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1

Isothermal bath and video system for the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. This image shows the isothermal bath and video system for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

1999-01-01

2

Cold model experiment on dynamic behavior of dross in hot dip plating bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motions of top and bottom dross in a continuous hot dip plating bath were investigated using a transparent cold model vessel with a reduced scale of one-tenth. The flow field in the model bath was classified into three regions as usual; the entry region, the exit region, and the region enclosed with a belt. This belt was used as

J. Kurobe; M Iguchi

2000-01-01

3

A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.  

PubMed

Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives. PMID:20117791

Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

2010-05-01

4

Bathing Beauties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In past decades, bathing beauties might have meant beautiful people on a beach, but these "bathing beauties" are actually a collection of new bathing hut designs. They are, of course, beautiful indeed, and visitors with a droll curiosity in the world of seaside architecture, leisure studies, or other seaside pursuits will certainly find this site useful. The impetus for creating such a site was a recent international beach hut design competition, which was held at the National Centre for Craft & Design in the United Kingdom. On the site, visitors can view both the winners of the competition and the other entries as well. Understandably, the other entries are just scale model designs, but there are some real pippins among their number. If beach huts aren't enough, there are also some beachfront restaurant designs and a few boathouse designs as well.

5

Confined compression and torsion experiments on a pHEMA gel in various bath concentrations.  

PubMed

The constitutive behaviour of cartilaginous tissue is the result of complex interaction between electrical, chemical and mechanical forces. Electrostatic interactions between fixed charges and mobile ions are usually accounted for by means of Donnan osmotic pressure. Recent experimental data show, however, that the shear modulus of articular cartilage depends on ionic concentration even if the strain is kept constant. Poisson-Boltzmann simulations suggest that this dependence is intrinsic to the double-layer around the proteoglycan chains. In order to verify this premise, this study measures whether--at a given strain--this ionic concentration-dependent shear modulus is present in a polymerized hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate gel or not. A combined 1D confined compression and torque experiment is performed on a thin cylindrical hydrogel sample, which is brought in equilibrium with, respectively, 1, 0.1 and 0.03 M NaCl. The sample was placed in a chamber that consists of a stainless steel ring placed on a sintered glass filter, and on top a sintered glass piston. Stepwise ionic loading was cascaded by stepwise 1D compression, measuring the total stress after equilibration of the sample. In addition, a torque experiment was interweaved by applying a harmonic angular displacement and measuring the torque, revealing the relation between aggregate shear modulus and salt concentration at a given strain. PMID:22926832

Roos, Reinder W; Petterson, Rob; Huyghe, Jacques M

2013-06-01

6

The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

1988-01-01

7

Bathing a patient in bed  

MedlinePLUS

Bed bath; Sponge bath ... bed to bathe. For these patients, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, ... patient causes pain, plan to give the bed bath after the patient has received pain medicine and ...

8

Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

Rayner-Canham, Geoff

1985-01-01

9

Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings  

PubMed Central

The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure.

Brilot, Ben O.; Bateson, Melissa

2012-01-01

10

History of early Organizer Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the research and publication of the paper entitled: ÃÂVersuche zur Analyse der Induktionsmittel in der EmbryonalentwicklungÃÂ [Attempts to analyse the Organizer of the Embryo] and links to other articles about these associates and their historic work.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)

2011-09-20

11

Grooming, Bathing and Safety Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent slipping. Bath Seats A bath seat or transfer seat can help if you have difficulty with ... tub may also help to prevent slipping during transfer. Keep Things Handy Bathing is easier if everything ...

12

Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")  

MedlinePLUS

... deaths have been reported in several instances. In Name Only The synthetic cathinone products marketed as “bath ... drug paraphernalia stores under a variety of brand names, such as “Ivory Wave," "Bloom," "Cloud Nine," "Lunar ...

13

Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

1992-01-01

14

Cell-free supernatants of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 modulate human colonic motility: evidence from an in vitro organ bath study.  

PubMed

Abstract Clinical studies have shown that probiotics influence gastrointestinal motility, e.g. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) (Mutaflor) proved to be at least as efficacious as lactulose and more potent than placebo in constipated patients. As the underlying mechanisms are not clarified, the effects of EcN culture supernatants on human colonic motility were assessed in vitro. Human colonic circular smooth muscle strips (n = 94, 17 patients) were isometrically examined in an organ bath and exposed to different concentrations of EcN supernatants. Contractility responses were recorded under (i) native conditions, (ii) electrical field stimulation (EFS), (iii) non-adrenergic non-cholinergic conditions, and (iv) enteric nerve blockade by tetrodotoxin (TTX). As concentrations of acetic acid were increased in EcN supernatants, contractility responses to acetic acid were additionally tested. EcN supernatants significantly increased the maximal tension forces both at low and high concentrations. Neither blockade of both adrenergic and cholinergic nerves nor application of TTX abolished these effects. EFS-induced contractility responses were not altered after exposure to EcN supernatants. Acetic acid elicited effects comparable to EcN supernatants only under TTX conditions. EcN supernatants modulate in vitro contractility of the human colon. As neither partial nor TTX blockade of enteric nerves abolished these effects, EcN supernatants appear to enhance colonic contractility by direct stimulation of smooth muscle cells. Active metabolites may include other substances than acetic acid, as acetic acid only partially resembled the effects elicited by EcN supernatants. The data provide a rationale for therapeutical application of probiotics in gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:19220758

Bär, F; Von Koschitzky, H; Roblick, U; Bruch, H P; Schulze, L; Sonnenborn, U; Böttner, M; Wedel, T

2009-05-01

15

An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

Palmer, Richard E.

1985-01-01

16

Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

1976-01-01

17

Sex and the Baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1984 debate about closing the baths in San Francisco the mayor directed the police to investigate sexual behavior in the bathhouses and write a report for her. The directive had been a secret, but when the community learned of the report, its response was quick and furious. The mayor squelched the report and no one but the report's

Michael Helquist

2003-01-01

18

Gold-Platinum Plating Bath.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes an electroplating bath for the deposition of gold-platinum alloys comprising an aqueous solution of alkali metal hexahydroxyplatinate and alkali metal aurate. The bath is operated at a temperature preferably in the range o...

H. J. Wiesner

1974-01-01

19

Tuning a Spin Bath through the Quantum-Classical Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study decoherence of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center induced by the C13 nuclear spin bath of diamond. By comparing Hahn-Echo experiments on single and double-quantum transitions of the NV triplet ground state we demonstrate that this bath can be tuned into two different regimes. At low magnetic fields, the nuclei behave as a quantum bath which causes decoherence by entangling with the NV central spin. At high magnetic fields, the bath behaves as a source of classical magnetic field noise, which creates decoherence by imprinting a random phase on the NV central spin.

Reinhard, Friedemann; Shi, Fazhan; Zhao, Nan; Rempp, Florian; Naydenov, Boris; Meijer, Jan; Hall, Liam T.; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ren-Bao; Wrachtrup, Jörg

2012-05-01

20

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine... Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine...River within a 150-yard radius of the Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being...

2013-07-01

21

Occupational health experience with organic additives  

SciTech Connect

For many decades, interest in occupational medicine has been focused on the wide variety of organic additives, which includes a large number of substances, for example, dyestuffs, pigments, and auxiliaries for the textile, leather, and paper industries. The reason is that, if the recommended precautions are not observed, there is a risk of exposure to most of these substances during both production and use. Moreover, over the years, some additives have caused concern and aroused suspicion regarding adverse effects on health. In order to deal with health problems in this field, it is important to be aware of how, what, and where occupational diseases or accidents arise. Much knowledge has been gained about these, and it would be an impossible task to give a systematic survey of the data that have accumulated, especially since it is necessary to take account of the problem of exposure to more than one substance. Thus an attempt is made to report on occupational health experience in general, and to demonstrate how an industrial hygienist may approach the many and various problems. Some epidemiological studies on organic additives (auramine, anthraquinone dyestuffs, organic dyes, etc.) are discussed.

Thiess, A.M.; Wellenreuther, G.

1984-12-01

22

Mixed ether bath for electrodeposition of aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anisole added to the bath mixture improves Brenner aluminum plating bath technique. Mixture has lower bath vapor-pressure and the electro-deposits obtained have greater physical strength than deposits from the Brenner bath.

Lui, K.

1969-01-01

23

Agglomeration and Dissolution of Alumina in Cryolite Baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of alumina immediately after addition to cryolitic baths was studied in laboratory experiments. Both primary (virgin) and secondary (reacted) aluminas from various sources were tested. It was found that the secondary aluminas dissolved faster...

S. Rolseth J. Thonstad

1991-01-01

24

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation... § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine....

2010-07-01

25

33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation... § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine....

2009-07-01

26

Manufacturing strategy: Experiences from select indian organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing function can be a formidable weapon to achieve competitive superiority. Through three case studies, this paper observes the manufacturing strategy practices in select Indian organizations. The common aspects and differences between the example organizations are highlighted. A model is proposed linking the manufacturing competitive priorities and the action plan pursued by these firms.

G. S. Dangayach; S. G. Deshmukh

2000-01-01

27

Assisting Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Bathing: Effects of Two Bathing Interventions on Caregiving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: When cognitively impaired nursing home residents exhibit agitated and aggressive behaviors during bathing, nursing home caregivers are in a unique position to improve residents' experience. This report addresses whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) who received training in a person-centered approach with showering and with the…

Hoeffer, Beverly; Talerico, Karen Amann; Rasin, Joyce; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Stewart, Babara J.; McKenzie, Darlene; Barrick, Ann Louise; Rader, Joanne; Sloane, Philip D.

2006-01-01

28

Chlorhexidine gluconate: to bathe or not to bathe?  

PubMed

Despite infection-prevention initiatives, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are still a common occurrence. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is an important antibacterial agent. Research indicates that the intervention of bathing with CHG can reduce the number of HAIs. Chlorhexidine gluconate is known to reduce the bioload of several bacteria, including multiple strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research regarding the intervention of bathing with CHG was assessed and found to reduce central line-related blood stream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The reduction in HAIs was found to be greater as compared to bathing with soap and water. The reduction of these HAIs will allow for a saving of resources, finances and staff time, which may ultimately be passed on to the patient. While further research is indicated, a strong conclusion is drawn that bathing with CHG reduces the number of HAIs. PMID:23470709

Rubin, Caroline; Louthan, Rufina Bavin; Wessels, Erica; McGowan, Mary-Bridgid; Downer, Shantee; Maiden, Jeanne

2013-01-01

29

Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)

Chloupek-McGough, Marge

1989-01-01

30

A Series of Synthetic Organic Experiments Demonstrating Physical Organic Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones. Includes concepts on kinetic versus thermodynamic control of reaction, rearrangement of a secondary carbocation to a tertiary cation, and the effect of the size of the base on orientation during elimination. (MVL)

Sayed, Yousry; And Others

1989-01-01

31

Environmental geology of Bath, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot springs of Bath, England, have been of importance to man for hundreds of years. It was a famous spa in Roman times. Subsequently, the springs were used during the 17th through the 20th centuries and extensive urban and commercial properties were developed at Bath using the water for medical and tourist-oriented activities. With urban and commercial development in the area, man's impact on the environment was substantial and typical environmental problems included pollution, land subsidence, or stability that effected construction, drainage, highways, and canals. During the growth of Bath in the 18th and 19th centuries these environmental problems were described by geologist William Smith and Joseph Townsend. Bath and vicinity provides a unique example of environmental geoscience.

Kellaway, G. A.

1995-10-01

32

Integrated management systems: experiences in Italian organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Management Systems (IMS) are becoming more and more important, but experiences may differ across regions and companies of different size and sectors. The study reported in this paper has been developed using a sample of Italian companies to investigate the potential for integration starting from an analysis of the common aspects in terms of real motivations (company image, costs

Roberta Salomone

2008-01-01

33

"Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

Field, Kurt W.; And Others

1979-01-01

34

Electroplating of iron from alkaline gluconate baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroplating of iron onto copper substrates from non-polluting baths containing ferrous sulfate and sodium gluconate has been investigated under different bath composition, pH, temperature and current density conditions. A detailed study has been made on the influence of these parameters on potentiodynamic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing power of the baths. The optimum plating bath has been found

E. A Abd El Meguid; S. S Abd El Rehim; E. M Moustafa

2003-01-01

35

Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters  

PubMed Central

A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters.

Moce-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

2005-01-01

36

Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths.  

PubMed

: Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF. PMID:22805742

Nehmann, Julia B; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Bahnemann, Detlef W

2012-01-01

37

Analysis methods for meso- and macroporous silicon etching baths  

PubMed Central

Analysis methods for electrochemical etching baths consisting of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and an additional organic surface wetting agent are presented. These electrolytes are used for the formation of meso- and macroporous silicon. Monitoring the etching bath composition requires at least one method each for the determination of the HF concentration and the organic content of the bath. However, it is a precondition that the analysis equipment withstands the aggressive HF. Titration and a fluoride ion-selective electrode are used for the determination of the HF and a cuvette test method for the analysis of the organic content, respectively. The most suitable analysis method is identified depending on the components in the electrolyte with the focus on capability of resistance against the aggressive HF.

2012-01-01

38

Solvent Selection for Recrystallization: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment develops the students' ability to carry out a simple recrystallization effectively, and demonstrates how a solvent may be selected or rejected for the recrystallization of a specific organic compound. (Author/BB)

Baumann, Jacob B.

1979-01-01

39

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

40

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

41

Einstein Solid with a Heat Bath Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A worksheet that considers the case of an Einstein solid in thermal contact with a large reservoir or heat bath. Energy is continually exchanged between the bath and the solid, but the bath is so large that its temperature remains constant.

Wheaton, Spencer

2013-08-15

42

Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

See Letter re: this article.

de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

2002-01-01

43

Foot Infections in Swimming Baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10% random sample of all bathers at a public swimming bath were examined for tinea pedis and verruca.The overall incidence of tinea pedis was 8·5% and of verruca 4·8%. The incidence of tinea pedis in 205 male adults was 21·5%, in 288 boys 6·3%, in 60 adult females 3·3%, and in 220 girls 0·9%. The incidence of verruca in

J. C. Gentles; E. G. V. Evans

1973-01-01

44

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

45

Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

Gregor, Richard W.

2012-01-01

46

Prediction of human thermophysiological responses during shower bathing.  

PubMed

This study develops a model to predict the thermophysiological response of the human body during shower bathing. Despite the needs for the quantitative evaluation of human body response during bathing for thermal comfort and safety, the complicated mechanisms of heat transfer at the skin surface, especially during shower bathing, have disturbed the development of adequate models. In this study, an initial modeling approach is proposed by developing a simple heat transfer model at the skin surface during shower bathing applied to Stolwijk's human thermal model. The main feature of the model is the division of the skin surface into three parts: a dry part, a wet part without water flow, and a wet part with water flow. The area ratio of each part is decided by a simple formula developed from a geometrical approach based on the shape of the Stolwijk's human thermal model. At the same time, the convective heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the flowing water is determined experimentally. The proposed model is validated by a comparison with the results of human subject experiments under controlled and free shower conditions. The model predicts the mean skin temperature during shower fairly well both for controlled and free shower bathing styles. PMID:19798515

Munir, Abdul; Takada, Satoru; Matsushita, Takayuki; Kubo, Hiroko

2010-03-01

47

Effectiveness of starch removal in a Bath-Substrate-Flow (BSF) device using surfactants and ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the removal process of starch from different surfaces was studied using a laboratory device called Bath-Substrate-Flow. To do this, experiments were performed using the following solutions as washing bath: (a) the commercial nonionic surfactant Glucopon® 650; (b) the commercial anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate LAS, and (c) the enzyme ?-amylase (obtained from the microorganism Bacillus licheniformis). The

Encarnación Jurado Alameda; Vicente Bravo Rodríguez; Deisi Altmajer Vaz; Rita de Cassia Siqueira Curto Valle

2011-01-01

48

Heat-bath cooling of spins in two amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1, 2- 13C 2-amino acids, using the ? protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, both carbons were cooled by about 2.5-fold, and in other experiments the polarization of C1 nearly doubled while all other spins had equilibrium polarization, indicating reduction in total entropy. The effect of adding Magnevist®, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

Elias, Y.; Gilboa, H.; Mor, T.; Weinstein, Y.

2011-12-01

49

Organ donation and transplantation-the Chennai experience in India.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the "Transplantation of Human Organ Act" of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed a network between hospitals for organ sharing. From the year 2000 to 2006 an organ sharing network was started in Tamil Nadu and the facilitator of this programme has been a non-government organization called MOHAN (acronym for Multi Organ Harvesting Aid Network) Foundation. The organs shared during the period number over 460 organs in two regions (both Tamil Nadu and Hyderabad). In Tamil Nadu the shared organs have included 166 Kidneys, 24 livers, 6 hearts, and 180 eyes. In 2003 sharing network was initiated by MOHAN in Hyderabad and to some extent the Tamil Nadu model was duplicated. with some success and 96 cadaver organs have been transplanted in the last 3 years. There are many advantages of organ sharing including the cost economics. At present there is a large pool of brain dead patients who could become potential organ donors in the major cities in India. Their organs are not being utilized for various support logistics. A multi-pronged strategy is required for the long term success of this program. These years in Tamil Nadu have been the years of learning, un-learning and relearning and the program today has matured slowly into what can perhaps be evolved as an Indian model. In all these years there have been various difficulties in its implementation and some of the key elements for the success of the program is the need to educate our own medical fraternity and seek their cooperation. The program requires trained counselors to be able to work in the intensive cares. The government's support is pivotal if this program to provide benefit to the common man. MOHAN Foundation has accumulated considerable experience to be able to evolve a model to take this program to the national level and more so as it recently has been granted 100% tax exemption on all donations to form a countrywide network for organ sharing. PMID:17445579

Shroff, S; Rao, S; Kurian, G; Suresh, S

2007-04-01

50

The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) Experiment on the Organisms/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) Nanosatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organism/organic exposure to orbital stresses nanosatellite has been developed as the first flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program. The satellite includes the SEVO experiment, which investigates the stability of organics.

Quinn, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Ricco, A.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.

2010-04-01

51

Investigation into the rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths by electrodialysis.  

PubMed

Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to regenerate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, leading to high losses of valuable bath components, continues to be a weakness of the technology. This research has investigated improving electrodialysis permselectivity for removing contaminants (sodium, orthophosphite, and sulfate) in a spent electroless nickel bath while minimizing the losses of valuable bath ions (nickel, hypophosphite, and organic acids). Ion permselectivity was explored with respect to electrodialysis operating conditions, membrane type, and cell configuration. Excellent permselectivity for sodium over nickel was attained irrespective of operating condition, membrane, or cell configuration. Studies on the effects of four different operating conditions (current density, pH, flow rate, and temperature) on anion permselectivity revealed bath pH and current density to be critical operating parameters. The type of anion exchange membrane used had a crucial effect on selectivity; one membrane (Ionac MA-3475) was identified as having superior selectivity for bath contaminants particularly for sulfate. The improvements in electrodialysis permselectivity established by this research will decrease waste generation within the electroless nickel process and increase resource productivity by minimizing the loss of valuable plating chemicals. PMID:12038841

Bolger, Paul T; Szlag, David C

2002-05-15

52

Organic contamination problems in the Viking molecular analysis experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal problem in interpreting the results of an organic analysis of an extraterrestrial sample is that of distinguishing contaminating material from indigenous material when unknown types and amounts of contaminants make their way into the sample being analyzed. An approach to control of sample integrity in the Viking molecular analysis experiment has been devised which it is believed, will eliminate such problems. Basically this involves (1) placing an upper limit on the amount of terrestrial contamination that can be tolerated and still allow scientifically meaningful analysis, (2) identifying the potential sources of contamination and analyzing their relative significance, (3) establishing methods to control these sources, and (4) obtaining complete information on the chemical composition of potential contaminants. Previous experience in the Apollo mission has been of great value in developing the Viking program, perhaps the most important carryover being the recognition of the importance of establishing a comprehensive contamination control program in the early stages of mission planning and hardware design.

Flory, D. A.; Oro, J.; Fennessey, P. V.

1974-01-01

53

New system for bathing bedridden patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

1973-01-01

54

Temperature control of a cryogenic bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

Asher, I. M.

1972-01-01

55

Chaucer's Wife of Bath [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson introduces students to one of the most admired characterizations in Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," the Wife of Bath. Students read Chaucer's description of the Wife in the "General Prologue" to consider how he represents her, both as the poet of "The Canterbury Tales" and as a character in his own poem, then read the "Wife of Bath's…

2000

56

Temperature fluctuations in a heat bath  

SciTech Connect

The model of two boxes in thermal contact each filled with an ideal quasiclassical gas is used to treat, in a unified way, temperature fluctuations in both finite and infinite heat baths. One box is regarded as the heat bath and the other serves as the thermometer.

Prosper, H.B. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States))

1993-01-01

57

A liquid bath for accurate temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Thermometric division of the Italian Institute of Metrology (IMGC) a new liquid oil bath has been designed, manufactured and characterized with the aim to provide a suitable device for thermometers calibrations at the millikelvin level in the range from ?10°C to 100°C. The temperature of the bath in the measuring zone is stable within a few tenths of

Andrea Merlone; Luigi Iacomini; Antonio Tiziani; Piero Marcarino

2007-01-01

58

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the International Space Station. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples in space environment. EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, two control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center (MUSC) at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2012-05-01

59

Spin-bath autocorrelation functions directly from quantum theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster expansion techniques have enabled accurate modeling of the effects of a bath of local spins on solid state spin qubits with proven predictive power. These calculations are performed in the context of specific echo decay experiments (Hahn echo, CPMG, etc.). Classical noise, on the other hand, is described by a single autocorrelation function (or spectral density, equivalently) that is applicable to any control-specific experiment. Such a description is very useful in searching for optimal controls to produce high fidelity quantum logic gates using well-studied techniques. We demonstrate a cluster expansion method for directly computing autocorrelation functions as expectation values in the quantum spin-bath setting and show that it is a sufficient description of the noise effects for certain regimes, particularly in the high fidelity regime of interest. We use this approach to study the theoretical impact of using optimized pulse sequences tailored to individual qubits in enriched silicon.

Witzel, Wayne; Young, Kevin; Das Sarma, Sankar

2013-03-01

60

21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17... Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...

2010-04-01

61

21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17... Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any...

2009-04-01

62

Effects of bathing solution on tensile properties of the cornea.  

PubMed

The cornea is a transparent tissue with the major functions of protecting the inner contents of the eye and refracting incoming light. The biomechanical properties of the cornea strongly depend on the microstructure and composition of the stromal layer, a hydrated bio-gel. The uniaxial strip testing is a convenient and well-accepted experimental technique for characterizing corneal material parameters. It is known that the water content of specimens in this method depends on the osmolality of the bathing solution. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of different bathing solutions on uniaxial tensile material properties of the cornea. The tensile behavior of bovine corneal samples was measured in six different bathing solutions, i.e., hypertonic solution (12% NaCl solution), common preserving isotonic solutions (e.g., phosphate buffer saline, ophthalmic balanced salt solution, and 0.9% NaCl solution), hypotonic solution (distilled water), and neutral solution (mineral oil). It was observed that the bathing solution had significant influence on the tensile behavior of the corneal samples. In particular, the specimens tested in bathing solutions causing less swelling had significantly stiffer tensile properties. Furthermore, a simple mathematical model based on Voigt composite material model was developed to represent the measured solution-dependent tensile properties. The present study suggests that extra attention should be paid to corneal thickness (hydration) in uniaxial tensile experiments. It also provides important data on tensile properties of the cornea; such information could significantly contribute to improving the accuracy of numerical predictions of corneal biomechanics. PMID:24333541

Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol

2014-03-01

63

Anomalous decoherence effect in a quantum bath.  

PubMed

Decoherence of quantum objects in noisy environments is important in quantum sciences and technologies. It is generally believed that different processes coupled to the same noise source have similar decoherence behaviors and stronger noises cause faster decoherence. Here we show that in a quantum bath, the case can be the opposite. We predict that the multitransition of a nitrogen-vacancy center spin-1 in diamond can have longer coherence time than the single transitions, even though the former suffers twice stronger noises from the nuclear spin bath than the latter. This anomalous decoherence effect is due to manipulation of the bath evolution via flips of the center spin. PMID:21699338

Zhao, Nan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Ren-Bao

2011-05-27

64

Positronium signature in organic liquid scintillators for neutrino experiments  

SciTech Connect

Electron antineutrinos are commonly detected in liquid scintillator experiments via inverse {beta} decay by looking at the coincidence between the reaction products: neutrons and positrons. Prior to positron annihilation, an electron-positron pair may form an orthopositronium (o-Ps) state, with a mean lifetime of a few nanoseconds. Even if the o-Ps decay is speeded up by spin-flip or pick-off effects, it may introduce distortions in the photon emission time distribution, crucial for position reconstruction and pulse shape discrimination algorithms in antineutrino experiments. Reversing the problem, the o-Ps-induced time distortion represents a new signature for tagging antineutrinos in liquid scintillator. In this article, we report the results of measurements of the o-Ps formation probability and lifetime for the most used solvents for organic liquid scintillators in neutrino physics (pseudocumene, linear alkyl benzene, phenylxylylethane, and dodecane). We characterize also a mixture of pseudocumene +1.5 g/l of 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a fluor acting as wavelength shifter. In the second part of the article, we demonstrate that the o-Ps-induced distortion of the scintillation photon emission time distributions represent an optimal signature for tagging positrons on an event by event basis, potentially enhancing the antineutrino detection.

Franco, D. [Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Cedex 13, Paris (France); Consolati, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazzale Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Trezzi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

2011-01-15

65

Adelard of Bath (1075-1160)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Born in Bath, England, a teacher and translator of scientific work from the Arabic, Adelard traveled in France, Italy, Syria and Palestine. On returning to Bath, he translated Euclid's Elements from Arabic, and his translation became for centuries the chief geometry textbook in the West. He also translated the zij (astronomical table) of Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi. He wrote works on the abacu...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

66

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the ISS. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples. EXPOSE-R was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, 2 control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Jessberger, E. K.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2013-06-01

67

Effectiveness of 2% CHG cloth bathing for reducing surgical site infections.  

PubMed

We conducted a prospective cohort study on the effectiveness of preoperative bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) cloths for reducing surgical site infections. We hypothesized that use of CHG cloths as an adjunct to surgical prep would significantly reduce the endogenous flora of surgical patients and therefore reduce surgical site infections. Data from a control group of patients who had undergone general, vascular, and orthopedic surgery were used for comparison. Results indicated an overall reduction of infection in the group that received a 2% CHG bath before surgery. There also was a possible reduction in postoperative organ space infection, although the sample numbers were extremely small. To reduce surgical site infections, we suggest a nursing protocol of preoperative bathing with a 2% CHG cloth for patients undergoing general and vascular surgery, and an additional trial to investigate the use of preoperative CHG cloth baths in all surgical patient populations. PMID:23622827

Graling, Paula R; Vasaly, Frances W

2013-05-01

68

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Ace: Organic Molecules from Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are responsible for air pollution. In recent years it has become possible to detect tropospheric VOCs using satellite instruments such as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The ACE-FTS is a high resolution (0.02 cm^{-1}) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm^{-1} spectral range in solar occultation mode. ACE was launched by NASA in August 2003 and the FTS continues to operate without any degradation in performance. The primary ACE mission goal is the study of ozone chemistry in the stratosphere although it is making a wide range of other measurements. The partial list of VOCs retrieved from ACE-FTS spectra include methane, methanol, formaldehyde, ethane, ethene and ethyne (see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca for a complete list of species and reprints of published papers). In this talk, new global retrievals for formic acid will be presented. The ACE-FTS records spectra in the 3 micron region, which is particularly suitable for the retrieval of hydrocarbons. Methane and ethane are very strong in the 3 micron region, however the existing line parameters are not satisfactory. New high resolution laboratory spectra of ethane have therefore been recorded for the range of temperatures and pressures needed for atmospheric retrievals. Preliminary ethane retrievals will be presented using the laboratory spectra in the form of cross sections, rather than the existing HITRAN line parameters used previously.

Harrison, J. J.; Abad, G. Gonzalez; Allen, N.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.

2009-06-01

69

‘Peak’ Employers’ Organizations: International Attempts at Transferring Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employers’ organizations’ central role in social dialogue at national and supra-national levels is advocated and supported by supranational institutions. Yet some of the organizations, particularly outside Western Europe, face considerable membership and revenue generation challenges. West European national employers’ organizations are used extensively as models of ‘best practice’ for their counterparts in the developing world and especially in Central and

Richard Croucher; Shaun Tyson; Alan Wild

2006-01-01

70

STP Einstein Solid Heat Bath Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP EinsteinSolidHeatBath program simulates the exchange of energy between an Einstein solid and a heat bath. The purpose of this simulation is to determine the properties of a Einstein solid at different temperature T and to compare our results with analytical calculations of the thermodynamic properties of the Einstein solid. The default state is an Einstein solid of N=20 particles in contact with a heat bath at temperature T = 2. Additional states and parameters can be specified using the Display|Switch GUI menu item. STP EinsteinSolidHeatBath is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_EinsteinSolidHeatBath.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-05-28

71

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

72

Heat fluctuations in a nonequilibrium bath.  

PubMed

We measure the energy fluctuations of a Brownian particle confined by an optical trap in an aging gelatin after a very fast quench (less than 1 ms). The strong nonequilibrium fluctuations due to the assemblage of the gel are interpreted, within the framework of fluctuation theorem, as a heat flux from the particle towards the bath. We derive an analytical expression of the heat probability distribution, which fits the experimental data and satisfies a fluctuation relation similar to that of a system in contact with two baths at different temperatures. PMID:21668212

Gomez-Solano, J R; Petrosyan, A; Ciliberto, S

2011-05-20

73

Heat Fluctuations in a Nonequilibrium Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the energy fluctuations of a Brownian particle confined by an optical trap in an aging gelatin after a very fast quench (less than 1 ms). The strong nonequilibrium fluctuations due to the assemblage of the gel are interpreted, within the framework of fluctuation theorem, as a heat flux from the particle towards the bath. We derive an analytical expression of the heat probability distribution, which fits the experimental data and satisfies a fluctuation relation similar to that of a system in contact with two baths at different temperatures.

Gomez-Solano, J. R.; Petrosyan, A.; Ciliberto, S.

2011-05-01

74

Could Communication Form Impact Organizations' Experience with Diversity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that cultural diversity can be advantageous or detrimental for organizations depending on organization members' communication. Introduces three forms of communication (ethnocentric, modernistic and cosmopolitan) explored by W. Barnett Pearce, each of which differs in deeply held assumptions. Overviews the implications of cosmopolitan…

Grimes, Diane Susan; Richard, Orlando C.

