth rate, and optical properties of CdS films. There were virtually no colloidal particles adsorbed on the surface. The surface roughness measured by atomic force microscopy was reduced by a factor of two. Band gap energy increased to

Jun Young Choi; Kang-Jin Kim; Ji-Beom Yoo; Donghwan Kim

1998-01-01

451

The Influence of Growth Conditions on the Chemical Bath Deposited ZnS Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly transparent and nanocrystalline zinc sulfide thin films were grown onto various substrates by chemical bath deposition. The influence of deposition parameters such as type of substrate, concentration of thiourea, temperature and deposition time on the physical properties of films was studied in order to understand the optical properties and surface morphologies. The roughness of substrate can enhance the coalescence

Busarin NOIKAEW; Panita CHINVETKITVANICH; Intira SRIPICHAI; Chanwit CHITYUTTAKAN

452

Recent status of chemical bath deposited metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently nanocrystalline materials have opened a new chapter in the field of electronic applications, since material properties could be changed by changing the crystallite size and\\/or thickness of the film. The synthesis of nanocrystalline metal chalcogenide and metal oxide thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is currently attracting considerable attention as it is relatively inexpensive, simple and convenient

S. M. Pawar; B. S. Pawar; J. H. Kim; Oh-Shim Joo; C. D. Lokhande

2011-01-01

453

Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Secretome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was recently demonstrated to abrogate inflammation in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting interactions with cells involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis and emphasizing the importance of understanding the many properties of M. capsulatus. Secreted proteins determine how bacteria may interact with their environment, and a comprehensive knowledge of such proteins is therefore vital to understand bacterial physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze protein secretion in M. capsulatus (Bath) by identifying the secretion systems present and the respective secreted substrates. Computational analysis revealed that in addition to previously recognized type II secretion systems and a type VII secretion system, a type Vb (two-partner) secretion system and putative type I secretion systems are present in M. capsulatus (Bath). In silico analysis suggests that the diverse secretion systems in M.capsulatus transport proteins likely to be involved in adhesion, colonization, nutrient acquisition and homeostasis maintenance. Results of the computational analysis was verified and extended by an experimental approach showing that in addition an uncharacterized protein and putative moonlighting proteins are released to the medium during exponential growth of M. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:25479164

Indrelid, Stine; Mathiesen, Geir; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte R.

2014-01-01

454

The effects of whirlpool bath and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on complex regional pain syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of whirlpool bath and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on complex regional pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty outpatients (30 per group) with complex regional pain syndrome participated. They received 15 treatment 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the visual analogue scale for pain, edema, range of motion of the wrist (flexion and extension), fingertip-to-distal palmar crease distance, hand grip strength, and pinch strength. All parameters were measured at baseline (week 0) and at the trial end (week 3). [Results] There were significant improvements in all parameters after therapy in both groups. The whirlpool bath group showed significantly better improvements in the visual analogue score, hand edema, hand grip strength, wrist range of motion (both flexion and extension), fingertip-to-distal palmar crease distance, and the three-point and fingertip pinch strengths than the neuromuscular electrical stimulation group; however, the lateral pinch strengths were similar. [Conclusion] Both whirlpool bath and neuromuscular electrical stimulation are effective in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome, but the efficacy of the whirlpool bath treatment was better. PMID:25642030

Devrimsel, Gul; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Yildirim, Murat; Beyazal, Munevver Serdaroglu

2015-01-01

455

MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST Camp H.M. Smith and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

456

DARREN COSKER, BSc (Hons), Ph.D Web: http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/~dpc  

E-print Network

VFX & University of Bath · Development of next generation facial technology for movies. · Advanced: "Exploiting 4D Facial Dynamics for Creating Next Generation Facial Modeling and Animation Techniques #12;EDUCATION Ph.D Computer Science, University of Cardiff, UK · Developed and implemented algorithms

Martin, Ralph R.