2003-01-01

75

Seeking organic compounds on Mars : in situ analysis of organic compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry on MOMA experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of future Mars exploratory missions. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars mission (set to launch 2016-2018) is a joint venture by the European Space Agency and NASA to develop a sensitive detector for organics on Mars. MOMA will be one of

A. Buch; C. Freissinet; R. Sternberg; V. Pinnick; C. Szopa; P. J. Coll; C. Rodier; C. Garnier; H. Steininger

2010-01-01

76

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BATHING AND WEANING TRIAL DURATION  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe patterns of bath care for patients who are weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and to explore the association between bathing and weaning trial duration. METHODS Descriptive correlational study. Clinical records from 439 weaning trial days for 30 patients who required PMV were abstracted for bathing occurrences during weaning trials, within1-hour before a trial, and nocturnally. RESULTS Most baths occurred during weaning trials (30.8%) or at night (35.3%), and less frequently (16%) within 1-hour before a trial. No significant effects were found on trial duration for nocturnal bathing or bathing within 1-hour before a trial. Using random coefficient modeling, weaning duration was shown to be longer when bathing occurred during a weaning trial (p<.05), even when controlling for age, severity of illness, and days on bedrest. CONCLUSION Bathing occurred during nearly one-third of PMV weaning trials. Baths during PMV weaning trials were associated with longer weaning trial duration.

Sereika, Susan M.; Tate, Judith A.; DiVirgilio-Thomas, Dana; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Swigart, Valerie A.; Broyles, Lauren; Roesch, Tricia; Happ, Mary Beth

2010-01-01

77

Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.  

PubMed

A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T?0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle. PMID:23002817

Kolá?, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

2012-08-31

78

String melting in a photon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

Karouby, Johanna

2013-10-01

79

Crust formation in cryolite based baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work crust samples were made in the laboratory. In the experimental part of this work it is shown that the crust formation is a heat transfer controlled process. Hence, the rate of penetration of bath into the loose alumina during crust formation ...

K. Rye

1992-01-01

80

Advances in Liquid-Helium-Bath Cryopumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, operation, and performance of liquid-helium-bath cryopumps which incorporate improvements that prolong the self-sufficiency of pumping in helium and nitrogen and that make possible the pumping of H sub 2 and N sub 2 at 4.2 exp 0 K are discusse...

J. J. Thibault J. C. Boissin J. Carle

1980-01-01

81

Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

Coffin, Marilyn

82

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

83

Taxonomic Organization Scaffolds Young Children's Learning from Storybooks: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test and iteratively design a set of taxonomically-organized storybooks that served to scaffold young children's word learning and concept development. Specifically, Phase 1 of the design experiment asked: (1) What are the effects of taxonomic organization on children's ability to acquire…

Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Neuman, Susan B.

2010-01-01

84

Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

2006-01-01

85

Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

Ewing, Sheila

1982-01-01

86

General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view, Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Belair at Bowie, Maryland, looking west. - Belair Bath and Tennis Club, Southwest corner of Belair Drive and Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

87

28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist...

2010-07-01

88

28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist...

2009-07-01

89

Experiments at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This catalogue of approved experiments at CERN has been compiled as a guide to the status of the experimental research program at the 400 GeV Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the 25 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), and the Synch...

1977-01-01

90

Experiments at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1980 catalogue of approved experiments at CERN has been compiled as a guide to the status of the experimental research programme at the 400 GeV Proton Synchrotron (SPS), including the anti p p collider, the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the 25 GeV...

1980-01-01

91

Experiments at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1982 catalogue of approved experiments at CERN has been compiled as a guide to the status of the experimental research program at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), including the anti pp Collider, the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the 25 GeV Prot...

1982-01-01

92

Experiments at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This catalogue of approved experiments at CERN has been compiled as a guide to the status of the experimental research programme at the 400 GeV Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the 25 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), and the Syn...

1976-01-01

93

On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

2007-01-01

94

Microscale Organic Laboratory II: The Benefits Derived from Conversion to the Program and Representative Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smaller amounts of materials are used in organic chemistry experiments as a means of improving air quality in the laboratory. Outlines benefits from this approach and describes two representative experiments in detail. These experiments are the Cannizzaro reaction and preparation of an aromatic nitrile. (JN)

Mayo, Dana W.; And Others

1985-01-01

95

Organizing High School Biology Experiences around Contemporary Bioethical Issues: An STS Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for a citizenry capable of comprehending and tackling contemporary issues related to science and technology demands science education experiences that are fundamentally different from traditional experiences in school science. Argues that high school biology experiences organized around contemporary bioethical issues can meet this need.…

Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

1997-01-01

96

Quantum dynamics in classical thermal baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particular type of open quantum system dynamics is achieved by embedding a quantum system in a classical thermal bath. Such a bath can be represented in terms of the non-Hamiltonian evolution of few variables by means of the so-called Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat. The classical dynamics of the thermostat is integrated by means of time-reversible measure-preserving algorithms. In this work we show that the Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat, when applied to the dissipative evolution of a quantum spin, provides numerical results which agree with those obtained using Nosè-Hoover chains. However, since a fewer number of variables are needed to achieve the correct sampling of the canonical distribution at equilibrium, the Nosè-Hoover Power thermostat promises to be better suited for the simulation of low dimensional open quantum system on discrete grids.

Dlamini, Nkosinathi; Sergi, Alessandro

2013-11-01

97

Classical small systems coupled to finite baths.  

PubMed

We have studied the properties of a classical N(S)-body system coupled to a bath containing N(B)-body harmonic oscillators, employing an (N(S)+N(B)) model that is different from most of the existing models with N(S)=1. We have performed simulations for N(S)-oscillator systems, solving 2(N(S)+N(B)) first-order differential equations with N(S)?1-10 and N(B)?10-1000, in order to calculate the time-dependent energy exchange between the system and the bath. The calculated energy in the system rapidly changes while its envelope has a much slower time dependence. Detailed calculations of the stationary energy distribution of the system f(S)(u) (u: an energy per particle in the system) have shown that its properties are mainly determined by N(S) but weakly depend on N(B). The calculated f(S)(u) is analyzed with the use of the ? and q-? distributions: the latter is derived with the superstatistical approach (SSA) and microcanonical approach (MCA) to the nonextensive statistics, where q stands for the entropic index. Based on analyses of our simulation results, a critical comparison is made between the SSA and MCA. Simulations have been performed also for the N(S)-body ideal-gas system. The effect of the coupling between oscillators in the bath has been examined by additional (N(S)+N(B)) models that include baths consisting of coupled linear chains with periodic and fixed-end boundary conditions. PMID:21405815

Hasegawa, Hideo

2011-02-01

98

Astronaut Jack Lousma taking hot bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closeup view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In deploying the shower facility, the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

1973-01-01

99

Combined brightener in sulfamate silver electroplating baths  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A brightening composition is disclosed for an ammonia-sulfamate silver plating bath wherein said composition consists essentially of a pyridine-monocarboxylic acid or amide in a concentration of 0.5 to 10.0 g/l, in combination with at least one dye selected from the group consisting of an azo dye, an acid anthraquinone dye, and an arylamino dye, wherein the dye is present in a concentration of 0.01 to 2.0 g/l.

1981-07-21

100

Organic solar cells: How can the theory guide the experience?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in organic photovoltaic applications are receiving a great interest in the last few years as they offer an environmentally clean and low-cost solution to the world's rising energy needs. One of the main problems limiting the efficiency of an organic solar cell device is the strong binding energy of the excitons, typically of a few hundreds of meV, which is ten to one hundred times more than in inorganic devices. Another limiting factor, persistent in P3HT:PCBM devices, can be the misalignment of the the HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) and the LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy levels of the different components of the solar cell. Scharber's model (Scharber, M.C., Adv. Mater. 18, 789) is a simple yet interesting approach for predicting the efficiency of those devices, mainly based on the values of the HOMO and the LUMO and reasonable assumptions for the exciton binding energy. In this presentation, we will discuss how theoretical calculations based on density-functional theory can provide a guide to find promising polymers for photovoltaic cells. The accuracy, limits and possible expansions of Scharber's model will be examined, and a number of interesting polymer candidates to reach and perhaps break the well-known 10 % efficiency will be presented.

Berube, Nicolas; Gosselin, Vincent; Lepage, Hugo; Cote, Michel

2012-02-01

101

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

1999-01-01

102

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17

103

Brownian Ratchet in a Thermal Bath Driven by Coulomb Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rectification of unbiased fluctuations, also known as the ratchet effect, is normally obtained under statistical nonequilibrium conditions. Here we propose a new ratchet mechanism where a thermal bath solicits the random rotation of an asymmetric wheel, which is also subject to Coulomb friction due to solid-on-solid contacts. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations demonstrate a net drift induced by friction. If the thermal bath is replaced by a granular gas, the well-known granular ratchet effect also intervenes, becoming dominant at high collision rates. For our chosen wheel shape the granular effect acts in the opposite direction with respect to the friction-induced torque, resulting in the inversion of the ratchet direction as the collision rate increases. We have realized a new granular ratchet experiment where both these ratchet effects are observed, as well as the predicted inversion at their crossover. Our discovery paves the way to the realization of micro and submicrometer Brownian motors in an equilibrium fluid, based purely upon nanofriction.

Gnoli, Andrea; Petri, Alberto; Dalton, Fergal; Pontuale, Giorgio; Gradenigo, Giacomo; Sarracino, Alessandro; Puglisi, Andrea

2013-03-01

104

Electron spin dephasing due to hyperfine interactions with a nuclear spin bath.  

PubMed

We investigate pure dephasing decoherence (free induction decay and spin echo) of a spin qubit interacting with a nuclear spin bath. While for infinite magnetic field B the only decoherence mechanism is spectral diffusion due to dipolar flip-flops of nuclear spins, with decreasing B the hyperfine-mediated interactions between the nuclear spins become important. We give a theory of decoherence due to these interactions which takes advantage of their long-range nature. For a thermal uncorrelated bath we show that our theory is applicable down to B approximately 10 mT, allowing for comparison with recent experiments in GaAs quantum dots. PMID:19257553

Cywi?ski, Lukasz; Witzel, Wayne M; Das Sarma, S

2009-02-01

105

[Problem solution method. Experience of a nursing organization].  

PubMed

To develop and improve nursing teams' planning and organization by means of shared and consensual group solutions with the goal to achieve greater motivation and satisfaction in their work. The author employs a management study using a business improvement method by means of problem solving techniques which involves the identification of problems and/or necessities and a group search for, and execution of, solutions. Evaluation is carried out by means of satisfaction and opinion questionnaires, both at the half-way point in this study and at the end of it filled out by nursing personnel and by the health center's multidisciplinary team as well at the end of this study. Place where this study is carried out: INSALUD Primary Health Care Center Móstoles, Area 8 in Madrid. After a comparative statistical analysis of the questionnaire results and of the methodology used, the author noted an effectiveness in problems solved and an organizational improvement. Nursing team satisfaction is positive when the opinion of the rest of the team is more dispersed. PMID:14508950

Lizcano Alvarez, Angel

2002-06-01

106

The Official Roman Baths Museum Web Site in the City of Bath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are baths all over the world, and then there are the very unique baths in Bath, England. As the official site for these marvelous edifices proclaims, they are "the best preserved Roman religious spa from the ancient world." For first-time visitors, the best place to start is "The site today", which is a section that will take visitors around the different parts of this World Heritage Site. In the "Curator's Comments" area, visitors can read comments from Stephen Clews about the ongoing work being done at the site. The site also includes helpful sections on planning a visit and the various collections that are available for use by both the general public and scholars.

107

Cloth color preference under the influences of body heating due to hot bath immersion.  

PubMed

The experiment is aimed at knowing the effect of "body heating" on color preference. Eleven subjects with normal color vision served as subjects. Two tests, one of the "No Bath" and the other of the "Bath" were conducted. Hot bath immersion with 38.5 degrees C was performed for 30 min from 07:30 h to 08:00 h. Then, they were instructed to choose a single colored cloth out of 41 cloth colors (24 x 52 cm), preferred by themselves, every five min from 08:00 h to 09:00 h under the ambient temperature (Ta) of 27 degrees C. Most subjects preferred cooler color after "body heating" than after "not body heating". This finding was discussed in terms of greater differences between core temperature and its set point after "body heating", because cooler color would be helpful psychologically in allowing raised core temperature approach its set point. PMID:9611368

Kim, S H; Tokura, H

1998-03-01

108

Coherent dynamics of a single spin interacting with an adjustable spin bath.  

PubMed

Phase coherence is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. Understanding the loss of coherence is paramount for future quantum information processing. We studied the coherent dynamics of a single central spin (a nitrogen-vacancy center) coupled to a bath of spins (nitrogen impurities) in diamond. Our experiments show that both the internal interactions of the bath and the coupling between the central spin and the bath can be tuned in situ, allowing access to regimes with surprisingly different behavior. The observed dynamics are well explained by analytics and numerical simulations, leading to valuable insight into the loss of coherence in spin systems. These measurements demonstrate that spins in diamond provide an excellent test bed for models and protocols in quantum information. PMID:18339902

Hanson, R; Dobrovitski, V V; Feiguin, A E; Gywat, O; Awschalom, D D

2008-04-18

109

Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

1973-01-01

110

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

111

The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.  

PubMed

The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters. PMID:24642437

Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

2014-03-01

112

Using appropriate strategies to improve teaching and learning in organic chemistry and organic chemical experiment courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, higher education needs to be reformed profoundly. This kind of reform must focus on making learning more efficient and improving educational practice. This is a challenge for us. Like other courses, the practice of teaching organic chemistry requires change in order to improve teaching and learning. This may require a rethink of our approach to education. In this

Yingjie Lin; Zaiqun Liu

2003-01-01

113

Communication: Quantum dynamics in classical spin baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formalism for studying the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in classical spin baths is introduced. The theory is based on generalized antisymmetric brackets and predicts the presence of open-path off-diagonal geometric phases in the evolution of the density matrix. The weak coupling limit of the equation can be integrated by standard algorithms and provides a non-Markovian approach to the computer simulation of quantum systems in classical spin environments. It is expected that the theory and numerical schemes presented here have a wide applicability.

Sergi, Alessandro

2013-07-01

114

Bath salts and other emerging toxins.  

PubMed

Novel classes of synthetic drugs, including synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("spice" or "K2"), have recently emerged as popular drugs of abuse. Salvia divinorum, a naturally occurring herb, has gained popularity in the last decade as a hallucinogenic as well. The legal status of these substances has been undergoing rapid changes and has been confusing to lawmakers and medical practitioners alike. We present an up-to-date information about the legality of these substances. We also discuss the historical background, chemical composition, patterns of abuse, clinical presentations, laboratory analysis, and management strategies for these drugs, with an emphasis on synthetic cathinones. PMID:24378862

Thornton, Matthew D; Baum, Carl R

2014-01-01

115

Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.  

PubMed

A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 ?g C L(-1), 20 ?g C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures. PMID:23639397

Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

2013-05-17

116

Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

Szafran, Zvi

1985-01-01

117

The DuPont Experience: Strategic Planning for Information Design and Development Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the strategic planning experience of the Information Design and Development organization (then called Technical Publications) in DuPont's External Affairs division. Describes why strategic planning was undertaken, the process used, logistics involved in preparing for and carrying out the process, and results. Shows that the experience can…

Breuninger, Charles L.

1997-01-01

118

The Recovery and Identification of Flammable Liquids in Suspected Arsons: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment which can be used to test for the use of accelerants in the origin of a fire. Involves distillation and gas liquid chromatography to identify the accelerants, thus combining two experiments ordinarily included in the beginning organic laboratory. (SLH)

Blackledge, Robert D.

1974-01-01

119

Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through in-phase or in-quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6-GHz carrier appropriate for trapped Yb171+ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of both engineered dephasing noise during free evolution and engineered amplitude noise during driven operations. In both cases, the observed reduction of coherent lifetimes matches well with quantitative models described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

Soare, A.; Ball, H.; Hayes, D.; Zhen, X.; Jarratt, M. C.; Sastrawan, J.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.

2014-04-01

120

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

DOEpatents

A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

1992-05-12

121

Recovery process for electroless plating baths  

DOEpatents

A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

1992-01-01

122

Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

Glasscock, Barbara H.

1995-01-01

123

Analysis Of The Returned Samples From A Space Exposure Experiment: The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R on the International Space Station investigated the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes in space. Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features.Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment.EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS for 682 days starting in 2009. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA ARC (Bryson et al. 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1980). The UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic measurements were collected for the returned flight samples.We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and returned flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Zan; Salama, Farid; Foing, Bernard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ricco, Antonio; Jessberger, Elmar K; Schmidt, Werner; Robert, François

2014-06-01

124

Tsallis power laws and finite baths with negative heat capacity.  

PubMed

It is often stated that heat baths with finite degrees of freedom i.e., finite baths, are sources of Tsallis distributions for classical Hamiltonian systems. By using well-known fundamental statistical mechanics expressions, we rigorously show that Tsallis distributions with fat tails are possible only for finite baths with constant negative heat capacity, while constant positive heat capacity finite baths yield decays with sharp cutoff with no fat tails. However, the correspondence between Tsallis distributions and finite baths holds at the expense of violating the equipartition theorem for finite classical systems at equilibrium. We comment on the implications of the finite bath for the recent attempts towards a q-generalized central limit theorem. PMID:24229135

Bagci, G Baris; Oikonomou, Thomas

2013-10-01

125

The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space exposure of aromatic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the stability of aromatic compounds in low Earth orbit environment and describe the scientific results and successful flight of the ORGANICS experiment on-board the BIOPAN V space exposure facility. This experiment investigated the photo stability of large organic molecules in low Earth orbit. Thin films of selected organic molecules, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the fullerene C 60 were subjected to the low Earth orbit environment and the samples were monitored before and after flight. PAHs and fullerenes have been proposed as carriers for a number of astronomical absorption and emission features and are also identified in meteorites. Our experiment on BIOPAN V was exposed to a total fluence of 602.45 kJ m -2 for photons in the range 170-280 nm. The experiment was also intended as a hardware test-flight for a long-term exposure experiment (Survival of organics in space) on the EXPOSE facility on the International Space Station (ISS). For the small fluence that was collected during the BIOPAN V experiment we found little evidence of photo-destruction. The results confirm that PAH molecules are very stable compounds in space. The small differences in destruction rates that are expected to arise among the PAH samples as a function of molecular size and structure will only show after the longer irradiation fluences that are expected in the exposure experiment on the ISS.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ruiterkamp, Richard; Peeters, Zan; Foing, Bernard; Salama, Farid; Martins, Zita

2007-03-01

126

Temperature and bath size in exact diagonalization dynamical mean field theory.  

PubMed

Dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), combined with finite-temperature exact diagonalization, is one of the methods used to describe electronic properties of strongly correlated materials. Because of the rapid growth of the Hilbert space, the size of the finite bath used to represent the infinite lattice is severely limited. In view of the increasing interest in the effect of multi-orbital and multi-site Coulomb correlations in transition metal oxides, high-T(c) cuprates, iron-based pnictides, organic crystals, etc, it is appropriate to explore the range of temperatures and bath sizes in which exact diagonalization provides accurate results for various system properties. On the one hand, the bath must be large enough to achieve a sufficiently dense level spacing, so that useful spectral information can be derived, especially close to the Fermi level. On the other hand, for an adequate projection of the lattice Green's function onto a finite bath, the choice of the temperature is crucial. The role of these two key ingredients in exact diagonalization DMFT is discussed for a wide variety of systems in order to establish the domain of applicability of this approach. Three criteria are used to illustrate the accuracy of the results: (i) the convergence of the self-energy with the bath size, (ii) the quality of the discretization of the bath Green's function, and (iii) comparisons with complementary results obtained via continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo DMFT. The materials comprise a variety of three-orbital and five-orbital systems, as well as single-band Hubbard models for two-dimensional triangular, square and honeycomb lattices, where non-local Coulomb correlations are important. The main conclusion from these examples is that a larger number of correlated orbitals or sites requires a smaller number of bath levels. Down to temperatures of 5-10 meV (for typical bandwidths W ? 2 eV) two bath levels per correlated impurity orbital or site are usually adequate. PMID:22156113

Liebsch, Ansgar; Ishida, Hiroshi

2012-02-01

127

New measurements of astrophysical (?,n) reaction rates using a quasi-thermal photon bath from bremsstrahlung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrophysical reaction rates for the (?, n) photodisintegration reactions of 204Pb, 196,198,204Hg, and 197Au will be determined using a quasi-thermal photon bath which is produced from bremsstrahlung. Here we present the first part of this experiment. The reaction 197Au(?,n)196Au is discussed in detail because this reaction was measured in several experiments using different experimental techniques. .

Vogt, K.; Babilon, M.; Bayer, W.; Denefleh, K.; Enders, J.; Galaviz, D.; Hartmann, T.; Hutter, C.; Mohr, P.; Volz, S.; Zilges, A.

2001-04-01

128

The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm 3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its measurements are described.

Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

2012-01-01

129

Decoherence without dissipation due to fermionic bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the formalism of the fermionic coherent state of Cahil and Glauber (1999 Phys. Rev. A 59 1538), we have provided an exact solution to a model of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a fermionic environment via a quantum non-demolition type interaction. Quantum phase diffusion and linear entropy dynamics show their signature felt by the suppression of decoherence with temperature in comparison to the bosonic bath case, which may be worth investigating for their application in the coherent dynamics domain at finite temperature. We have shown an unconventional motional narrowing of the quantum Kubo oscillator, which is realized from this model due to the antibunching character of fermionic quantum noise. It is possible to bring this out explicitly here by the consideration of the non-commutative property of interaction obeying the Grassmann algebra.

Karmakar, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

2012-04-01

130

Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the CANDY model  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen DYnamics) is a simulation system based on long-term experiments of organic matter turnover and nitrogen dynamics at Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Key driving variables are soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information. The main application of the CANDY model is the calculation of short-term dynamics of nitrogen transformation and long-term dynamics of organic matter turnover in

U. Franko; G. J. Crocker; P. R. Grace; J. Klír; M. Körschens; P. R. Poulton; D. D. Richter

1997-01-01

131

Reduced total hardness of fresh water enhances the efficacy of bathing as a treatment for amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

The current treatment for amoebic gill disease (AGD)-affected Atlantic salmon involves bathing sea-caged fish in fresh water, often sourced from local dams, for 3-4 h. In both a small-scale laboratory and an on-farm field experiment, the effects of water hardness on the efficacy of freshwater bathing were assessed. Results showed that soft fresh water (19.3-37.4 mg L(-1) CaCO3), whether it be naturally soft city mains water or artificially softened dam water, was more efficacious at alleviating AGD in affected fish than hard fresh water (173-236.3 mg L(-1) CaCO3). Soft freshwater bathing significantly reduced viable gill amoebae numbers (from 73.9 to 40.9% of total count) and significantly alleviated gill pathology, both gross and histological. Following bathing, gross gill pathological scores of soft freshwater bathed fish lagged 2 weeks behind hard freshwater bathed fish. Significant gill lesion fragmentation, and shedding of lesion-associated hyperplastic tissue, was accompanied by a significant reduction in AGD-affected gill filaments in soft freshwater bathed fish. Furthermore, soft freshwater bathing alleviated the blood plasma electrolyte imbalance seen in control (sea water) and hard freshwater bathed fish. This study showed that the use of soft fresh water for bathing AGD-affected Atlantic salmon could be an improvement to the current method of treatment. Not only does it reduce gill amoeba numbers, but also, it is of a therapeutic advantage with the potential to reduce bathing frequency. PMID:14653317

Roberts, S D; Powell, M D

2003-10-01

132

Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group performed all hands-on experiments. Students in the treatment group performed hands-on experiments for the first and last part of the semester but performed computer simulations for a five-week period in the middle of the semester. Prior to treatment, groups were equivalent with respect to academic orientation, motivation, formal reasoning ability, and spatial visualization ability. Fifteen common misconceptions held by beginning organic chemistry students were identified from the Covalent Bonding and Structures Test. At the end of the semester, thirteen of these misconceptions persisted. Molecular geometry was the only category of misconceptions that significantly improved as a result of computer simulations, F(1,58) = 6.309, p = .015. No significant differential change was observed in misconceptions about bond polarity, molecular polarity, intermolecular forces, lattice structures, or the octet rule. Computer simulations were found to result in significantly greater conceptual understanding of organic chemistry reactions on two of the experiments, Stereochemistry, F(1,55) = 6.174, p = .016, and Nucleophilic Substitution, F(1,57) = 6.093, p = .017. The other three experiments, Infrared Spectroscopy, Elimination, and Oxymercuration, did not show a significant differential effect between types of laboratory experiences. No significant differences were observed on long-term retention of concepts. Overall conclusions from the study are that neither computer simulations nor hands-on laboratory experiments are effective in alleviating misconceptions, but that computer simulations can significantly improve conceptual understanding of organic reaction mechanisms.

Gaddis, Barbara A.

2001-12-01

133

Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

Bierman, S.R.

1986-12-01

134

Molten Salt Bath Heating of Uranium and Its Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fabrication of uranium and its alloys, the workpiece is commonly preheated and postheated in a molten salt bath. In this report, past and present uranium salt bath technology is reviewed and critiqued. This critical review points out two distinct f...

R. J. Jackson

1989-01-01

135

Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition  

DOEpatents

A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

2010-12-07

136

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

137

Electroless gold plating from a hypophosphite-dicyanoaurate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroless gold deposition onto Ni-P substrates from a bath containing dicyanoaurate ions and sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent has been studied and the mechanism of this process has been proposed. A number of simultaneous reactions occur in the bath studied. One of them is the gold cementation on nickel. The cementation is accompanied by an overstoichiometric dissolution of the

T. N Vorobyova; S. K Poznyak; A. A Rimskaya; O. N Vrublevskaya

2004-01-01

138

Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

Baum, Rudy

1982-01-01

139

Ettringite formation in historic bath brick–lime plasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of historic hydraulic brick–lime plasters from a selected Ottoman bath are examined to characterize their technology and the appropriateness of their use in bath. The first type of plaster is original and structurally sound, while the historic repair plaster is the second type and is found to have deteriorated despite being exposed to the same environment. This difference

Hasan Böke; Sedat Akkurt

2003-01-01

140

Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

1994-01-01

141

Copper Plating from Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-cyanide alkaline bath was used to prepare copper thin films. Influences of various temperatures on deposition rates, surface morphologies and microstructures of films were investigated. Copper thin films prepared from non-cyanide alkaline bath show typical nodular structures. Copper films fabricated at higher temperature possess rough surface due to hydrolysis of complexing agents. According to the XRD patterns, all deposited films were crystalline and showed Cu (111), Cu (200) and Cu (220) peaks. The intensity of peak (200) increases gradually with the rise on bath temperatures. Films with maximum thickness (7.5 ?m) could be obtained at the temperature of 40°C. From the cyclic voltammetry curve, it was found that the cathodic polarization decreased slightly with increase of bath temperatures. In addition, when the bath temperature was equal to 50°C, current efficiency could reach to 96.95%.

Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Meng; Zhao, Xixi; Bai, Yuze

2014-12-01

142

Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

2010-01-01

143

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

144

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

145

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

146

Sorption kinetics during macropore transport of organic contaminants in soils: Laboratory experiments and analytical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferential solute transport coupled with diffusion into the surrounding matrix region has been examined in a silty loam soil by conducting macropore column experiments for various hydrophobic organic compounds (phenanthrene, 1, 2-DCB, TCE, carbofuran) representing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. A new and ready-to-use analytical solution was developed for this setting to model the breakthrough curves.

M. Mokhlesur Rahman; Rudolf Liedl; Peter Grathwohl

2004-01-01

147

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

148

The Photochemical Synthesis, Kinetics, and Reactions of Nitrosomethane Dimer: A Physical-Organic Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information procedures, and results for the photochemical synthesis and reactions of nitrosomethane dimer. The experiments described have shown a high degree of reliability with student use and are suggested to illustrate some problems of physical and organic photochemistry. (Author/JN)

Kozubek, H.; And Others

1982-01-01

149

Preservation of organic matter in the STONE 6 artificial meteorite experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exposure of a carbonaceous siltstone sample to atmospheric entry, as part of the STONE 6 artificial meteorite experiment, has allowed a controlled investigation of the effect of heat shock during atmospheric entry on organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites and, potentially, sedimentary martian meteorites containing carbonaceous biomolecules. Thermal alteration is evident in an increase in structural order of the carbon (i.e. degree of graphitisation), preferential loss of thermally unstable compounds and substantial loss of extractable organic matter. There is a gradient of increasing alteration towards the outer, exposed margin of the rock, and also an increase in hydrocarbons that suggests outward migration following thermally-induced generation. The carbon has not been completely graphitised, and sufficient biomarker compounds survive to prove the biological origin of the organic matter. The experiment implies that meteorites of appropriate size could preserve evidence of biological activity on their parent body.

Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen A.; Muirhead, David; Blamey, Nigel; Westall, Frances; Demets, René; Verchovsky, Sasha; Brandstätter, Franz; Brack, André

2011-03-01

150

Resources at the Grassroots of Recreation: Organizational Capacity and Quality of Experience in a Community Sport Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassroots recreation organizations are volunteer-run informal organizations that deliver sport and recreation at the local level. Using a qualitative case study approach, this study examined how the quality of experience in one community sport organization was affected by organizational capacity, or the ability of the organization to mobilize financial, human, and structural capital to fulfill its mission. While the volunteers

Erin K. Sharpe

2006-01-01

151

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2012-07-01

152

40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory. 420.80...STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory....

2011-07-01

153

78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. DATES: Written comments...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. CPSC received no...

2013-12-06

154

Microscopic insight into the nanocoalescence of a water droplet on a water bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalescence of a millimetric water droplet on a water bath has been extensively investigated by experiments, theory and continuum approaches. While the hydrodynamic processes have been largely studied the underlying microscopic mechanisms are much less understood. Thanks to the recent advances in mesoscopic modelling the physics occurring at the nanometric scale can be captured. By using the coarse- and fine-grained simulations we investigate the mechanism of the coalescence of a water nanodroplet on a water bath. In contrast to the millimetric drop we show the absence of a coalescence cascade. The two most probable mechanisms of coalescence largely discussed in the literature are i) the drainage of an air cushion between the water droplet and the bath and ii) the rupture of both water drop and reservoir interfacial layers. From the time-evolution of the 3D water density profile we show that the mechanism begins by the formation of a coalescence bridge during the first picosecond, followed by a temporary noncoalescence where the shape of the drop is modified. The life time of the temporary noncoalescence is ruled by the dissipation of the interfacial layers of the droplet and of the water bath. During this phase the droplet expels water downward through the bridge leading to a thinning of the interfacial layers and to their dissipation that corresponds to the beginning of the drop coalescence into the water bath. In this work we show that the microscopic mechanism of nanocoalescence is partially in line with the millimetric process. Indeed, in contrast with the macroscopic droplet a deformation of the interface was evidenced at the nanometric scale while at the millimetric scale the interfaces suddenly coalesce after the interfacial layers sufficiently dissipated and the drop merges into the bulk.

Ghoufi, A.; Malfreyt, P.

2013-11-01

155

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-11-26

156

Electrochemical studies of zinc nickel codeposition in sulphate bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloys from a sulphate bath was studied under different conditions. The bath had the composition 0.40 M sodium sulphate, 0.01 M sulphuric acid, 0.16 M boric acid, 0.20 M zinc sulphate and 0.20 M nickel sulphate. It is found that the plating bath temperature has a great effect on the cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic measurements during electrodeposition, and consequently linear polarization resistance for corrosion study and the alloy composition. Under the examined conditions, the electrodeposition of the alloys was of anomalous type. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the alloys consisted of the ?-phase (Ni 3Zn 22) or a mixture of the two phases ? and ? (Ni 5Zn 21). The comparison between Ni deposition and Zn-Ni codeposition revealed that the remarkable inhibition of Ni deposition takes place due to the presence of Zn 2+ in the plating bath. The Ni deposition starts at -0.85 V in the bath of Ni deposition only, but the deposition starts at more negative potentials in the codeposition bath although the concentration of Ni 2+ is the same in the both baths.

Abou-Krisha, Mortaga M.

2005-11-01

157

A fermionic bath induced antibunching and coherence in Mollow spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have derived the modified Bloch equation from the generalized master equation due to the fermionic bath where one needs to consider Grassmann algebra to obtain the similar mathematical structure of the reduced system dynamics, as in the case of a bosonic bath. There is an enhancement of antibunching in the photon emission with an increase in effective temperature. This is in principle a manifestation of the antisymmetric two-particle dynamic anticorrelation in the fermionic bath with a defined chemical potential characterized by the forbidden overlapping. This is evident from the modified fluctuation–dissipation relation. We have compared it thoroughly with an experimental result in the temperature dependent emission characteristics within an environment of quantum dots in a Hanburry-Brown–Twiss set-up. For the fermionic bath, an effective temperature assisted coherence phenomenon is induced in the system dynamics, which is reflected in the resonance fluorescence spectrum with the variation of chemical potential. In the Mollow's absorption spectra, when the Rabi frequency is sufficiently low, the side peaks appear as chemical potential induced coherence phenomenon rather than the traditional field induced one. The subsequent gain in the probe wave is evidently of thermal origin, where the energy is fully supplied by the fermionic bath at non-zero temperatures. This is not possible for a bosonic bath—an example of the extraction of coherence from the fermionic bath.

Karmakar, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

2014-04-01

158

Heat transport in quantum harmonic chains with Redfield baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an explicit method for solving general markovian master equations for quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians with linear bath operators. As an example we consider a onedimensional quantum harmonic oscillator chain coupled to thermal reservoirs at both ends of the chain. We derive an analytic solution of the Redfield master equation for homogeneous harmonic chain and recover classical results, namely, vanishing temperature gradient and constant heat current in the thermodynamic limit. In the case of the disordered gapped chains we observe universal heat current scaling independent of the bath spectral function, the system-bath coupling strength, and the boundary conditions.

Žunkovi?, Bojan; Prosen, Tomaž

2012-08-01

159

Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25?C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an intermediate product of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the formation of a specific clay mineral (proto-kaolinite) occurs in the presence of a specific organic compound (succinic acid). This implies that microbial species capable of excreting succinate among their EPS may promote authigenic kaolinite formation at low temperature and neutral pH. This biological degradation process might play a crucial role for the formation of authigenic kaolinite, which is a widespread clay mineral in sedimentary environments. Fiore, S., Dumontet, S., Huertas, F.J., and Pasquale, V., 2011. Bacteria-induced crystallization of kaolinite. Applied Clay Science, 53:566-571. Linares, J., and Huertas, F., 1971. Kaolinite: Synthesis at room temperature. Science 171: 896-897.

Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

2012-04-01

160

Study of Martian Organic Molecules Irradiation and Evolution: The Momie Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life on Mars remains an open question despite the Viking landers results and the ALH84001 possible terrestrial contamination. However recent data of Mars Express orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem show different proofs of a past environment with liquid water and mild temperatures favorable for life. Among the biomarkers we seek, the organic molecules are primordial because they are necessary to the origin of life as we know it. However, these molecules (except methane recently discovered) have never been detected on Mars by the in situ analyzes of the Viking landers. A key question is to know if organic molecules are indeed present, in which concentration and under which form. Indeed, even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized, those brought by exogenous sources, like interplanetary dust, should be present in detectable amount. Moreover, the track of the endogenous organic molecules should not be dropped out because these molecules are able to resist over periods of several billion years without being degraded. It thus appears that organic molecules could be present at the surface of Mars, even if they have significant chances to undergo a partial or total chemical evolution. Within the framework of a search for organic molecules by present or future space experiments , we are developing the MOMIE project (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to determine how the organic species evolve on the Martian surface. We thus propose to implement this type of research with the assistance of an experimental setup designed for the study of the behavior of organic molecules under conditions simulating as close as possible conditions of Mars surface, and plan to present at 39th DPS our first results.

Coll, Patrice; Stalport, F.; Szopa, C.; Cottin, H.

2007-12-01

161

Evolution of organics on the Mars surface: laboratory studies with the MOMIE experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of life on Mars remains open today, despite the negative results obtained with the Viking landers. Indeed, recent data provided by the Mars Express orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem to indicate the existence of a past environment of Mars with liquid water and mild temperatures favourable for life. Among the tracers which could indicate the presence of life on Mars, the organic molecules are of primary importance because they are necessary for the emergence of life as we know it. However, such molecules (except methane recently discovered in the atmosphere) have never been detected on Mars. A key question is therefore to know if organic molecules are indeed present, in which concentration and under which form. Indeed, even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized, those brought by exogenous sources, like interplanetary dust particles, should be present in detectable amounts. Moreover, the search for endogenous organic molecules should not be abandoned because on Earth, there are known examples of organic molecules capable to resist over periods of several billion years without any degradation. It thus appears that organic molecules could be present at the surface of Mars, even if they have significant probabilities to undergo a partial or total chemical evolution. Within the framework of the search for organic molecules by present or future space experiments on Mars, we are developing the MOMIE 1 and the MOMIE 2 projects (Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution) in order to determine how the organic species could evolve at the Martian surface. We thus propose to implement this type of research by using laboratory experimental setups specifically designed to study the behaviour of organic molecules under experimental conditions simulating as close as possible the environmental conditions at the surface of Mars as we know them today. Trough the MOMIE 1 project, we present here the influence of the UV solar radiations reaching the Mars surface on various amino acids, carboxylic acids and hopanoids of astrobiological interest for Mars. The obtained results indicate that glycine, serine, the benzoic and oxalic acids do not resist a long time if they are directly exposed to UV radiations. But the mellitic acid is shown to generate organics resistant to UV radiations. This demonstrates than even if UV radiations seem destructive for most of the organics, a few ones could be transformed in such a way that their products of reaction could be present at the Mars surface. Trough the MOMIE 2 project, we will present first results of the evolution of these organics under oxidation processes which could occur at the Mars surface, due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide detected in the atmosphere.

Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé; Raulin, Francois

162

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic assessment of tetrachlorethylene in groundwater for a bathing and showering determination  

SciTech Connect

A two-step methodology is described to make a health-based determination for the bathing and showering use of the water from a private well contiminated with volatile organic chemicals. The chemical perchloroethylene (PERC) is utilized to illustrate the approach. First, a chemical-specific exposure model is used to predict the concentration of PERC in the shower air, shower water, and in the air above the bathtub. Second, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is used to predict the concentration of PERC delivered to the target tissue, the brain, since the focus is on neurological endpoints. The simulation exercise includes concurrent dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. A reference target tissue level (RTTL) in the brain is estimated using the PBPK model. A hazard index based on this benchmark guideline is used to make a regulatory determination for bathing and showering use of the contaminated water.

Rao, H.V.; Brown, D.R. (Connecticut Dept. of Health Services, Hartford (United States))

1993-02-01

163

Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Abiotic Organics from Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable carbon isotopes can be powerful biogeochemical markers in the study of life's origins. Biogenic carbon fixation produces organics that are depleted in C-13 by about -20 to -30%0. Less attention has been paid to the isotopic signatures of abiotic processes. The possibility of abiotic processes producing organics with morphologies and isotopic signatures in the biogenic range has been at the center of recent debate over the Earth's earliest microfossils. The abiotic synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal environments is one possible source of endogenous organic matter to the prebiotic earth. Simulated hydrothermal settings have been shown to synthesize, among other things, single chain amphiphiles and simple lipids from a mix of CO, CO2, and H2. A key characteristic of these amphiphilic molecules is the ability to self-assemble in aqueous phases into more organized structures called vesicles, which form a selectively permeable boundary and serve the function of containing and concentrating other organic molecules. The ability to form cell like structures also makes these compounds more likely to be mistaken for biogenic. Hydrothermal simulation experiments were conducted from oxalic or formic acid in water at 175 C for 72 hr. The molecular and isotopic composition of the products of these reactions were determined and compared to biogenic fractionations . Preliminary results indicate isotopic fractionation during abiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in hydrothermal environments is on par with biological carbon fixation.

Stern, Jennifer C.; Summers, David P.; Kubo, Mike; Yassar, Saima

2006-01-01

164

On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inquiry-driven approach to laboratory teaching allows students to participate effectively in the process of science. This article provides examples of guided-inquiry and design-based experiments and explores strategies for implementing them to enliven the modern organic chemistry teaching laboratory in a variety of educational environments. We discuss factors important to the success of inquiry-driven experiments and projects in four categories of institutions, as well as the potential difficulties in implementing them, including faculty participation, TA training, post-laboratory discussions, instrumentation, and necessary background materials.

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Noring Hammond, Christina; Colby, David A.

2007-06-01

165

Laboratory experiments for understanding the chemical evolution of organic matter in astrophysical ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges of our projects consist in simulating through laboratory experiments, the chemical evolution of astrophysical ices for understanding what could be the different stages of the organic matter during the life cycle of interstellar grains to their incorporation in planetary systems such as in comets or in asteroids inside the Solar System. Our experiments consist in recreating primitive or cometary ices evolution, which allow obtaining data on the chemical reactivity that occur during the evolution process (RING project), the characterization of species sublimating during the ice warming (VAHIIA project), as well as on refractory residue (RAHIIA project). All these results can then serve for space missions.

Danger, G.; Duvernay, F.; Vinogradoff, V.; Theulé, P.; Chiavassa, C.

2013-09-01

166

Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12–29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the <200 kDa

Yoshiko Kondo; Shigenobu Takeda; Jun Nishioka; Hajime Obata; Ken Furuya; William Keith Johnson; C. S. Wong

2008-01-01

167

WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

168

Intranasal substituted cathinone "bath salts" psychosis potentially exacerbated by diphenhydramine.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a case of intranasal "bath salts"-associated psychosis. Symptoms developed during a 3-week binge and were potentially exacerbated by oral diphenhydramine taken for insomnia. The clinical case conference includes expert discussion from 3 disciplines: emergency medicine toxicology, behavioral pharmacology, and addiction medicine. It is hoped that the discussion will provide insight into the clinical aspects and challenges of addressing acute substituted cathinone toxicity, including acute psychosis, a major adverse effect of bath salts consumption. PMID:23732955

Gunderson, Erik W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Willing, Laura M; Holstege, Christopher P

2013-01-01

169

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic ''how to'' approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1986-01-01

170

Control of precious metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis are included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W. G.

171

Control of precious-metal plating baths using electrogravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outline of an electrogravimetric method for inventory control of precious metal plating baths. The procedure is meant to be applicable to a plating shop environment to provide in-process control. A short review of procedural techniques for sample preparation and analysis is included. The paper deals with the basic how to approach for developing a practical system of analytical control of precious metal electroplating baths permitting accountability of 99% or greater.

Yelton, W.G.

1983-07-01

172

Analytical study of criticality experiments of organic and light-water-moderated mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a joint criticality data development program between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. of Japan and the US Dept. of Energy, critical experiments have been conducted with organically moderated fast test reactor (FTR) mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays. The neutronic characteristics of an organic moderator can be examined by comparing the results of these experiments with

N. Aihara; N. Fukumura; H. Kadotani; T. Koyama; M. J. Haire

1987-01-01

173

Effect of hyperthermic water bath on parameters of cellular immunity.  

PubMed

Effects of hyperthermic water bath on selected immune parameters (lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell counts and their activity) were studied in a group of 10 volunteers. Application of hyperthermic water bath (both topical and whole-body) was followed by a significant reduction of relative B lymphocyte counts. Whole-body hyperthermic water bath reduced relative total T lymphocyte counts, increased relative CD8+ T lymphocyte and NK cell counts and increased NK activity. Whole-body hyperthermic bath increased somatotropic hormone (STH) activity in eight out of 10 volunteers; higher relative counts of CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells were observed compared with the group of volunteers not responding to hyperthermic water bath by STH secretion. In five volunteers STH was released in response to local hyperthermic water bath and the NK activity of lymphocytes also increased but their relative counts did not. The results suggest that these increases in CD8+ lymphocyte and NK cell counts are probably dependent on increased STH production. PMID:11146901

Blazícková, S; Rovenský, J; Koska, J; Vigas, M

2000-01-01

174

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOEpatents

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2001-07-10

175

Fungal and enzymatic decolourisation of artificial textile dye baths.  

PubMed

A textile dye Reactive Black 5 was used in screening 25 fungal strains for their decolourising ability. The most promising strains were tested in a medium containing specific constituents of a dye bath in order to approach real application conditions. It was shown that the concentrations of the constituents had to be reduced to allow fungal growth. Decolourisation started in cultures of Geotrichum candidum but was not complete. Only Bjerkandera adusta was able to decolourise the black-blue colour through violet and red to pale yellow. After 17 days spectral absorption coefficients, alpha, at three wavelengths, 620, 525 and 436 nm almost reached the permitted values. A partly purified manganese peroxidase prepared from B. adusta was tested for decolourisation of several artificial dye baths. The constituents seemed not to be inhibitory to the enzyme and no dilution was necessary. Evaluation of decolourisation gave different results, depending on the method used. The most efficient decolourisation on a percentage basis was observed in the dye bath of the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19, followed by the diazo dye Reactive Black 5. However, based on absorbance units, the largest reduction was achieved with the Reactive Black 5 and Acid Orange 7 dye baths. Comparing the alpha values after 120 h fungal and enzymatic treatments of Reactive Black 5 dye bath the enzyme showed about 1.5 times greater colour reduction than the fungus. Given the tolerance to the constituents and concentration of dye baths, the enzyme proved to be a promising tool for their treatment. PMID:16310823

Mohorcic, Martina; Teodorovic, Simona; Golob, Vera; Friedrich, Jozefa

2006-06-01

176

The impact of different types of bath in the behaviour and physiology of 'rooming in' newborn babies.  

PubMed

The new scientific knowledge about the behaviour of the newborn and their interactions as a developing factor, as well as the new neurosciences findings about the initial brain formation, gave us several elements for a new vision and reflection about the perinatal routines in hospitals. This study raises questions about the first experiences of the rooming in newborns during the specific act of bath, as the only determining factor in altering both behaviour and physiology. Through the monitoring of the heart rate frequency and observing the changes in the states of consciousness level, this article shows how the type of bath that the newborn is subjected to influences his/her organisation. The study showed significant results in the parameters observed during the electric shower bath, leading to unbalance of the subsystems where the individuals organise themselves; such findings made us classify this procedure as very stressing to the baby. To the contrary the bath in the "Tummy Tub" presented insignificant changes, showing a relaxed baby with normal bath behaviours and physiological status; thus this procedure appears to contribute to an energetic and interactive balance of the baby's various systems. The aggressive approach (electric shower) does not allow the newborn auto-regulation to occur and to get proper stimulation and learn basic interactive responses which would facilitate his /her healthy early infancy development. PMID:15735598

Corrêa Filho, Laurista; Paula, Ana Maria de Castilho; Carvalho, Dulce Amalia Araujo de; Azevedo, Maria Paulina de Oliveira; Teixeira, Leonora de A Pinto

2004-12-01

177

From Zeno to anti-Zeno regime: Decoherence-control dependence on the quantum statistics of the bath  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate through exact solutions that a spin bath leads to stronger (faster) dephasing of a qubit than a bosonic bath with an identical bath-coupling spectrum. This difference is due to the spin-bath ''dressing'' by the coupling. Consequently, the quantum statistics of the bath strongly affects the pulse sequences required to dynamically decouple the qubit from its bath.

Bhaktavatsala Rao, D. D.; Kurizki, Gershon [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2011-03-15

178

Effects of commercial freshwater bathing on reinfection of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with Amoebic Gill Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish with Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) were examined over a 10-day period following commercial freshwater bathing to assess the time to reinfection. Samples were taken from fish before freshwater bathing and then 1, 3, 5 and 10 days after bathing to determine the number of amoebae present on the gills. Freshwater bathing significantly reduced the number of amoebae on the

Gemma Clark; Mark Powell; Barbara Nowak

2003-01-01

179

Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system.

Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

180

Experience-dependent neuronal specialization and functional organization in the central auditory area of a songbird.  

PubMed

The effect of early experience on brain development was investigated in the central auditory area of a songbird, the field L complex, which is analogous to the mammalian auditory cortex. Multi-unit recordings of auditory responses in the field L complex of adult starlings raised without any experience of adult song during development provide strong evidence of developmental plasticity both in the neuronal responses and in the functional organization of this area. Across the entire area, experimental birds, separated from adults from the age of 1 week old until they were 2 years old, had a much larger number of neurons that responded to all the stimuli than did control birds. The well-known tonotopy demonstrated in adult wild birds using the same procedure was altered. This study is the first to bring evidence of developmental plasticity in the organization of the central auditory areas in songbirds. These results are discussed in relation to other reports on effects of early experience on brain development. PMID:15217389

Cousillas, Hugo; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Mathelier, Maryvonne; Henry, Laurence; George, Isabelle; Hausberger, Martine

2004-06-01

181

Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

1989-01-01

182

Transition from hospital to home following pediatric solid organ transplant: Qualitative findings of parent experience.  

PubMed

Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child's solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three wk following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge, and adherence. The parents' responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

Lerret, Stacee M; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

2014-08-01

183

Investigating the use of secondary organic aerosol as seed particles in simulation chamber experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ?-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol particles as seeds for smog chamber simulations has been investigated. A series of experiments were carried out in the Manchester photochemical chamber as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project to study the effect of seed particles on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from limonene photo-oxidation. Rather than use a conventional seed aerosol containing ammonium sulphate or diesel particles, a method was developed to use in situ chamber generated seed particles from ?-caryophyllene photo-oxidation, which were then diluted to a desired mass loading (in this case 4-13 ?g m-3). Limonene was then introduced into the chamber and oxidised, with the formation of SOA seen as a growth in the size of oxidised organic seed particles from 150 to 325 nm mean diameter. The effect of the partitioning of limonene oxidation products onto the seed aerosol was assessed using aerosol mass spectrometry during the experiment and the percentage of m/z 44, an indicator of degree of oxidation, increased from around 5 to 8%. The hygroscopicity of the aerosol also changed, with the growth factor for 200 nm particles increasing from less than 1.05 to 1.25 at 90% RH. The detailed chemical composition of the limonene SOA could be extracted from the complex ?-caryophyllene matrix using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. High resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS) was used to determine exact molecular formulae of the seed and the limonene modified aerosol. The average O:C ratio was seen to increase from 0.32 to 0.37 after limonene oxidation products had condensed onto the organic seed.

Hamilton, J. F.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Wyche, K. P.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Good, N.; Monks, P. S.; Carr, T.; White, I. R.; Purvis, R. P.

2010-10-01

184

Investigating the use of secondary organic aerosol as seed particles in simulation chamber experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ?-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol particles as seeds for smog chamber simulations has been investigated. A series of experiments were carried out in the Manchester photochemical chamber as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project to study the effect of seed particles on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from limonene photo-oxidation. Rather than use a conventional seed aerosol containing ammonium sulfate or diesel particles, a method was developed to use in-situ chamber generated seed particles from ?-caryophyllene photo-oxidation, which were then diluted to a desired mass loading (in this case 4-13 ?g m-3). Limonene was then introduced into the chamber and oxidised, with the formation of SOA seen as a growth in the size of oxidised organic seed particles from 150 to 325 nm mean diameter. The effect of the partitioning of limonene oxidation products onto the seed aerosol was assessed using aerosol mass spectrometry during the experiment and the percentage of m/z 44, an indicator of degree of oxidation, increased from around 5 to 8 %. The hygroscopicity of the aerosol also changed, with the growth factor for 200 nm particles increasing from less than 1.05 to 1.25 at 90 % RH. The detailed chemical composition of the limonene SOA could be extracted from the complex ?-caryophyllene matrix using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. High resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS) was used to determine exact molecular formulae of the seed and the limonene modified aerosol. The average O:C ratio was seen to increase from 0.32 to 0.37 after limonene oxidation products had condensed onto the organic seed.

Hamilton, J. F.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Wyche, K. P.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Good, N.; Monks, P. S.; Carr, T.; White, I. R.; Purvis, R. M.

2011-06-01

185

Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

186

Organic Matter Development and Turnover depending on Mineral Composition in an Artificial Soil Incubation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research indicates that minerals play an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). However, it is difficult to determine the effect of mineral composition on SOM development in natural soils where mineral composition is usually not well defined and initial conditions are generally unknown. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment with so-called "artificial soils" composed of mixtures of clean and well-defined model materials where the development of organic matter could be followed from known initial conditions. The artificial soils were composed of 8 different mixtures of quartz, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal, manure as carbon substrate and a microbial inoculum extracted from a natural arable soil. These mixtures were incubated in the dark and sampled 4 times over a total incubation time of 18 months. The organic matter (OM) turnover during incubation was followed by measuring CO2 respiration and C and N contents and distribution over particle size fractions with time. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis were used to determine the development of OM composition. The artificial soil mixtures developed quickly into complex, aggregated, soil-like materials. CO2 respiration was the same for all artificial soil compositions, indicating that microbial degradation was probably limited by nutrient or substrate availability. With increasing incubation time, nitrogen-rich, proteinaceous material, became enriched in the smallest particle size fraction, indicating the accumulation of microbial debris. There was some difference in the distribution of hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable N and organic carbon after 3 months of incubation depending on the type of clay mineral and charcoal presence. However, the artificial soils developed towards more similar systems with increasing incubation time. The artificial soil incubation experiment provided a useful system where the decay and turnover of the original manure substrate under the influence of microbial degradation could be studied. Because of the well-defined composition of the artificial soils this experiment gives us new insight into the dynamics of interactions between specific minerals, OM and charcoal during the decay and turnover of organic matter in a soil-like system.

Pronk, G. J.; Heister, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

2012-12-01

187

Experience acquired on environmental sample combustion for organically bound tritium measurement.  

PubMed

In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) concentrations, environmental samples are generally first freeze-dried. This first step is to remove tritiated water. Then, the dry residue is burnt in a special furnace with oxygen. Finally, the tritiated water fraction obtained is measured using a liquid scintillation counter. Our laboratory has developed a "pyroxydiser" tubular furnace for a computer controlled combustion. This paper presents the different improvements of the equipment. For three years, the analysis of each sample has been replicated. The experience acquired on the environmental matrices analysed using this setup is shown. PMID:19231224

Cossonnet, C; Neiva Marques, A M; Gurriaran, R

2009-05-01

188

Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-01-01

189

Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-12-01

190

Sorption kinetics during macropore transport of organic contaminants in soils: Laboratory experiments and analytical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential solute transport coupled with diffusion into the surrounding matrix region has been examined in a silty loam soil by conducting macropore column experiments for various hydrophobic organic compounds (phenanthrene, 1, 2-DCB, TCE, carbofuran) representing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. A new and ready-to-use analytical solution was developed for this setting to model the breakthrough curves. The model accounts for advection in the macropore region, diffusion into the matrix region, and linear sorption in both regions. In this setting, hydrodynamic dispersion is negligible as proved by a comparison of an advection-dispersion model of finite pulse input. Conservative tracer experiments were predicted very well with independently determined transport parameters except for the tortuosity factor, which was used as a fitting parameter for the pore diffusion coefficient in the matrix. In case of sorbing solutes the sorption coefficient (Kd) was used as additional fitting parameter. The fitted Kd was 65% smaller for less sorbing compounds, e.g., carbofuran, and 80% less for strongly sorbing compounds, e.g., phenanthrene compared to the independently determined Kd from batch experiments. This indicates that sorption equilibrium was not obtained completely during the matrix diffusion at the timescale of the macropore flow experiment.

Rahman, M. Mokhlesur; Liedl, Rudolf; Grathwohl, Peter

2004-01-01

191

Recurrent acute kidney injury following bath salts intoxication.  

PubMed

"Bath salts" are becoming recognized as a frequently abused and highly addictive substance that can be obtained legally in some areas. These agents contain stimulant compounds, such as methylenedioxopyrrovalerone and mephedrone, that have been associated with sympathomimetic effects and psychotic features, such as paranoia, delusions, agitation, and confusion. They may have a benign course; however, intoxication with these agents may lead to severe cardiovascular and neurologic complications and death. We report a case of recurrent acute kidney injury associated with repeated bath salts intoxication. The patient, who presented with neurologic and cardiovascular symptoms and signs, also developed rhabdomyolysis, hyperuricemia, and metabolic acidosis as part of the clinical presentation. Bath salts intoxication should be included on the list of substances that can cause acute kidney injury and other metabolic abnormalities. PMID:22119408

Adebamiro, Adedotun; Perazella, Mark A

2012-02-01

192

Production of aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles using conventional ultrasonic bath  

PubMed Central

A conventional ultrasonic bath was used to examine the feasibility of forming aqueous spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under atmospheric conditions. The effects of ultrasonic energy on the size and morphology of GNPs were also investigated. Highly monodispersed spherical GNPs were successfully synthesised by sodium citrate reduction in a conventional ultrasonic bath, without an additional heater or magnetic stirrer, as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrasonic energy was shown to be a key parameter for producing spherical GNPs of tunable sizes (20 to 50?nm). A proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation and growth of GNPs was discussed. The simple single-step method using just a conventional ultrasonic bath as demonstrated in this study offers new opportunities in the production of aqueous suspensions of monodispersed spherical GNPs.

2012-01-01

193

Evaluation of a detailed model of secondary organic aerosol formation from ?-pinene against dark ozonolysis experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BOREAM, a detailed model for the gas-phase oxidation of ?-pinene and its subsequent formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), is tested against a large set of SOA yield measurements obtained in dark ozonolysis experiments. For the majority of experiments, modelled SOA yields are found to agree with measured yields to within a factor 2. However, the comparisons point to a general underestimation of modelled SOA yields at high temperatures (above 30 °C), reaching an order of magnitude or more in the worst cases, whereas modelled SOA yields are often overestimated at lower temperature (by a factor of about 2). Comparisons of results obtained using four different vapour pressure prediction methods indicate a strong sensitivity to the choice of the method, although the overestimated temperature dependence of the yields is found in all cases. Accounting for non-ideality of the aerosol mixture (based on an adapted UNIFAC method) has significant effects, especially at low yields. Our simulations show that the formation of oligomers through the gas-phase reactions of Stabilised Criegee Intermediates (SCI) with other molecular organic products could increase the SOA yield significantly only at very low relative humidity (below 1%). Further tests show that the agreement between model and measurements is improved when the ozonolysis mechanism includes additional production of non-volatile compounds.

Ceulemans, Karl; Compernolle, Steven; Peeters, Jozef; Müller, Jean-François

2010-12-01

194

Rapid heating experiments demonstrate the usefulness of organic molecules as an earthquake thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring temperature rise due to an earthquake would elucidate the frictional characteristics of a fault during rapid slip. We developed a new paleothermometer for fault zones using the thermal maturity of organic compounds as a temperature proxy. The kinetics of these reactions are highly nonlinear, and previous experiments to constrain the kinetic parameters have only been accomplished on long time scales. We ran a series of rapid heating experiments designed to determine these parameters specifically on short time scales. Here, we focus on the kinetics of methylphenanthrenes, aromatic molecules whose pattern of methylation changes with thermal maturity. The MPI-1 thermal maturity index is a ratio of methylphenanthrene's refractory 2- and 3-methylphenanthrene isomers relative to the less stable 9- and 1-methylphenanthrene isomers, and thus increases with increasing temperature. Methylphenanthrenes are relevant to the study of fault heating as they are consistently found in faults exhumed from depths shallower than 4km. To address whether methylphenanthrenes react at earthquake rates, we conducted rapid hydrous pyrolysis experiments in a small stainless steel reactor with a carburized inner surface. For each experiment, the reactor was partially filled with water and Woodford Shale, an organic-rich, thermally immature quartzose claystone sampled in central Oklahoma. The reactor was heated for a range of times and temperatures using resistive heating coils. Temperature was controlled using an external thermocouple and a PID controller, while the temperature of the sample was recorded with an internal thermocouple. Steam pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer throughout the experiment. The expelled oil was extracted from the water contained in the reactor using a separatory funnel, and the shale fragments were crushed and extracted via sonication. Both the oil and the shale extractions were then separated using column chromatography. GCMS analysis shows that the methylphenanthrenes do react on short timescales, even at temperatures below what would be reached during a large earthquake. These results provide a more accurate picture of temperature rise on previously studied faults. The Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada, the Champlain thrust in Vermont, the Punchbowl fault in Southern California, and the proto-decollement on Sitkinak Island, Alaska, all show no difference in MPI-1 values between on- and off-fault samples, suggesting a lack of differential heating. Our experiments allow us to more accurately estimate the maximum temperature rise that could have occurred during fault slip without significantly altering the methylphenanthrene thermal maturity.

Sheppard, R. E.; Polissar, P. J.; Savage, H. M.

2012-12-01

195

Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature.

Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V.

2012-12-01

196

Absence/presence calling in microarray-based CGH experiments with non-model organisms  

PubMed Central

Structural variations in genomes are commonly studied by (micro)array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The data analysis methods to infer copy number variation in model organisms (human, mouse) are established. In principle, the procedures are based on signal ratios between test and reference samples and the order of the probe targets in the genome. These procedures are less applicable to experiments with non-model organisms, which frequently comprise non-sequenced genomes with an unknown order of probe targets. We therefore present an additional analysis approach, which does not depend on the structural information of a reference genome, and quantifies the presence or absence of a probe target in an unknown genome. The principle is that intensity values of target probes are compared with the intensities of negative-control probes and positive-control probes from a control hybridization, to determine if a probe target is absent or present. In a test, analyzing the genome content of a known bacterial strain: Staphylococcus aureus MRSA252, this approach proved to be successful, demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values larger than 0.9995. We show its usability in various applications, such as comparing genome content and validating next-generation sequencing reads from eukaryotic non-model organisms.

Jonker, Martijs J.; de Leeuw, Wim C.; Marinkovic, Marino; Wittink, Floyd R. A.; Rauwerda, Han; Bruning, Oskar; Ensink, Wim A.; Fluit, Ad C.; Boel, C. H.; de Jong, Mark; Breit, Timo M.

2014-01-01

197

Absence/presence calling in microarray-based CGH experiments with non-model organisms.  