457

DARREN COSKER BSc (Hons), Ph.D Web: http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/~dpc  

E-print Network

, Department of Computer Science, University of Bath · Responsible for managing research teams, supervising · Project title: "Exploiting 4D Facial Dynamics for Creating Next Generation Facial Modeling and Animation and conference proceedings 2004 - 2007 #12;EDUCATION Ph.D Computer Science, University of Cardiff, UK · Developed

Martin, Ralph R.

458

The thermodynamic properties of Davydov-Scott's protein model in thermal bath  

E-print Network

The thermodynamic properties of Davydov-Scott monomer contacting with thermal bath is investigated using Lindblad open quantum system formalism. The Lindblad equation is investigated through path integral method. It is found that the environmental effects contribute destructively to the specific heat, and large interaction between amide-I and amide-site is not preferred for a stable Davydov-Scott monomer.

Sulaiman, A; Alatas, H; Handoko, L T; 10.1142/9789814335614_0072

2011-01-01

459

Fidelity of the surface code in the presence of a bosonic bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the resilience of the surface code to decoherence caused by the presence of a bosonic bath. This approach allows us to go beyond the standard stochastic error model commonly used to quantify decoherence and error threshold probabilities in this system. The full quantum mechanical system-bath dynamics is computed exactly over one quantum error correction cycle. Since all physical qubits interact with the bath, space-time correlations between errors are taken into account. We compute the fidelity of the surface code as a function of the quantum error correction time. The calculation allows us to map the problem onto an Ising-like statistical spin model with two-body interactions and a fictitious temperature which is related to the inverse bath coupling constant. The model departs from the usual Ising model in the sense that interactions can be long ranged and can involve complex exchange couplings; in addition, the number of allowed configurations is restricted by the syndrome extraction. Using analytical estimates and numerical calculations, we argue that, in the limit of an infinite number of physical qubits, the spin model sustains a phase transition which can be associated to the existence of an error threshold in the surface code. An estimate of the transition point is given for the case of nearest-neighbor interactions.

Jouzdani, P.; Novais, E.; Mucciolo, E. R.

2013-07-01

460

Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by central spin decoherence  

PubMed Central

Central spin decoherence caused by nuclear spin baths is often a critical issue in various quantum computing schemes, and it has also been used for sensing single-nuclear spins. Recent theoretical studies suggest that central spin decoherence can act as a probe of many-body physics in spin baths; however, identification and detection of many-body correlations of nuclear spins in nanoscale systems are highly challenging. Here, taking a phosphorus donor electron spin in a 29Si nuclear spin bath as our model system, we discover both theoretically and experimentally that many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths produce identifiable signatures in decoherence of the central spin under multiple-pulse dynamical decoupling control. We demonstrate that under control by an odd or even number of pulses, the central spin decoherence is principally caused by second- or fourth-order nuclear spin correlations, respectively. This study marks an important step toward studying many-body physics using spin qubits. PMID:25205440

Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Zhao, Nan; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J.L.; Liu, Ren-Bao

2014-01-01

461

Three Dimensional Modeling via Photographs for Documentation of a Village Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is supporting the conceptual discussions of architectural restoration with three dimensional modeling of monuments based on photogrammetric survey. In this study, a 16th century village bath in Ulam??, Seferihisar, and Izmir is modeled for documentation. Ulam?? is one of the historical villages within which Turkish population first settled in the region of Seferihisar - Urla. The methodology was tested on an antique monument; a bath with a cubical form. Within the limits of this study, only the exterior of the bath was modeled. The presentation scale for the bath was determined as 1 / 50, considering the necessities of designing structural interventions and architectural ones within the scope of a restoration project. The three dimensional model produced is a realistic document presenting the present situation of the ruin. Traditional plan, elevation and perspective drawings may be produced from the model, in addition to the realistic textured renderings and wireframe representations. The model developed in this study provides opportunity for presenting photorealistic details of historical morphologies in scale. Compared to conventional drawings, the renders based on the 3d models provide an opportunity for conceiving architectural details such as color, material and texture. From these documents, relatively more detailed restitution hypothesis can be developed and intervention decisions can be taken. Finally, the principles derived from the case study can be used for 3d documentation of historical structures with irregular surfaces.