PubMed

Structural variations in genomes are commonly studied by (micro)array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The data analysis methods to infer copy number variation in model organisms (human, mouse) are established. In principle, the procedures are based on signal ratios between test and reference samples and the order of the probe targets in the genome. These procedures are less applicable to experiments with non-model organisms, which frequently comprise non-sequenced genomes with an unknown order of probe targets. We therefore present an additional analysis approach, which does not depend on the structural information of a reference genome, and quantifies the presence or absence of a probe target in an unknown genome. The principle is that intensity values of target probes are compared with the intensities of negative-control probes and positive-control probes from a control hybridization, to determine if a probe target is absent or present. In a test, analyzing the genome content of a known bacterial strain: Staphylococcus aureus MRSA252, this approach proved to be successful, demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values larger than 0.9995. We show its usability in various applications, such as comparing genome content and validating next-generation sequencing reads from eukaryotic non-model organisms. PMID:24771343

Jonker, Martijs J; de Leeuw, Wim C; Marinkovi?, Marino; Wittink, Floyd R A; Rauwerda, Han; Bruning, Oskar; Ensink, Wim A; Fluit, Ad C; Boel, C H; Jong, Mark de; Breit, Timo M

2014-07-01

198

Ritual hot baths (wankan-jego) in Zaria, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Among the Hausa-Fulani women of Zaria, Nigeria, "cold" or "sanyi" is thought to be a common cause of illnesses, and especially edema (swelling) during pregnancy. The traditional treatment for these illnesses is a hot bath. The new mother or mother-to-be sleeps in an overheated room and must take baths in very hot water, called "wankan- jego," to keep out the cold. The birth attendant uses a bundle of leafy twigs from tamarind or neem trees to splash hot water over the women's body. This splashing hides the real temperature of the hot water over the women's body. This splashing hides the real temperature of the hot water so that she does not feel it, but it may actually be 82 degrees centigrade. Severe scalds often result from, such baths. Women confined during childbirth in the hospital and then discharged are still often subjected to the "wakan-jego" after they return home. Their thighs, buttocks and breasts are the most susceptible areas where these hot-water scald burns are the worst, sometimes even resulting in their nipples being sloughed off, thus making the mother unable to lactate. Since most deliveries in the Zaria region still take place at home and most patients with childbirth complications come to the hospital only as a last resort, it is possible that scald injuries are underreported and the total morbidity and mortality rate may be much higher, both of mothers and babies. Understanding this cultural ritual is necessary to devise effective countermeasures, like encouraging hand testing the bath water for its safety before commencing the baths. Better still, since all the scalded patients in the groups studied were illiterate housewives, formal education could disprove the need for these traditional and harmful hot baths to chase away the "cold" that has been falsely believed to be the cause of childbirth illnesses. [full text] PMID:12157981

Mabogunje, O A

1990-05-01

199

Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.  

PubMed

Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

2013-01-01

200

Column experiment to study isotope fractionation of volatile organic contaminants in porous media under unsaturated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents is common in industrialized countries. The use of stable isotope analysis is increasingly recognized as a powerful technique for investigating the behaviour of organic or inorganic contaminants. Recently, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven to be an effective tool to confirm and quantify in-situ biodegradation by indigenous microbial populations in groundwater.In contrast, only few studies have investigated the use of CSIA in the unsaturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the main potential applications of CSIA include the assessment of biodegradation and the fingerprinting of different sources of petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvents vapours. However, it has to be taken into account that isotope ratios in the unsaturated zone can vary due to diffusion and volatilization in addition to biodegradation. For application of isotope methods in the unsaturated zone, it is crucial to quantify isotopic fractionation resulting from physico-chemical and transport processes. The study is focused on laboratory experiments that investigate the effect of vaporization and diffusion on isotope ratios. The effect of diffusion is carried out using a column experiment setup that can be considered to represent VOC transport from a floating NAPL towards the atmosphere. Furthermore, additional column and batch experiments will be conducted to better understand the effect of biodegradation. Volatilization is studied with an other experimental setup. In addition, a mathematical framework was developed to simulate the isotope evolution in the column study. Since the initial experiments aimed at investigating the effect of vaporization and diffusion only, the column is filled with dry quartz sand in order to avoid perturbations of concentration profiles by humidity or adsorption on organic matter. An activated sand will later be used for the biodegradation experiments. A mixture of nine contaminants (pentane, MTBE, hexane, benzene, isooctane, methylcyclohexane, toluene, octane and xylene) that represents a wide range of hydrocarbons is emplaced in the column. Periodical measurements of concentrations and ?13C values were carried out in the source chamber and at different distances along the column. A depletion of 13C with distance is observed, which is due to faster diffusion of substances enriched in 12C. The shift of ?13C values towards more negative values is more significant during the first hours of the experiment. After some hours, the value stabilizes when a steady state is reached. These results fit well the analytical models. These results demonstrate that stable isotope profiles are reached under steady state conditions even though molecules with light isotopes only diffuse faster than molecules with heavy isotopes. This is an important finding for the application of isotope analysis to link VOC vapours to contaminant sources and to demonstrate reactive processes based on shifts in isotope ratios. Further experiments will be conducted to study the isotopic response to diffusion, vaporization and biodegradation of chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE) using quite a similar column setup. Stable hydrogen and chlorine isotopes will also be measured during the same experiments in order to better constrain the different processes and fingerprinting sources of contaminations.

Jeannottat, Simon; Hunkeler, Daniel; Breider, Florian

2010-05-01

201

ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

202

Transport of tritium and four organic compounds during a natural-gradient experiment (MADE-2)  

SciTech Connect

The transport and fate of aqueous benzene, naphthalene, [sup 14]C labelled p-xylene, o-dichlorobenzene, and tritium were investigated during a natural-gradient experiment. The study was initiated with a two-day pulse release of 9.7 m[sup 3] of tracer solution into the saturated zone of the heterogeneous alluvial aquifer at Columbus Air Force Base. Tracer plumes were subsequently monitored in three dimensions using multilevel samplers over a period of 15 months. The tritium plume was characterized by extreme skewness in the longitudinal direction resulting from the nonuniform mean velocity along the plume travel path. A longitudinal dispersivity of approximately 10 m was estimated by fitting the spatial moments of the tritium data to the advection-dispersion model for a nonuniform flow field of Adams and Gelhar [1992]. The four organic tracers were strongly affected by natural biotransformation. While the tritium activity recovery remained above 77 percent of injected activity during the experiment, mass recoveries for benzene, naphthalene, and p-xylene steadily declined reaching levels of from 1 to 6 percent after 440 days. A greater fraction (approximately 13 percent) of the o-dichlorobenzene remained after 440 days, consistent with its greater resistance to biodegradation. An aerobic biodegradation process was indicated by an examination of transformation by-products of the C p-xylene in groundwater samples near the end of the study which showed greater than 80 percent conversion to [sup 14]CO[sub 2]. Enhanced mixing of oxygen rich groundwater with the organic tracers produced by the extreme heterogeneity of the aquifer may have contributed to the high biodegradation rates observed. Results show that under certain conditions natural biodegradation may effectively reduce aqueous concentrations of organic contaminants.

Boggs, J.M.; Beard, L.M.; Waldrop, W.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States). Engineering Lab.); Stauffer, T.B.; MacIntyre, W.G.; Antworth, C.P. (Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States))

1993-03-01

203

Organic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

2007-12-07

204

Uncoupling of Bacterial and Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Decomposition Experiments  

PubMed Central

The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4–16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot efficiently utilize tDOM and that in subarctic estuaries other factors are responsible for the removal of imported tDOM.

Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jurgens, Klaus

2014-01-01

205

Uncoupling of bacterial and terrigenous dissolved organic matter dynamics in decomposition experiments.  

PubMed

The biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) exported to the sea has a major impact on the global carbon cycle, but our understanding of tDOM bioavailability is fragmentary. In this study, the effects of preparative tDOM isolation on microbial decomposition were investigated in incubation experiments consisting of mesocosms containing mesohaline water from the Baltic Sea. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, molecular DOM composition, bacterial activities, and shifts in bacterial community structure were compared between mesocosms supplemented with riverine tDOM, either as filtered, particle-free river water or as a concentrate obtained by lyophilization/tangential ultrafiltration, and those containing only Baltic Sea water or river water. As shown using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) covering approximately 4600 different DOM compounds, the three DOM preparation protocols resulted in distinct patterns of molecular DOM composition. However, despite DOC losses of 4-16% and considerable bacterial production, there was no significant change in DOM composition during the 28-day experiment. Moreover, tDOM addition affected neither DOC degradation nor bacterial dynamics significantly, regardless of the tDOM preparation. This result suggested that the introduced tDOM was largely not bioavailable, at least on the temporal scale of our experiment, and that the observed bacterial activity and DOC decomposition mainly reflected the degradation of unknown, labile, colloidal and low-molecular weight DOM, both of which escape the analytical window of FT-ICR-MS. In contrast to the different tDOM preparations, the initial bacterial inoculum and batch culture conditions determined bacterial community succession and superseded the effects of tDOM addition. The uncoupling of tDOM and bacterial dynamics suggests that mesohaline bacterial communities cannot efficiently utilize tDOM and that in subarctic estuaries other factors are responsible for the removal of imported tDOM. PMID:24718626

Herlemann, Daniel P R; Manecki, Marcus; Meeske, Christian; Pollehne, Falk; Labrenz, Matthias; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jürgens, Klaus

2014-01-01

206

A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine soil organic models were evaluated using twelve datasets from seven long-term experiments. Datasets represented three different land-uses (grassland, arable cropping and woodland) and a range of climatic conditions within the temperate region. Different treatments (inorganic fertilizer, organic manures and different rotations) at the same site allowed the effects of differing land management to be explored. Model simulations were evaluated

P. Smith; J. U. Smith; D. S. Powlson; W. B. McGill; J. R. M. Arah; O. G. Chertov; K. Coleman; U. Franko; S. Frolking; D. S. Jenkinson; L. S. Jensen; R. H. Kelly; H. Klein-Gunnewiek; A. S. Komarov; C. Li; J. A. E. Molina; T. Mueller; W. J. Parton; J. H. M. Thornley; A. P. Whitmore

1997-01-01

207

Formation of prebiotic organics in space: Its simulation on ground and conceptual design of space experiment in earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of prebiotic organics in outer space has been simulated on ground. In order to verify abiotic formation of such compounds in earth orbit, the concept of cosmobiology experiment was developed. Simulated interstellar ice over dust grains is exposed to vacuum ultraviolet light and other space environment to induce organic formation. A system configuration and its engineering specification were

H. Hashimoto; K. Ushio; T. Kaneko; K. Kobayashi; J. M. Greenberg; M. Yamashita; A. Brack; L. Colangeli; G. Horneck; Y. Ishikawa; A. Kouchi; R. Navarro-Gonzalez; T. Oshima; F. Raulin; T. Saito

2002-01-01

208

New experiment to model self-organized critical transport and accumulation of melt and hydrocarbons from their source rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, simple, and easily reproducible experiment was designed to simulate the pro- duction, accumulation, and transport of melt within rock. The transport was found to be of the self-organized critical type. The emergence of self-organized criticality is explained by the availability of hydrofracture propagation as a rapid or ballistic transport mecha- nism. This mechanism also serves as a mechanism

Paul D. Bons; Boudewijn P. van Milligen

2001-01-01

209

Effect of precursor concentration and bath temperature on the growth of chemical bath deposited tin sulphide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SnS is a promising candidate for a low-cost, non-toxic solar cell absorber layer. Tin sulphide thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a solution containing stannous chloride, thioacetamide, ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA). The effects of concentration of tin salt, triethanolamine and bath temperature on the growth of tin sulphide films have been investigated in order to optimize the growth conditions to obtain tin monosulphide (SnS) films. SnS films obtained under optimized conditions were found to be polycrystalline in nature with orthorhombic structure. The optical band gap of these films was found to be 1.5 eV.

Jayasree, Y.; Chalapathi, U.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

2012-01-01

210

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

211

Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

2007-03-01

212

HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during the Matroshka 2B experiment than in the previous phase it was not possible to attribute this observation to the lower Sun activity in 2008, since the locations inside the ISS were different. The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EUs Seventh Frame-work Programme (FP7) under Project Nr: 218817 and coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) http://www-fp7-hamlet.eu

Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

213

Electrodeposition of Ni–Co alloys from sulfamate baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the results of electrochemical investigations of Ni–Co deposition from a sulfamate bath in the presence of boric acid and two additives. The individual deposition of nickel was shown to be partly inhibited by the adsorption of sulfamate ions at low polarization; such inhibition was not observed for cobalt. The introduction of saccharin at 100 ppm, with a

S. Goldbach; R. de Kermadec; F. Lapicque

2000-01-01

214

Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

215

MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

216

Nitriding of steel in potassium nitrate salt bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potassium nitrate salt bath has been used for nitriding of interstitial-free steel. The nitriding behavior can be reasonably well described by nitrogen diffusion in iron. Most nitrogen is dissolved interstitially. During nitriding, a slight oxidation of the steel surface also takes place. The nitrided specimen achieves a pronounced solid–solution strengthening.

Y. Z. Shen; K. H. Oh; D. N. Lee

2005-01-01

217

Development of a new protocol for testing bath sponge quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the diverse morphological variation that occurs in sponges between and within species, protocols for quantitative quality testing are required to select sponges and optimise conditions for the aquaculture of high quality bath sponges. A protocol was developed to assess the quality of sponges using mechanical engineering techniques. It quantified the physical properties of sponges (density, fibre width, fibre

D. Louden; S. Inderbitzin; Z. Peng; R. de Nys

2007-01-01

218

Molecular analysis of methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane monooxygenase (MMO) is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. In addition, this enzyme complex oxidizes a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic compounds in a number of potentially useful biotransformations. In this study, we have used biochemical data obtained from purification and characterization of the soluble MMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), to

Andrew C. Stainthorpe; J. Colin Murrell; George P. C. Salmond; Howard Dalton; Veronica Lees

1989-01-01

219

Fungal and enzymatic decolourisation of artificial textile dye baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A textile dye Reactive Black 5 was used in screening 25 fungal strains for their decolourising ability. The most promising strains were tested in a medium containing specific constituents of a dye bath in order to approach real application conditions. It was shown that the concentrations of the constituents had to be reduced to allow fungal growth. Decolourisation started in

Martina Mohor?i?; Simona Teodorovi?; Vera Golob; Jožefa Friedrich

2006-01-01

220

VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

221

Low-Temperature Salt Bath Nitriding of Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitriding technology has gone a long way, from the old gas nitriding to the relatively recently developed plasma nitriding. The latter has replaced the process of “soft nitriding” in the automotive industry based on nitrocarburizing in cyanide salt baths. It seemed that the high toxicity of the initially used compositions for soft nitriding (Tufftride or Tenifer) should have eliminated salt

K. Funatani

2004-01-01

222

Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

Zhao, N.; Yang, W.; Ho, S. W.; Hu, J. L.; Wan, J. T. K.; Liu, R. B. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

2011-12-23

223

Semiconductor and ceramic nanoparticle films deposited by chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been used to deposit films of metal sulfides, selenides and oxides, together with some miscellaneous compounds, beginning nearly 140 years ago. While it is a well-known technique in a few specific areas (notably photoconductive lead salt detectors, photoelectrodes and more recently, thin film solar cells), it is by and large an under-appreciated technique. The more

Gary Hodes

2007-01-01

224

MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

225

19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

226

Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

227

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

228

Removal of trace organic chemicals in onsite wastewater soil treatment units: a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

Onsite wastewater treatment is used by 20% of residences in the United States. The ability of these systems, specifically soil treatment units (STUs), to attenuate trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) is not well understood. TOrCs released by STUs pose a potential risk to downstream groundwater and hydraulically-connected surface water that may be used as a drinking water source. A series of bench-scale experiments were conducted using sand columns to represent STUs and to evaluate the efficacy of TOrC attenuation as a function of hydraulic loading rate (1, 4, 8, 12, and 30 cm/day). Each hydraulic loading rate was examined using triplicate experimental columns. Columns were initially seeded with raw wastewater to establish a microbial community, after which they were fed with synthetic wastewater and spiked with 17 TOrCs, in four equal doses per day, to provide a consistent influent water quality. After an initial start-up phase, effluent from all columns consistently demonstrated >90% reductions in dissolved organic carbon and nearly complete (>85%) oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, comparable to the performance of field STUs. The results of this study suggest STUs are capable of attenuating many TOrCs present in domestic wastewater, but attenuation is compound-specific. A subset of TOrCs exhibited an inverse relationship with hydraulic loading rate and attenuation efficiency. Atenolol, cimetidine, and TCPP were more effectively attenuated over time in each experiment, suggesting that the microbial community evolved to a stage where these TOrCs were more effectively biotransformed. Aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic conditions resulted in more efficient attenuation of acetaminophen and cimetidine. PMID:22871318

Teerlink, Jennifer; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Higgins, Christopher P; Drewes, Jörg E

2012-10-15

229

The Influences of Dissolved Organic Matter on Mercury Biogeochemistry in Mesocosm Experiments in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of mercury (Hg) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) play important roles in controlling reactivity, bioavailability and transport of Hg in aquatic systems. Laboratory experiments using a variety of organic matter isolates from surface waters in the Florida Everglades indicate that DOM binds Hg very strongly and is the dominant ligand for Hg in the absence of sulfide. These experiments have also shown that the presence of DOM influences the geochemical behavior of cinnabar (HgS) through the stabilization of nanocolloidal HgS resulting in relatively high Hg concentrations under supersaturated conditions with respect to HgS, a common condition in waters containing measurable sulfide concentrations. In this paper, the results of in-situ mesocosm experiments designed to directly measure the effects of DOM -Hg interactions on Hg biogeochemistry will be described. In these experiments, mesocosms (wetland enclosures), located in the central Everglades region of Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA 3A15), were amended with isotopically enriched Hg (200Hg, 202Hg), sulfate (SO4=) and the hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction of DOM from a site (F1) in the eutrophic northern Everglades. The use of stable isotope spikes in these studies allowed us to examine the delivery of Hg to surface soils (which are the predominant zones of methylation); partitioning of Hg and MeHg among phases (which impacts bioavailability); net MeHg production; loss of Hg and MeHg through photodemethylation, reduction and volatization; and bioaccumulation. The F1 HPOA isolate, obtained using XAD resins, was more aromatic, had a greater specific ultra-violet absorbance and had previously been shown to be more reactive with Hg than the DOM present at the 3A15 site. The F1 HPOA isolate formed strong DOM-Hg complexes (KDOM') = 1023.2 L kg-1 at pH = 7.0 and I = 0.1) and effectively inhibited the precipitation of HgS in laboratory experiments. Select mesocosms were amended with either F1-HPOA or SO4= resulting in a range of concentrations for each constituent. For the DOM amended mesocosms, DOC concentrations increased from 50-100% and the overall SUVA increased from 2.9 to 3.7 L mg C-1 m-1 relative to control mesocosms, indicating that both the concentration and overall reactivity of the DOM in the amended mesocosms had been altered substantially. In these mesocosms, the concentrations of both ambient and isotopically enriched dissolved Hg increased significantly compared to controls. Greater concentrations of both dissolved ambient and labeled methylmercury were also observed in the DOM amended mesocosms indicating that the added DOM increased Hg bioavailabilty of both Hg pools for methylation. In addition, DOM shielded Hg and MeHg from photodemethylation and volatilization, however, it inhibited subsequent MeHg bioaccumulation. Overall, the addition of DOM resulted in increased concentrations of labeled methylmercury comparable to those measured in mesocosms amended with SO4= suggesting that DOM is an important constituent influencing the methylation of Hg. This effect is likely due to increased concentrations of dissolved Hg in the DOM amended mesocosms.

Aiken, G. R.; Gilmour, C. A.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Orem, W.

2007-12-01

230

Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

2006-12-01

231

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer.  

PubMed

Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies' thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts - the reorganization shift - to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates. PMID:24985614

Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-06-28

232

Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

1993-02-01

233

The association of weather and bathing water quality on the incidence of gastrointestinal illness in the west of Scotland.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The associations with weather and bathing water quality on infectious intestinal disease (IID) were investigated using data from two Scottish NHS Board areas. Monthly counts of viral and non-viral gastrointestinal infections were modelled as a smooth function of temperature, relative humidity and average monthly counts of faecal indicator organisms, respectively, adjusting for season and long-term trend effects. Strong seasonal patterns were observed for each group of pathogens. Peak viral gastrointestinal infection was in May while that of non-viral gastrointestinal infections was in July. A statistically significant negative association existed between weather (temperature and humidity) and viral infection. Average levels of non-viral gastrointestinal infections increased as temperature and relative humidity increased. Increasing levels of faecal indicator organisms in bathing waters were also associated with an increase in the average number of viral and non-viral gastrointestinal infections at the ecological level. Future climate change and prolonged precipitation events may result in increasing levels of faecal indicator organisms in bathing waters leading to likely increases in IIDs. PMID:24007797

Eze, J I; Scott, E M; Pollock, K G; Stidson, R; Miller, C A; Lee, D

2014-06-01

234

CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a substantial decline in SOM with 90% of crop residue removal for 50 years under various rotations at Columbia, MO and Champaign, IL. An increase in SOM following addition of manure was also well simulated. However, the model underestimated SOM for a fertilized treatment at Columbia. We estimated that a minimum of 8.0 Mg/ha/yr of crop residue and organic amendments (4.0 Mg C ha/yr) was required to prevent a decline in SOM at the Morrow Plots in Champaign, IL. More studies are needed to evaluate the CQESTR model's performance in predicting the amount of crop residue required to maintain the SOM concentration in different soils under a wide range of management and climatic conditions. Given the high correlation of simulated and observed SOM changes, CQESTR can be used to consider a wide range of scenarios before making recommendations or implementing proposed changes. CQESTR in conjunction with the local conditions can guide planning and development of sustainable crop and soil management practices.

Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

2009-04-01

235

Modes of Organic Matter Burial in Mudstones - Observations from Flume Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burial of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments is one of the key geological pathways for global carbon sequestration and intimately linked to levels of atmospheric oxygen and global climate. Carbonaceous mudstones are the sedimentary rock type that records this process in the rock record, and it was long thought that these rocks bear witness to situations where marine snow (OM from surface waters) and mineral matter (mostly clays) settled through oxygen deficient stagnant bottom waters to the seafloor. An increasing number of black shale successions, however, shows evidence of deposition from bottom currents that transported flocculated muds in bedload. Such a mode of deposition seems initially incompatible with enhanced organic matter preservation, particularly in the case of many ancient black shales that accumulated in shallow shelf seas. Upon further consideration, however, accumulation of bedload transported flocculated clay-organic aggregates (dynamic mode) may actually enhance organic matter preservation when compared to gravity settled (passive mode) accumulations of marine snow and mineral grains. Based on the TEM study of experimental sediments where simulated marine-snow and clays were deposited from moving suspensions as well as via gravity settling, we find that flow-deposited OM-clay mixtures show indications of roll-aggregation by floccules and a less porous fabric, whereas still-water settled muds show a more "open" pore structure. In the latter case the microfabric is characterized by dispersed clumps of OM and clays, whereas the microfabrics of flow deposited OM-clay mixtures show small scale OM-bridges between clay particles and OM "coatings" on clays. We propose that the differences in OM-clay association and pore structure exert a significant difference on the way in which the OM in these sediments will be bacterially processed in surface sediments and on how much of the initial OM is likely to enter the rock record. The temperature of depositing flows may also affect how sediment is deposited and what microfabrics we might expect to see in the rock record. Experiments conducted with water cooled to deep ocean temperatures showed a significant change in depositional behavior due to the approximately 50% higher viscosity of cold (5 degrees Celsius) vs warm (23 degrees Celsius) water. The parallel increase in shear stress lowers the critical velocity of sedimentation for the sediments (from 20 cm/sec to 13.5 cm/sec). Further study may reveal significant differences in depositional fabrics between mudstones that were deposited in a warm water environment (tropical shelf) vs. a cold water environment (arctic shelf, deep sea).

Schieber, J.; Schimmelmann, A.; Bennett, R.; Curry, K.; Douglas, J.

2012-12-01

236

Feasibility Study for the Continuous Automated Analysis and Control of Phosphatizing Baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of automating production phosphate coating process baths were studied. The study comprised a detailed examination of the analysis and control requirements. Continuous automated analysis and control of phosphate baths are feasible. Analytic...

E. P. Parry R. L. Myers

1972-01-01

237

78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath Seats AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...information for the safety standard for infant bath seats. The Office of Management...consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler products. These...

2013-08-30

238

Characteristics of metal fluctuation caused by bath-metal interface oscillation in aluminum electrolysis cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bath-metal interface oscillation reduces the stability and efficiency of Hall-Héroult cells. However, the oscillation characteristics have not been understood in detail. A well-designed probe and an online monitor system were designed for monitoring the metal fluctuation. Experiments and analyses show the metal fluctuation can be captured, and a corresponding relationship between anode-cathode distance (ACD) and anode rod voltage drop (UD) have been found. The stack phenomena of the fluctuation have been found as well. Analysis shows that the wave length (around 8 m in this experiment) is much bigger than the anode size; however, the wave velocity (around 0.27 m/s in this experiment) is relatively low. Because of the waves transmitting, anode current changes periodically but the cell voltage remains near constant when the metal is fluctuating.

Zhang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Naijun; Li, Hesong

2010-11-01

239

ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ASIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAIWAN EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Bulletin discusses recent trends and development in organic agriculture in the Asian region, with special focus on the case of Taiwan. In the last few years, organic agriculture has increased rapidly worldwide. The global organic food sale was estimated to be US$26 billion in 2003. Japan has the third largest market for organic foods next to EU and the

Sung-Ching Hsieh

240

Formation rates of complex organics in UV irradiated CH_3OH-rich ices. I. Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Gas-phase complex organic molecules are commonly detected in the warm inner regions of protostellar envelopes, so-called hot cores. Recent models show that photochemistry in ices followed by desorption may explain the observed abundances. There is, however, a general lack of quantitative data on UV-induced complex chemistry in ices. Aims: This study aims to experimentally quantify the UV-induced production rates of complex organics in CH3OH-rich ices under a variety of astrophysically relevant conditions. Methods: The ices are irradiated with a broad-band UV hydrogen microwave-discharge lamp under ultra-high vacuum conditions, at 20-70 K, and then heated to 200 K. The reaction products are identified by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), through comparison with RAIRS and TPD curves of pure complex species, and through the observed effects of isotopic substitution and enhancement of specific functional groups, such as CH3, in the ice. Results: Complex organics are readily formed in all experiments, both during irradiation and during the slow warm-up of the ices after the UV lamp is turned off. The relative abundances of photoproducts depend on the UV fluence, the ice temperature, and whether pure CH3OH ice or CH3OH:CH4/CO ice mixtures are used. C2H6, CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3, HOCH2CHO and (CH2OH)2 are all detected in at least one experiment. Varying the ice thickness and the UV flux does not affect the chemistry. The derived product-formation yields and their dependences on different experimental parameters, such as the initial ice composition, are used to estimate the CH3OH photodissociation branching ratios in ice and the relative diffusion barriers of the formed radicals. At 20 K, the pure CH3OH photodesorption yield is 2.1(±1.0)×10-3 per incident UV photon, the photo-destruction cross section 2.6(±0.9)×10-18 cm^2. Conclusions: Photochemistry in CH3OH ices is efficient enough to explain the observed abundances of complex organics around protostars. Some complex molecules, such as CH3CH2OH and CH3OCH3, form with a constant ratio in our ices and this can can be used to test whether complex gas-phase molecules in astrophysical settings have an ice-photochemistry origin. Other molecular ratios, e.g. HCO-bearing molecules versus (CH2OH)2, depend on the initial ice composition and temperature and can thus be used to investigate when and where complex ice molecules form. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Öberg, K. I.; Garrod, R. T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

2009-09-01

241

Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views  

PubMed Central

Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study). Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment) Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex), mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student's t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations.

Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Gupta, Babita; Balakrishnan, Ira; Vij, Aarti

2013-01-01

242

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter during the Mackenzie River spring freshet: Observations and freeze-thaw experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Arctic rivers is characterized by highly seasonal changes in concentrations, fluxes and composition. However, there is still relatively little knowledge of variations in riverine DOM during the spring freshet, when export of DOM is generally highest. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption spectra have been shown to be useful indicators of concentrations and quality of DOM in high-latitude rivers. Here, we present ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of CDOM, collected during the 2011 spring freshet on the Mackenzie River. The Mackenzie River is a major source of DOM to the coastal Beaufort Sea, delivering nearly 500 kilotons of carbon within the two month spring freshet. A high-resolution time series was collected from the East Channel in the Mackenzie River delta, along with lower-resolution time series of small upland rivers, large tributaries, and the Mackenzie main stem upriver of the delta region. CDOM concentrations, reported as a400, ranged from 1.6 to 26.9 m-1 (average 10.06 ± 4.9 m-1). Spectral slopes (S), which can be used to assess sources and molecular weight of CDOM, correlated well with concentrations. S was generally lower and less variable in small upland rivers than in the Mackenzie or its larger tributaries. These results suggest that the quality and composition of DOM vary substantially during the spring freshet period in the Mackenzie River. In addition, freeze-thaw experiments were conducted to determine whether frozen, archived water can provide reliable measurements of CDOM, regardless of initial DOM quantity or quality. Samples from the six largest Arctic rivers have been collected and archived since 2003, yet it is still unknown whether CDOM measurements from thawed samples are comparable to absorbance immediately after sample collection. Initial results from the Mackenzie river indicate that absorbance in the ultra-violet spectrum is not greatly impacted by freezing. In addition, experiments show that sonication of thawed samples can remedy flocculation and improve the reliability of visible spectrum absorbance. After corrections for freeze-thaw cycles, archived samples will be used to develop algorithms estimating DOM concentrations from satellite remote sensing, and produce spatially explicit time series of DOM variations in large arctic rivers.

Griffin, C. G.; McClelland, J. W.; Vonk, J. E.; Holmes, R. M.; Frey, K. E.

2012-04-01

243

33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133...110.133 Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds...with the north side of Commerce Street, Bath, Maine, to a point on the shore...

2010-07-01

244

The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

Duda, Marty

1987-01-01

245

Oxygen-enriched air for co-incineration of organic sludges with municipal solid waste: A pilot plant experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-plant experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of oxygen enrichment on the co-incineration of MSW and organic sludge from a wastewater treatment facility. Combustion chamber temperatures, stack gas concentrations, i.e., CO2 and CO, and the residual oxygen were measured. The maximum ratio of organic sludge waste to total waste input was 30wt.%. Oxygen-enriched air, 22vol.% (dry basis) oxygen, was

Sungmin Chin; Jongsoo Jurng; Jae-Heon Lee; Jin-Huek Hur

2008-01-01

246

Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

Stanturf, J. A.

1980-01-01

247

Optimization of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulfide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is known to be an excellent heterojunction partner of p-type cadmium telluride (CdTe) or p-type copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) due essentially to its high electron affinity. It is widely used as a window material in high efficiency thin-film solar cells based on CdTe or CuInSe{sub 2} owing to its transparency and photoconductivity among other properties. The authors report the optimization of CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition where homogeneous reactions are minimized. The optimum parameters have enabled them to maximize the thickness of the deposited film in a single dip and to grow thicker films by periodically replenishing the concentration of reactants while the substrate remains continuously dipped in the reaction bath. Characterization results reveal the deposited CdS films exhibit improved optical and electrical properties.

Oladeji, I.O.; Chow, L. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-07-01

248

Water Bath and Contact Methods in Ultrasonic Evaluation of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic devices for the measurement of speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) generally use either a contact or water bath method. The aim of this study was to compare these two methods while determining the influence of soft tissue, pathlength (heel width and bone width), and a fixed heel dimension on SOS (m\\/second) and BUA (dB\\/MHz). Ultrasonic

K. D. Häusler; P. A. Rich; E. B. Barry

1997-01-01

249

Membrane-Associated Quinoprotein Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obli- gate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 mol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium

JAMES A. ZAHN; DAVID J. BERGMANN; JEFFERY M. BOYD; RYAN C. KUNZ; ALAN A. DISPIRITO

2001-01-01

250

Entangling two unequal atoms through a common bath  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of two, noninteracting, two-level atoms immersed in a weakly coupled bath can be described by a refined, time-coarse-grained Markovian evolution, still preserving complete positivity. We find that this improved, reduced dynamics is able to entangle the two atoms even when their internal frequencies are unequal, an effect that appears impossible in the standard weak-coupling-limit approach. We study in detail this phenomenon for an environment made of quantum fields.

Benatti, F.; Marzolino, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy)

2010-01-15

251

Sliding wear behavior of salt bath nitrocarburized medium carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt bath nitrocarburizing is a well-known thermochemical diffusion process for enhancing the tribological and corrosion properties\\u000a of ferrous components. The current work describes the role of a compound layer developed during nitrocarburizing, both in\\u000a the ferritic and austenitic regimes of Fe-N-C system, on the sliding wear behavior of a medium carbon steel. The wear behavior\\u000a of the nitrocarburized steel discs

P. Bala Srinivasan; C. V. Krishnakumar; N. Krishnaraj

2002-01-01

252

Chemical bath deposition of tin selenide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin selenide thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide glass slides in alkaline medium. The method is based on simple bath deposition technique that requires less chemicals and monitoring. Uniform and well-adhered films were obtained upon required deposition period. X-ray, morphology, optical and photoelectrochemical study was carried out for the as-deposited film. The films were polycrystalline and covered

Z Zainal; N Saravanan; K Anuar; M. Z Hussein; W. M. M Yunus

2004-01-01

253

Monitoring bathing beach water quality using composite sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michigan water quality standards for public bathing beaches require local health departments to collect and analyze a minimum\\u000a of three water samples for Escherichia coli during each sampling event. The geometric mean number of E. coli colonies is then compared to the 300 colonies per 100 ml standard to determine compliance. This article compares the results\\u000a of the currently mandated procedure

Jeffrey D. Reicherts; Charles William Emerson

2010-01-01

254

Volatile organic compound emissions from latex paint--Part 1. Chamber experiments and source model development.  

PubMed

Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken to develop methods for evaluating the impact of latex paint emission on IAQ. Small chamber experiments using stainless steel and painted and unpainted gypsum board substrates were conducted to determine the emission characteristics of latex paint. The emissions from the stainless steel were relatively short lived (3 to 4 days), whereas the emissions from gypsum board lasted for over 200 days. Because gypsum board is a common substrate for latex paint, all emission models were developed for the gypsum board substrates. The data from the small chamber tests led to the development of two empirical and two mass-transfer-based source emission models. Approximately 100 to 200 days of data were required to estimate the parameters required for the empirical models. Only 8 days of data were required to estimate the parameters for the mass-transfer-based models. The final models use paint formulation and mass transfer correlations to predict the emissions of the major individual volatile organic compounds emitted by latex paint. PMID:10195271

Sparks, L E; Guo, Z; Chang, J C; Tichenor, B A

1999-03-01

255

Ion Bombardment Experiments Suggesting an Origin for Organic Particles in Pre-Cometary and Cometary Ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple molecules frozen as mantles of interstellar and circumstellar grains and incorporated into comets are subjected to ion bombardment in the form of cosmic rays, stellar flares, stellar winds, and ions accelerated in stellar wind shocks. The total expected dosage for the variety of situations range from 10 eV/molecule for interplanetary dust subjected to solar flares to 10(exp 6) eV/molecule for material in the T Tauri environment. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, we have bombarded frozen gases in the temperature range of 10 K to 30 K with 175 keV protons. After irradiation, removal of the ice by sublimation at an elevated temperature in vacuum reveals a fluffy residue. These experiments suggest that processes resulting in the formation of organic particles found in the coma of Comet Halley, "CHON", may have included ion bombardment. Also, the moderate energy (100 keV to 500 keV) shock accelerated ion environment of bipolar outflow of stars in the planetary nebula stage such as the Red Rectangle, could produce complex molecular species which emit the observed unidentified infrared bands at 3.3 micro-m, 6.2 micro-m, 7.7 micro-m, 8.6 micro-m, and 11.3 micro-m.

Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

1997-01-01

256

The FLAME Deluge: organic aerosol emission ratios from combustion chamber experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high level of variability has been identified amongst organic aerosol (OA) emission ratios (ER) from biomass burning (BB) under ambient conditions. However, it is difficult to assess the influences of potential drivers for this variability, given the wide range of conditions associated with wildfire measurements. Chamber experiments performed under controlled conditions provide a means of examining the effects of different fuel types and combustion conditions on OA emissions from biomass fuels. ERs have been characterised for 67 burns during the second Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME II), involving 19 different species from 6 fuel types widely consumed in BB events in the US each year. Average normalised dOA/dCO ratios show a high degree of variability, both between and within different fuel types and species, typically exceeding variability between separate plumes in ambient measurements. Relationships with source conditions were found to be complex, with little consistent influence from fuel properties and combustion conditions for the entire range of experiments. No strong correlation across all fires was observed between dOA/dCO and modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is used as an indicator of the proportional contributions of flaming and smouldering combustion phases throughout each burn. However, a negative correlation exists between dOA/dCO and MCE for some coniferous species, most notably Douglas fir, for which there is also an apparent influence from fuel moisture content. Significant contrasts were also identified between combustion emissions from different fuel components of additional coniferous species. Changes in fire efficiency were also shown to dramatically alter emissions for fires with very similar initial conditions. Although the relationship with MCE is variable between species, there is greater consistency with the level of oxygenation in OA. The ratio of the m/z 44 fragment to total OA mass concentration (f44) as measured by aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) provides an indication of oxygenation as influenced by combustion processes at source, with dOA/dCO decreasing with increasing f44 for all fuel types. Inconsistencies in the magnitude of the effects associated with each potential influence on dOA/dCO emphasise the lack of a single dominant control on fire emissions, and a dependency on both fuel properties and combustion conditions.

Jolleys, Matthew; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; McMeeking, Gavin; Lee, Taehyoung; Sullivan, Amy; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Collett, Jeff

2014-05-01

257

Blackbody radiation: rosetta stone of heat bath models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation field can be regarded as a collection of independent harmonic oscillators and, as such, constitutes a heat bath. Moreover, the known form of its interaction with charged particles provides a "rosetta stone" for deciding on and interpreting the correct interaction for the more general case of a quantum particle in an external potential and coupled to an arbitrary heat bath. In particular, combining QED with the machinery of stochastic physics, enables the usual scope of applications to be widened. We discuss blackbody radiation effects on: the equation of motion of a radiating electron (obtaining an equation of motion which is free from runaway solutions), anomalous diffusion, the spreading of a Gaussian wave packet, and decoherence effects due to zero-point oscillations. In addition, utilizing a formula we obtained for the free energy of an oscillator in a heat bath, enables us to determine all the quantum thermodynamic functions of interest (particularly in the areas of quantum information and nanophysics where small systems are involved) and from which we obtain temperature dependent Lamb shifts, quantum effects on the entropy at low temperature and implications for Nernst's law.

O'Connell, R. F.

2007-07-01

258

Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

2012-10-01

259

Affecting non-Markovian behaviour by changing bath structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many open quantum systems, a master equation approach employing the Markov approximation cannot reliably describe the dynamical behaviour. This is the case, for example, in a number of solid state or biological systems, and it has motivated a line of research aimed at quantifying the amount of non-Markovian behaviour (NMB) in a given model. Within this framework, we investigate the dynamics of a quantum harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a bosonic bath. We focus on Gaussian states, which are suitably treated using a covariance matrix approach. Concentrating on an entanglement based NMB quantifier (NMBQ) proposed by Rivas et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 050403), we consider the role that near resonant and off-resonant modes play in affecting the NMBQ. By using a large but finite bath of oscillators for both Ohmic and super Ohmic spectral densities we find, by systematically increasing the coupling strength, initially the near resonant modes provide the most significant non-Markovian effects, while after a certain threshold of coupling strength the off-resonant modes play the dominant role. We also consider the NMBQ for two other models where we add a single strongly coupled oscillator to the model in extra bath mode and ‘buffer’ configurations, which affects the modes that determine NMB.

Venkataraman, V.; Plato, A. D. K.; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Kim, M. S.

2014-01-01

260

Organics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

1978-01-01

261

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

262

[An interdisciplinary approach of the organ donation decision: the Lausanne's experience].  

PubMed

Since 2007, the Interdisciplinary Ethics Platform (Ethos) of the University of Lausanne is leading an interdisciplinary reflection on the organ donation decision. On this basis, the project "Organ transplantation between the rhetoric of the gift and a biomedical view of the body" studies the logics at stake in the organ donation decision-making process. Results highlight many tensions within practices and public discourses in the field of organ donation and transplantation and suggest lines of inquiry for future adjustments. PMID:24383251

Bosisio, Francisca; Merminod, Gilles; Burger, Marcel; Pascual, Manuel; Moretti, Dianne; Benaroyo, Lazare

2013-11-27

263

Aerosol and gas phase organic acids during aging of secondary organic aerosol from ?-pinene in smog chamber experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids represent an important class of organic compounds in the atmosphere for both the gas and aerosol phase. They are either emitted directly from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources or formed as oxidation products from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and precursors in the aqueous, gaseous and particle phase (Chebbi & Carlier, 1996) Monoterpenes are a prominent class of VOCs with annual emissions of 127 Tg per year (Guenther et al., 1995). Because of their high formation potential of secondary organic aerosols, several compounds of this class, particularly a-pinene, have been investigated extensively in many laboratory studies. Among other acids, cis-pinic and cis-pinonic acid have been found as products of a-pinene ozonolysis. Ma et al. (2007) published evidence that these organic acids are formed in the gas phase via Criegee Intermediates (CIs). Recently, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) was identified by Szmigielski et al. (2007) as a product from a-pinene photooxidation, as well as diaterpenylic acid acetate (Iinuma et al., 2009) and terpenylic acid (Claeys et al., 2009). These compounds could serve as tracers for a-pinene in ambient samples. The present work sets its focus on the fate of a-pinene SOA organic acids under different aging conditions. (1) low NOx concentration (2) high NOx concentration (3) exposure to OH radicals in both dark and lighted environments. a-pinene SOA is produced by ozonolysis without OH scavenger in the PSI smog chamber. It consists of a 27m3 Teflon® bag that can be irradiated by four Xe arc lamps to simulate sunlight (Paulsen et al., 2004). The organic acids are sampled with a wet effluent diffusion denuder (WEDD) and an aerosol collector (AC) for the gas phase and the aerosol particles, respectively. WEDD and AC samples are alternatively concentrated for 30 minutes on a trace anion concentrator (TAC) column (Dionex, Switzerland) and subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (IC/MS). This system is described in more details by Fisseha et al. (2004). The results show that the cis-pinonic acid gas phase concentration increases rapidly in the presence of NOx, while it stays more or less constant upon OH exposure. On the other hand, cis-pinic acid concentration in aerosol decreases in presence of NOx but is nearly constant during OH exposure. 3-Methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) is also formed during ozonolysis and demonstrates a strong concentration increase for all aging conditions. This partially agrees with a recent publication of Szmigielski et al. (2007), where MBTCA is thought to be formed in the presence of NOx, but this gives evidence that MBTCA can also be formed via another mechanism without NOx. Moreover, after exposure of cis-pinonic acid to OH radicals produced in the dark, MBTCA is detected, confirming that cis-pinonic acid is involved in the mechanism formation of MBTCA. The Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) tends to overestimates the amount of organic acids formed. Therefore, inclusion of new reaction mechanisms and species that are not yet included will help to improve the present knowledge of the organic acids formation pathways. Chebbi, A., & Carlier, P. (1996). Atmos. Environ., 30, 4233-4249. Claeys, M., et al. (2009). Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6976-6982. Fisseha, R., et al. (2004). Anal. Chem., 76, 6535-6540. Guenther, A., et al. (1995). J Geophys Res., 100, 8873-8892. Iinuma, Y., et al. (2009). Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 280-285. Jang, M. J., & Kamens, R. M. (1999). Atmos. Environ., 33, 459-474. Lee, S., & Kamens, R. M. (2005). Atmos Environ., 39, 6822-6832. Ma, Y., et al. (2007). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 9, 5084-5087. Paulsen, D., et al. (2005). Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 2668-2678. Szmigielski, R., et al. (2007). Geophys Res. Lett., 34, L24811, doi:10.1029/2007GL031338. Yu, J., et al. (1999). J. Atmos. Chem., 34, 207-258.

Praplan, Arnaud P.; Tritscher, Torsten; Barmet, Peter; Mertes, Peter; Decarlo, Peter F.; Dommen, Josef; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Baltensperger, Urs

2010-05-01

264

Water bath and contact methods in ultrasonic evaluation of bone.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic devices for the measurement of speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) generally use either a contact or water bath method. The aim of this study was to compare these two methods while determining the influence of soft tissue, pathlength (heel width and bone width), and a fixed heel dimension on SOS (m/second) and BUA (dB/MHz). Ultrasonic measurements were made using a CUBA Research system utilizing a pair of 1 MHz unfocused transducers with mean precision CV = 0.7% and 6.0% for all SOS and BUA measurements, respectively. SOS and BUA were determined in 24 human cadaveric heels under three conditions: contact method (heel intact), water bath method (heel intact), water bath method (no soft tissue). Although there were significant differences between measurements using contact and water bath techniques (heel intact), their correlations were high (r = 0.858 for SOS and r = 0. 937 for BUA; P < 0.001). After removal of soft tissue, SOS significantly increased (78 m/second; P < 0.001) whereas there was no change in BUA (P > 0.05). Heel width correlated with SOS measurements (-0.224 < r < -0.347; P < 0.001) and bone width correlated with BUA measurements (0.198 < r < 0.276; P < 0.001). The practice of using a fixed heel dimension (Lunar Achilles) was investigated by comparing SOS calculated with measured heel thickness and a value of 4 cm (Lunar Achilles). SOS increased by 42 m/second (2.7%) using the fixed heel dimension compared with measured heel widths. This study demonstrates the similarity between contact and water bath-based methods, while showing that the presence of soft tissue reduces SOS but has no effect on BUA. The use of a fixed heel dimension for calculation of SOS overestimates values obtained when using measured heel dimensions, though the values correlate highly (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). In addition, an increase in heel width tends to cause an underestimation of SOS whereas an increase in bone width tends to overestimate BUA, although the effects are relatively small. PMID:9192507

Häusler, K D; Rich, P A; Barry, E B

1997-07-01

265

Noninteracting classical spins coupled to a heat bath of one-dimensional classical harmonic oscillators: Exact bath variable average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of noninteracting classical spins coupled to the modes of a chain of one-dimensional classical harmonic oscillators via - S z ? c k x k was investigated to see whether the spin-bath coupling could relax the spins toward equilibrium. We considered two different cases for the initial conditions on the classical harmonic oscillator variables when we took the harmonic oscillator bath variable averages for the total spin components. In the first case, the harmonic oscillators were initially in equilibrium while they did not recognize the presence of the spin, whereas in the second case, the spins were in equilibrium and did recognize the presence of the spin. For the first case, the bath variable averages of the x- and the y-components of the total spin showed that the effective angular velocity transiently slowed down after an initial increase; then, it recovered its initial angular velocity continually. In the second case, the effective angular velocity was fixed. For both cases, the z-component of the total spin vector remained constant. If the x- and the y-components of the single spins were randomly distributed, we would get equilibrium values. For the z-components of single spins, unless they are at equilibrium from the beginning, they do not attain equilibrium.

Oh, Suhk Kun

2013-11-01

266

Electrodeposited Fe-Ni films prepared from a tartaric-acid-based bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we reported a citric-acid-based plating bath is one of the hopeful plating baths for obtaining Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties. In this report, hydroxylic acid of tartaric acid, which belongs to the same acid group at citric acid, was applied to prepare the films, and the effects of tartaric acid on the magnetic and the structural properties were investigated. Although the overall trend of the effects obtained for tartaric acid resembles our previous results for the citricacid-based bath, the cathode efficiency for the tartaric-acid-based bath shows a slightly higher value as compared with that for the citric-acid-based bath. From these results, we conclude that the tartaric-acid-based bath is also an environmentally friendly plating bath.

Shimokawa, T.; Yanai, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.; Suzuki, K.

2013-06-01

267

Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond  

PubMed Central

Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond at room temperature that is composed of electron spins of substitutional nitrogen impurities. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, by combining spin bath control with dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for fundamental studies on decoherence and enable novel avenues for spin-based magnetometry and quantum information processing.

de Lange, Gijs; van der Sar, Toeno; Blok, Machiel; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Hanson, Ronald

2012-01-01

268

Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk soil. Differences in the abundance of lignin monomers, hydroxyl acids, n-alkanols and n-fatty acid methyl esters measured by GC MS before and after the incubation indicated selective degradation and preservation patterns at the molecular scale.

Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

2010-05-01

269

Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

270

The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

2014-01-01

271

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

272

You Stab My Back, I'll Stab Yours: Management Experience and Perceptions of Organization Political Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a survey of 250 British managers, exploring their experience and perceptions of organization politics. Political behaviour appeared to be common. Most managers viewed political behaviour as ethical and necessary, and aspects of organizational effectiveness, change, resourcing and reputation were attributed to political tactics, although 80% had no training in this area. Tactics experienced frequently

David A. Buchanan

2008-01-01

273

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

274

Fertilization effects on soil organic matter turnover in a long term experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural management practices such as residues application, level and kind of fertilization and amendment, tillage intensity can affect the capacity of soil to sequester and incorporate carbon (C). These practices also influence both above-ground and below-ground plant production and, as a consequence, the amount of C that enters the soil. However, studing the dyamics of C inputs in soils and the effects of the agricultural management practices on C incorporation in soil organic matter (SOM) requires long-term field experiments. The long-term field experiment in Cadriano, at the University of Bologna, Italy, started in 1966 and still in progress, compares two continuous rotations of corn and wheat, interacting with two cattle manure supplies (M0: no manure - M1: 20 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material) and two mineral NP rates (N0P0: no NP fertilizers - N1P1: 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 plus 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 for wheat and maize, respectively). The experimental design is a split-plot replicated twice, with fertilizer sub-plots of 56 m2 of area each. The field is annually ploughed to 40 cm depth. Crop residues are always removed, with the exception of roots and stubbles. By using the delta 13C technique we measured the amount of corn-derived C retained over a 36-years period in total soil organic C (SOC) and in the humic fraction that is referred as the most stable pool of SOC. These amounts were compared with the total inputs of belowground C (roots and rhizodepositions) in order to highlight if the capacity of soil to stabilize the new C inputs can be affected by the different fertilization practices. The results showed that the amount of corn-derived C in SOC increased in the following order: control (20.5%), Mineral (25%) Manure (29.4%), the same trend was observed for the humic fraction. On the contrary the cumulative C input over the same period followed a different order, the highest was obtained for the mineral treatment, than for the manure and the control treatment. The higher C input measured with the mineral fertilization did not imply also a greater C stabilization, probably because the greater availability of nutrients could have stimulated greater mineralization processes. The manure seems to be able to stabilize more C possibly through a greater level of microbial biomass and activity, that in this situation was not probably limited by either nutrients or energy source. In the control (C0) the deficiency of both nutrients and energy source could have slowed down the C mineralization, thus leading more corn-derived C in the soil. Therefore the fertilization management not only affects the plant production and the C input to soil, but also the C mineralization and the capacity of soil to stabilize C, and this must be carefully considered and taken into account since it deeply influences the potentaility of soil for C sequestration. The research was carried out with funds provided by MIUR (PRIN prot. 2007J5Z9LK_003)

Gioacchini, Paola; Giordani, Gianni; Montecchio, Daniela; Nastri, Anna; Triberti, Loretta; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio

2010-05-01

275

Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments which enable us to characterize the coupling between bismuth donor spin qubits in Si and the surrounding spin bath of 29Si impurities which provides the dominant decoherence mechanism (nuclear spin diffusion) at low temperatures (<16 K). Decoupling from the spin bath is predicted and cluster correlation expansion simulations show near-complete suppression of spin diffusion, at optimal working points. The suppression takes the form of sharply peaked divergences of the spin diffusion coherence time, in contrast with previously identified broader regions of insensitivity to classical fluctuations. ENDOR data suggest that anisotropic contributions are comparatively weak, so the form of the divergences is largely independent of crystal orientation.

Balian, S. J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Mohammady, M. H.; Morley, G. W.; Witzel, W. M.; Kay, C. W. M.; Monteiro, T. S.

2012-09-01

276

Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

2014-06-01

277

Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.  

PubMed

This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPD?) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPD?) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 ?m which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 ?m for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case. PMID:24480601

Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

2014-07-01

278

The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: Flight sample preparation and ground control spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March of 2009, the ORGANIC experiment integrated into the European multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, containing experiments dedicated to Astrobiology, was mounted through Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) externally on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment exposed organic samples of astronomical interest for a duration of 97 weeks (˜22 months) to the space environment. The samples that were returned to Earth in spring 2011, received a total UV radiation dose during their exposure including direct solar irradiation of >2500 h, exceeding the limits of laboratory simulations. We report flight sample preparation and pre-flight ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) characterization of the ORGANIC samples, which include 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The corresponding time-dependent ground control monitoring experiments for ORGANIC measured over ˜19 months are presented and the results anticipated upon return of the samples are discussed. We present the first UV-Vis spectrum of solid circobiphenyl (C 38H 16). Further, we present the first published UV-Vis spectra of diphenanthro[9,10-b',10'-d]thiophene (C 28H 16S), dinaphtho[8,1,2-abc,2',1',8'-klm]coronene (C 36H 16), tetrabenzo[de,no,st,c'd']heptacene (C 42H 22), and dibenzo[jk,a'b']octacene (C 40H 22) in solid phase and in solution. The results of the ORGANIC experiment are expected to enhance our knowledge of the evolution and degradation of large carbon-containing molecules in space environments.

Bryson, K. L.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2011-12-01

279

Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and nucleobases, basic constituents common to life on Earth.

Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

280

Organ donation from brain-dead and circulatory-dead donors: single-institution experiences.  

PubMed

Although the number of organ donations is extremely small in Japan, organ donation from brain dead (DBD) donors is increasing since the revised Law for Organ Transplantation was enacted on July 17, 2010. In our institution, organ donations had so far been performed from 247 donors (DCD 242, DBD 5), which is the largest number in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the status of organ donation before and after the enforcement of the revised law. After the enforcement of the revised law, the option of organ donation was shown to the more families of potential donors by the doctors or donor coordinators. However, the final number of donors was almost the same. The frequency of DBD donors of all donors increased (33.3%) as compared to 9.1% before the enforcement of the revised law. Reasons for rejection of donation from donor families were mainly based on the lack of understanding of brain death. To increase organ donation, we should promote social recognition of brain death, having the Organ Donation Card, and discussion of organ donation in each family. PMID:24815125

Kenmochi, T; Nishiyama, S; Hayashi, M; Ito, T; Kato, Y; Hoshinaga, K

2014-05-01

281

Density functional theory calculations of dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities for organic molecules in organic solvent: Comparison to experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Against experimental values obtained from solution-phase dc electric field induced second-harmonic generation measurements at a fundamental wavelength of 1910 nm, the performance of 20 exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory in evaluation of solvent modulated dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities of 82 organic molecules in chloroform, 1,4-dioxane, and/or dichloromethane was evaluated. The used exchange-correlation functionals consisted of generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, global hybrids, and range-separated hybrids. The PCM-X/6-311+G(2d,p)//PCM-B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) level of theory was employed. The calculated results showed functionals with the exact asymptote of the exchange potential gave satisfying linear correlation with R2 of 0.95 between experimental data and theoretical values. With a linear correction, these functionals also provided a better accuracy with mean absolute error of 5 × 10-30 esu than other functionals. The solvent effect and solvation scheme on the calculated property were also studied.

Lu, Shih-I.; Chiu, Cheng-Chang; Wang, Ying-Fung

2011-10-01

282

[The influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the functional state of the cardiovascular system of the patients presenting with hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease].  

PubMed

The results of the study on the influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the clinical course of hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease and on various functional systems of the body. The data obtained provide an insight into the role of salt concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) in carbon dioxide bath water (1.2 g/l) applied for the traditional treatment of the patients with hypertensive disease associated with concomitant coronary heart disease and musculoskeletal pathology. Highly mineralized bath water has a greater influence on the functional state of the cardiovascular system by causing a more pronounced decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and hypotensive effect. Baths with a salt concentration of 20 g/l markedly reduced pain and had anti-inflammatory effect in the patients with pathology of support and locomotor organs. PMID:24640650

L'vova, N V; Tupitsyna, Iu Iu; Badalov, N G; Krasnikov, V E; Lebedeva, O D

2013-01-01

283

Crawling experience is related to changes in cortical organization during infancy: Evidence from EEG coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenough's model of experience-expectant plasticity was used to examine EEG coherence among four groups of 8-month-old infants that varied in hands-and-knees crawling experience. Groups included prelocomotor infants, novice crawlers with 1-4 weeks experience, infants with 5-8 weeks, and long-term crawlers with 9+ weeks experience. Resting EEG was recorded from frontal, parietal, and occipital sites of both hemispheres. EEG coherence between

Martha Ann Bell; Nathan A. Fox

1996-01-01

284

Observations of organic material in individual marine particles at Cape Grim during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) field campaign in November and December 1995, the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry instrument was used to measure the composition of ambient particles in situ at Cape Grim, Tasmania, under various conditions ranging from clean marine air to moderately polluted air. Internal mixtures of sea-salt compounds and organic species were detected in over half of the negative spectra during clean marine conditions and in about 62% of the negative spectra during polluted conditions. In clean marine air masses, aerosol organics appeared to have two distinct source mechanisms depending on the extent of aerosol aging. Organic peaks had a positive trend with sodium sulfate peaks, indicating that organics and excess sulfate may accumulate in aged marine aerosol particles by similar mechanisms. When the sodium sulfate content was low, iodine had a positive trend with organics, which is consistent with organics and iodine originating from the surface-active layer of the ocean and becoming incorporated into fresh marine particles by bursting bubbles. Based on limited laboratory calibrations, the average organic mass is estimated to be of the order of 10% of the sea-salt content and is consistent with some of the missing mass fraction for Cape Grim particles (S. Howell et al., manuscript in preparation, 1997), which is the measured difference between gravimetric and ionic mass.

Middlebrook, Ann M.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Thomson, David S.

1998-01-01

285

[History of hot spring bath treatment in China].  

PubMed

As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

2011-07-01

286

Can organic farming help to reduce N-losses? Experiences from Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study is in two parts. In the first part, nitrogen (N) losses per unit of milk and meat in Danish conventional and organic pig and dairy farming were compared on the basis of farm data. In the second part, organic and conventional dairy farming were compared in detail, using modelling. N-surpluses at different livestock densities, fodder intensities, and

Tommy Dalgaard; Niels Halberg; Ib Sillebak Kristensen

287

Column experiment to study isotope fractionation of volatile organic contaminants in porous media under unsaturated conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution by organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents is common in industrialized countries. The use of stable isotope analysis is increasingly recognized as a powerful technique for investigating the behaviour of organic or inorganic contaminants. Recently, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven to be an effective tool to confirm and quantify in-situ biodegradation by indigenous microbial populations

Simon Jeannottat; Daniel Hunkeler; Florian Breider

2010-01-01

288

Contrasting Models of White House Staff Organization: The Eisenhower, Ford, and Carter Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysts of the presidency agree that White House staffs may be organized along one of three lines: a competitive model, a hierarchical model, or a collegial model. This article details the interaction patterns of the Eisenhower, Ford, and Carter senior White House staffs in an empirical test of the basic assumptions of these models of staff organization. These three administrations

Robert J. Thompson

1992-01-01

289

Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

1973-01-01

290

Implications of psychoactive 'bath salts' use during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Psychoactive bath salts (PABS) comprise a group of highly dangerous designer drugs showing a sharp escalation in reported U.S. exposures from 2010 through 2012, following rapid spread of the drug in Europe. Since a federal ban on the major ingredients in October 2011, numbers have declined. However, evidence from the United Kingdom shows an initial decline after the UK ban in 2010 with a 400 percent increase in reports by 2012. Actual information about the effect of PABS use on pregnant women and fetuses is almost nonexistent. Clinicians should be aware of the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of PABS. PMID:24939199

Gray, Bobbe Ann; Holland, Cindra

2014-06-01

291

Langevin description of gauged scalar fields in a thermal bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of the oscillating gauged scalar field in a thermal bath. A Langevin-type equation of motion of the scalar field, which contains both dissipation and fluctuation terms, is derived by using the real-time finite-temperature effective action approach. The existence of the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation between the nonlocal dissipation term and the Gaussian stochastic noise terms is verified. We find that the noise variables are anticorrelated at equal time. The dissipation rate for each mode is also studied, which turns out to depend on the wave number.

Miyamoto, Yuhei; Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

2014-04-01

292

Thermodynamical relations for systems in contact with finite heat baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the relations between macroscopic thermodynamical properties and microscopic ensemble averages of a system in contact with a heat bath which has a finite number of degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on the geometry of the accessible phase space of the system. By using a suitable definition of temperature for such kind of system (energy equipartition theorem), it is shown that the relations obtained here have the same dependence on the system's partition function Z1 as in Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics.

Potiguar, F. Q.; Costa, U. M. S.

2004-12-01

293

Tibetan Medicated-Bath Therapy may Improve Adjuvant Arthritis in Rat  

PubMed Central

Tibetan medicated-bath therapy has been applied to patients with rheumatoid arthritis for centuries. However, the detailed action mechanism of Tibetan medicated-bath therapy on the morphology and function of joints remains unknown. We designed our investigation to evaluate the efficacy of Tibetan medicated-bath therapy on adjuvant arthritis (AA) of rats in comparison with water-bath and dexamethasone administration. AA was induced by intradermal injection of Mycobacterium butyricum suspended in sterile mineral oil. The control animals were similarly injected with sterile vehicle. Eight days after injection, rats were treated with fresh-water bath, Tibetan medicated-bath (40°C, 15 min) or intramuscular injection with dexamethasone for 21 consecutive days after which we evaluated the severity of arthritis visually and microscopically and measured serum interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels. While arthritis did not significantly change after water-bath treatment, the Tibetan medicated-bath and dexamethasone groups showed diminished joint swelling and alleviation of, inflammatory cell infiltration and the destruction of bone and cartilage. Serum IL-6 and TNF-? levels significantly decreased. Our results demonstrated that Tibetan medicated-bath therapy exerted a reliable effect on rat adjuvant arthritis, which may be involved in the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-?. Our data provide evidence for clinical use of Tibetan-medicated bath therapy for arthritis patients.