Balta, H. B.; Hamamcioglu-Turan, M.; Ocali, O.

2013-07-01

462

Model of current pathways in electrical water bath stunners used for poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The paper explains the use and method of operation of electrical water bath stunners, and explains the possible current pathways through a single bird and through a number of birds.2. A mathematical model has been formulated to demonstrate the effects of bird resistance and physical attitude of the bird on the current received by individual birds in a water

J. M. Sparrey; M. E. R. Paice; P. J. Kettlewell

1992-01-01

463

Animal welfare concerns during the use of the water bath for stunning broilers, hens and ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

European legislation demands that slaughter animals, including poultry, be rendered immediately unconscious and insensible until death occurs through blood loss at slaughter. This study addressed requirements for stunner settings (i.e., voltage, wave oscillation frequency) and response parameters (i.e., applied current, behavior) affecting effective water bath stunning. An inventory of current electrical stunning practice was performed in 10 slaughterhouses in the

V. A. Hindle; B. Lambooij; H. G. M. Reimert; L. D. Workel; M. A. Gerritzen

2010-01-01

464

Fast creation of conditional quantum gate and entanglement using a common bath only  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme to for fast conditional phase shift and creation entanglement of two qubits that interact with a common heat bath. Dynamical decoupling is applied in the scheme so that it works even in the regime of strong interaction between qubits and environment. Our scheme does not request any direct interaction between the two qubits.

Nan Qiu; Xiang-Bin Wang

2013-10-07

465

Design and development of a water bath control system: A virtual laboratory environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the development of a water bath control system in a virtual laboratory environment is discussed. The system proposed is developed using LABVIEW 8.6. This project consists of three stages. The first stage is hardware development, which involves construction of interface circuit to allow communication between plant and computer. The second stage is to build the Fuzzy Logic

N. Hasim; M. F. Basar; M. S. Aras

2011-01-01

466

Responses of lower trophic-level organisms to typhoon passage on the outer shelf of the East China Sea: an incubation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons can induce vertical mixing, upwelling, or both in the water column due to strong wind stress. These events can induce phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic ocean after typhoon passage. However, little is known about the responses of lower trophic-level organisms or changes in the community structure following the passage of typhoons, particularly in offshore regions. Therefore, we evaluated community succession on the outer shelf of the East China Sea through on-deck bottle incubation experiments simulating hydrographic conditions after the passage of a typhoon. Under all of the experimental conditions we tested, chlorophyll a concentrations increased more than 9-fold within 6 days, and these algal cells were mainly composed of large diatoms (>10 ?m). Ciliates also increased along with the diatom bloom. These results suggest that increases in diatom and ciliate populations may enhance biogenic carbon export in the water column. Typhoons can affect not only phytoplankton productivity, but also the composition of lower trophic-level organisms and biogeochemical processes in oligotrophic offshore regions.

Yasuki, N.; Suzuki, K.; Tsuda, A.

2013-04-01

467

Source signatures of carbon monoxide and organic functional groups in Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) submicron aerosol types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric submicron particles were collected on Teflon filters downstream of a three-stage concentrator aboard the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 aircraft near Japan during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). Particle-phase organic carbon (OC) was quantified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy. Silicate, carbonate, alkane, alkene, aromatic, alcohol, carbonyl, amine, and organosulfate functional groups were identified and separated with a four-solvent rinsing procedure. X-ray fluorescence identified elemental composition. Total OC constructed from FTIR measurements agreed with simultaneous thermal-optical OC measurements with a slope of 0.91 and an R2 value of 0.93. OC varied from 0.4 to 14.2 ?g m-3, and organic mass varied