Shoumura, Shizuko; Emura, Shoichi; Isono, Hideo

2009-01-01

294

The Martian near surface environment: Analysis of Antarctic soils and laboratory experiments on putative Martian organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physical properties as well as the potential for organic material in the Martian near-surface environment can give us a glimpse into the history of the site with regards to water, soil formation processes, as well as the conditions necessary for life. This work is done to support the interpretation of data from the Phoenix Mars Lander as well as other past and future landed missions. The Antarctic Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid cold polar desert that is the most Mars-like place on Earth. Soils from two different soil and climate regimes are analyzed to determine their physical properties such as mineralogy, particle size, shape, color, and specific surface area. These data are used to describe the sample locations in Antarctica and infer properties of Martian soils by comparison to Antarctic sites. I find that the particle size distribution can be used to determine the water history of the site and that the behavior of soluble species in the soil can also be used to trace the movement of water through the soil and could be instructive in understanding how soil organic material is processed by the environment. Continuing with the theme of soil organic matter, we revisit the Viking conclusions with regards to organics on Mars and look at the Phoenix data on the same subject. First, we assume that Mars receives organic material from meteoritic infall. These organics will be processed by chemical oxidants as well as UV light down to 200 nm. Chemical oxidation is predicted to produce molecules such as mellitic acid, which could preserve up to 10% of the original organic mass. Using mellitic acid and other similar organic molecules, we irradiate these molecules with Mars-like ultraviolet light, analyzing the gases that come off as irradiation takes place. We find that organic molecules can survive Mars-like UV conditions as layers of UV-resistant organics build up, shielding the remaining organic material. Additionally, the gas products of irradiation depend on the composition of the original organic molecule, implying that even irradiated molecules will carry some information about the composition of the original molecule. Finally, we take this irradiated organic/soil stimulant mixture and analyze it via pyrolysis, similar to the Viking GC/MS and TEGA instruments that are the only instruments operated on Mars capable of detecting organics. We find that the pyrolysis of mellitic acid (and other similar) molecules primarily produces inorganic fragments but that the reduced carbon fragments released depend on the composition of the original organic. However, the introduction of perchlorate, discovered on Mars by the Phoenix Lander, complicates the issue by creating the conditions for molecular oxidation. The high-oxygen content and high pyrolysis temperatures lead to organic combustion during thermal analysis, meaning that, regardless of the initial composition, most soil organics will be oxidized to CO2 during the detection process. By assuming that organic material was oxidized to CO2 in the Phoenix and Viking samples. We show that this assumption gives organic concentrations consistent with meteoritic accumulation rates. This finding reopens the possibility for organic molecules in the near-surface environment at the Viking and Phoenix landing sites.

Archer, Paul Douglas, Jr.

295

Warm Sitz Bath: Are There Benefits after Transurethral Resection of the Prostate?  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of warm water sitz baths in patients who have undergone transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) owing to lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods We reviewed the records of 1,783 patients who had undergone TURP between 2001 and 2009. In the warm water sitz bath group, patients were instructed to sit in a tub containing lukewarm water at 40-45? for 10 minutes each time. Patients were advised to perform the procedure for at least 5 days immediately after the removal of a Foley urethral catheter. The differences in post-TURP complications between the warm water sitz bath group and the no sitz bath group were compared. Results After TURP, 359 of the 1,561 patients performed a warm water sitz bath. Complications after TURP, such as hemorrhage, urinary tract infection, urethral stricture, and acute urinary retention were found in 19 (5.3%) and 75 (6.2%) patients in the sitz bath and no sitz bath groups, respectively (p=0.09). There was a significant difference in postoperative complications such as urethral stricture between the warm sitz bath group and the no sitz bath group (p=0.04). The group that did not undergo warm water sitz bath treatment showed a 1.13-fold increased risk of rehospitalization within 1 month after TURP due to postoperative complications compared with the warm water sitz bath group (odds ratio [OR]=1.134; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022 to 1.193; p=0.06). Conclusions Warm water sitz bath treatment reduced postoperative complications such as urethral stricture. These results suggest that large-scale prospective studies are needed to establish an ideal method and optimal duration of sitz baths.

Park, Sang Un; Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Yeun Goo; Park, Kyung Kgi; Mah, Sang Yol; Hong, Sung Joon

2010-01-01

296

The politics of combating the organ trade: lessons from the Israeli and Pakistani experience.  

PubMed

Israel and Pakistan--two major participants in the global organ trade--enacted legislative prohibitions on the trade at roughly the same time. The article highlights three influences that brought about this change of policy in both countries: advocacy by local physicians coupled with media coverage and reinforced by the international medical community. The analysis also explains why the two countries have differed with respect to the enforcement of the organ-trade prohibition. The insights from the Israeli and Pakistani cases will be of use for the transplant community's efforts against organ trafficking. PMID:23675678

Efrat, A

2013-07-01

297

Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

2000-01-01

298

Organizing Shop Programs for the Handicapped; A Supervisor's Appraisal and a Teacher's Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A supervisor's and a teacher's views on the priorities of skill training for the handicapped. Basic concepts as guideposts for organizing shop programs as a part of a school system, and the role of the teacher are discussed. (SB)

Haug, Eugene F.; Rifkin, Louis

1970-01-01

299

Structure Follows Process: Experiences with New Ways of Working and Communication Processes in Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New information and communication technologies enable new ways of cooperation and communication in organizations. However, technologies do not determine their use by themselves. Their integration in companies' structures and operations seems to be a compl...

M. Jackel C. Rovekamp A. M. Wurfel

2004-01-01

300

Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.  

PubMed

The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P < .05) from adjacent age groups. We estimate that a donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs. PMID:24815124

Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

2014-05-01

301

Optimization of Chemical Bath Deposited CdS Thin Films Using Two Different Cadmium Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to its transparency, photoconductivity, and high electron affinity, CdS is known to be the best transparent conducting semiconductor for thin film II-VI compound heterojunction solar cells. In this work, a new method to optimize the deposition of CdS using chemical bath deposition technique is presented. CdSO4, and CdCl2 have been used as two different Cd sources. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) in addition to KOH have been used as Ligand. Thiourea has been used as the sulfur source. The effect of changing the KOH and NTA concentrations on the film thickness, transmission, and energy gap has been studied. The results were used to develop a set of experiments that include the optimum deposition conditions by involving all other parameters that affect the deposition process. Thicker and better quality films have been obtained for both CdSO4 and CdCl2 cases.

Khallaf, Hani; Oladeji, Isaiah; Chow, Lee

2005-11-01

302

Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-?) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.

Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,

2010-07-01

303

Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

2010-01-01

304

Quantum-bath-driven decoherence of mixed spin systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decoherence of mixed electron-nuclear spin qubits is a topic of great current importance, but understanding is still lacking: While important decoherence mechanisms for spin qubits arise from quantum spin bath environments with slow decay of correlations, the only analytical framework for explaining observed sharp variations of decoherence times with magnetic field is based on the suppression of classical noise. Here we obtain a general expression for decoherence times of the central spin system which exposes significant differences between quantum-bath decoherence and decoherence by classical field noise. We perform measurements of decoherence times of bismuth donors in natural silicon using both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transitions, and in both cases find excellent agreement with our theory across a wide parameter range. The universality of our expression is also tested by quantitative comparisons with previous measurements of decoherence around "optimal working points" or "clock transitions" where decoherence is strongly suppressed. We further validate our results by comparison to cluster expansion simulations.

Balian, S. J.; Wolfowicz, Gary; Morton, John J. L.; Monteiro, T. S.

2014-01-01

305

On the electrospraying of conducting liquids in dielectric liquid baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady cone-jets of conducting liquids inside dielectris liquid baths are easily obtained. In particular water and glycerol have been electrosprayed in either heptane or vaseline oil. Experimental results show that the current emitted from the cone-jet depends on the flow rate and the liquid properties in the same way that it does in air. On the contrary, the effects of the bath inertia plays an important role to determine the size of droplets. Also the addition of small amounts of both water-soluble and lipid-soluble surfactants changes appreciably the spray characteristics. The influence of either lipid-soluble or water soluble surfactants at different concentrations on the droplet size of a water electrospray in oil or heptane has been experimentally obtained. In the case of glycerol, the high viscosity of the fluid gives rise to very long jets presenting kink instabilitiy far from the vertex cone. Much more stable jets are obtained by adding small amounts of lipid or water-soluble surfactants. In those cases, the electric field on the very long jet of glycerol is very small and a big droplet is formed at the end of the jet.

Gómez-Marín, Álvaro; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Márquez, Manuel; Barrero, Antonio

2004-11-01

306

Peer-Based Recovery Support Services Within a Recovery Community Organization: The CCAR Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Connecticut Community for Addiction Recovery (CCAR) has a rich history as a lead Recovery Community Organization. This\\u000a chapter describes CCAR’s evolution from a pure advocacy organization to a provider of peer-based recovery support services.\\u000a A key part of this story is the development of recovery community centers (RCCs) that are a grassroots model, conceived in\\u000a the idea of a

Phil Valentine

307

Wheat quality in organic and conventional farming: results of a 21year field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers have become more aware of healthy and safe food produced with low environmental impact. Organic agriculture is of particular interest in this respect, as manifested by 5.768million hectares managed pursuant to Council Regulation (EEC) 2092\\/91 in Europe. However, there can be a considerable risk that the avoidance of chemical inputs in organic farming will result in poor food quality.

Hans Bergmann; Michael Oehme; Renato Amad; Hanna Schneider

2007-01-01

308

Uptake of atmospheric trace gases by organic films: experiment and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of large mass fractions of organic compounds in atmospheric particles impacts both on the cloud-condensation nucleating abilities of these particle and on the sequesterization of trace atmospheric gases by them. We are using thin (a few micrometers thick) organic films as model laboratory substrates for studying the sequesterization of trace gases in a controlled fashion. I will describe our results on the uptake of water and of trace organic species onto organic films containing a range of functional groups, using a combination of experimental and absorptive partitioning calculations. The uptake of water onto organic films is measured using a quartz crystal microbalance; uptake of trace organics is studied in a newly built Knudsen cell apparatus. Gas-condensed phase modelling using UNIFAC predicts the water uptake curves for some partially oxidized substrates (1-octanol, octanoic acid, 1,5 dipentanol) moderately well, but has much lower accuracy for dodecane, malonic acid or 1,8 dioctanol. Quantitative comparisons of the model with measurements will be presented, and the causes for the differences in accuracy will be discussed.

Donaldson, D. J.; Demou, E.; Visram, H.; Makar, P. A.; Chaudhuri, S. R.

2003-04-01

309

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

310

Species-specific ingestion of organic carbon by deep-sea benthic foraminifera and meiobenthos: In situ tracer experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured organic carbon uptake rates by deep-sea benthic foraminifera and studied differences among species, living depth, and seasons to investigate how these protists contribute to carbon consumption on the deep-sea floor. In situ feeding experiments using 13 C-labeled algae were carried out in the central part of Sagami Bay from 24 to 29 November 2001 and 1 to 12

Hidetaka Nomaki; Petra Heinz; Takeshi Nakatsuka; Motohiro Shimanaga; Hiroshi Kitazato

2005-01-01

311

Revision of the EU Bathing Water Directive: economic costs and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive of 1976 ([Commission of the European Communities, 1976. Council Directive of 8th December 1975 Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water (76\\/160\\/EEC). Official Journal of the European Community. 5th February 1976, L31\\/1, Brussels]) sets out standards for designated bathing waters which should be complied with by all member states. Intervening advances in pollution science,

Stavros Georgiou; Ian J. Bateman

2005-01-01

312

The formation of organic molecules in solar system environments: The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space preflight overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) will investigate the formation of prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment when it is sent to, and later retrieved from, the International Space Station in 2012. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, electrical discharges, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. Two gas mixture compositions (CH4, NH3, H2 and N2, H2, CO) will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 °C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of initial products, intermediates and their abundances. Conducting the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the low gravity, energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur as planetary systems form.

Kotler, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Martins, Z.; Ricco, A.; Blum, J.; Schraepler, R.; van Dongen, J.; Palmans, A.; Sephton, M.; Cleaves, H. J.

2011-12-01

313

A novel organ donor facility: a decade of experience with liver donors.  

PubMed

Transplant surgeons have historically traveled to donor hospitals, performing complex, time-sensitive procedures with unfamiliar personnel. This often involves air travel, significant delays, and frequently occurs overnight.In 2001, we established the nation's first organ recovery center. The goal was to increase efficiency,reduce costs and reduce surgeon travel. Liver donors and recipients, donor costs, surgeon hours and travel time, from April 1,2001 through December 31,2011 were analyzed. Nine hundred and fifteen liver transplants performed at our center were analyzed based on procurement location (living donors and donation after cardiac death donors were excluded). In year 1, 36% (9/25) of donor procurements occurred at the organ procurement organization (OPO) facility, rising to 93%(56/60) in the last year of analysis. Travel time was reduced from 8 to 2.7 h (p<0.0001), with a reduction of surgeon fly outs by 93% (14/15) in 2011. Liver organ donor charges generated by the donor were reduced by37% overall for donors recovered at the OPO facility versus acute care hospital. Organs recovered in this novel facility resulted in significantly reduced surgeon hours, air travel and cost. This practice has major implications for cost containment and OPO national policy and could become the standard of care. PMID:24612713

Doyle, M B M; Vachharajani, N; Wellen, J R; Lowell, J A; Shenoy, S; Ridolfi, G; Jendrisak, M D; Coleman, J; Maher, M; Brockmeier, D; Kappel, D; Chapman, W C

2014-03-01

314

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

315

Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.  

PubMed

A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA. PMID:18961226

Pribil, R; Veselý, V

1972-12-01

316

Effect of the geometric parameters of the EAF bath on the main characteristics of furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of melting a semiproduct in an electric arc furnace (EAF) and metal mixing developed earlier are used to study the effect of the proportion of the bath sizes on the following main technicaleconomic characteristics of a heat: the expenditure of electric energy, the heat time, and the operating time under electric current. The range of the optimal values of the proportion of the EAF bath sizes is determined with allowance for bath stirring with CO bubbles during decarburization. It is useful to increase the bath depth of EAFs operating according to single-slag technology and to classify furnaces according to the type of charge and the method of its loading.

Belkovskii, A. G.; Kats, Ya. L.

2013-06-01

317

A study on utilizing a chloride bath to electroform MEMS devices with high aspect ratio structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing the problems that occurred for electroforming of MEMS devices with high aspect ratio and geometry-complex structures, the electrochemical properties of a chloride bath are studied in this paper. It has been found that the tensile stress of nickel film from the chloride bath with the addition of saccharine is significantly reduced. Our results also suggested that, compared to the commonly used sulfamate bath, the chloride bath has higher throwing power and covering power, possibly due to its higher conductivity and polarizability. In addition, the presence of saccharine provided a finer grain nickel film with a smoother surface. Furthermore, the MEMS-based latching devices with narrow bars of 50 µm width and 500 µm thickness were obtained from the chloride bath, while the same devices with structure deficiency (incomplete structures) were frequently observed from the sulfamate bath. The finite element method simulations using the ANSYS software for the current density distribution on the surface of different aspect ratio latching structures were carried out. After considering the electrochemical perspectives from both baths, the mechanisms for the deficiency formation from the sulfamate bath and the absence of the deficiencies from the chloride bath were proposed and discussed.

Wang, Hong; Tang, Jun; Li, Guangyang; Zhang, Congchun; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zhimin; Ding, GuiFu; Zhao, Xiaolin

2010-11-01

318

Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.  

PubMed

A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

2013-03-01

319

Gauging a quantum heat bath with dissipative Landau-Zener transitions.  

PubMed

We calculate the exact Landau-Zener transition probabilities for a qubit with an arbitrary linear coupling to a bath at zero temperature. The final quantum state exhibits a peculiar entanglement between the qubit and the bath. In the special case of diagonal coupling, the bath does not influence the transition probability, whatever the speed of the Landau-Zener sweep. It is proposed to use Landau-Zener transitions to determine both the reorganization energy and the integrated spectral density of the bath. Possible applications include circuit QED and molecular nanomagnets. PMID:17155667

Wubs, Martijn; Saito, Keiji; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Kayanuma, Yosuke

2006-11-17

320

Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

1977-01-01

321

Treatment of tunnel wash waters--experiments with organic sorbent materials. Part II: Removal of toxic metals.  

PubMed

In the first part of the article, the column and the bag experiments concerning removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonpolar oil (NPO) from tunnel wash waters using organic sorbent materials have been described. This part presents the results of removal of toxic metals. The metals of concern (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn) were selected based on the priority toxicant pollutants defined in surface water quality criteria. Concentrations of these metals in the collected effluents varied more than the concentrations of PAHs and NPO, and thus only metal contents were considered for statistical analyses. These analyses determined significant differences (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001) between the mean metal concentrations in the column effluents and those in applied wash water of road tunnel. The results obtained during both experiments revealed that the organic sorbents, and in particular their combination, removed toxic metals more effectively from wash water of road tunnel than from wash water of tunnel electrostatic filters. Among the investigated toxicants, Al and Fe showed the highest levels of reduction in the column experiment, 99.7% and 99.6%, respectively. The lowest reduction levels of 66.0% and 76.2% were found for Pb and Mo, respectively. The results of the bag experiment showed that even one day treatment of wash waters from tunnel electrostatic filters could reduce concentration of some toxicants by more than 70% (Al and Fe) and 80% (Cu). PMID:19143309

Paruch, Adam M; Roseth, Roger

2008-01-01

322

Neurochemical Organization and Experience-Dependent Activation of Estrogen-Associated Circuits in the Songbird Auditory Forebrain  

PubMed Central

The classic steroid hormone estradiol is rapidly produced by central auditory neurons in the songbird brain and instantaneously modulates auditory coding to enhance the neural and behavioral discrimination of acoustic signals. Although these recent advances highlight novel roles for estradiol in the regulation of central auditory processing, current knowledge on the functional and neurochemical organization of estrogen-associated circuits, as well as the impact of sensory experience in these auditory forebrain networks, remains very limited. Here we show that both estrogen-producing and -sensitive neurons are highly expressed in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the zebra finch analog of the mammalian auditory association cortex, but not other auditory forebrain areas. We further demonstrate that auditory experience primarily engages estrogen-producing, and to a lesser extent, estrogen-responsive neurons in NCM, that these neuronal populations moderately overlap, and that acute episodes of sensory experience do not quantitatively affect these circuits. Finally, we show that whereas estrogen-producing cells are neurochemically heterogenous, estrogen-sensitive neurons are primarily glutamatergic. These findings reveal the neurochemical and functional organization of estrogen-associated circuits in the auditory forebrain, demonstrate their activation and stability in response to sensory experience in behaving animals, and highlight estrogenic circuits as fundamental components of central networks supporting sensory processing.

Jeong, Jin Kwon; Burrows, Kaiping; Tremere, Liisa A.; Pinaud, Raphael

2011-01-01

323

Neurochemical organization and experience-dependent activation of estrogen-associated circuits in the songbird auditory forebrain.  

PubMed

The classic steroid hormone estradiol is rapidly produced by central auditory neurons in the songbird brain and instantaneously modulates auditory coding to enhance the neural and behavioral discrimination of acoustic signals. Although recent advances highlight novel roles for estradiol in the regulation of central auditory processing, current knowledge on the functional and neurochemical organization of estrogen-associated circuits, as well as the impact of sensory experience in these auditory forebrain networks, remains very limited. Here we show that both estrogen-producing and -sensitive neurons are highly expressed in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the zebra finch analog of the mammalian auditory association cortex, but not other auditory forebrain areas. We further demonstrate that auditory experience primarily engages estrogen-producing, and to a lesser extent, estrogen-responsive neurons in NCM, that these neuronal populations moderately overlap and that acute episodes of sensory experience do not quantitatively affect these circuits. Finally, we show that whereas estrogen-producing cells are neurochemically heterogeneous, estrogen-sensitive neurons are primarily glutamatergic. These findings reveal the neurochemical and functional organization of estrogen-associated circuits in the auditory forebrain, demonstrate their activation and stability in response to sensory experience in behaving animals, and highlight estrogenic circuits as fundamental components of central networks supporting sensory processing. PMID:21707790

Jeong, Jin Kwon; Burrows, Kaiping; Tremere, Liisa A; Pinaud, Raphael

2011-07-01

324

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

325

Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

1980-01-01

326

Adsorption of hydrogen in covalent organic frameworks: Comparison of simulations and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to investigate the adsorption properties of H2 in 2D and 3D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with different surface areas and different pore volumes. Good agreements between the simulated and the available experimental data from the literature have been found, indicating the reliability of the theoretical model. We showed also

Bassem Assfour; Gotthard Seifert

2010-01-01

327

Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

Hollister, William G.; And Others

328

Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters and Radionuclide-Partitioning Experiments under Hydrothermal Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes research on two separate tasks. In the first task, the organic geochemistry of groundwater samples from the Permian Basin of Texas, the Paradox Basin of Utah, and the Nevada Test Site has been characterized. Acidic compounds were de...

J. L. Means A. S. Maest D. A. Crear

1983-01-01

329

Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

2007-01-01

330

Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of School Organization: Fundamental Inconsistencies between Expectations and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservice teacher-candidates enrolled in teacher education programs across Canada are exposed to the nuances of school organization during their practice-teaching assignments. Although the literature is full of scholarship about the concerns of new teachers, less attention has been given to school organizational factors as sources of dissonance…

Cherubini, Lorenzo

2009-01-01

331

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

Berkvens, Jan

2012-01-01

332

Physical Limits of Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous near-certain preparation of qubits (quantum bits) in their ground states is a key hurdle in quantum computing proposals as varied as liquid-state NMR and ion traps. “Closed-system” cooling mechanisms are of limited applicability due to the need for a continual supply of ancillas for fault tolerance, and to the high initial temperatures of some systems. “Open-system” mechanisms are therefore required. We describe a new, efficient initialization procedure for such open systems. With this procedure, an n-qubit device that is originally maximally mixed, but is in contact with a heat bath of bias ??2-n, can be almost perfectly initialized. This performance is optimal due to a newly discovered threshold effect: for bias ??2-n no cooling procedure can, even in principle (running indefinitely without any decoherence), significantly initialize even a single qubit.

Schulman, Leonard J.; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

2005-04-01

333

''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion  

SciTech Connect

The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}, total discharge current of {approx}3 MA, and rise time of the current of {approx}100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect.

Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [High Current Electronic Institute SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2007-10-15

334

Sliding wear behavior of salt bath nitrocarburized medium carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt bath nitrocarburizing is a well-known thermochemical diffusion process for enhancing the tribological and corrosion properties of ferrous components. The current work describes the role of a compound layer developed during nitrocarburizing, both in the ferritic and austenitic regimes of Fe-N-C system, on the sliding wear behavior of a medium carbon steel. The wear behavior of the nitrocarburized steel discs was assessed by the pin-on-disc tests (ASTM G 99-99) under different normal loads running against a hardened SAE52100 pin. It was observed that the compound layer on the surface not only controlled the wear rate but also resisted the adhesive wear/transfer of material from pin to disc, aside from providing low-friction coefficients.

Srinivasan, P. Bala; Krishnakumar, C. V.; Krishnaraj, N.

2002-10-01

335

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

2008-01-01

336

Cluster Techniques to Study Spin Decoherence in a Spin Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noisy nuclear spin environments in many solid state materials pose a serious threat to the feasibility of solid-state spin quantum computation where localized electron spins, as qubits, may interact with millions of lattice nuclei [1, 2, 3, 4]. Such nuclear induced decoherence may be partially reduced through the application of a strong magnetic field that suppresses electro-nuclear flip-flops (due to a large mismatch of their gyromagnetic ratios). However, even in the limit where electro-nuclear flip-flops are completely suppressed, dephasing decoherence, known as spectral diffusion, occurs as a result of fluctuations of the nuclear field that is caused by dipolar (or other) interactions among the nuclear bath spins. While a direct approach to this problem is impossible due to the intractable Hilbert space of many interacting spins, we have devised a cluster method to formally solve this problem. Direct application of perturbation theories are futile due to the large size of the bath. Perturbation methods become effective, however, in the cluster expansion framework. These techniques will be discussed and qubit decoherence calculation results will be shown, including effects of dynamical decoupling pulse sequences [5, 6] that prolong qubit coherence. [1] W. M. Witzel, Rogerio de Sousa, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161306(R) (2005). [2] W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035322 (2006). [3] W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 077601 (2007). [4] W. M. Witzel, Xuedong Hu, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 76, 035212 (2007). [5] W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, arXiv:0707.1037. [6] B. Lee, W. M. Witzel, S. Das Sarma, arXiv:0710.1416.

Witzel, Wayne

2008-03-01

337

Sex and the baths: a not-so-secret report.  

PubMed

During the 1984 debate about closing the baths in San Francisco the mayor directed the police to investigate sexual behavior in the bathhouses and write a report for her. The directive had been a secret, but when the community learned of the report, its response was quick and furious. The mayor squelched the report and no one but the report's authors, the mayor, and probably a handful of intermediaries ever saw the written report. In response to this investigation, two local journalists conducted a more open investigation that resulted in a newspaper article for Coming Up!, a lesbian and gay community newspaper published monthly in San Francisco (California). This article is reprinted here in large part because of its scientific rather than journalistic or historical value. These investigators approached their work systematically (certainly much more so than many other scientists, journalists or police professionals at the time), and as a result, their article provides a much more thorough description of what was happening in the baths at that point in the AIDS epidemic. Interestingly, many public policy options considered today were already part of the discussion then and, at times, already in place in the San Francisco bathhouses. Of note, at the time, orgy rooms were considered likely to be contributing to transmission, thus the authors gave particular attention to its presence/absence and use. The original paper was published in the July 1984 edition (pp. 17-22). As with all the reprinted papers in this volume, no editorial changes were made to the paper and only minor typographical errors were corrected. The editor of Coming Up! included a preface to the article in the original publication, and that preface is also reprinted here. PMID:12962181

Helquist, Michael; Osmon, Rick

2003-01-01

338

Development of a Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in situ search of organic compounds on Mars : application to the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for past or present life signs is one of the primary goals of the future Mars exploratory missions. With this aim the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) module of the ExoMars 2013 next coming European space mission is designed to the in situ analysis, in the Martian soil, of organic molecules of exobiological interest such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the frame of the MOMA experiment we have been developing a Sample Processing System (SPS) compatible with gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The main goal of SPS is to allow the extraction and the gas chromatography separation of the refractory organic compounds from a solid matrix at trace level within space compatible operating conditions. The SPS is a mini-reactor, containing the solid sample (~500mg), able to increase (or decrease) the internal temperature from 20 to 500 °C within 13 sec. The extraction step is therefore performed by using thermodesorption, the best yield of extraction being obtained at 300°C for 10 to 20 min. It has to be noticed that the temperature could be increased up to 500°C without a significant lost of efficiency if the heating run time is kept below 3 min. After the thermodesorption the chemical derivatization of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA and DMF [buch et al.]. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the targeted volatile molecules are transferred through a heated transfer line in the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer for the detection. The SPS is a "one step/one pot" sample preparation system which should allow the MOMA experiment to detect the refractory molecules absorbed in the Martian soil at a detection limit below the ppb level. A. Buch, R. Sternberg, C. Szopa, C. Freissinet, C. Garnier, J. El Bekri, C. Rodier, R. Navarro González, F. Raulin, M. Cabane, M. Stambouli, D.P. Glavin and P.R. Mahaffy, Development of a gas chromatography compatible Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in-situ analysis of refractory organic matter in Martian soil: preliminary results, Journal of Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.05.001.

Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Garnier, C.; Fressinet, C.; Szopa, C.; El Bekri, J.; Coll, P.; Rodier, C.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

2008-09-01

339

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

340

Origin of electric field distribution in organic field-effect transistor: Experiment and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric field distribution in the pentacene organic field-effect transistor (OFET) channel is investigated using the microscopic optical second-harmonic generation (SHG). At the on- and off-states of the OFET, enhanced SHG signal was observed near the drain electrode and at the source and drain electrodes. Our analytical analysis indicates that the Laplace field formation is in the off-state of the OFET.

Martin Weis; Takaaki Manaka; Mitsumasa Iwamoto

2009-01-01

341

The composting potential of different organic solid wastes: experience from the island of Crete.  

PubMed

For the past 20 years, the National Foundation for Agricultural Research in Crete and the School of Agricultural Technology of the Technological and Educational Institute of Crete have been involved in a number of research and development activities, related to the production and evaluation of compost derived from a variety of local solid, mainly agricultural organic wastes. Materials such as olive press cake, olive tree leaves (OTL) and branches, vine branches (VB), pressed grape skins (PGS), pig manure (PM), sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) have been evaluated for their behaviour during composting, their compatibility in mixtures and the quality of the end product. The quality evaluation included both a detailed physiochemical (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nutrients concentration, heavy metal concentration, etc.) and biological analyses (pathogenic microorganisms). It also included an agronomic evaluation, in which composts were used either as a soil amendment or as a component for substrates in open air or covered (greenhouse) cultivation mainly of local vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.). All materials were composted successfully, especially when mixed. The end products contained large amounts of organic matter, usually combined with an increased EC value. Pressed grape skins should be considered as the ideal raw material, producing a high quality compost, with the lowest EC value (1.57 mS cm(-1)) and the largest organic matter concentration (84.50%), compared to all other materials. When any of the produced compost was used in a ratio of 30% by volume (v/v), it increased plant growth, whereas in larger volumes, it presented phytotoxic behaviour, inhibiting both root and shoot development. PMID:14680891

Manios, T

2004-02-01

342

New organic FET-like photoactive device, experiments and DFT modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the possible construction of an organic FET-like photoactive device in which source-drain current through a phthalocyanine ( H2Pc film is affected by a photo-induced dipolar field in a photoactive “gate” electrode. The influence of the dipolar electric field on charge transfer between H2Pc molecules is modeled by DFT quantum-chemical calculations on H2Pc dimers and tetramers.

Kratochv?lová, I.; Nešprek, S.; Ebera, J. Å.; Záliš, S.; Pavelka, M.; Wang, G.; Sworakowski, J.

2008-03-01

343

Electrical transport characteristics of single-layer organic devices from theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrical model based on drift diffusion is described. We have explored systematically how the shape of the current density-voltage (J-V) curves is determined by the input parameters, information that isessential when deducing values of these parameters by fitting to experimental data for an ITO\\/PPV\\/Al organic light-emitting device (OLED), where ITO is shorthand for indium tin oxide and PPV is

S. J. Martin; Alison B. Walker; A. J. Campbell; D. D. C. Bradley

2005-01-01

344

The dissection room experience: A factor in the choice of organ and whole body donation--a Nigerian survey.  

PubMed

The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to body and organ donation were studied. The participants were broken into categories according to degree of exposure to human dissection. Participants who were never exposed to the dissection experience showed more willingness to donate their bodies than those who were exposed. With the exception of the physiotherapy department, the students and professionals from the health science departments who were exposed to the dissection room but never engaged in dissection showed the most unwillingness to donate their bodies (P < 0.001). An unwillingness to donate oneself was noted as one of the negative impacts associated with exposure to the dissection room. Willingness to donate an organ correlated positively with the level of exposure to the dissection room (P < 0.001). Most of the reasons for unwillingness were traceable to negative perceptions of the dissection room as a result of poor and disrespectful management of the human cadavers. PMID:23650046

Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N; Agu, Augustine U

2014-01-01

345

Enhanced denitrification and organics removal in hybrid wetland columns: comparative experiments.  

PubMed

This study investigated three lab-scale hybrid wetland systems with traditional (gravel) and alternative substrates (wood mulch and zeolite) for removing organic, inorganic pollutants and coliforms from a synthetic wastewater, in order to investigate the efficiency of alternative substrates, and monitor the stability of system performance. The hybrid systems were operated under controlled variations of hydraulic load (q, 0.3-0.9 m3/m2 d), influent ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N, 22.0-80.0 mg/L), total nitrogen (TN, 24.0-84.0 mg/L) and biodegradable organics concentration (BOD5, 14.5-102.0 mg/L). Overall, mulch and zeolite showed promising prospect as wetland substrates, as both media enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. Average NH4-N, TN and BOD5 removal percentages were over 99%, 72% and 97%, respectively, across all three systems, indicating stable removal performances regardless of variable operating conditions. Higher Escherichia coli removal efficiencies (99.9%) were observed across the three systems, probably due to dominancy of aerobic conditions in vertical wetland columns of the hybrid systems. PMID:20934326

Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

2011-01-01

346

Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

2008-01-01

347

Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have…

Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

348

Comment on ‘Energy transfer, entanglement and decoherence in a molecular dimer interacting with a phonon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the influence of the shared phonon bath considered in Hossein-Nejad and Scholes (2010 New J. Phys. 12 065045) on the exciton transfer in a two-molecule system can be reproduced by that of an independent bath model.

Lim, James; Tame, Mark; Yee, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Joong-Sung; Lee, Jinhyoung

2014-01-01

349

Effectiveness of Mailing "Bathing without a Battle" to All US Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational CD-ROM/video program was developed to educate nursing home staff about two research-based techniques for reducing agitation and aggression during bathing of persons with Alzheimer's disease, including person-centered showering and the towel bath. This educational program was distributed free of charge to all 15,453 US nursing homes…

Calleson, Diane C.; Sloane, Philip D.; Cohen, Lauren W.

2006-01-01

350

A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is

Toshitsugu Taguri; Yasunori Oda; Kanji Sugiyama; Toru Nishikawa; Takuro Endo; Shinji Izumiyama; Masayuki Yamazaki; Fumiaki Kura

2011-01-01

351

Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport.  

PubMed

We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model. PMID:24784256

Segal, Dvira

2014-04-28

352

Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

Segal, Dvira

2014-04-01

353

CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS  

EPA Science Inventory

The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

354

Determination of Hydrogen Contamination of Depleted Uranium in a Triple Carbonate Salt Bath.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cast Depleted uranium (DU) ingots are placed in a stainless steel rack and submerged into a triple carbonate salt bath at 625/degree/C. After soaking for 1 to 2 hours (i.e., 1 hr. min., 2 hr. max.), the ingot and rack are removed from the salt bath and ta...

J. R. Hammetter

1987-01-01

355

Rabi oscillations, decoherence, and disentanglement in a qubit-spin-bath system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the influence of environmental interactions on simple quantum systems by obtaining the exact reduced dynamics of a qubit coupled to a one-dimensional spin bath. In contrast to previous studies, both the qubit-bath coupling and the nearest-neighbor intrabath couplings are taken as the spin-flip XX type. We first study the Rabi oscillations of a single qubit with the spin bath prepared in a spin coherent state, finding that nonresonance and finite intrabath interactions have significant effects on the qubit dynamics. Then we discuss the bath-induced decoherence of the qubit when the bath is initially in the ground state and show that the decoherence properties depend on the internal phases of the spin bath. By considering two independent copies of the qubit-bath system, we finally probe the disentanglement dynamics of two noninteracting entangled qubits. We find that entanglement sudden death appears when the spin bath is in its critical phase. We show that the single-qubit decoherence factor is an upper bound for the two-qubit concurrence.

Wu, Ning; Nanduri, Arun; Rabitz, Herschel

2014-06-01

356

Use and control of water-bath systems for magnetic particle inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing motivation for the use of aqueous baths in magnetic particle inspection. This motivation consists of environmental and safety considerations as well as direct economic and performance concerns. The possibility of corrosion is a long-standing source of resistance to the conversion of oil-bath systems to aqueous systems. Improvements in materials and practice have allowed many applications to

Chedister

1996-01-01

357

Real-time Simulations of Quantum Spin 12 Particles Coupled to Multiple Spin Baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simulations in real time for one and two spin 12 particles coupled to one or more baths of 12 -integer quantum spins. The simulations were performed using the algorithm and code of Prof. De Raedt [1,2]. We first simulated one spin coupled to one or two spin-baths with no interactions between the bath spins, as has been calculated theoretically [3]. We find in agreement with [3], that the quantum purity P(t) decays in both cases, exponentially for a single bath and algebraically for two baths. We extend these simulations by introducing random interactions between the bath spins in an attempt to reach the asymptotic decay rate at earlier times and for fewer spins in the baths. We also have performed similar studies for two spin 12 quantum particles coupled to one, two, or more spin baths. The time- dependent quantum density matrix and P(t), as well as other quantities, are calculated in these simulations.[1] V.V. Dobrovitski and H.A. De Raedt, Phys. Rev. E 67 056702 (2003).[2] S. Yuan, M.I. Katsnelson, and H. De Raedt, Phys. Rev. A 75 052109 (2007).[3] D.D. B. Rao, H. Kohler and F. Sols, New J. Physicis 10 115017 (2008).

Guerra, Marta L.; Novotny, M. A.; de Raedt, Hans

2011-03-01

358

Experiences from operational cloud classifier based on self-organizing map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new operational system to interpret satellite images is represented. The described method is adaptive. It is trained by examples. In the reported application a combination of textural and spectral measures is used as a feature vector. The adaptation or learning of the extracted feature vectors occurs by a self-organizing process. As a result a topological feature map is generated. The map is identified by known samples, examples of clouds. The map is used later on as a code book for cloud classification. The obtained verification results are good. The represented method is general in the sense that by reselecting features it can be applied to new problems.

Visa, Ari J.; Valkealahti, K.; Iivarinen, J.; Simula, O.

1994-03-01

359

Determination of oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosol from isoprene and toluene smog chamber experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of multifunctional oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) usually requires a derivatisation protocol prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Our proposed protocol, a combination of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) plus diluted N-methyl-N-trimethyl-silyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) without catalyst, has improved the determination of carbonyls, polyhydroxyl-compounds, hydroxyl-carbonyls, hydroxyl-carboxylic acids and di-carboxylic acids. The optimised derivatisation protocol has been successfully used for

Esther Borrás; Luis Antonio Tortajada-Genaro

2012-01-01

360

Determination of oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosol from isoprene and toluene smog chamber experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of multifunctional oxygenated compounds in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) usually requires a derivatisation protocol prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Our proposed protocol, a combination of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) plus diluted N-methyl-N-trimethyl-silyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) without catalyst, has improved the determination of carbonyls, polyhydroxyl-compounds, hydroxyl-carbonyls, hydroxyl-carboxylic acids and di-carboxylic acids. The optimised derivatisation protocol has been successfully used for

Esther Borrás; Luis Antonio Tortajada-Genaro

2011-01-01

361

Observation of zero-point quantum fluctuations of a single-molecule magnet through the relaxation of its nuclear spin bath.  

PubMed

A single-molecule magnet placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to its anisotropy axis can be truncated to an effective two-level system, with easily tunable energy splitting. The quantum coherence of the molecular spin is largely determined by the dynamics of the surrounding nuclear spin bath. Here we report the measurement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1n in a single crystal of the single-molecule magnet Mn12-ac, at T ? 30 mK in perpendicular fields B? up to 9 T. The relaxation channel at B ? 0 is dominated by incoherent quantum tunneling of the Mn12-ac spin S, aided by the nuclear bath itself. However for B?>5 T we observe an increase of 1/T1n by several orders of magnitude up to the highest field, despite the fact that the molecular spin is in its quantum mechanical ground state. This striking observation is a consequence of the zero-point quantum fluctuations of S, which allow it to mediate the transfer of energy from the excited nuclear spin bath to the crystal lattice at much higher rates. Our experiment highlights the importance of quantum fluctuations in the interaction between an "effective two-level system" and its surrounding spin bath. PMID:24702408

Morello, A; Millán, A; de Jongh, L J

2014-03-21

362

Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer and urea applications in two rice planted paddy soils in a pot experiment.  

PubMed

Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for HCB degradation, the applications of organic materials and nitrogen can alter microbial activity and redox potential of soils, thus probably influence HCB dechlorination. To evaluate hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer (OF) and urea applications in planted paddy soils, a pot experiment was conducted in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). After 18 weeks of experiment, HCB residues decreased by 28.2-37.5% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 42.1-70.9% in An. The amounts of HCB metabolites showed that dechlorination rates in An were higher than in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. Both in Ac and An, the additions of 1% and 2% OF had negative effect on HCB dechlorination, which was probably because excessive nitrogen in OF decreased degraders' activity and the degradation of organic carbon in OF accepted electrons. The application of 0.03% urea could enhance HCB dechlorination rates slightly, while 0.06% urea accelerated HCB dechlorination significantly both in Ac and An. It could be assumed that urea served as an electron donor and stimulated degraders to dechlorinate HCB. In addition, the methanogenic bacteria were involved in dechlorination process, and reductive dechlorination in planted paddy soil might be impeded for the aerenchyma and O(2) supply into the rhizosphere. Results indicated that soil types, rice root system, methanogenic bacteria, OF and urea applications all had great effects on dechlorination process. PMID:19889446

Liu, C Y; Jiang, X; Yang, X L; Song, Y

2010-01-15

363

Structural, morphological and optical properties of cadmium sulphide thin films grown using chemical bath deposition technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Aqueous baths of cadmium sulphate and thiourea were used as sources of cadmium (Cd+2) and sulphur (S-2) ions, respectively. The influence of the varied bath temperature from 65°C to 85°C in a step of 10°C on the crystallographic structure, morphology as well as optical properties of as-deposited films were investigated in detail. Increasing bath temperature can promote phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal and improvement of crystallinity in CdS films. CdS film deposited at 85° C shows compact and smooth surface, and excellent transmission in visible light range. The band gaps are found to decrease from 2.52 eV to 2.36 eV with the increase of bath temperature.

Shah, N. M.

2013-06-01

364

Averaged master equation for a quantum system coupled to a heat bath with fluctuating energy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A master equation for a quantum system coupled to a heat bath with stochastically fluctuating energy levels is derived by making use of the ensemble averaging and the averaging with respect to a stochastic process in the bath. Relaxation terms are determined in the Born approximation with respect to the system-bath interaction and the damping parameters related to a relaxation kernel are specified. In parallel with the spectral strength of the bath, the damping parameters determine the transient times for the Markovian description creating the physical origin of the slippage [A. Suarez, R. Sibey, and I. Oppenheim, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5101 (1992)]. The influence of energy fluctuations of the bath is analyzed for a two-level system including the solution of the corresponding non-Markovian equation for the level population difference. The conditions for the formation of Boltzmann's thermal ratio between steady-state populations are evaluated as well.

Petrov, Elmar G.

1998-01-01

365

Supervised Self-Organizing Classification of Superresolution ISAR Images: An Anechoic Chamber Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the automatic classification of superresolution ISAR images is addressed in the paper. We describe an ane- choic chamber experiment involving ten-scale-reduced aircraft models. The radar images of these targets are reconstructed using MUSIC-2D (multiple signal classification) method coupled with two additional processing steps: phase unwrapping and symme- try enhancement. A feature vector is then proposed including Fourier

Emanuel Radoi; Andr ´ e Quinquis; Felix Totir

2006-01-01

366

Early Life Experience Shapes the Functional Organization of Stress-Responsive Visceral Circuits  

PubMed Central

Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits.

Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

367

Early life experience shapes the functional organization of stress-responsive visceral circuits.  

PubMed

Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits. PMID:21497616

Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J

2011-09-26

368

First principles modeling of donor materials for organic solar cells: where theory complements experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the predictive power and accuracy of first principles modeling of small-molecule crystalline donors for organic solar cells. First of all, in order to understand where the theory can help us in improving the performance of photovoltaic devices, we clarify what factors constituting power conversion efficiency needed to be improved. We argue these are short circuit current and fill factor, rather than bandgap and open circuit voltage. This implies that the optimization of intramolecular properties (e.g. HOMO/LUMO), which is best suitable for theoretical search, will not give the anticipated gain in efficiency. The intermolecular properties are amenable to first principles modeling on a single-crystallite scale and we discuss some challenges in this avenue. As an example of how theory can provide design rules for architecturing small-molecule crystals we analyze the dependence of charge carrier mobility on the intermolecular geometry of a pi-stack. In the other case study we show that changes in device performance due to small changes in chemical composition can be well tracked by the theory. Finally, we analyze the performance of commonly used density functionals for typical molecular systems used in organic electronics (oligomers, polymers, dimers, crystals).

Zhugayevych, Andriy; Tretiak, Sergei; Bazan, Guillermo

2013-03-01

369

Growing experience with mTOR inhibitors in pediatric solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

Controlled trials of mTOR inhibitors in children following solid organ transplantation are scarce, although evidence from prospective single-arm studies is growing. Everolimus with reduced CNI therapy has been shown to be efficacious and safe in de novo pediatric kidney transplant patients in prospective trials. Prospective and retrospective data in children converted from CNI therapy to mTOR inhibition following kidney, liver, or heart transplantation suggest preservation of immunosuppressive efficacy. Good renal function has been maintained when mTOR inhibitors are used de novo in children following kidney transplantation or after conversion to mTOR inhibition with CNI minimization. mTOR inhibition with reduced CNI exposure is associated with a low risk for developing infection in children. Growth and development do not appear to be impaired during low-dose mTOR inhibition, but more studies are required. No firm conclusions can be drawn as to whether mTOR inhibitors should be discontinued in children requiring surgical intervention or whether mTOR inhibition delays progression of hepatic fibrosis after pediatric liver transplantation. In conclusion, current evidence suggests that use of mTOR inhibitors in children undergoing solid organ transplantation is efficacious and safe, but a number of issues remain unresolved and further studies are required. PMID:24004351

Ganschow, R; Pape, L; Sturm, E; Bauer, J; Melter, M; Gerner, P; Höcker, B; Ahlenstiel, T; Kemper, M; Brinkert, F; Sachse, M M; Tönshoff, B

2013-11-01

370

Investigation of spatial distribution of sound field parameters in ultrasound cleaning baths under the influence of cavitation.  

PubMed

Ultrasound cleaning baths fitting the full range from micromechanical components up to large machine parts, are regularly used in industry and in the lab. Despite the large number of applications, generally approved principles and objective criteria for parameter settings which allow an efficient operation are non-existent. The empirical selections of the running parameters often impede an optimization in terms of produce and reproducibility. One proposal for an objective description of the processes is the characterization of the sound field in the cleaning bath, which causes cavities, and subsequently, the cleaning process. Sound field measurements in the appropriate frequency range from 20kHz up to more then 1MHz incorporate a number of problems, such as large sensors disturbing the sound field, a lack of accuracy and the risk of being destroyed by cavitation bubbles. Measurement systems based on optical fiber tips and piezo-electrical hydrophones will be presented, which fulfil the accuracy requirements and withstand ultrasound fields with high power and cavitation. The spatial distribution of sound field parameters such as positive and negative peak pressure, amplitudes of fundamentals, harmonics and sub-harmonics as well as the energy density and spectral density in several frequency ranges are determined in experiments. Finally, the determined field parameters are related to the cavitation effects by means of photometric analysis of perforated aluminium foil. Perforations as well as intentions are analyzed and quantified from scanner images of the exposed foil samples using special image processing software. The experiments indicate clear differences in the structure of the sound fields and the spectral properties between the several types of cleaning baths, transducer arrangements and excitations. PMID:16781752

Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Koch, Christian

2006-12-22

371

A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.  

PubMed

Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. PMID:21077881

Heyward, P M

2010-12-01

372

Soil-solution partitioning of DOC in acid organic soils: Results from a UK field acidification and alkalization experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle and has profound impacts on water chemistry and metabolism in lakes and rivers. Reported increases of DOC concentration in surface waters across Europe and Northern America have been attributed to several drivers; from changing climate and land-use to eutrophication and declining acid deposition. The last of these suggests that acidic deposition suppressed the solubility of DOC, and that this historic suppression is now being reversed by reducing emissions of acidifying pollutants. We studied a set of four parallel acidification and alkalization experiments in organic rich soils which, after three years of manipulation, have shown clear soil solution DOC responses to acidity change. We tested whether these DOC concentration changes were related to changes in the acid/base properties of DOC. Based on laboratory determination of DOC site density (S.D. = amount of carboxylic groups per milligram DOC) and charge density (C.D. = organic acid anion concentration per milligram DOC) we found that the change in DOC soil-solution partitioning was tightly related to the change in degree of dissociation (? = C.D./S.D. ratio) of organic acids (R2=0.74, p<0.01). Carbon turnover in soil organic matter (SOM), determined by soil respiration and ?-D-glucosidase enzyme activity measurements, also appears to have some impact on DOC leaching, via constraints on the actual supply of available DOC from SOM; when the turnover rate of C in SOM is low, the effect of ? on DOC leaching is reduced. Thus, differences in the magnitude of DOC changes seen across different environments might be explained by interactions between physicochemical restrictions of DOC soil-solution partitioning, and SOM carbon turnover effects on DOC supply.

Oulehle, Filip; Jones, Timothy; Burden, Annette; Evans, Chris

2013-04-01

373

The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

374

Characterizing the Structure and Porosity of Organic Molecules of Intrinsic Microporosity by Molecular Simulations and Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic molecules of intrinsic microporosity (OMIMs) are amorphous, glassy solids that contain interconnected pores of sizes smaller than 2 nm. The philosophy behind OMIMs is similar to that of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs); rigid, awkwardly shaped molecules frustrate packing and form low density materials with intrinsically porous structures. Atomistic simulations were performed on OMIMs using our recently developed packing and compression procedure to study the effect of structure on packing behavior. The structure and porosity of the simulated samples were characterized, such as by surface areas and structure factors, and compared to experimental results. The presented computational procedure will further understanding of structure-property relationships and aid in the design of novel materials with high surface areas.

Abbott, Lauren J.; McDermott, Amanda G.; Del Regno, Annalaura; Msayib, Kadhum J.; Carta, Mariolino; Taylor, Rupert; McKeown, Neil B.; Siperstein, Flor R.; Runt, James; Colina, Coray M.

2011-03-01

375

Modeling the organic aerosol fraction within the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to asses our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly abundant fraction of organic aerosols (OA, including primary OA (POA) and secondary OA (SOA)) observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006). Chemical analysis of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) indicate that carbonaceous particles found in the Mexico City basin have a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA) which show strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled according to the first-generation oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes) and biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene) precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2-3 lower than the measured TOA. One of the reasons for this large gap is the inability of the model to simulate TOA peaks associated with the biomass burning events suggesting that near-city fires are not correctly represented in the emissions inventory (most likely too small to be detected by satellites). Fairly good agreement is found between observed and predicted POA within the city indicating that primary emissions are reasonable. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are found for SOA species characterized by a factor of 5-10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce the sharp increase in SOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations. However, predicted SOA concentrations were unrealistically low when photochemistry was not active, especially overnight. These discrepancies were not significantly reduced when greatly enhanced partitioning to the aerosol phase, or the condensation of the traffic-generated semi-volatile primary organics (SVOCs) were assumed. Model sensitivity results suggest that observed nighttime SOA concentrations are dominated by the regional background (~2-3 µg/m3) from biogenic origin (mainly from isoprene) which are transported from the coastal regions into the Mexico City basin. The relative contribution of biogenic SOA increases at the regional scale (immediate vicinity of the city) where the influence of anthropogenic precursors is more limited. Our results confirm the large underestimation of SOA by traditional models in polluted regions, however it emphasizes for the first time the key role of biogenic precursors in this region and indicates that they cannot be neglected in modeling studies. According to our results, the contribution of biogenic SOA is comparable to the SOA production from anthropogenics, and more important than the influence of traffic SVOCs (<10%) in the vicinity of Mexico City.

Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Aiken, A. C.; Bessagnet, B.; Fast, J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Onasch, T. B.; Roux, G.; Ulbrich, I. M.

2009-04-01

376

Optical detection of charge carriers in multilayer organic light-emitting diodes: Experiment and theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated a multilayer organic light-emitting diode with 1,3,5-tris (N,N-bis-(4-methoxyphenyl)aminophenyl)-benzene acting as the hole transporting layer (HTL) and tris (8-hydroxy-quinolinolato) aluminum (Alq3) as the electron transporting layer. Positive charge carriers in the HTL were detected optically as a function of the applied bias. It was found that a hole injecting layer, consisting of 3,4 polyethylene-dioxy-thiophene doped with polystyrenesulfonate, forms an ohmic contact to the HTL by inducing a thin layer of holes in the interfacial region. An analytical model is developed to describe the observed carrier concentrations as well as the current-brightness-voltage characteristics quantitatively.

Book, K.; Nikitenko, V. R.; Bässler, H.; Elschner, A.

2001-03-01

377

Analysis And Control Of Copper Plating Bath Additives And By-Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New copper plating bath chemisties are being developed to meet the emerging need of plating copper into submicron features on semiconductor wafers. These chemistries are designed to provide a fast, efficient, fill for even the most challenging wafer terrain. It has been found that maintaining the concentration of the additives in these plating baths at certain levels is critical to the performance of the bath. Plating technology for semiconductor applications requires rigid bath control and disciplined methodology. Establishing correlations between what is found in the plated film and bath chemistry control parameters is fundamental in producing interconnects that are consistent and reliable. To establish these correlations, it is important to have a clear understanding of the chemical composition of the bath. It is theorized that the ``suppressor'' bath components help moderate the deposition rate of the copper fill and the ``leveler'' additives improve the topology of the copper overfill. Too much or too little of these components in the bath can be detrimental to the quality of the copper deposition and may result in ``fill failure'' leading to a higher than necessary scrap rate for the wafers. Indirect bath measurements, such as Cyclic Voltammetric Stripping (CVS), tell an incomplete story as these techniques only measures the combined effect of the additives and by-products on the plating quality. High Performance Liquid (HPLC) and Ion Chromatography are analytical techniques which provide important information on the concentration, chemical balance and trend measurement of major constituents such as additives, brighteners, boosters, stabilizers, carriers, levelers, inhibitors, accelerators, transition metals, metal complexes and contaminants in the plating bath. This information provides for improved device quality, reduced scrap rate and reduced costs of bath maintenance. This, however, is not the end of the story. In addition to additives, copper plating baths also contain process byproducts. This paper will cover the development of analytical methods using metal free liquid chromatography to quantify the components and any related by-products found in copper plating baths used for small-featured semiconductors..

Newton, Beverly; Kaiser, Edward

2003-09-01

378

Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen Utilization During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments (SOFeX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nitrogen uptake dynamics by natural phytoplankton assemblages were measured during two progressive iron enrichment experiments conducted in High Nitrate, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2002. The experiments were designed to determine if iron enrichment enhances new production in the low silicate waters north (ca. 55°S) and high silicate waters south (ca. 65°S) of the Antarctic Polar Front Zone, along the 170°W meridian of longitude. Absolute uptake rates of nitrate (determined using the N-15 tracer technique) increased ca. ten-fold in the northern patch and ca. 25-fold in the southern patch, but remained relatively constant in the un-enriched (control) waters. Biomass (particulate nitrogen) specific uptake rates of nitrate increased ca. four-fold and up to ten-fold in the northern and southern patches respectively, whereas specific uptake rates of ammonium and urea did not increase as a result of Fe enrichment. Based on progressive sampling of the 47% and 16% light depths, and the results of surface transects conducted across the southern Fe-infused region at the beginning, middle, and end of the southern patch monitoring period (>3 weeks), a clear change in the relative utilization of new and regenerated nitrogen due to Fe enrichment was evident; the daily f-ratio (f-ratio = nitrate uptake/total nitrogen uptake) increased from ca. 0.2-0.3 to 0.5-0.6 (ratio uncorrected for isotopic dilution and DON effects). However, unlike previous mesoscale enrichment experiments conducted here (SOIREE) and in the subarctic (SEEDS and SERIES) and equatorial Pacific (IronEx II), the size-structure of the phytoplankton community did not change in the southern patch following Fe enrichment; it only changed in the northern patch, where larger cells (> 5 ?m) dominated the assemblage following Fe enrichment. Ambient concentrations of ammonium in the surface waters of the northern SOFeX patch declined by 0.1-0.2 ?M as a consequence of Fe enrichment, but ammonium concentrations increased both inside and outside of the southern patch as a function of time; the potential inhibitory effects of ammonium on nitrate uptake will be discussed in the context of alleviation of Fe limitation in HNLC regions of the Southern Ocean.

Cochlan, W. P.; Herndon, J.; Roberts, A. E.; Kudela, R. M.

2002-12-01

379

Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

Meer, Sneer

2002-06-01

380

Sub-bandgap absorption in organic solar cells: experiment and theory.  

PubMed

Most high-performance organic solar cells involve bulk-heterojunctions in order to increase the active donor-acceptor interface area. The power conversion efficiency depends critically on the nano-morphology of the blend and the interface. Spectroscopy of the sub-bandgap region, i.e., below the bulk absorption of the individual components, provides unique opportunities to study interface-related properties. We present absorption measurements in the sub-bandgap region of bulk heterojunctions made of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) as an electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as an electron acceptor and compare them with quantum-chemical calculations and recently published data on the external quantum efficiency (EQE). The very weak absorption of the deep sub-bandgap region measured by the ultra-sensitive Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) features Urbach tails, polaronic transitions, conventional excitons, and possibly charge-transfer states. The quantum-chemical calculations allow characterizing some of the unsettled spectral features. PMID:23929440

Beenken, Wichard J D; Herrmann, Felix; Presselt, Martin; Hoppe, Harald; Shokhovets, Sviatoslav; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich

2013-10-21

381

An overview of organically bound tritium experiments in plants following a short atmospheric HTO exposure.  

PubMed

The need for a less conservative, but reliable risk assessment of accidental tritium releases is emphasized in the present debate on the nuclear energy future. The development of a standard conceptual model for accidental tritium releases must be based on the process level analysis and the appropriate experimental database. Tritium transfer from atmosphere to plants and the subsequent conversion into organically bound tritium (OBT) strongly depends on the plant characteristics, seasons, and meteorological conditions, which have a large variability. The present study presents an overview of the relevant experimental data for the short term exposure, including the unpublished information, also. Plenty of experimental data is provided for wheat, rice, and soybean and some for potato, bean, cherry tomato, radish, cabbage, and tangerine as well. Tritiated water (HTO) uptake by plants during the daytime and nighttime has an important role in further OBT synthesis. OBT formation in crops depends on the development stage, length, and condition of exposure. OBT translocation to the edible plant parts differs between the crops analyzed. OBT formation during the nighttime is comparable with that during the daytime. The present study is a preliminary step for the development of a robust model of crop contamination after an HTO accidental release. PMID:23246588

Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Strack, S; Atarashi-Andoh, M; Kim, S B

2013-04-01

382

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

383

Cardiac bidomain bath-loading effects during arrhythmias: interaction with anatomical heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Cardiac tissue is always surrounded by conducting fluid, both in vivo (blood) and in experimental preparations (Tyrode's solution), which acts to increase conduction velocity (CV) close to the tissue-fluid interface, inducing transmural wavefront curvature. Despite its potential importance, computer modeling studies focused on arrhythmia mechanisms have previously not accounted for these bath-loading effects. Here, we investigate the increase in CV and concomitant change in transmural wavefront profiles upon both propagation and arrhythmia dynamics within models of differing anatomical complexity. In simplified slab models, in absence of transmural fiber rotation, bath-loading induced transmural wavefront curvature dominates, significantly increasing arrhythmia complexity compared to no bath. In the presence of fiber rotation, bath-loading effects are less striking and depend upon propagation direction: the bath accentuates natural concave curvature caused by transmurally rotating fibers, but attenuates convex curvature, which negates overall impact upon arrhythmia complexity. Finally, we demonstrate that the high degree of anatomical complexity within whole ventricular models modulates bath-loading induced transmural wavefront curvature. However, key is the increased surface CV that dramatically reduces both arrhythmia inducibility and resulting complexity by increasing wavelength and reducing the available excitable gap. Our findings highlight the importance of including bath-loading effects during arrhythmia mechanism investigations, which could have implications for interpreting and comparing simulation results with experimental data where such effects are inherently present. PMID:22208185

Bishop, Martin J; Vigmond, Edward; Plank, Gernot

2011-12-21

384

How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via "calls for proposals", which are sent out each half year via the "Digital User Office (DUO)" (see http://duo.web.psi.ch). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the "Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)" consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time allocation is handled more directly and in time in order to fulfill the companies' demands. Here, the confidentiality plays a more important role than in scientific studies that are done with the aim of a free publication. It has been possible to earn money regularly from the industrial projects in order to cover the salary cost of some positions within the NIAG group. The permanent improvement of the methodology and performance in neutron imaging is a third major activity of the NIAG team. Running projects in this direction are the permanent insert of a grating interferometry device, improved energy selection with the help of single graphite crystals and utilization of the beam line BOA at SINQ for the energy range between 4 and 15 Å.

Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

2011-09-01

385

Experience with Fosfomycin for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Organisms  

PubMed Central

Fosfomycin has shown promising in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary pathogens; however, clinical data are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with MDR pathogens treated with fosfomycin tromethamine. Charts for 41 hospitalized patients with a urine culture for an MDR pathogen who received fosfomycin tromethamine from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed. Forty-one patients had 44 urinary pathogens, including 13 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp), 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates, 7 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 9 others. In vitro fosfomycin susceptibility was 86% (median MIC, 16 ?g/ml; range, 0.25 to 1,024 ?g/ml). Patients received an average of 2.9 fosfomycin doses per treatment course. The overall microbiological cure was 59%; failure was due to either relapse (24%) or reinfection UTI (17%). Microbiological cure rates by pathogen were 46% for CR-Kp, 38% for P. aeruginosa, 71% for VRE, 57% for ESBL producers, and 100% for others. Microbiological cure (n = 24) was compared to microbiological failure (n = 17). There were significantly more solid organ transplant recipients in the microbiological failure group (59% versus 21%; P = 0.02). None of the patients in the microbiological cure group had a ureteral stent, compared to 24% of patients within the microbiological failure group (P = 0.02). Fosfomycin demonstrated in vitro activity against UTIs due to MDR pathogens. For CR-KP, there was a divergence between in vitro susceptibility (92%) and microbiological cure (46%). Multiple confounding factors may have contributed to microbiological failures, and further data regarding the use of fosfomycin for UTIs due to MDR pathogens are needed.

Sekeres, Jennifer; Hall, Gerri S.; van Duin, David

2012-01-01

386

Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences  

PubMed Central

Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately “publish” their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students’ efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course.

Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

387

Electron-Transfer Ion/Ion Reactions of Doubly Protonated Peptides: Effect of Elevated Bath Gas Temperature  

PubMed Central

In this study, the electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) behavior of cations derived from 27 different peptides (22 of which are tryptic peptides) has been studied in a 3D quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Ion/ion reactions between peptide cations and nitrobenzene anions have been examined at both room temperature and in an elevated temperature bath gas environment to form ETD product ions. From the peptides studied, the ETD sequence coverage tends to be inversely related to peptide size. At room temperature, very high sequence coverage (~100%) was observed for small peptides (?7 amino acids). For medium-sized peptides composed of 8–11 amino acids, the average sequence coverage was 46%. Larger peptides with 14 or more amino acids yielded an average sequence coverage of 23%. Elevated-temperature ETD provided increased sequence coverage over room-temperature experiments for the peptides of greater than 7 residues, giving an average of 67% for medium-sized peptides and 63% for larger peptides. Percent ETD, a measure of the extent of electron transfer, has also been calculated for the peptides and also shows an inverse relation with peptide size. Bath gas temperature does not have a consistent effect on percent ETD, however. For the tryptic peptides, fragmentation is localized at the ends of the peptides suggesting that the distribution of charge within the peptide may play an important role in determining fragmentation sites. A triply protonated peptide has also been studied and shows behavior similar to the doubly charged peptides. These preliminary results suggest that for a given charge state there is a maximum size for which high sequence coverage is obtained and that increasing the bath gas temperature can increase this maximum.

Pitteri, Sharon J.; Chrisman, Paul A.; McLuckey, Scott A.

2005-01-01

388

Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics of the Heat Bath for Two Brownian Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new look at the heat bath for two Brownian particles, in which the heat bath as a "system" is both perturbed and sensed by the Brownian particles. Nonlocal thermal fluctuations give rise to bath-mediated static forces between the particles. Based on the general sum rule of the linear response theory, we derive an explicit relation linking these forces to the friction kernel describing the particles' dynamics. The relation is analytically confirmed in the case of two solvable models and could be experimentally challenged. Our results point out that the inclusion of the environment as a part of the whole system is important for micron- or nanoscale physics.

De Bacco, Caterina; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Sekimoto, Ken

2014-05-01

389

Microalbuminuria in patients with essential hypertension and its relationship to target organ damage: an Indian experience.  

PubMed

Persistent microalbuminuria (MA) is the earliest indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients with MA have high risk for target organ damage (TOD) resulting in stroke, retinopathy and adverse cardiovascular events. Though the prevalence of hypertension is high in India, the relationship between MA and TOD in hypertension is not well studied. To address this issue, this study was conducted at the Kottayam Medical College, Kerala, South India, between May 2005 and October 2006. The principal aim was to find out the prevalence of MA and its relationship to TOD in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 150 hypertensives without diabetes mellitus and/or other conditions causing MA were studied. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was assessed and MA was defined as albumin excretion between 30-300 mg/day. The relationship of MA with the duration, severity and previous treatment of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and TOD's like left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), hypertensive retinopathy and stroke was assessed by univariate analysis. Forty patients (26.67%) were found to have MA of whom 24 were males and 16 were females. MA was significantly higher in those with longer duration and greater severity of hypertension (p < 0.001 in each). Older age (p < 0.001), adverse lipid profile (p < 0.01) and higher BMI (p < 0.04) were the other identifiable risk factors for MA. Gender and history of smoking did not pose higher risk for MA. Stroke (OR=3.8), echocardiography-proven LVH (OR=9.42) and hypertensive retinopathy (OR=9.7) were significantly higher in those with MA. In conclusion, the prevalence of MA in essential hypertension is high and patients with MA have high odds for developing TOD like stroke, LVH and hypertensive retinopathy. Early screening of hypertensives for MA and prompt treatment of positive cases might reduce the burden of CKD and cardiovascular disease in the community. PMID:18445902

Hitha, B; Pappachan, J M; Pillai, H Balachandran; Sujathan, P; Ramakrishna, C D; Jayaprakash, K; Raihanathul Misiriya, K J

2008-05-01

390

Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport of the respective compounds. Concentrations of almost all micropollutants decreased with increasing soil passage. However, since compounds transported by processes 2 & 3 can be re-mobilized by changing water chemistry, the importance of a diligent characterisation of aquifer material and raw water is apparent for risk assessment. The experiments were conducted within the context of the project GABARDINE, funded by the European Commission.

Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

2010-05-01

391

The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

392

Seasonal evolution of beach waste and litter during the bathing season on the Catalan coast.  

PubMed

Beach waste and litter composition and evolution on popular urban (located in the main nucleus of the municipality) and urbanized (located in residential areas outside the main nucleus) beaches of the Costa Brava (Catalan coast) were assessed during the bathing season. Waste and litter production (amount and composition) were affected by urbanization and varied during the summer. Urban beaches had higher densities of waste deposition and lower percentages of organic, domestic and other miscellaneous waste than urbanized beaches. Litter characteristics were also influenced by type of beach, and varied during the season as a consequence of beach use and cleaning practices, but not environmental factors. Urbanized beaches obtained higher scores for aesthetic quality of sand than urban beaches, and small-sized litter tended to accumulate during the season in the beach of Lloret Centre. The most important problems are management of recyclable materials, litter left by users on the sand, and separation of sand from litter. In addition, current efficiency of mechanical cleaning is low, especially in the withdrawal of cigarette butts. These analyses highlight problems that should be addressed in future management of area beaches. PMID:18243682

Ariza, Eduard; Jiménez, José A; Sardá, Rafael

2008-12-01

393

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

394

Synthesis and Resolution of the Atropisomeric 1,1'-Bi-2-Naphthol: An Experiment in Organic Synthesis and 2-D NMR Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NMR spectroscopy is presented. It is seen that the experiment regarding the synthesis and resolution of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphtol presents a good experiment for teaching organic synthesis and NMR spectroscopy and provides a strategy for obtaining enantiopure compounds from achiral starting materials.

Mak, Kendrew K. W.

2004-01-01

395

Epitaxy of Rodlike Organic Molecules on Sheet Silicates--A Growth Model Based on Experiments and Simulations  

PubMed Central

During the last years, self-assembled organic nanostructures have been recognized as a proper fundament for several electrical and optical applications. In particular, phenylenes deposited on muscovite mica have turned out to be an outstanding material combination. They tend to align parallel to each other forming needlelike structures. In that way, they provide the key for macroscopic highly polarized emission, waveguiding, and lasing. The resulting anisotropy has been interpreted so far by an induced dipole originating from the muscovite mica substrate. Based on a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we present an alternative growth model being able to explain molecular adsorption on sheet silicates in terms of molecule?surface interactions only. By a comprehensive comparison between experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that geometrical changes in the substrate surface or molecule lead to different molecular adsorption geometries and needle directions which can be predicted by our growth model.

2011-01-01

396

Oxygen-enriched air for co-incineration of organic sludges with municipal solid waste: a pilot plant experiment.  

PubMed

Pilot-plant experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of oxygen enrichment on the co-incineration of MSW and organic sludge from a wastewater treatment facility. Combustion chamber temperatures, stack gas concentrations, i.e., CO(2) and CO, and the residual oxygen were measured. The maximum ratio of organic sludge waste to total waste input was 30 wt.%. Oxygen-enriched air, 22 vol.% (dry basis) oxygen, was used for stable combustion. As the co-incineration ratio of the sludge increased, the primary and secondary combustion chamber temperatures were decreased to 900 and 750 degrees C, respectively, approximately 100 degrees C below the proper incineration. However, if the supplied air was enriched with 22 vol.% (dry basis) oxygen content, the incinerator temperature was high enough to burn the waste mixture containing 30 wt.% moisture sludge, with an estimated heating value of 6.72 MJ/kg. There are two main benefits of using oxygen enrichment in the co-incineration. First, the sensible heat can be reduced as the quantity of nitrogen in the flue gas will be decreased. Second, the unburned carbon formation is reduced due to the oxygen-enriched burning of the waste, despite an increase in the sludge co-incineration ratio. PMID:18325752

Chin, Sungmin; Jurng, Jongsoo; Lee, Jae-Heon; Hur, Jin-Huek

2008-12-01

397

Absence of thermalization for systems with long-range interactions coupled to a thermal bath.  

PubMed

We investigate the dynamics of a small long-range interacting system, in contact with a large long-range thermal bath. Our analysis reveals the existence of striking anomalies in the energy flux between the bath and the system. In particular, we find that the evolution of the system is not influenced by the kinetic temperature of the bath, as opposed to what happens for short-range collisional systems. As a consequence, the system may get hotter also when its initial temperature is larger than the bath temperature. This observation is explained quantitatively in the framework of the collisionless Vlasov description of toy models with long-range interactions and shown to be valid whenever the Vlasov picture applies, from cosmology to plasma physics.. PMID:23679376

de Buyl, Pierre; De Ninno, Giovanni; Fanelli, Duccio; Nardini, Cesare; Patelli, Aurelio; Piazza, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

2013-04-01

398

75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2009-0064] Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080...

2010-06-15

399

Entanglement of a 2-qubit system coupled to a bath of quantum spin glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum entanglement (concurrence) of a 2-qubit system coupled to a small spin glass bath of 2 to n? 4 qubits. The bath is described by the quantum XX Heisenberg model with random J coupling and varying magnetic field h. We look at the dynamics of the steady state average concurrence for the system and obtain a general formula to describe the concurrence with J=0 and h=0 for n bath sites. The physics of 2-qubit system coupled with n bath sites for J=0 is analytically described for small n. The result for large n was numerically found to be qualitatively similar. For small fluctuation in J, a mean steady state average concurrence of about 0.5 is obtained.

Koh, C. Y.; Kwek, L. C.

2014-06-01

400

Electroplating of copper films on steel substrates from acidic gluconate baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroplating of thin films of copper onto steel substrate from acidic gluconate bath has been investigated under different conditions of bath composition, pH, current density, and temperature. A detailed study has been made about the effect of these parameters on potentiodynamic cathodic polarization, cathodic current efficiency (CCE%), and throwing power (TP) of the bath. Fine grained, highly adherent and smooth bright deposits were produced. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that these deposits were produced in one phase with crystalline cubic structure. The optimum conditions are: 10 g l -1 CuSO 4·5H 2O, 30 g l -1 C 6H 11O 7Na, 10 g l -1 K 2SO 4, pH=2.2, I=2.8 mA cm -2, and temperature range between 22°C and 31°C. The TP of the bath is greatly improved by increasing the current density.

Abd El Rehim, S. S.; Sayyah, S. M.; El Deeb, M. M.

2000-10-01

401

Long time evolution of a spin interacting with a spin bath in arbitrary magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a completely different method to calculate the evolution of a spin interacting with a sufficient large spin bath, especially suitable for treating the central spin model in a quantum dot (QD). With only an approximation on the envelope of central spin, the symmetry can be exploited to reduce a huge Hilbert space which cannot be calculated with computers to many small ones which can be solved exactly. This method can be used to calculate spin-bath evolution for a spin bath containing many (say, 1000) spins, without a perturbative limit such as strong magnetic field condition, and works for long-time regime with sufficient accuracy. As the spin-bath evolution can be calculated for a wide range of time and magnetic field, an optimal dynamic of spin flip-flop can be found, and more sophisticated approaches to achieve extremely high polarization of nuclear spins in a QD could be developed.

Zhao, YuKang; Zhao, MeiSheng; Chen, ZengBing

2014-07-01

402

Bagni per l'Anodizzazione dell'Alluminio Senza Scarichi (Aluminium Anodizing Baths without Wastes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article, designed for the European community, presents some technically valid solutions for the problem of the regeneration of anodization and alkaline silking baths with a contemporary recuperation of aluminum salts.

A. P. di Silvio R. Finessi

1995-01-01

403

Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.

Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

2005-06-15

404

Surface modification of 2205 duplex stainless steel by low temperature salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2205 stainless steel was modified by salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C in this study. The microstructure, surface hardness and erosion-corrosion resistance were systematically evaluated. Salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C can form a nitrocarburized layer, and with the treated time prolong, the thickness of the layer increased. By nitrocarburizing within 8 h, only expanded austenite (S phase) formed. With treated time increased, CrN gradually diffused from the places where there were ferrite grains in the layer before nitrocarburizing. Besides, the depth increased with the nitrocarburized time and the layer grew approximately conforms to the parabolic rate law. Salt bath nitrocarburizing can effectively improve the surface hardness of 2205 DSS. The erosion-corrosion resistance was improved by salt bath nitrocarburizing and the 16 h treated sample had the best erosion-corrosion behavior.

Huang, Runbo; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Si; Li, Mingxing; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

2013-04-01

405

Factors Influencing Crystallization from Mixed Acid Pickling Baths for Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During pickling of stainless steel metal fluorides are generated in the acid solution. If the concentration gets too high, precipitation and crystallization can occur. Different factors that may influence the crystallization in pickling bathes of mixed ac...

U. Fortkamp K. Tjus A. Jansson

2003-01-01

406

75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...other applicable CPSC requirements, such as the lead content requirements of section 101 of the CPSIA and potentially the phthalate content requirements in section 108 of the CPSIA should the bath seat incorporate a toy component, the tracking label...

2010-06-04

407

Refractive Index Method for at Line Determinations of Hydrogen Peroxide in Cleaning Baths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density and refractive index methods for determining hydrogen peroxide in cleaning baths were compared to the potassium permanganate titration method. The refractive index method was shown to be rapid and simple and required only a few drops of sample. Th...

D. M. Kapsch H. A. Woltermann

1979-01-01

408

A Lattice-Gas with Long-Range Interactions Coupled to a Heat Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced is a lattice-gas with long-range 2-body interactions. An effective inter-particle force is mediated by momentum exchanges. There exists the possibility of having both attractive and repulsive interactions using finite impact parameter collisions. There also exists an interesting possibility of coupling these long-range interactions to a heat bath. A fixed temperature heat bath induces a permanent net attractive interparticle potential,

Jeffrey Yepez

1994-01-01

409

Effects of immersion in tepid bath water on recovery from fatigue after submaximal exercise in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine whether bathing in tepid water is effective in facilitating recovery from fatigue after submaximal exercise. Subjects were six young healthy male university students. Following cycle exercise at 80% aerobic power ([Vdot]Omax) for l0 min, recovery was observed during and after 10-min bathing. Three conditions were set; (1) water temperature of 38°C, (2) water temperature

KAZUTOSHI NAKAMURA; HIROHIKO TAKAHASHI; SATOSHI SRHMAI; MASATOSHI TANAKA

1996-01-01

410

Evaluation of bithionol as a bath treatment for amoebic gill disease caused by Neoparamoeba spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the toxicity of bithionol to Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in fresh- and seawater and the efficacy of bithionol as a 1h seawater bath treatment for amoebic gill disease (AGD). To examine toxicity, fish were bathed for 1, 3 and 6h in bithionol, an anti-protozoal at 0, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 35mgL?1

Renee L. Florent; Joy A. Becker; Mark D. Powell

2007-01-01

411

Trace metal determinations in nickel-plating baths by polarographic methods  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the use of polarographic methods to determine 0.1 to 50.0 mg/l quantities of the trace metals arsenic, antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium, and lead in nickel-plating baths. Except for arsenic, these elements are determined simultaneously without sample preparation. A comparison of the lead results obtained by polarography and colorimetry emphasizes the advantages of polarography to determine trace elements in nickel-plating baths.

Powell, M.R.; Kirkpatrick, C.R.; Sullivan, H.H.

1985-01-31

412

Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium sulphide (In2S3) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In2S3 thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC

C. D. Lokhande; A. Ennaoui; P. S. Patil; M. Giersig; K. Diesner; M. Muller; H. Tributsch

1999-01-01

413

Chrome Plating from Sulfate–Oxalate Cr(III) Baths. Structure, Composition, and Corrosion Behavior1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies on chrome-plating from sulfate–oxalate Cr(III) baths are generalized. It is shown that the metal is deposited from the mentioned baths at a current efficiency over 40% and forms deposits of any thickness. Chrome-plating may be carried out in the cells with undivided cathodic and anodic compartments, which reduces the current efficiency to 25–30%. The reflectivity and color of

Yu. M. Polukarov; V. A. Safonov; A. A. Edigaryan; L. N. Vykhodtseva

2001-01-01

414

Influence of the Ultrasonic Vibration on Chemical Bath Deposition of ZnS Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) and ultrasonic chemical bath deposition (US-CBD) of ZnS thin films from NH4OH\\/SC(NH2)2\\/ZnSO4 solutions have been studied. The influence of the ultrasonic vibration on properties of ZnS thin films has been investigated. The growth rate, structure, and properties of ZnS thin film deposited by different CBD techniques were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),

Qi Liu; Guobing Mao

2009-01-01

415

Study on ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported the deposition and structural characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing thiourea, ZnSO4 and ammonia in aqueous solution on common glass substrates. The solution concentration and annealing condition played a very important role on transmissivity, homogeneity, crystal and transmissivity of ZnS thin films. Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron

Limei ZHOU; Yuzhi XUE; Jianfeng LI

2009-01-01

416

Synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by ultrasonic bath: effect of external magnetic field.  

PubMed

A novel technique was used for the synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by applying an external magnetic field (EMF) on the precursor solution before sonication with ultrasonic bath. The results were compared in the presence and absence of EMF. Manganese acetate solution as precursor was circulated by a pump at constant speed (7 rpm, equal to flow rate of 51.5 mL/min) in an EMF with intensity of 0.38 T in two exposure times (t(MF), 2h and 24h). Then, the magnetized solution was irradiated indirectly by ultrasonic bath in basic and neutral media. One experiment was designed for the effect of oxygen atmosphere in the case of magnetic treated solution in neutral medium. The as prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, TEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) analysis. In neutral medium, the sonication of magnetized solution (t(MF), 24h) led mainly to a mixture of Mn(3)O(4) (hausmannite) and ?-MnOOH (manganite) and sonication of unmagnetized solution led to a pure Mn(3)O(4). In point of particle size, the larger and smaller size of nanoparticles was obtained with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. In addition, the EMF was retarded the nucleation process, accelerated the growth of the crystal, and increased the amount of rod-like structure especially in oxygen atmosphere. In basic medium, a difference was observed on the composition of the products between magnetic treated and untreated solution. For these samples, the magnetic measurements as a function of temperature were exhibited a reduction in ferrimagnetic temperature to T(c)=39K, and 40K with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. The ferrimagnetic temperature was reported for the bulk at T(c)=43K. A superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature without any saturation magnetization and hysteresis in the measured field strength. The effect of EMF on the sample prepared in the basic medium was negligible but, in the case of neutral medium, the EMF affected the slope of the magnetization curves. The magnetization at room temperature was higher for the samples obtained in neutral medium without magnetic treatment. In addition, a horizontal shift loop was observed in neutral medium at low temperature. PMID:22221536

Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H

2012-07-01

417

Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

SciTech Connect

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-12-01

418

Stabilization of photon collapse and revival dynamics by a non-Markovian phonon bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state-based light emitters such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been demonstrated to be versatile candidates to study the fundamentals of light-matter interaction. In contrast to optics with isolated atomic systems, in the solid-state dissipative processes are induced by the inherent coupling to the environment and are typically perceived as a major obstacle toward stable performances in experiments and applications. In this theoretical model study we show that this is not necessarily the case. In fact, in certain parameter regimes, the memory of the solid-state environment can enhance coherent quantum optical effects. In particular, we demonstrate that the non-Markovian coupling to an incoherent phonon bath can exhibit a stabilizing effect on the coherent QD cavity-quantum electrodynamics by inhibiting irregular oscillations and allowing for regular collapse and revival patterns. For self-assembled GaAs/InAs QDs at low photon numbers we predict dynamics that deviate dramatically from the well-known atomic Jaynes-Cummings model. Even if the required sample parameters are not yet available in recent experimental achievements, we believe our proposal opens the way to a systematic and deliberate design of photon quantum effects via specifically engineered solid-state environments.

Carmele, Alexander; Knorr, Andreas; Milde, Frank

2013-10-01

419

[Update of DIN 19.643--treatment and disinfection of swimming pool and bathing tub water].  

PubMed

German Standards Specification DIN 19,643 is at present under revision for health reasons and because of both negative and positive experiences gathered in practice. To enable adaptation of the standards specification to future developments, a Part I of the specification is being created comprising the demands to be made on the quality of the water and general demands on the construction and operation of swimming pools and tubs and basins in bath houses, e.g. in spas or municipal swimming pools. The subsequent parts of the new specification (Part 2 to Part n) concern the demands to be made on individual combinations of processes; these can be supplemented at any time in accordance with technical progress without requiring revision of the entire standards specification. Essential innovations are the reformulation of the required efficiency of disinfection, the introduction of the parameters Legionella pneumophila, trihalogen methane (THM) and the reduction of the limit value for chloramines. Technically speaking, the new features concern the automatic measurement of the auxiliary parameters of hygiene such as redox potential, pH value and free chlorine, automatic control of disinfectant additions, automatic filter rinsing with fluidization of the filter-bed to a prescribed minimum bed expansion, and the sight-glas at the filter container. The demands made on Jacuzzi and warm water spouted bed besins are integrated into the specification, thus obviating the need for German Standards Specification DIN 19,644. PMID:1392275

Hässelbarth, U

1992-08-01

420

The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.  

PubMed

The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. PMID:24524961

Foley, Ronan

2014-04-01

421

Effects of repeated carbon dioxide-rich water bathing on core temperature, cutaneous blood flow and thermal sensation.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of repeated artificial CO(2) (1,000 ppm) bathing on tympanic temperature (T(ty)), cutaneous blood flow, and thermal sensation in six healthy males. Each subject was immersed in CO(2)-rich water at a temperature of 34 degrees C up to the level of the diaphragm for 20 min. The CO(2)-rich water was prepared using a multi-layered composite hollow-fiber membrane. The CO(2) bathing was performed consecutively for 5 days. As a control study, subjects bathed in fresh water at 34 degrees C under the same conditions. T(ty) was significantly lowered during CO(2) bathing (P < 0.05). Cutaneous blood flow in the immersed skin (right forearm) was significantly increased during CO(2) bathing compared with that during fresh-water bathing (P < 0.05), whereas cutaneous blood flow in the non-immersed skin (chest) was not different between CO(2) and fresh-water bathing. Subjects reported a "warm" sensation during the CO(2) bathing, whereas they reported a "neutral" sensation during the fresh-water bathing. The effects of the repeated CO(2) bathing were not obvious for core temperature and cutaneous blood flow, but the thermal sensation score during the CO(2) bathing was reduced sequentially by repeated CO(2) bathing (P < 0.05). These thermal effects of CO(2) bathing could be ascribed largely to the direct action of CO(2) on vascular smooth muscles and to the activity of thermoreceptors in the skin. Serial CO(2) bathing may influence the activity of thermoreceptors in the skin. PMID:12172871

Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Kato, Masako; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Tetsunari; Inukai, Yoko; Okagawa, Tomoko; Ogata, Akihiro

2002-08-01

422

Demagnetization Cryostat for Mössbauer Effect Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demagnetization cryostat for use in Mössbauer effect experiments is described. Thermal contact of the paramagnetic salt with the liquid helium bath was established with a mechanical heat switch. 50 g of CrK alum was used as the refrigerant. Temperature of the alum reached 0.08°K after demagnetization and took 3 hours to rise to 0.3°K, the liquid helium bath being

Motoo Shinohara; Atsushi Ishigaki; Kazuo Ôno

1967-01-01

423

Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from ...

E. L. Shock

1992-01-01

424

Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment  

PubMed Central

A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2–3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (?14C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO2 efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. ?14C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO2 sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45–55 cm thaw depth), while CO2 from the ambient snow areas was ~100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration ?14C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO2 in the atmosphere. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-009-1556-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

425

Whole-lake experiments reveal the fate of terrestrial particulate organic carbon in benthic food webs of shallow lakes.  

PubMed

Lake ecosystems are strongly linked to their terrestrial surroundings by material and energy fluxes across ecosystem boundaries. However, the contribution of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) from annual leaf fall to lake food webs has not yet been adequately traced and quantified. In this study, we conducted whole-lake experiments to trace artificially added tPOC through the food webs of two shallow lakes of similar eutrophic status, but featuring alternative stable regimes (macrophyte rich vs. phytoplankton dominated). Lakes were divided with a curtain, and maize (Zea mays) leaves were added, as an isotopically distinct tPOC source, into one half of each lake. To estimate the balance between autochthonous carbon fixation and allochthonous carbon input, primary production and tPOC and tDOC (terrestrial dissolved organic carbon) influx were calculated for the treatment sides. We measured the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) of about 800 samples from all trophic consumer levels and compared them between lake sides, lakes, and three seasons. Leaf litter bag experiments showed that added maize leaves were processed at rates similar to those observed for leaves from shoreline plants, supporting the suitability of maize leaves as a tracer. The lake-wide carbon influx estimates confirmed that autochthonous carbon fixation by primary production was the dominant carbon source for consumers in the lakes. Nevertheless, carbon isotope values of benthic macroinvertebrates were significantly higher with maize additions compared to the reference side of each lake. Carbon isotope values of omnivorous and piscivorous fish were significantly affected by maize additions only in the macrophyte-dominated lake and delta13C of zooplankton and planktivorous fish remained unaffected in both lakes. In summary, our results experimentally demonstrate that tPOC in form of autumnal litterfall is rapidly processed during the subsequent months in the food web of shallow lakes and is channeled to secondary and tertiary consumers predominantly via the benthic pathways. A more intense processing of tPOC seems to be connected to a higher structural complexity in littoral zones, and hence may differ between shallow lakes of alternative stable states. PMID:25039215

Scharnweber, K; Syväranta, J; Hilt, S; Brauns, M; Vanni, M J; Brothers, S; Köhler, J; Knezevi?-Jari?, J; Mehner, T

2014-06-01

426

Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-006-9235-3 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

2013-07-01

427

A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000–2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. Results There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ?15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ?15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15–19, 20–29, and???30 minutes) were similar. Conclusions Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ?15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

2013-01-01

428

Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths.  

PubMed

Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations. PMID:23944435

Sääskilahti, K; Oksanen, J; Tulkki, J

2013-07-01

429

Release of Reactive Halogen Species from Sea-Salt Aerosols under Tropospheric Conditions with/without the Influence of Organic Matter in Smog-Chamber Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments to investigate the release of reactive halogen species from sea-salt aerosol and the influence of organic matter were performed in an aerosol smog-chamber (3500 l), made of Teflon film (FEP 200A, Dupont). Smog chamber facilities at lowered temperature (coolable down to -25°C) enable us to simulate these reactions under polar, tropospheric conditions. First experiments were performed to investigate the production of atomic Br and Cl without the impact of organic aerosol. Br and Cl play an important role in atmospheric ozone depletion, particularly regarding ozone depletion events (bromine explosion) during polar spring. In these studies, the aerosol was generated by atomizing salt solutions containing the typical Br/Cl ratio of 1/660 in seawater by an ultrasonic nebulizer and increasing the Br content up to sixfold. To ensure the aqueous surface of the aerosol, the experiments were performed at relative humidities above 76%. We determined the atomic Cl and OH-radical concentrations from the simultaneous consumption of four reference hydrocarbons. The Br-radical concentration was calculated on the basis of ozone depletion. Organic aerosol may take part in these reaction cycles by halogenation and production of volatile organic halogens. Further experiments are planned to add organic aerosol for mechanistic and kinetic studies on the influence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and humic-like substances (HULIS) on bromine explosion. The formation of the secondary organic aerosol and the determination of possible halogenated gaseous and solid organic products will be studied using longpath-FTIR, DRIFTS, ATR-FTIR, GC-FID, GC-ECD, GC-MS, TPD-MS and DMA-CNC.

Balzer, N.; Behnke, W.; Bleicher, S.; Krueger, H.; Ofner, J.; Siekmann, F.; Zetzsch, C.

2008-12-01

430

Language organization and temporal correlations in the spiking activity of an excitable laser: Experiments and model comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method, based on symbolic analysis, to characterize the temporal correlations of the spiking activity exhibited by excitable systems. The technique is applied to the experimentally observed dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuations regime, where the laser intensity displays irregular trains of sudden dropouts that can be interpreted as excitable pulses. Symbolic analysis transforms the series of interdropout time intervals into sequences of words, which represent the local ordering of a certain (small) number of those intervals. We then focus on the transition probabilities between pairs of words, showing that certain transitions are overrepresented (resulting in others being underrepresented) with respect to the surrogate series, provided the laser injection current is above a critical value. These experimental observations are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of the delay-differential Lang-Kobayashi model that is commonly used to describe this laser system, which supports the fact that the language organization reported here is generic and not a particular feature of the specific laser employed or the experimental time series analyzed. We also present results of simulations of the phenomenological nondelayed Eguia-Mindlin-Giudici(EMG) model and find that in this model the agreement between the experiments and the simulations is good at a qualitative, but not at a quantitative, level.

Rubido, Nicolas; Tiana-Alsina, Jordi; Torrent, M. C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Masoller, Cristina

2011-08-01

431

Economic Value of Dispensing Home-Based Preoperative Chlorhexidine Bathing Cloths to Prevent Surgical Site Infection  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To estimate the economic value of dispensing preoperative home-based chlorhexidine bathing cloth kits to orthopedic patients to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was developed from the hospital’s perspective depicting the decision of whether to dispense the kits preoperatively to orthopedic patients. We varied patient age, cloth cost, SSI-attributable excess length of stay, cost per bed-day, patient compliance with the regimen, and cloth antimicrobial efficacy to determine which variables were the most significant drivers of the model’s outcomes. RESULTS When all other variables remained at baseline and cloth efficacy was at least 50%, patient compliance only had to be half of baseline (baseline mean, 15.3%; range, 8.23%–20.0%) for chlorhexidine cloths to remain the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and providing better health outcomes). When cloth efficacy fell to 10%, 1.5 times the baseline bathing compliance also afforded dominance of the preoperative bath. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study favor the routine distribution of bathing kits. Even with low patient compliance and cloth efficacy values, distribution of bathing kits is an economically beneficial strategy for the prevention of SSI.

Bailey, Rachel R.; Stuckey, Dianna R.; Norman, Bryan A.; Duggan, Andrew P.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Lee, Ingi; Muder, Robert R.; Lee, Bruce Y.

2012-01-01

432

Breakdown of surface-code error correction due to coupling to a bosonic bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a surface code suffering decoherence due to coupling to a bath of bosonic modes at finite temperature and study the time available before the unavoidable breakdown of error correction occurs as a function of coupling and bath parameters. We derive an exact expression for the error rate on each individual qubit of the code, taking spatial and temporal correlations between the errors into account. We investigate numerically how different kinds of spatial correlations between errors in the surface code affect its threshold error rate. This allows us to derive the maximal duration of each quantum error-correction period by studying when the single-qubit error rate reaches the corresponding threshold. At the time when error correction breaks down, the error rate in the code can be dominated by the direct coupling of each qubit to the bath, by mediated subluminal interactions, or by mediated superluminal interactions. For a two-dimensional Ohmic bath, the time available per quantum error-correction period vanishes in the thermodynamic limit of a large code size L due to induced superluminal interactions, although it does so only like 1/?lnL . For all other bath types considered, this time remains finite as L ??.

Hutter, Adrian; Loss, Daniel

2014-04-01

433

Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the electromagnetic field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization."

Silvestri, Luciano; Jacobs, Kurt; Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim