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  1. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  2. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs from one donor can save or help as many as 50 people. Organs you can donate include Internal organs: Kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs Skin Bone and bone marrow ...

  3. Professional education and hospital development for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, N; Konaka, S; Kato, O; Ashikari, J

    2012-05-01

    Because of the strict Organ Transplantation Act, only 81 brain dead (BD) organ donations had been performed in Japan for 13 years since 1997. The Act was revised on July 17, 2010, allowing, organs to be donated after BD with consent from the family, if the subject had not denied organ donation previously. This act has lead to an expectation of a 6-7-fold increase in BD donation. The 82 organ procurement coordinators (OPC) in Japan include 32 belonging to the Japanese Organ Network (JOT) and the others to each administrative division. JOT has guideline manuals of standard roles and procedures of OPC during organ procurement from BD and cardiac death donors. To manage the increased organ donations after the revision of the act, we have modified the education system. First, we modified the guideline manuals for OPC to correspond to the revised Transplant Act and governmental guidelines. Second, all OPC gathered in a meeting room to learn the new organ procurement system to deal with the revised Transplant Act and guidelines. Third, a special education program for 2 months was provided for the 10 newcomers. Last, the practical training in each donor case for newcomers was performed by older OPC. Topics of the education program were the revised transplant act and guidelines, family approach to organ donation, BD diagnosis, donor evaluation and management, organ procurement and preservation, allocation system, hospital development and family care. In the future, each OPC will be divided into special categories, such as the donor family OPC, the donor management OPC, and the operating room OPC. Therefore, we need to construct separate special education programs for each category. PMID:22564564

  4. Organ Donation and Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... my body to medical science? Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Why should minorities be ... improving lives. Return to top Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can ...

  5. Kidney organ donation: developing family practice initiatives to reverse inertia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign. PMID:20478042

  6. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death. PMID:27234715

  7. [Organ donation after circulatory death].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, J; Kalisvaart, M; van der Hoeven, M; Epker, J; de Haan, J; IJzermans, J N M; Grüne, F

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 17 million inhabitants live in the Netherlands. The number of potential organ donors in 1999 was the lowest in Europe with only 10 donors per million inhabitants. Medical associations, public health services, health insurance companies and the government had to find common solutions in order to improve organ allocation, logistics of donations and to increase the number of transplantations. After a prolonged debate on medical ethical issues of organ transplantation, all participants were able to agree on socio-medico-legal regulations for organ donation and transplantation. In addition to improving the procedure for organ donation after brain death (DBD) the most important step was the introduction of organ donation after circulatory death (DCD). Measures such as the introduction of a national organ donor database, improved information to the public, further education on intensive care units (ICU), guidelines for end of life care on the ICU, establishment of transplantation coordinators on site, introduction of autonomous explantation teams and strict procedures on the course of organ donations, answered many practical issues about logistics and responsibilities for DBD and DCD. In 2014 the number of postmortem organ donations rose to 16.4 per million inhabitants. Meanwhile, up to 60 % of organ donations in the Netherlands originate from a DCD procedure compared to approximately 10 % in the USA. This overview article discusses the developments and processes of deceased donation in the Netherlands after 15 years of experience with DCD. PMID:26810404

  8. Deceased Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Israni, A K; Zaun, D; Bolch, C; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    SRTR uses data collected by OPTN to calculate metrics such as donation/conversion rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant but not transplanted. In 2014, 9252 eligible deaths were reported by organ procurement organizations, a slight increase from 8944 in 2012, and the donation/conversation rate was 73.4 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight increase from 71.3 in 2013. Some metrics show variation across organ procurement organizations, suggesting that sharing best practices could lead to gains in efficiency and organ retrieval. PMID:26755269

  9. Obstacles to organ donation.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, R E; Stepney, R

    1989-05-01

    Attitudes towards transplantation were investigated in national surveys of the general public (n = 1471), the medical profession (n = 590) and key clinical staff in units referring potential organ donors (n = 380). A clear majority of doctors would like to see more transplants. Only 16 per cent of doctors opposed them on cost grounds, and a 50 per cent 5-year survival rate is seen as more than adequate clinical justification. However, doctors are less supportive of liver and heart grafts than of kidney and cornea grafts. Few lay people would refuse donation of specific organs, but 30 per cent worry that doctors might be pressured into removal of organs when they are not sure the patient is dead. Religious or moral objection is rare. Intensive care unit staff felt the most important factor restricting organ harvest in their own units was dislike of adding to relatives' distress, followed by lack of training in approaching relatives and adverse media publicity. Only 11 per cent thought reservations on brain stem death a likely or possible influence. Enhanced public awareness of the need for transplants was seen as the most important means of increasing organ harvest. Required request would be controversial and perhaps impossible to implement. We conclude that the time, effort and expense involved in potential organ donation do not play a substantial part in limiting referral. Neither do reservations about brain stem death. Increased training of staff (both in communication skills and in the professional responsibility to encourage donation) and greater public awareness are seen as the twin foundations of a realistic approach to enhancing referral. PMID:11644374

  10. National Organ and Tissue Donation Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Terms Get Involved Workplace Partnership for Life Social Media Outreach Materials National Donation Events Donation Organizations Sign ... can help spread the message about signing up. Social Media Facebook YouTube National Donation Events Donation Organizations Find ...

  11. Solid organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in solid organ donation and transplantation. In addition to confirming the clinical diagnosis of brain death, imaging examinations are used to assess potential organ donors and recipients, evaluate donated organs, and monitor transplantation outcomes. This article introduces the history, biology, ethics, and institutions of organ donation and transplantation medicine. The article also discusses current and emerging imaging applications in the transplantation field and the controversial role of neuroimaging to confirm clinically diagnosed brain death. PMID:22461345

  12. Organ donation as gift exchange.

    PubMed

    Vernale, C; Packard, S A

    1990-01-01

    Organ donation, considered by sociologists as a type of gift exchange, involves moral, social, psychological, religious and legal issues. This gift exchange paradigm can be used as a framework to understand donor and recipient issues, cadaveric organ donation and the importance of the role of nurses during organ procurement. PMID:2292445

  13. Reservations of the spirit: the development of a culturally sensitive spiritual beliefs scale about organ donation.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Mary; Lee, Sun Young; Smith, Sandi W; Shearman, Sachiyo; Yoo, Jina H

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether spiritual beliefs offered any explanation for why participants from Korea (N = 146), Japan (N = 134), and the United States (N = 146) were willing or reluctant to register as organ donors. A culturally appropriate measure of spiritual beliefs about organ donation, the Spiritual Beliefs Scale, was developed consisting of 2 factors: (a) Spiritual Connection and (b) Spiritual Concern. Spiritual Connection was a significant predictor of behavioral intention to become an organ donor for Korean respondents, whereas Spiritual Concern was a significant predictor of reluctance to become an organ donor for American respondents. Spiritual beliefs correlated as predicted with attitude toward organ donation and fear of bodily mutilation, showing that the Spiritual Beliefs Scale exhibited internal, external, and predictive validity. Across the 3-country sample, Spiritual Connection was associated with greater willingness to become an organ donor for women, whereas Spiritual Concern inhibited participation for men. Implications of these findings are discussed for developing culturally effective education and procurement campaigns. PMID:17461751

  14. Organ donation: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Maher, M E; Strong, S

    1989-12-01

    The frequency and success rate of organ donation and transplant surgery has dramatically increased over the past several years. Since organ donors are drawn primarily from the traumatically brain-injured population this increase has a direct impact on neuroscience nurses. This article addresses the organ procurement process, nursing care of the organ donor and the interrelationship of organ donation and neuroscience nursing. PMID:2532669

  15. Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, Rotimi; Fawale, Bimbo Michael; Busari, Olusegun Adesola; Ogunmola, Jeffery Olarinde; Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Ojewola, Rufus Wale; Yusuf, Musah; Obajolowo, Omotola; Soje, Michael; Gbadegesin, Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative. Methods A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted. Results Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P < 0.05), and this cohort is less likely to be aware of organ donation (P < 0.05). At each level of care, permission by religion to donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P < 0.05) and not willingness to donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P < 0.05) and women (P > 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P < 0.05) and counseling of families of potential donors (P > 0.05). Conclusions Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation. PMID:27500245

  16. Gender disparity in organ donation.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Judith L

    2006-12-01

    Organ donation is affected by legal, cultural, religious, and racial factors, as well as by health considerations. Although organs in and of themselves are gender neutral and can be exchanged between the sexes, women account for up to two thirds of all organ donations. There are no clear reasons why women are more willing to undergo the risks of surgery than are men, nor is this gender disparity mirrored in the demand for donated organs. More men than women are recipients, and women are less likely to complete the necessary steps to receive donated organs. Internationally, ethical concern has been focused on possible human rights violations in the harvesting of organs from prisoners and, in poor countries, on the trafficking of organs from girls and women who are expected to financially help their families by selling their organs. PMID:17582366

  17. Organization and Development of Bone Marrow Donation and Transplantation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jagoda; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerwiński, Jarosław; Kosmala, Karolina; Łęczycka, Anna; Malanowski, Piotr; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, Jolanta; Małkowski, Piotr; Danielewicz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes bone marrow donation and transplantation in Poland in terms of its history, current state, and information on the quality control system. Based on data gathered from the informatics systems of the Polish Central Unrelated Potential Bone Marrow Donor and Cord Blood Registry and the Polish transplant registries, as well as World Marrow Donor Association statistics, we performed an overview study to collect and compare numbers on hematopoietic stem cells donations and transplantations in Poland in the years 2010-2014. In the last 5 years, the number of registered potential hematopoietic stem cells donors in Poland increased by more than 4 times, from about 146,000 to over 750,000. During the same period, the number of patients qualified to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation from unrelated donor increased from 557 in 2010 to 817 in 2014. We observed a striking change in the percentage of transplantations performed in Polish centers using material collected from national donors--from 24% to 60%. This shift was also evident in the number of search procedures closed with acceptation of Polish donors--from 27% in 2010 to 58% in 2014. Another consequence of Polish registry growth is the increasing number of donations from Polish donors for international patients. Between 2010 and 2014, the percent of donation for non-national patient increased from 33% to 76%, placing Poland in 6th place in the ranking of the HSC "exporters" worldwide. Growth of transplantation rates involves standardization process, which is a natural way of development for national organizations in the field of HSCT because of its international character. PMID:26423563

  18. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals. PMID:27535587

  19. [Post-mortem organ donation].

    PubMed

    Goroll, T; Gerresheim, G; Schaffartzik, W; Schwemmer, U

    2015-07-01

    In Germany approximately 3000 body organs are transplanted annually. In general, all artificially ventilated patients with diagnosed brain death are potential organ donors. All German hospitals are obliged to report potential organ donors and be actively involved in the organ donation process. These matters lie under the jurisdiction of the German transplantation act. An essential prerequisite for organ donation is the diagnosis of brain death according to the guidelines of the German Medical Association. Brain death is associated with complex pathophysiological changes in cardiopulmonary function as well as fluid, electrolyte and metabolic homeostasis. In the case of diagnosed brain death and with permission for organ donation, a precise organ-protective therapy is initiated, essentially focussing on optimal organ perfusion and oxygenation. The quality of organ protection has a direct influence on the outcome of transplantation. PMID:26174748

  20. Brain death and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Lovasik, D

    2000-12-01

    Critical care nurses are essential team members during the process of determining brain death and preparing for organ donation. Using their knowledge of the criteria for brain death, they care for the dying patient, support the grieving family, and participate in the consent process for organ donation. Nurses make a critical difference in saving the lives of others through the gift of life. PMID:11855256

  1. Current Status of Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Tuttle-Newhall, J E Betsy; Schnitzler, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Organ and tissue donation are options at the end of a patient's life. Physicians and surgeons should have no direct role to play in the solicitation of organ donation and consent for organ recovery from the family of either a brain dead patient or a neurologically devastated patient. Certainly organ and tissue donation, and transplant procedures are life-saving and life-changing for many patients with organ failure and life-altering conditions. Due in part to the disparity between supply and demand for these resources, the potential exists for ethical tensions between the caring physician and surgeon team's advocacy for their patient, and the family at the end of the patient's life, and the process of organ donation. In this article, we will discuss the evolution of the legislative landscape for organ donation in the past decade, the concept of first person consent and its implications, the process of recovery and finally concerns regarding issues of conflict of interest regarding the handling and processing of the donor gift. PMID:26168580

  2. Pediatric Organ Donation: What Factors Most Influence Parents’ Donation Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that influence parents’ decisions when asked to donate a deceased child’s organs. Design Cross-sectional design with data collection via structured telephone interviews. Setting and Participants Seventy-four parents (49 donors, 25 non-donors) of donor-eligible deceased children who were previously approached by coordinators from one organ procurement organization (OPO) in the southeastern USA. Main Results Multivariate analyses showed that organ donation was more likely when the parent was a registered organ donor (OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 2.7), the parent had favorable organ donation beliefs (OR=5.5, CI=2.7, 12.3), the parent was exposed to organ donation information prior to the child’s death (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.7, 10.3), a member of the child’s healthcare team first mentioned organ donation (OR=1.4, CI=1.2, 3.7), the requestor was perceived as sensitive to the family’s needs (OR=0.4, CI=0.2, 0.7), the family had sufficient time to discuss donation (OR=5.2, CI=1.4, 11.6), and family members were in agreement about donation (OR=2.8, CI=1.3, 5.2). Conclusions This study identifies several modifiable variables that influence the donation decision-making process for parents. Strategies to facilitate targeted organ donation education and higher consent rates are discussed. PMID:18477931

  3. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  4. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... KS KEEP Healthy Event at Charlotte Convention Center Sat, 07/23/2016 - 8:00am Charlotte, NC Patient ... Capital City 5K for Organ, Tissue & Eye Donation Sat, 07/30/2016 - 5:30pm Madison, WI Register ...

  5. A study on the development of public campaign messages for organ donation promotion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hye-Jin

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to find an effective method of expressing a message in public service ads by investigating whether or not a message framing type affects the outcome. Specifically, the study looks into the effects of messaging on organ donation by identifying how the type of message framing (positive vs. negative) and appeal type (rational vs. emotional) affect the attitude and behavioural intention of the consumer. The individual characteristics of each subject such as altruistic mind, level of self-monitoring and issue involvement were selected as intermediate variables that may affect the impact of a message. The study therefore tries to establish a proposition that can be used to generate an effective promotional message on organ donation in a systematic way. PMID:24800757

  6. Organ Donation: The Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... team arrives, the donor is taken to the operating room where organs and tissues are recovered in ... at the hospital and may be in the operating room awaiting the arrival of the lifesaving organ. ...

  7. Organ donation experiences of family members.

    PubMed

    Manuel, April; Solberg, Shirley; MacDonald, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research study was to describe and interpret what life is like for individuals who have consented to donate the organs of a deceased relative for transplantation. This study captures the meaning of this phenomenon in a way to help nurses develop new insights into the lives of these individuals, enable them to implement strategies to better assist and support the family, and perhaps decrease barriers to organ donation. Thematic analysis of the participants' narrative descriptions identified five essential themes: the struggle to acknowledge the death, the need for a positive outcome of the death, creating a living memory, buying time, and the significance of support networks in the organ donation decision. The integration of these themes revealed the essence of the experience as creating of a sense of peace. These five themes and the essence of the experience are discussed in relation to the literature, followed by recommendations for future nursing practice, education, and research. PMID:20629462

  8. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, R.; Fawale, M. B.; Ojewola, R. W.; Busari, O. A.; Ogunmola, O. J.; Olanrewaju, T. O.; Akinleye, C. A.; Oladosu, Y. O.; Olamoyegun, M. A.; Gbadegesin, B. A.; Obajolowo, O. O.; Soje, M. O.; Adelaja, A.; Ayodele, L. M.; Ayodele, O. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Results: Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. Conclusion: There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap. PMID:26889370

  9. [Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].

    PubMed

    Nagel, E; Mayer, J

    2003-06-01

    A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation. PMID:12883802

  10. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mosquito Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... get infected with West Nile virus by donating blood? No. You cannot get West Nile virus by ...

  11. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues. PMID:27019167

  12. Nurses' attitudes toward organ donation: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Duke, J; Murphy, B; Bell, A

    1998-01-01

    Australia's rate of organ donation, which has shown a continuing downward trend, is among the lowest in the developed world. Research has demonstrated that nurses' attitudes and behaviors are important functions in organ donation, particularly retrieval. This study investigated the attitudes and knowledge levels about organ donation of paediatric nurses in a large metropolitan children's hospital and nurses in two rural hospitals. The results highlight the role that critical care nurses and advanced practice nurses need to play in improving levels of organ donation. PMID:10639986

  13. Aspects of deceased organ donation in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brierley, J; Hasan, A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation offers children in acute or chronic severe organ failure similar opportunities to adults. However, while the number who might benefit is relatively low, significantly fewer cadaveric donors exist for any given child compared with an adult. Incompatible organ size and relatively low donation rates mean that despite living parental donation and innovations to reduce donated organ size, children die before organs become available. The severity of the UK situation is compounded by restrictions on paediatric living donation, uncertainties over the application of brain death criteria, and ethical concerns about the use of donation after circulatory death. The UK Department of Health's Organ Donation Task Force suggested the means by which the adult donor pool might be increased, recommending that outstanding ethical and legal issues be resolved, but made no specific recommendations about children. PMID:22194438

  14. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  15. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  16. Ethical aspects of blood and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Whyte, G

    2003-08-01

    Ethics of blood and organ donation in Australia has been influenced by voluntarism and the Red Cross. The General Agreement on Trade in Services may threaten the principle of voluntary blood donation and self sufficiency of blood in Australia. However, a cooperative approach to managing the public good is more sustainable than individual self interest and the author argues that voluntary blood and organ donation should be retained. PMID:12895168

  17. Indian ICU nurses' perceptions of and attitudes towards organ donation.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Nagarajaiah; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    Nurses play a significant role in identifying and securing potential organ donors in the clinical environment. Research among Indian nurses related to organ donation is sparse. The present study aimed to investigate nurses' attitudes towards organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among nurses (n=184) at a tertiary care centre. Data were collected through self-report questionnaire. A majority (81%) of the respondents were 'willing to sign the card' for organ donation; however, only 3.8% (n=7) of them actually 'signed the organ donation card'. There were significant associations found between intentions to sign the organ donation card and gender (x2=5.852; p<0.054), religion (x2=40.175; p<0.000), and experience caring for brain-dead patients (x2=22.790; p<0.001). The researchers strongly suggest continuing education for nurses to enhance skills and knowledge, as well as sensitivity to cultural, ethical, social, and religious issues, and advocacy in the area of organ donation. Furthermore, nurse administrators must take the initiative to develop guidelines clarifying the role of nurses in the organ donation and transplantation process to promote organ donation and improve rates. PMID:26153809

  18. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness. PMID:25579288

  19. Organ donation consanguinity or universality.

    PubMed

    Kishore, R R

    1996-01-01

    1. Neither the "Diseased Persons" nor the "Genetic Relations" provide an answer to "trading" in human body parts. 2. Live human body constitutes a vital source of supply of organs and tissues and the possibilities of optimum utilisation should be explored. 3. There is no scope for dogmatic postures and open-mindedness should be the approach while dealing with the issue of Organ Transplantation. 4. Society owes a duty to save the file of a dying man and in the event of failure to do so, it is absolutely immoral to interfere with his own arrangements by making unrealistic laws. No immorality is involved if an individual disposes of his spare body parts for a valid consideration to a needy person. 5. The scarcity needs to be urgently overcome otherwise unwarranted trade and crime are liable to thrive. 6. Families are not unconnected or antagonistic fragments of humanity. After thousands of years of continuous efforts the individuals on this earth have attained the stage of organic and functional integration. Atomisation of society on the basis of consanguineous proximities amounts to reversing this holistic trend. Organ transplantation is a functional expression of a highly evolved pursuit with inherent and intimate interaction in the form of organic exchange at the individual level, independent of consanguineous inducements or motivations. As such there is absolutely no scope for restricting organ donations by strangers. 7. Commercialisation should be curbed by making the enforcement agencies more efficient and not by depriving a needy person of his genuine requirements. Legislative craftsmanship lies in providing an answer without curtailing the freedom of the people. PMID:8692005

  20. Altruism in organ donation: an unnecessary requirement?

    PubMed Central

    Moorlock, Greg; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Altruism has long been taken to be the guiding principle of ethical organ donation in the UK, and has been used as justification for rejecting or allowing certain types of donation. We argue that, despite this prominent role, altruism has been poorly defined in policy and position documents, and used confusingly and inconsistently. Looking at how the term has been used over recent years allows us to define ‘organ donation altruism’, and comparing this with accounts in the philosophical literature highlights its theoretical shortcomings. The recent report from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics reaffirmed the importance of altruism in organ donation, and offered a clearer definition. This definition is, however, more permissive than that of altruism previously seen in UK policy, and as a result allows some donations that previously have been considered unacceptable. We argue that while altruistic motivation may be desirable, it is not necessary. PMID:23538329

  1. Altruism in organ donation: an unnecessary requirement?

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2014-02-01

    Altruism has long been taken to be the guiding principle of ethical organ donation in the UK, and has been used as justification for rejecting or allowing certain types of donation. We argue that, despite this prominent role, altruism has been poorly defined in policy and position documents, and used confusingly and inconsistently. Looking at how the term has been used over recent years allows us to define 'organ donation altruism', and comparing this with accounts in the philosophical literature highlights its theoretical shortcomings. The recent report from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics reaffirmed the importance of altruism in organ donation, and offered a clearer definition. This definition is, however, more permissive than that of altruism previously seen in UK policy, and as a result allows some donations that previously have been considered unacceptable. We argue that while altruistic motivation may be desirable, it is not necessary. PMID:23538329

  2. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  3. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems. PMID:23449366

  4. Paid Organ Donation: An Italian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P

    2015-09-01

    The only countries that have allowed financial incentives for organ donation are Iran since 1988, and later on, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. In Europe, and of course in Italy, financial incentives for donors are prohibited. The author has completed extensive research via the Internet (PubMed) of worldwide scientific literature on paid organ donation, also researching studies concerning public opinion on organ commercialism and "regulated markets". Italian transplant laws also have been reported and analyzed. PMID:26361655

  5. Intensive care medicine and organ donation: exploring the last frontiers?

    PubMed

    Escudero, D; Otero, J

    2015-01-01

    The main, universal problem for transplantation is organ scarcity. The gap between offer and demand grows wider every year and causes many patients in waiting list to die. In Spain, 90% of transplants are done with organs taken from patients deceased in brain death but this has a limited potential. In order to diminish organ shortage, alternative strategies such as donations from living donors, expanded criteria donors or donation after circulatory death, have been developed. Nevertheless, these types of donors also have their limitations and so are not able to satisfy current organ demand. It is necessary to reduce family denial and to raise donation in brain death thus generalizing, among other strategies, non-therapeutic elective ventilation. As intensive care doctors, cornerstone to the national donation programme, we must consolidate our commitment with society and organ transplantation. We must contribute with the values proper to our specialization and try to reach self-sufficiency by rising organ obtainment. PMID:25841298

  6. Brain death and organ donation of children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Şahin, Şanlıay; Uysal-Yazıcı, Mutlu; Ayar, Ganime; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Akman, Alkım Öden; Hirfanoğlu, İbrahim Murat; Kalkan, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of patients with brain death, and to emphasize the importance of organ donation from children. Data for the period from September 2009 to October 2012 were collected retrospectively. Twenty children who were diagnosed as brain death were included. Data including demographics, major cause leading to brain death, duration of brain death evaluation, ancillary tests used to confirm brain death, complications and outcome, duration of hospitalization and organ donation were collected for statistical evaluation. The mean age was 6.2 years, and the male/female ratio 1.85. The major cause leading to brain death was most often traumatic brain injury, seen in 11 patients (55%). The mean duration of brain death evaluation was 6.7 and 1.7 days in Centers I and II respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.5 days. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in 18 patients (90%). Complications included hyperglycemia in 13 cases and diabetes incipitus in 7 cases (65% and 35%, respectively). Mean duration of survival was 9.8 days. In Center I, one of the patients' parents gave consent to organ donation, while four parents in Center II agreed to organ donation. The study demonstrated that the duration of brain death evaluation was longer in Center I than in Center II (p<0.05). When both centers were compared, there was no significant difference in regard to obtaining consent for organ donation, survival after diagnosis of brain death and length of stay in the PICU (p>0.05). Early diagnosis of brain death and prompt evaluation of patients by ICU physicians once the diagnosis is taken into consideration will probably yield better organs and reduce costs. Training PICU physicians, nurses and organ donation coordinators, and increasing children's awareness of the need for organ donation via means of public communication may increase families' rate of agreement to organ donation in the future. PMID

  7. Campaigning for Organ Donation at Mosques.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend of recruiting faith leaders at mosques to overcome religious barriers to organ donation, and to increase donor registration among Muslims. Commentators have suggested that Muslims are not given enough information about organ donation in religious sermons or lectures delivered at mosques. Corrective actions have been recommended, such as funding campaigns to promote organ donation, and increasing the availability of organ donation information at mosques. These actions are recommended despite published literature expressing safety concerns (i.e., do no harm) in living and end-of-life organ donation. Living donors require life-long medical follow-up and treatment for complications that can appear years later. Scientific and medical controversies persist regarding the international guidelines for death determination in end-of-life donation. The medical criteria of death lack validation and can harm donors if surgical procurement is performed without general anesthesia and before biological death. In the moral code of Islam, the prevention of harm holds precedence over beneficence. Moral precepts described in the Quran encourage Muslims to be beneficent, but also to seek knowledge prior to making practical decisions. However, the Quran also contains passages that demand honesty and truthfulness when providing information to those who are seeking knowledge. Currently, information is limited to that which encourages donor registration. Campaigning for organ donation to congregations in mosques should adhere to the moral code of complete, rather than selective, disclosure of information. We recommend as a minimal standard the disclosure of risks, uncertainties, and controversies associated with the organ donation process. PMID:26940813

  8. Nurses' role in encouraging organ donation.

    PubMed

    Shyr, S

    There is currently a shortage of transplantable organs, mainly because the relatives of potential organ donors dying in hospital are not routinely offered the choice of donating their loved one's organs. Nurses are ideally placed to perform this function, and those who have had the courage to approach relatives of potential organ donors have found it a worthwhile experience. PMID:8467192

  9. [Organs, tissues, and cells donation in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Treviño, María Guadalupe; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Transplants are one of the most important advances of modern medicine; in the last 50 years in our country there have been more than fifty thousand transplants, which makes it clear that this is one of the most sought-after medical practices not only in Mexico but worldwide. In life, it is possible for a person to donate a kidney, a lung or a liver segment. When brain death occurs it is possible for a person to donate kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs, blood, hematopoietic cells, bone marrow, bones, corneas, heart valves, tendons, and arteries. However, the culture of organ donation is not widespread among Mexicans, hence in our country there is not even 50 % of the number of donations recommended by WHO, which impacts the number of patients who are waiting for an organ or tissue, which causes many of them die before receiving them. PMID:26506496

  10. A practical Israeli strategy for appealing for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Tamar; Klein, Moti

    2013-06-01

    CONTEXT-Most reports on organ donation have been related to the importance of support for families, explanations of brain death, and the appeal for organ donation. In contrast, no reports have addressed organ donation from the perspective of intervention in cases of "sudden mourning" and the practical aspects of how to facilitate donation in such cases. OBJECTIVE-To develop a specific strategy for professional intervention in cases of imminent death to bring the family to a state of cognitive and emotional preparedness that will enable them to accept the tragic news, donate organs, and then take leave of the deceased. METHOD-The strategy presented here was developed on the basis of the records of donor coordinators who documented their interaction with families; consultations with professionals in the fields of marketing, persuasion, and negotiating; research conducted on families who did or did not donate organs; and statements made by family members of donors in focus and support groups in more than 10 years. RESULTS-The strategic approach includes early-stage rules such as staff self-awareness, and then later, critical stages of the process that take place before and at the time of determination of brain death: preparation for and the notification of death itself and the request for organ donation, including persuasion skills, coping with resistance and expressions of anger, and physical leave-taking from the deceased. CONCLUSIONS-The flexible, strategic approach set out here is designed to maximize the chances of procuring organ donation while protecting the family's rights and welfare. PMID:23782666

  11. Incentives for organ donation: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Chkhotua, A

    2012-01-01

    Altruism still remains the main principle of organ donation worldwide. However, since the current practices has not met the demand for organs, new strategies should be found to encourage organ donation. Implementation of financial incentives in transplantation is a matter of debate among experts in the fields of transplantation, ethics, law, and economics. It should be acknowledged that donors incur many expenses while participating in the transplant process, which seems unfair. Various forms of incentives have been suggested and are currently used worldwide. This article describes current attitudes toward incentives for in transplantation used in different countries, arguing in favor as well as against them. PMID:22841275

  12. Suicide notes and cadaveric organ donation.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Krishna, Karthik; Kumar, R

    2016-09-01

    A suicide note is an important tool for medico-legal investigation on the manner and circumstances surrounding the death. It can also act as a facilitator for organ donation when the victim expresses their wish to do so. This article cites four examples, where the victims had specifically mentioned a "last wish" to donate their organs. The importance of such "expressed consent" in suicide notes is discussed. Such observations are not found in available scientific literature and are of importance in countries where there is a long waiting list for organ recipients and a very large number of suicidal deaths. PMID:26992402

  13. Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation.

    PubMed

    Kent, B; Owens, R G

    1995-10-01

    The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards cadaveric organ donation, with 112 (74.6%) responding. The findings identified conflicting attitudes particularly in relation to corneal donation; 25% of the respondents would not donate their corneas. Reasons given included fear of disfigurement, religious factors such as the need to see into the next life, and dislike of the thought of donation of eyes but without knowing why. The majority of the respondents were in favour of donation generally and many carried or had signed donor cards. Nurses are usually the professionals who have the most contact with the patient in the clinical and are therefore able to identify potential donors. It seems likely that nurses with conflicting attitudes to donation are less likely to undertake the emotional costs involved when relatives of potential donors are approached re donation, than those who have more positive attitudes. PMID:8550308

  14. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  15. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-08-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  16. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE FRAMING AND EXEMPLARS ON PROMOTING ORGAN DONATION.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Chang, Wen-Te

    2015-12-01

    People in many countries are unwilling to donate organs. Drawing on previous research regarding the use of message framing and the theory of exemplification promoting intentions to donate organs, this study examined messaging strategies. This study used a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design to examine the joint effects of gain/loss frames and statistical/exemplar appeals on the intentions of 189 Taiwanese college students (108 women, 81 men; age range = 19-24 yr., M = 21.6, SD = 2.9) regarding organ donation. Each participant was randomly assigned to read one of four versions of an organ donation promotional message and then to complete a questionnaire. The analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between the two factors. Loss-exemplar messages elicited significantly more positive intentions toward donation than did loss-statistical messages. There was no significant difference between the statistical and exemplar appeals observed under the gain-framed condition. The practical implications of developing effective organ donation promotional materials and the limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:26595292

  17. An Analysis of Organ Donation Policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ghazi; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an organ shortage crisis in the United States. This paper analyzes the magnitude of the problem, the organ procurement programs in other developed countries as compared to the US, and discusses the changes that can be made to address this problem. With the opt-in or explicit-consent method currently practiced in the US, less that one third of the population consents to organ donation. In order to narrow the gap between the demand and supply of organs, steps need to be taken to improve the organ procurement infrastructure. The public needs to be educated about the dire need, the benefits and risks in organ donation, and living vs. deceased donation. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-05.asp, free with no login]. PMID:27128513

  18. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  19. Improvements for international medicine donations: a review of the World Health Organization Guidelines for Medicine Donations, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Cañigueral-Vila, Nuria; Chen, Jennifer C; Frenkel-Rorden, Lindsey; Laing, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Some humanitarian and development organizations respond to major natural disasters and emergencies by donating medicines. Many provide medicines on a routine basis to support health systems, particularly those run by Faith-Based Organizations. Although such donations can provide essential medicines to populations in great need, inappropriate donations also take place, with burdensome consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the interagency Guidelines for Medicine Donations for use by donors and recipients in the context of emergency aid and international development assistance. Although comprehensive in nature and transferable to various emergency situations, adjustments to both content and formatting would improve this resource. Recommendations for the next version of these guidelines include: specific wording and consistent formatting; definition of who is a recipient, clear distinction between acute and long-term emergencies, and proper donation procedures pertaining to each; inclusion of visual aides such as flowcharts, checklists, and photos; and improving the citations system. PMID:26525948

  20. Normative consent and organ donation: a vindication.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ben

    2011-06-01

    In an earlier article, I argued that David Estlund's notion of 'normative consent' could provide justification for an opt-out system of organ donation that does not involve presumptions about the deceased donor's consent. Where it would be wrong of someone to refuse their consent, then the fact that they have not actually given it is irrelevant, though an explicit denial of consent (as in opting out) may still be binding. My argument has recently been criticised by Potts et al, who argue that such a policy would involve taking organs from people whose organs should not be taken and would be a recipe for totalitarianism. The present response seeks to rebut both the ethical and political objections. I argue that people can indeed be under a moral obligation to donate their organs, even if they are not technically dead at the time and their donation does not save anyone else's life. Moreover, I argue that an opt-out system-unlike mandatory donation-is not totalitarian because it preserves the right of individuals to act morally wrongly, by opting out when they have no good moral reason to do so. The policy I propose is neither immoral nor totalitarian. PMID:21429959

  1. Tissue and organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Parisa; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Rafiee, Alireza Baradaran; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Sahebjam, Mehrnaz; Ghaderi, Firoozeh; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-06-01

    Tissue and organ transplantation is one of the most promising treatments for some incurable diseases. Nowadays, transplantation is the common therapy in many countries. Unfortunately, availability of donated tissues and organs is limited. There are several factors which may affect donation rate for instance; social factors, culture, religion, and family decision. Accordingly, religious beliefs have a crucial role in tissue and organ donation and transplantation. Islam as a code of life has a comprehensive road map to lead mankind. Spiritual view of human life is considered to be much more valuable in Islam. Therefore, saving a human life is one of the most important Islamic teachings. In Iran as a Muslim country, tissue and organ transplantation program was established based on religious scholars' permission which has an essential role towards considerable development of the program in Iran. PMID:25194580

  2. Overview of the organ donation process.

    PubMed

    Albert, P L

    1994-09-01

    Organ transplantation has become a viable treatment option for end-stage organ disease. With the advent of immunosuppressive medication and vastly improved preservation practices and surgical techniques, it is now possible to transplant an increasing number and variety of organs. In their role as direct care givers to patients and their families, critical care nurses must be attuned to the need for donor organs and tissues, and to the benefits of donation for the donor family, the potential organ recipients, and to themselves as health care professionals. PMID:7946210

  3. Development of the National Living Donor Assistance Center: reducing financial disincentives to living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Patricia H; Gifford, Kimberly A; Hong, Barry A; Merion, Robert M; Ojo, Akinlolu O

    2014-03-01

    Over the years, the transplant community has worked to advance the care of living organ donors; however, barriers remain, including the nonmedical expenses incurred by living donors. A new center, funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), was established to operate a nationwide system to remove these financial disincentives. The HRSA grant was awarded to an academic institution and the daily operations are managed by a transplant professional society. Expenses are reimbursed prospectively for financially needy living donors. Combining the legislative authority and economic resources of the federal government, the research experience of an academic institution, and the management know-how of a professional society has proven to be successful. To date, the center has received 3918 applications submitted by 199 different transplant centers and receives about 80 applications per month. On average, a donor spends $2767 for their travel expenses to the transplant center. Of the 3918 applications that have been submitted, 1941 of those applicants (50%) have completed their donor surgery. PMID:24598569

  4. Development of the National Living Donor Assistance Center: reducing financial disincentives to living organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Patricia H.; Gifford, Kimberly A.; Hong, Barry A.; Merion, Robert M.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, the transplant community has worked to advance the care of living organ donors; however, barriers remain, including the nonmedical expenses incurred by living donors. A new center, funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), was established to operate a nationwide system to remove these financial disincentives. The HRSA grant was awarded to an academic institution and the daily operations are managed by a transplant professional society. Expenses are reimbursed prospectively for financially needy living donors. Combining the legislative authority and economic resources of the federal government, the research experience of an academic institution, and the management know-how of a professional society has proven to be successful. To date, the center has received 3918 applications submitted by 199 different transplant centers and receives about 80 applications per month. On average, a donor spends $2767 for their travel expenses to the transplant center. Of the 3918 applications that have been submitted, 1941 of those applicants (50%) have completed their donor surgery. PMID:24598569

  5. Organ donation: a significant marketing challenge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Roberta N

    2007-01-01

    Unlike most health care markets, the organ donation market is one where patients are the marketers, prospective donors are the customers, and no payment is allowed in the exchange process. The assumption that altruistic behavior by donors would satisfy the need for organs has proven woefully untrue. As a result, those needing organs have resorted to relying on unwilling or impoverished donors, to having to promote themselves on websites which have achieved success for only small numbers of patients, or to waiting for organs which they may never receive. This remains a still unsolved marketing challenge. PMID:19042535

  6. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors. PMID:18935879

  7. Family Initiated Discussions About Organ Donation at the Time of Death

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Krouse, Jennifer; Howard, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Some family members initiate organ donation discussions before being approached by donor coordinators or healthcare providers. We examined differences between families that did versus did not initiate organ donation discussions and factors predicting donation consent among those families that self-initiated the discussion. Next-of-kin of donor-eligible individuals (147 donors, 138 non-donors) from one organ procurement organization completed a telephone interview. Seventy-three families (25.6%) first mentioned organ donation, and 54 (74%) of them consented to donation. Several characteristics of the deceased and next-of-kin were associated with whether family members initiated the donation discussion with donation coordinators or healthcare providers. Also, family mention of donation was more likely to yield consent when the deceased was younger (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.92, 0.99), next-of-kin was a registered donor (OR = 3.86, CI = 2.84, 6.76), and when family was more satisfied with the healthcare team (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04, 1.39). Knowing the deceased’s donation intentions and being exposed to positive organ donation messages are more likely to trigger families to raise donation with providers. OPOs and healthcare providers should work collaboratively to develop strategies for how best to respond to families who initiate this conversation. PMID:19788451

  8. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate. PMID:15478883

  9. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  10. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  11. Impact of a Bereavement and Donation Service incorporating mandatory 'required referral' on organ donation rates: a model for the implementation of the Organ Donation Taskforce's recommendations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, F; Cochran, D; Thornton, S

    2009-08-01

    In 2008 the Organ Donation Taskforce published its recommendations for increasing organ donation in the UK by 50% over 5 years. Bolton NHS Trust has addressed the problem of low rates of organ donation by amalgamating Bereavement and Donation Services and introducing a trigger to refer automatically all potential organ donors to the regional transplant donor co-ordinators. We audited the ability of the new service to deliver the aims and recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce. Following the changes in service provision the number of tissue donors rose from six in 2002 to 246 in 2007. In the same period solid organ donation rates remained unchanged. The introduction of an automatic trigger for referral of potential donors in 2007 resulted in 31 referrals and 11 successful multi-organ donors. The current service exceeds the aims of the Taskforce and offers the potential to meet UK organ donation targets without resorting to an 'opt out' system of presumed consent. PMID:19604184

  12. Social Donation and University Development: A Comparative Analysis between China's and America's Endowment for Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong-li, Luo; Xuan-liang, Yang; Huai-zu, Li

    2006-01-01

    Social donation is a means for individuals, government organizations, and non-government organizations (NGOs) to provide public products and services for society. Seeking social donation is vital in the improvement of the university. This paper probes into the relationship between social donation and university development by comparing social…

  13. Organ donation: a twin-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2012-04-01

    Monozygotic cotwins are ideal organ donors for one another due to their genetic identity. The present report treats this topic differently, from the perspective of a monozygotic twin who donated her deceased twin sister's organs following her sister's untimely death. This discussion is followed by reviews of recent research concerning increased twinning rates in the United States, availability of informative kinship pedigrees, and twin discordance for physical activities. Noteworthy news items include ethical issues surrounding conjoined twin separation, a genomic discovery for diseased twins, China's One-Child Policy, a striking New Yorker Magazine cartoon, and twin delivery complications. PMID:22856360

  14. Legislating organ donation: problems with this approach.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, F R

    1997-02-01

    The number of organs available for transplantation in Canada is insufficient to meet the demand, so many patients die waiting for surgery. Improving the supply of donor organs by enacting legislation is controversial. Three approaches to legislation have been suggested: required request, mandated choice, and presumed consent. Required-request legislation demands that physicians ask all families of potential donors for permission to retrieve organs. Mandated choice requires all adults to register whether they wish to be organ donors. Presumed consent allows the removal of organs without permission if no choice was registered. These laws are aimed at coercion of physicians, patients and families retrospectively, but their relative success and ethics are questionable. Facilitating the organ donation process may be a better solution. PMID:12380582

  15. What Is Being Done to Increase Organ Donation?

    PubMed

    Scheuher, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The need for organs greatly outnumbers the amount of organs donated for transplantation. This is true for all countries around the world. Many organizations globally have been created to solve this problem. Spain has been very successful with its drive to increase organ donation. Educational campaigns are a great tool being utilized by all countries and the medical communities to promote a positive perception of organ donation. These campaigns include using the television industry, raising money for travel expenses, and education seminars. This article looks at the different groups and programs aimed at increasing organ donation. PMID:27254645

  16. Governed financial incentives as an alternative to altruistic organ donation.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2004-12-01

    In 1984, an offensive proposal for kidney sales by a US physician led the National Organ Transplant Act to become a law in the United States. Similar legislation passed in many other countries. An ethical consensus developed around the world that there should be no monetary compensation for transplantable organs, either from living or deceased persons. Unfortunately, the altruistic supply of organs has been much less than adequate, and thousands of patients die each year waiting for organ transplantation. As the altruistic system of organ donation has met with failure, some from the transplant community believe that altruism alone is not enough to satisfy the needs of the thousands of patients on organ transplant waiting lists, and providing some financial incentives or social benefits to organ sources is necessary to increase the number of cadaveric or living organ donations. In this article, the many controversies surrounding altruistic and compensated organ donation systems are discussed. The Iran model for renal transplantation, a compensated and well-regulated living-unrelated donor renal transplantation program that has successfully eliminated a renal transplant waiting list in Iran, is briefly reviewed. PMID:15859932

  17. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. PMID:24752758

  18. Awareness of Religious Leaders’ Fatwa and Willingness to Donate Organ

    PubMed Central

    Afzal Aghaee, M.; Dehghani, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Khaleghi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is believed that religious leaders’ positive attitude towards organ donation can be an effective factor in Muslims’ inclination to donate organs. Objective: To assess the knowledge of freshmen students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences about religious leaders’ fatwa on organ donation and its effect on their willingness to donate organs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on 400 freshmen of various medical disciplines, selected using a simple random sampling in Mashhad, Iran. Data were collected by a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 41.5% of the students were aware of religious authorities’ views on organ donation and 55.6% were willing to donate organs. Participants’ main reasons for lack of willingness to donate organs included the fear of organ donation before the brain death is confirmed (52%), unwillingness to disfigure their body (51%), and belief in the burial of organs (50%). The willingness to organ donation for students who were aware of religious leaders opinion was more than twice more than those who were not (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.75–4.52). Also, female gender, the Shia religion and awareness of the correct definition of brain death were associated factors affecting the desire to donate organs, although their effects were not statistically significant on regression model. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of students were not aware of the religious leaders’ fatwa on organ donation. The most important factor for the desire to donate organs was the awareness of religious leaders’ fatwa. Therefore, it seems necessary that religious leaders’ fatwa be known to all by appropriate methods. PMID:26576261

  19. Donation after cardiac death in abdominal organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reich, David J; Guy, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the field of donation after cardiac death, focusing on the history, ethicolegal issues, clinical outcomes, best practices, operative techniques, and emerging strategies to optimize utilization of this resource. Donation after cardiac death is one effective way to decrease the organ shortage and has contributed the largest recent increase in abdominal organ allografts. Currently, donation after cardiac death organs confer an increased risk of ischemic cholangiopathy after liver transplant and of delayed graft function after kidney transplant. As this field matures, risk factors for donation after cardiac death organ transplant will be further identified and clinical outcomes will improve as a result of protocol standardization and ongoing research. PMID:22678860

  20. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  1. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. PMID:25545626

  2. Organ donation and priority points in Israel: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Muireann; Wright, Linda; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2012-05-27

    Israel's rates of organ donation have been one of the lowest among developed countries. An attempt to change this has led to the introduction of a pioneering new law, the Organ Transplant Act 2008, which came into effect in January 2010 and sets out principles underlying a new policy in relation to the allocation of organs for transplantation. According to this policy, a person can gain priority points by signing a donor card, making a nondirected organ donation during their lifetime, or as a result of a first-degree relative signing a donor card, or consenting to procurement of organs after death. In this opinion piece, we argue that although this approach merits attention for its innovative aspects and its potential benefits, it raises some ethical difficulties. In particular, we discuss some problems of justice and fairness inherent in the system, focusing on inequalities because of the (a) number of relatives one might have, (b) the type of living donation one makes, (c) the potential for strategic behavior, and (d) problems regarding the consent of family members. PMID:22461040

  3. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    PubMed

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation. PMID:24547770

  4. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Organ Donation Readiness Index: Measuring the Potential for Organ Donations among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…

  5. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  6. Financial compensation for deceased organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Fang, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, China launched a pilot programme of deceased donor organ donation in 10 provinces and cities. However, the deceased donor donation rate in China remains significantly lower than in Spain and other Western countries. In order to provide incentive for deceased donor organ donation, five pilot provinces and cities have subsequently launched a financial compensation policy. Financial compensation can be considered to include two main forms, the 'thank you' form and the 'help' form. The 'thank you' form is an expression of gratitude on behalf of the Red Cross Society of China for consenting to donation. The 'help' form is social welfare support for needy families. PMID:23322684

  7. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation. PMID:24434412

  8. Organ Donation After Euthanasia: A Dutch Practical Manual.

    PubMed

    Bollen, J; de Jongh, W; Hagenaars, J; van Dijk, G; Ten Hoopen, R; Ysebaert, D; Ijzermans, J; van Heurn, E; van Mook, W

    2016-07-01

    Many physicians and patients do not realize that it is legally and medically possible to donate organs after euthanasia. The combination of euthanasia and organ donation is not a common practice, often limited by the patient's underlying pathology, but nevertheless has been performed >40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2005. In anticipation of patients' requests for organ donation after euthanasia and contributing to awareness of the possibility of this combination among general practitioners and medical specialists, the Maastricht University Medical Center and the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam have developed a multidisciplinary practical manual in which the organizational steps regarding this combined procedure are described and explained. This practical manual lists the various criteria to fulfill and the rules and regulations the different stakeholders involved need to comply with to meet all due diligence requirements. Although an ethicist was involved in writing this paper, this report is not specifically meant to comprehensively address the ethical issues surrounding the topic. This paper is focused on the operational aspects of the protocol. PMID:26842128

  9. "Project ACTS": An Intervention to Increase Organ and Tissue Donation Intentions among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…

  10. [Organ donation after euthanasia. Handle with great care].

    PubMed

    Abdo, W F Farid

    2014-01-01

    Recently, organ donation after euthanasia has been a topic of discussion in the Dutch media and scientific literature. Unfortunately, both the articles in question and the media interviews contained several unsubstantiated statements. This article describes the background of organ donation after euthanasia and refutes some of the recent statements. It discusses why it is expected that organ donation after euthanasia will result in a far fewer additional organ donors that originally stated. In conclusion, euthanasia is a topic that should be handled with great care. PMID:25492739

  11. Barriers to organ donation in the Jewish community.

    PubMed

    Feld, J; Sherbin, P; Cole, E

    1998-03-01

    It has long been recognized that members of the Jewish community generally do not sign organ donor cards or consent to the donation of the organs of their family members. In order to address this issue, the position of Jewish law on organ donation was examined and a sample of the Jewish population of Toronto was surveyed in an attempt to better understand the reasons for the observed reluctance to donate within this community. The results confirmed that the rate of signing organ donor cards was much lower in the Jewish community than in the general population, and although other reasons do exist, the major barrier to donation was a perception that Jewish law prohibits such action. The study of Jewish law revealed that organ donation is permitted and, in fact, encouraged by all branches of modern Judaism. Finally, in response to these results, a guide titled "Organ Donation: A Jewish Perspective" was compiled to help explain both the religious and medical aspects of organ donation for Jewish people and transplant personnel. PMID:9726215

  12. Deceased Donor Organs: What Can Be Done to Raise Donation Rates Using Evidence From Malaysia?

    PubMed

    Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S

    2016-05-01

    Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. PMID:26602367

  13. Organ transplantation and tissue donation: a theological look.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, O R

    1993-01-01

    The author's position is that the work of organ donation and transplantation and tissue donation over the past forty-five years is in need of theological reflection. Some profound events and processes are involved in transplantation as the human family engages in a quest for wholeness. Different religious traditions-Jewish, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant-view the use of organs for transplantation differently. General attribution theory is adapted as a perspective on organ transplantation. PMID:10129259

  14. [Organ donation from the viewpoint of the medical students].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1998-11-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the attitudes of 125 medical students, aged 19-37 years, toward organ donation. 73 of them were in their first semester and 52 senior students in their last year of the study. A return rate of 88% (senior students: 58%) was achieved. Although 59% (71%) expressed willingness to donate their organs, only 30% (50%) had signed an organ donor card. Concerns regarding definition and declaration of death, benefit of organ donation and feelings of the donor's family were identified in 51% (38%) of the students. 71% (79%) had already discussed this issue with their families. In summary, results of the study indicate that more intensified interdisciplinary discussion and information during the study of medicine could bring about an even more positive attitude toward organ donation. PMID:9857723

  15. Experiencing organ donation: feelings of relatives after consent1

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marli Elisa Nascimento; Bittencourt, Zélia Zilda Lourenço de Camargo; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify experiences and feelings on the organ donation process, from the perspective of a relative of an organ donor in a transplant unit. Method: this was exploratory research using a qualitative approach, performed with seven family members of different organ donors, selected by a lottery. Sociodemographic data and the experiences regarding the donation process were collected through semi-structured interviews. The language material was transcribed and submitted to content analysis. Results: poor sensitivity of the medical staff communicating the relative's brain death - the potential donor - and the lack of socio-emotional support prior to the situation experienced by the family was highlighted by participants. Conclusions: the study identified the need to provide social-emotional support for families facing the experience of the organ donation process. From these findings, other care and management practices in health must be discussed to impact the strengthening of the family ties, post-donation, as well as the organ procurement indexes. PMID:26487140

  16. Non-heart-beating organ donation: process and review.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J M; Hasz, R D; Robertson, V M

    1999-05-01

    To combat the national shortage of donor organs and meet the needs of more than 60,000 patients awaiting transplant, many organ procurement organizations have reevaluated non-heart-beating organ donation (NHBD) as one solution. Non-heart-beating donation is the process by which organs are recovered from patients after the pronouncement of death by cardiopulmonary criteria. Recent media reports have misled health care providers to believe that this is a new donation procedure; however, NHBD provided the foundation for modern clinical transplantation. This article describes non-heart-beating donor evaluation criteria, the donation process, associated ethical considerations and the role of the advance practice nurse in assisting families with this end-of-life decision. A case study will be presented followed by a summary of transplant recipient patient and graft survival outcomes. PMID:10578715

  17. The physician's role in discussing organ donation with families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael A; Lipsett, Pamela A; Rushton, Cynda H; Grochowski, Eugene C; Berkowitz, Ivor D; Mann, Stephen L; Shatzer, John H; Short, M Priscilla; Genel, Myron

    2003-05-01

    Federal Conditions of Participation from the Health Care Financing Administration (now the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) introduced in 1998 require that all families be presented the option of organ and tissue donation when death is imminent. The perception that physicians were being excluded from participating in this process led to a resolution at the American Medical Association House of Delegates meeting in December 1999, calling on the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs to review the Conditions of Participation "to ensure that there is no prohibition of physician involvement in the organ donation process..." The number of organs procured for transplantation in the United States is insufficient to meet needs. Families' hospital experiences significantly affect their decisions to donate organs. Discussing severe brain injury, brain death, and organ donation after brain death with families is a specialized form of end-of-life decision-making and care in the intensive care unit; however, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for physicians and nurses to promote good end-of-life decision-making are widely variable. The federal Conditions of Participation require that those making requests of families for organ donation receive specific training. They do not prohibit physician involvement in initiating organ donation requests, provided these individuals are properly trained. Physicians have an important role in caring for patients and families in these circumstances, and the care they provide is enhanced through training, attention to the special issues involved, and collaboration with organ procurement organization personnel. PMID:12771634

  18. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  19. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization’s Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  20. Role of urgent care staff in organ donation.

    PubMed

    Garside, Marie; Garside, Jules

    2010-10-01

    A detailed review of donation activity since the introduction of an embedded specialist nurse in organ donation (SNOD) in Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has confirmed the benefits of this role for the identification and referral of potential donors by emergency department (ED) staff. This article argues that, as EDs across the U.K. introduce SNODs, more organs will become available for transplant. PMID:21066923

  1. Attitude and willingness of high school students toward organ donation.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza; Sanavi, Suzan; Rajabi, Mohammad-Reza

    2012-09-01

    Public awareness of organ donation fundamentally affects the organ transplantation programs. This study was performed to assess the attitude and willingness of high school adolescents regarding organ donation. The study population consisted of 416 high school girls who were studying in four grades of three educational courses. Data were collected by a questionnaire and included demographic variables and attitude and willingness, which were assessed based on the Likert scale. The SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. The mean age of the study subjects was 16.26 ± 1.06 years, 31% studied in grade-1, 27% in grade-2 (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics and 48% humanities), 26% in grade-3 (30% natural sciences, 34% mathematics and 36% humanities) and 16% in pre-university stage (32% natural sciences, 42% mathematics and 26% humanities). The students had a highly positive attitude toward organ donation (mean score 4.2 ± 0.54). The greatest willingness for organ donation was concerning the kidney (88%) and heart (84%), followed by the liver (83.4%), pancreas (79.6%), cornea (67.8%) and skin (51%). Willingness for deceased as well as living organ donation was indicated by 92% and 47%, respectively, of the participants. Organ donation was considered acceptable only to relatives by 5% of the participants when the donors were deceased donors and by 16% of the participants when the donors were living donors; donation to all needy persons from deceased donors was accepted by 87% of the participants and from living donors by 31%. The purpose of donation was stated as lending help to others by 89% and progression of science by 40.2% of the participants. Willingness for organ donation from a deceased relative was declared by 63% of the students. There was significant positive correlation between willingness for organ donation and attitude (P <0.001). In addition, attitude and willingness had positive correlation with educational levels, age and educational courses. Our study

  2. Organ Donation Decision: Comparison of Donor and Nondonor Families

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, J. R.; Cornell, D. L.; Howard, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Family members continue to play a prominent role in donation decisions at time of death. This study examined the relative influence of donor and next-of-kin factors, requestor characteristics, communication processes and satisfaction with the health care team on the donation decision. Data were gathered via structured telephone interview with 285 next-of-kin of donor-eligible deceased individuals who had been approached by coordinators from one organ procurement organization (OPO) in the southeastern USA from July 2001 to February 2004. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that several variables were associated with the donation decision. Subsequent logistic regression analyses revealed that donation was more likely when the deceased was younger, white (OR = 3.20, CI = 1.3, 5.7) and had made his/her donation intentions known (OR = 4.35, CI = 2.6, 7.3), and when the next-of-kin had more favorable organ donation beliefs (OR = 8.72, CI = 5.2, 14.7), was approached about donation by an OPO coordinator (OR = 3.74, CI = 2.2, 6.4), viewed the requestor as sensitive to their needs (OR = 2.70, CI = 1.6, 4.5) and perceived the timing of the request as optimal (OR = 6.63, CI = 3.6, 12.1) (total regression model, chi square = 133.2, p < 0.001, 92.7% of cases correctly predicted). Findings highlight the need for continued public education efforts to maximize positive beliefs about organ donation, to share and document donation decisions and to improve communication processes among the OPO personnel, hospital staff and prospective donor families. PMID:16433774

  3. Gender issues in solid organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fangmin; Huang, Tao; Yuan, Shunzong; Zhou, Yeqing; Gong, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Gender as a critical, intrinsic, non-immunologic factor plays a pivotal role in the field of transplantation. The gender of donors and recipients is involved in the entire process, including organ donation and transplant surgery. This review article aims to summarize the literature related to the role of gender in solid organ donation and transplantation and to unveil the underlying mechanism by which gender mismatch between donor and recipient impacts transplant rejection. A systematic search was conducted through PubMed by using the following key words: "gender", or "sex", and "transplant", "organ donation" for published articles. The prima facie evidence demonstrated that females are more likely to donate their organs and are less willing than males to accept transplant surgery; however, their donated liver organs will have a higher risk of graft failure compared with males. With respect to kidney, heart, and lung transplantations, the role of gender remains controversial. Results of animal studies support the negative impact of gender mismatch on allograft function. In conclusion, our present study advances the knowledge of gender issues in the field of solid organ donation and transplantation. In general, gender mismatch is not advantageous to transplant outcome, as evidenced by many aspects of biological investigations on immunogenicity of H-Y antigen to females. Therefore, gender issues should be highlighted and an a priori intervention is needed to improve graft survival in clinical practice. PMID:24064859

  4. Moving beyond attitudinal barriers: understanding African Americans' support for organ and tissue donation.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob Arriola, Kimberly R.; Perryman, Jennie P.; Doldren, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: African Americans are disproportionately represented among individuals in need of an organ transplant, due in part to low donation rates in this population. The research literature has focused on attitudinal barriers to donation; however, the current study explores individual experiences and values that contribute to supportive attitudes toward organ and tissue donation. PROCEDURES: Focus group participants were 26 African-American clergymen and 42 African-American parishioners recruited from seven Christian churches in the metro Atlanta area. FINDINGS: Although a large number of participants had previous exposure to organ and tissue donation and transplantation, the majority of these experiences were negative, and participants felt a general fear and lack of knowledge about the process of donation and transplantation. Despite these negative experiences, respondents reported personal values (e.g., the desire to help others and acceptance of group responsibility) and religious values (e.g., the desire to carry out God's will and to have faith in God) that contribute to supportive attitudes toward organ and tissue donation. CONCLUSION: An understanding of supportive attitudes toward donation may help improve the development of effective culturally sensitive intervention messages targeting the African-American religious community with the ultimate goal of increasing the pool of organs available for transplantation. PMID:15779498

  5. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  6. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  7. How critical care nurses' roles and education affect organ donation.

    PubMed

    Jawoniyi, Oluwafunmilayo Ololade; Gormley, Kevin

    Organ and tissue dysfunction and failure cause high mortality rates around the world. Tissue and organs transplantation is an established, cost-effective, life-saving treatment for patients with organ failure. However, there is a large gap between the need for and the supply of donor organs. Acute and critical care nurses have a central role in the organ donation process, from identifying and assessing potential donors and supporting their families to involvement in logistics. Nurses with an in-depth knowledge of donation understand its clinical and technical aspects as well as the moral and legal considerations. Nurses have a major role to play in tackling organ and tissue shortages. Such a role cannot be adequately performed if nurses are not fully educated about donation and transplant. Such education could be incorporated into mandatory training and completed by all nurses. PMID:26153810

  8. Organ donation: attitude and knowledge of nurses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naude, A; Nel, E; Uys, H

    2002-01-01

    Various factors influence the process of organ donation. As a result, there is a shortage of organs for transplant. Poor communication and cooperation between transplant coordinators and intensive care nursing staff can lead to the non-referral of potential organ donors, which is detrimental to the process. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the attitude and knowledge of the transplant coordinators and intensive care nursing staff that work in intensive care units during organ donation. Contextual descriptive research was carried out by compiling literature-based questionnaires, one each for the transplant coordinators and intensive care nursing staff, and then analysing responses. The indications are that problem areas exist between the role players in the organ transplant process. Guidelines were drawn up for the improvement of communication and cooperation between them in order to promote organ donation. PMID:12035904

  9. The perioperative nurse and the organ donation experience.

    PubMed

    Lilly, K T; Langley, V L

    1999-04-01

    Most OR nurses whether veteran or novice have had some exposure to organ donation; however, few are aware of what occurs outside of the surgical setting. This article provides an overview of the entire donation process, from the hours before the procedure to the steps needed for successful recovery. Particular attention is given to the care of the donor family members, both preoperatively and postrecovery. PMID:11838090

  10. [The costs of altruism in organ donation case analysis].

    PubMed

    Netza Cardoso, Cruz; Casas Martínez, María Luz Lina; Ramírez García, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Three main assumptions were considered for the structure of donation programs during the decade of the sixties: the first states that people, through altruism, would feel committed with the affected and therefore incentivized to donate. The second one states that the human body can not be valued in mercantile terms; therefore organ donation should not be done free of any charges. The last one states donation does not represent any type of harm or damage for the donor. Today, more tan four decades away from their instauration, these three assumptions have been violated and modified due to the way in which they were socialized through the donation protocols. Altruism did not seem to be as generalized as expected, and organ commerce has already gone beyond the legislative frameworks that intended to prevent it; one example is the case of India. In this paper we analyze--through two objectives--the repercussions and impact that took effect in four cases registered in the National Institute of Cardiology (Instituto Nacional de Cardiología) "Ignacio Chávez" in Mexico City. First objective: to describe the economical costs that the altruism-based donation protocol caused on the participant families. Second objective: to reflect on other costs that affected donators due to organ donation. It was found on the reviewed cases that repercussions can go beyond the economical issues; labor related, emotional and ethical repercussions were found too due to a undeniable sensation of reification that donors experience in view of the mechanization of the study protocol they undergo, specially when results are not the optimum. We circumscribe this paper’s analysis to living donors. PMID:20886909

  11. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  12. Organ donation by capital prisoners in China: reflections in Confucian ethics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxu; Wang, Xueliang

    2010-04-01

    This article discusses the practice and development of organ donation by capital prisoners in China. It analyzes the issue of informed consent regarding organ donation from capital prisoners in light of Confucian ethics and expounds the point that under the influence of Confucianism, China is a country that attaches great importance to the role of the family in practicing informed consent in various areas, the area of organ donation from capital prisoners included. It argues that a proper form of organ donation from capital prisoners can be justified within the Confucian moral context in which the proper interests of capital prisoners and their families, the benefit of organ receptors, and a rightful order of society should all be appropriately considered. From the Confucian perspective, the act of donating organs from a capital prisoner must be decided by both the prisoner and his/her family (i.e., each side should hold a veto power), whereas such donation, in the proper circumstance protected by a rightful procedure, should be appreciated as a morally praiseworthy act of the prisoner who is willing to make the final effort to repent and correct his/her evil conduct and to leave something good to the world. PMID:20197306

  13. Directed altruistic living organ donation: partial but not unfair.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst, Medard T

    2005-04-01

    Arguments against directed altruistic living organ donations are too weak to justify a ban. Potential donors who want to specify the non-related person or group of persons to receive their donated kidney should be accepted. The arguments against, based on considerations of motivation, fairness and (non-)anonymity (e.g. those recently cited by an advisory report of the Dutch Health Council), are presented and discussed, as well as the Dutch Government's response. Whereas the Government argues that individuals have authority with regard to the allocation of their organs, partial considerations have not been sufficiently explored. In addition, it is argued that partial relationships govern human life, are significant and should be valued highly. These relationships are at the core of accepted living kidney donation between relatives (family members, partners, friends). Respecting the particular act of living donation goes beyond respect for autonomy; it touches upon our personal and social identity. Donation, e.g. of a kidney, is not undertaken strictly for the benefit of the recipient, but also to meet the moral standards we wish to set for ourselves. This consideration, rooted in a view of moral identity, provides the basis for many forms of directed donation that are both partial and justified. If the importance of this is not recognized, social policies can be neither adequate nor effective. PMID:16459404

  14. Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2010-08-01

    Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society. PMID:20663768

  15. Approaching families for organ donation: physicians are willing.

    PubMed

    Exley, M H; Serbin, M F; Goldstein, R M

    1992-09-01

    While current literature documents a critical disparity between the increasing demand for organs for transplantation and the relatively static supply, reasons for the shortage of donors are not well understood. Public opinion surveys describe a population willing to donate, but consent rates reported by organ procurement organizations suggest problems in the process of approaching families. This study of Texas physicians regarding their knowledge of laws related to brain death and to routine inquiry for organ donation and their attitudes toward the critical step of seeking consent from families indicates that physicians need more information about questions asked by families, would benefit from more structured hospital policies on routine inquiry, feel that physicians rather than nurses should approach families, and believe that the public is not well informed about donation. PMID:1462270

  16. Impact of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rithalia, Amber; Suekarran, Sara; Myers, Lindsey; Sowden, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of a system of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates and to review data on attitudes towards presumed consent. Design Systematic review. Data sources Studies retrieved by online searches to January 2008 of Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, HMIC, PAIS International, and OpenSIGLE. Studies reviewed Five studies comparing donation rates before and after the introduction of legislation for presumed consent (before and after studies); eight studies comparing donation rates in countries with and without presumed consent systems (between country comparisons); 13 surveys of public and professional attitudes to presumed consent. Results The five before and after studies represented three countries: all reported an increase in donation rates after the introduction of presumed consent, but there was little investigation of any other changes taking place concurrently with the change in legislation. In the four best quality between country comparisons, presumed consent law or practice was associated with increased organ donation—increases of 25-30%, 21-26%, 2.7 more donors per million population, and 6.14 more donors per million population in the four studies. Other factors found to be important in at least one study were mortality from road traffic accidents and cerebrovascular causes, transplant capacity, gross domestic product per capita, health expenditure per capita, religion (Catholicism), education, public access to information, and a common law legal system. Eight surveys of attitudes to presumed consent were of the UK public. These surveys varied in the level of support for presumed consent, with surveys conducted before 2000 reporting the lowest levels of support (28-57%). The most recent survey, in 2007, reported that 64% of respondents supported a change to presumed consent. Conclusion Presumed consent alone is unlikely to explain the variation in organ donation rates between countries

  17. Incentives for Organ Donation: Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm. We herein address the second concern and propose for discussion standards and guidelines for an acceptable system of incentives for donation. We believe that if systems based on these guidelines were developed, harms would be no greater than those to today’s conventional donors. Ultimately, until there are trials of incentives, the question of benefits and harms cannot be satisfactorily answered. PMID:22176925

  18. Donating in good faith or getting into trouble Religion and organ donation revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Mike; Ahmed, Aimun; Woywodt, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    There is worldwide shortage of organs for solid-organ transplantation. Many obstacles to deceased and live donation have been described and addressed, such as lack of understanding of the medical process, the issue of the definition of brain death, public awareness of the need for transplants, and many others. However, it is clear that the striking differences in deceased and live donation rates between different countries are only partly explained by these factors and many cultural and social reasons have been invoked to explain these observations. We believe that one obstacle to both deceased and live donation that is less well appreciated is that of religious concerns. Looking at the major faiths and religions worldwide, it is reassuring to see that most of them encourage donation. However, there is also scepticism amongst some of them, often relating to the concept of brain death and/or the processes surrounding death itself. It is worthwhile for transplant teams to be broadly aware of the issues and also to be mindful of resources for counselling. We believe that increased awareness of these issues within the transplant community will enable us to discuss these openly with patients, if they so wish. PMID:24175198

  19. Comparing the effects of defaults in organ donation systems.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, Hendrik P; Henkens, Kène

    2014-04-01

    The ability of patients in many parts of the world to benefit from transplantation is limited by growing shortages of transplantable organs. The choice architecture of donation systems is said to play a pivotal role in explaining this gap. In this paper we examine the question how different defaults affect the decision to register as organ donor. Three defaults in organ donation systems are compared: mandated choice, presumed consent and explicit consent. Hypothetical choices from a national survey of 2069 respondents in May 2011 in the Netherlands - a country with an explicit consent system - suggests that mandated choice and presumed consent are more effective at generating registered donors than explicit consent. PMID:24561775

  20. A pilot programme of organ donation after cardiac death in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2012-03-01

    China's aims are to develop an ethical and sustainable organ transplantation system for the Chinese people and to be accepted as a responsible member of the international transplantation community. In 2007, China implemented the Regulation on Human Organ Transplantation, which was the first step towards the establishment of a voluntary organ donation system. Although progress has been made, several ethical and legal issues associated with transplantation in China remain, including the use of organs from executed prisoners, organ scarcity, the illegal organ trade, and transplantation tourism. In this Health Policy article we outline the standards used to define cardiac death in China and a legal and procedural framework for an organ donation system based on voluntary donation after cardiac death that adheres to both China's social and cultural principles and international transplantation standards. PMID:22078722

  1. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge and attitudes towards organ donation in Korea: Implications for education.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ran Theresa; Fisher, Murray J; Elliott, Doug

    2006-08-01

    Organ donation from brain dead patients is a contentious issue in Korea within the cultural context of Confucian beliefs. Each year thousands of patients wait for organ donation note poor donation rates and importance of nurses in identifying potential donors. It is therefore important to identify knowledge levels and attitudes towards organ donation from brain dead patients of nursing students as future health workers. Using a 38-item instrument previously developed by the researchers, 292 undergraduate students in a Korean nursing college were surveyed in 2003 in Korea (response rate 92%). Validity and reliability of the instrument was demonstrated using a multiple analytical approach. A lack of knowledge regarding diagnostic tests and co-morbid factors of brain death were noted among students. Their attitudes toward organ donation were somewhat mixed and ambiguous, but overall they were positive and willing to be a potential donor in the future. While this study identified that an effective educational program is necessary for nursing students in Korea to improve their knowledge of brain death and organ donation, further research is also required to verify these single-site findings and improve the generalisability of results. PMID:16540211

  2. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a “reciprocity principle”, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures. PMID:27570970

  3. Family discussions about organ donation: how the media influences opinions about donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan E; Harrison, Tyler R; Long, Shawn D; Afifi, Walid A; Stephenson, Michael T; Stephenson, Michael S; Reichert, Tom

    2005-10-01

    In this study, 78 family pair dyads (spouses, parent-child pairs, or siblings) were brought into an interaction laboratory set up like a living room. After being briefed on the study, family members discussed a series of eight questions about their thoughts and opinions about organ donation. Thematic analysis of the thousands of pages of transcripts revealed that family members believe that they receive important information about organ donation through the media. Unfortunately, the most influential information came from sensationalistic, negative media portrayals. The myths that seem to be the most actively referenced by the media include premature declaration of death, the transference of personality traits from donor to recipient, a US black market for organs, corruption in the medical community, and corruption in the organ allocation system (which allows celebrities to get transplants first). Although these are not the only myths that the generally public holds to be true, the media is a powerful source of support for these particular myths. Therefore, such myths must be countered effectively if greater consent for organ donation is to be attained. PMID:16146561

  4. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  5. Prospective audit to evaluate the potential of the coronial system to increase solid organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Twamley, Huw; Haigh, Andrew; Williment, Claire; Hudson, Cara; Whitney, Julie; Neuberger, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. Design Prospective audit. Setting All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered. Participants 1437 deceased patients who met the eligibility criteria for organ donation and were referred to Coroner/PF. Main outcome measures Number of cases where permission for transplantation was given, number of organs where permission was refused and number of organs which might have been transplanted if all had followed best practice. Results Full permission for organ retrieval was given in 87% cases and partial permission in 9%. However, if full permission had been given where no autopsy was performed or restrictions seemed unjustified, up to 77 organs (22 lungs, 22 kidneys, 9 pancreases, 9 livers, 8 hearts and 7 small bowels) could have been available for transplant. Conclusions Coroners/PFs and their officers show strong support for transplantation but improvement in practice could result in a small but significant increase in life-saving and life-enhancing transplants. PMID:27401356

  6. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Regarding Organ and Tissue Donation in Selected Tribal College Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Meghan; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Harris, Raymond; Tsosie, Ursula; Baker, Lannesse Olivina; Buchwald, Dedra

    2013-01-01

    Background American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes and kidney failure. For those with chronic kidney disease, transplantation may be the most effective treatment option. However, low rates of organ donation and transplantation are reported for AI/ANs, who face significant barriers in accessing the transplant waiting list. They are also less likely than Whites to consent to become organ donors. Methods We partnered with five tribal colleges and universities to conduct focus groups to assess knowledge, cultural beliefs, and behaviors related to organ donation and transplantation among AI/AN college students. Focus group data were used to develop a culturally targeted media campaign and outreach strategy aimed at increasing rates of consent to donate organs. Results Community knowledge typically drew from direct family experience with chronic illness. Study findings confirmed that attitudes about organ donation were influenced by cultural beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants supported organ donation even when it conflicted with cultural and spiritual beliefs about keeping the body intact for burial. Participants also expressed mistrust of the local health care system, suggesting that trust issues might interfere with health messaging on this topic. Conclusion This is the first study to examine sociocultural beliefs about organ donation among AI/AN college students. Through focus group findings, study staff were better positioned to develop culturally relevant outreach materials. Rising rates of chronic illness among AI/ANs ensure that organ donation and transplantation will be a long-term feature of the health landscape in AI/AN communities. Targeted health messaging must be part of the strategy to reduce donor shortages. PMID:23504267

  7. Living and deceased organ donation should be financially neutral acts.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, F L; Martin, D; Domínguez-Gil, B; Muller, E; Jha, V; Levin, A; Danovitch, G M; Capron, A M

    2015-05-01

    The supply of organs—particularly kidneys—donated by living and deceased donors falls short of the number of patients added annually to transplant waiting lists in the United States. To remedy this problem, a number of prominent physicians, ethicists, economists and others have mounted a campaign to suspend the prohibitions in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) on the buying and selling of organs. The argument that providing financial benefits would incentivize enough people to part with a kidney (or a portion of a liver) to clear the waiting lists is flawed. This commentary marshals arguments against the claim that the shortage of donor organs would best be overcome by providing financial incentives for donation. We can increase the number of organs available for transplantation by removing all financial disincentives that deter unpaid living or deceased kidney donation. These disincentives include a range of burdens, such as the costs of travel and lodging for medical evaluation and surgery, lost wages, and the expense of dependent care during the period of organ removal and recuperation. Organ donation should remain an act that is financially neutral for donors, neither imposing financial burdens nor enriching them monetarily. PMID:25833381

  8. Organ and tissue donation from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Riker, R R; White, B W

    1991-01-01

    Despite mandatory request legislation, the lack of available donor organs and tissues continues to limit transplant efforts. The potential contribution from emergency department (ED) patients remains undefined. We reviewed the charts of patients dying in our ED for organs and tissues potentially suitable for transplantation, age, cause of death, and physician documentation of donation inquiry. Of 155 charts reviewed, potential donors were identified for corneas (99), bones (61), heart valves (42), and kidneys (3). Of the 155 charts, 130 (84%) made no mention of donation, and of 37 charts containing a donor request form, 34 (92%) were incorrectly filled out or left blank. Four charts (2.6%) mentioned donation in the narrative section, two (1.3%) documented discussion with family, and one patient was referred to our Organ Procurement Organization, with recovery of one kidney and heart valves. We conclude that physicians rarely document consideration of donation for patients dying in the ED; the number of potential donors far exceeds the number referred or recovered. Future efforts should focus on methods to increase recognition and referral of organ and tissue donors from the ED. PMID:1787284

  9. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. PMID:24287346

  10. Organ donation and neuroscience nursing: your role in the process.

    PubMed

    Schnell, S

    1999-04-01

    The death of a patient is seen by many nurses as the end of their interaction with the patient and family. However, the option of organ donation may extend that interaction and present another opportunity to serve as an advocate for the family, as well as for patients whom the nurse has never met. Patients who have been declared brain dead or from whom life support is going to be withdrawn following a neurological injury are potential organ donors. Although these patients and their families are frequently under the care of neuroscience nurses, all nurses need a thorough understanding of their responsibilities regarding identification and referral of potential organ donors to the designated Organ Procurement Organization (OPO). In addition, it is essential for nurses to understand the clinical presentation and determination of brain death in order to provide patient care and family education. Understanding how consent for organ donation should be obtained from families and how the organ recovery process works enables the nurse to collaborate with OPO staff and support the family in their decision regarding organ donation. PMID:14964605

  11. Effect of population aging on the international organ donation rates and the effectiveness of the donation process.

    PubMed

    Cuende, N; Cuende, J I; Fajardo, J; Huet, J; Alonso, M

    2007-06-01

    This study analyzed the effect of population aging on organ donation for transplants in 43 countries and on the effectiveness of the donation process by comparing the results between Spain and the United States. The percentage of the population aged 65 or over accounted for 33% of the difference in the donation rates between the countries and for 91% of the variation in the rates after age adjustment. However, the level of aging of the Spanish (16.5%) and American (12.3%) populations failed to account for the percentages of deceased donors 65 or over (28% vs. 10%), due to the different age-specific donation rates, much higher in Spain above 50 years. These differences lead to a higher effectiveness of the process in the United States (3.1 transplanted organs per donor vs. 2.5 in Spain), though at lower rates of transplant per million population (73 vs. 87). We conclude that older populations have a greater donation potential as donation rates are strongly associated with population aging. It should therefore be mandatory to adjust donation rates for age before making comparisons. Additionally, effectiveness decreases with older donors, so age should be considered when establishing standards relating to organ donation and effectiveness of the process. PMID:17430401

  12. Motivations for Deceased Organ Donation Among Volunteers in China: A Qualitative Research Study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation. PMID:27279558

  13. Multiple meanings of "gift" and its value for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rhonda M; Webb, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The "gift of life" metaphor is used to promote organ donation where commercialization is prohibited. In this article, we explore how multiple parties involved in organ transfer procedures think of gift terminology by drawing on interview data with transplantation specialists, organ transplant recipients, living directed donors and living nondirected donors. The interviews took place across New Zealand between October 2008 and May 2012, in participants' homes and hospital workplaces. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded manually, and thematically analyzed. Although gift language is often viewed as clear-cut, the gift trope has multiple meanings for different constituent and cultural groups, ranging from positive descriptors to obscuring and romanticizing the complexities of transplantation processes. To account for these multiple perspectives, we suggest new ethical models to capture the nuanced phenomenon of organ transfer in ways that recognize the full range of donation and reception experiences. PMID:25274624

  14. Financial incentives: alternatives to the altruistic model of organ donation.

    PubMed

    Siminoff, L A; Leonard, M D

    1999-12-01

    Improvements in transplantation techniques have resulted in a demand for transplantable organs that far outpaces supply. Present efforts to secure organs use an altruistic system designed to appeal to a public that will donate organs because they are needed. Efforts to secure organs under this system have not been as successful as hoped. Many refinements to the altruistic model have been or are currently being proposed, such as "required request," "mandated choice," "routine notification," and "presumed consent." Recent calls for market approaches to organ procurement reflect growing doubts about the efficacy of these refinements. Market approaches generally use a "futures market," with benefits payable either periodically or when or if organs are procured. Lump-sum arrangements could include donations to surviving family or contributions to charities or to funeral costs. Possibilities for a periodic system of payments include reduced premiums for health or life insurance, or a reciprocity system whereby individuals who periodically reaffirm their willingness to donate are given preference if they require a transplant. Market approaches do raise serious ethical issues, including potential exploitation of the poor. Such approaches may also be effectively proscribed by the 1984 National Organ Transplant Act. PMID:10889698

  15. Imagining the Impact of Different Consent Systems on Organ Donation: The Decisions of Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppen, Remco; Friele, Roland D.; Gevers, Sjef K. M.; Van Der Zee, Jouke

    2010-01-01

    Next of kin play an important role in organ donation. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which explicitness of consent to organ donation by the deceased impacts the likelihood that next of kin will agree to organ donation of the deceased by using hypothetical cases. Results indicate that that people say they are more willing to…

  16. Social and cultural aspects of organ donation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Woo, K T

    1992-05-01

    In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death. PMID:1416796

  17. Points mean prizes: priority points, preferential status and directed organ donation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Israel's new Organ Transplantation Act in 2010 has enabled the development of a unique priority point system aimed at motivating individual's to donate their organ. The priority point system rewards those who are willing to donate an organ with preferential status and an increased chance of receiving a donor organ, should they come to be in need of one. Preliminary evidence suggests it has considerable public support among Israelis, who appear willing to redress the challenge posed by those who are willing to accept an organ but not willing to donate. Since the Act's introduction Israel has witnessed record numbers signing donor cards and there has been a significant increase in the actual numbers of transplants.One aspect of the new Israeli system that has hitherto not much been considered is its tendency towards a communitarian model of organ donation and the implications this change in emphasis may have for the existing 'opt-in' model based upon autonomy and consent. Gil Siegel draws our attention to this aspect when he sets out his defence of a proposal he refers to as 'directed organ donation to other registered donors', which encourages community responsibility without affecting the established commitment to consent and individual freedom.This commentary provides a brief overview of the new Act and its priority point system. It also examines Siegel's proposal and considers the implications it may have for equity and justice, personal choice and dispositional authority. It is argued that although the proposal brings with it several inevitable hurdles for policy makers these are not insurmountable. Rather, its extraordinary potential to save life and avoid suffering should prompt urgent action at policy level. If such a scheme was successfully implemented in Israel it would represent a landmark change in organ donation and allocation policy, and set an example from which we all could learn. PMID:24565060

  18. Points mean prizes: priority points, preferential status and directed organ donation in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Israel’s new Organ Transplantation Act in 2010 has enabled the development of a unique priority point system aimed at motivating individual’s to donate their organ. The priority point system rewards those who are willing to donate an organ with preferential status and an increased chance of receiving a donor organ, should they come to be in need of one. Preliminary evidence suggests it has considerable public support among Israelis, who appear willing to redress the challenge posed by those who are willing to accept an organ but not willing to donate. Since the Act’s introduction Israel has witnessed record numbers signing donor cards and there has been a significant increase in the actual numbers of transplants. One aspect of the new Israeli system that has hitherto not much been considered is its tendency towards a communitarian model of organ donation and the implications this change in emphasis may have for the existing ‘opt-in’ model based upon autonomy and consent. Gil Siegel draws our attention to this aspect when he sets out his defence of a proposal he refers to as ‘directed organ donation to other registered donors’, which encourages community responsibility without affecting the established commitment to consent and individual freedom. This commentary provides a brief overview of the new Act and its priority point system. It also examines Siegel’s proposal and considers the implications it may have for equity and justice, personal choice and dispositional authority. It is argued that although the proposal brings with it several inevitable hurdles for policy makers these are not insurmountable. Rather, its extraordinary potential to save life and avoid suffering should prompt urgent action at policy level. If such a scheme was successfully implemented in Israel it would represent a landmark change in organ donation and allocation policy, and set an example from which we all could learn. PMID:24565060

  19. Organ donation knowledge, willingness, and beliefs of motor vehicle clerks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew

    2014-11-27

    Motor vehicle (MV) clerks are at the epicenter of organ donor registration. We show that MV clerks (n = 225) in two northeastern states have knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about organ donation. A majority believe it may be possible to buy organs on the black market (81%) and that recovery from brain death is possible (65%), whereas nearly half believe that doctors might not work as hard to save the life of a registered donor (46%). Organ procurement organizations should conduct formal educational programming with MV staff, considering their prominent role in the donor registration process. PMID:25222015

  20. History of organ donation by patients with cardiac death.

    PubMed

    DeVita, M A; Snyder, J V; Grenvik, A

    1993-06-01

    When successful solid organ transplantation was initiated almost 40 years ago, its current success rate was not anticipated. But continuous efforts were undertaken to overcome the two major obstacles to success: injury caused by interrupting nutrient supply to the organ and rejection of the implanted organ by normal host defense mechanisms. Solutions have resulted from technologic medical advances, but also from using organs from different sources. Each potential solution has raised ethical concerns and has variably resulted in societal acclaim, censure, and apathy. Transplant surgery is now well accepted, and the list of transplant candidates has grown far quicker than the availability of organs. More than 30,000 patients were awaiting organs for transplantation at the end of March 1993. While most organs came from donors declared dead by brain criteria, the increasing shortage of donated organs has prompted a reexamination of prior restrictions of donor groups. Recently, organ procurement from donors with cardiac death has been reintroduced in the United States. This practice has been mostly abandoned by the U.S. and some, though not all, other countries. Transplantation has been more successful using organs procured from heart-beating, "brain dead" cadavers than organs from non-heart-beating cadavers. However, recent advances have led to success rates with organs from non-heart-beating donors that may portend large increases in organ donation and procurement from this source. PMID:10126525

  1. Pelvic kidney in organ donation: case study.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, Yuriy; Giudice, Anthony

    2009-12-01

    An ectopic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs when the kidney fails to ascend to its normal position. Often an ectopic kidney is asymptomatic and the kidney is an unexpected finding during organ recovery. The kidney described in this case report had normal function and could have been used for transplantation, if it had been recovered without 2 renal arteries being damaged because of anatomic variation. The renal vasculature in this type of abnormality usually ascends from the iliac vessels, and this variation in anatomy should be taken into consideration by the recovering surgeon during arterial cannulation for organ flushing. PMID:20050461

  2. The joint action MODE (Mutual Organ Donation and Transplantation Exchanges): a sound contribution to implementation of health policies in organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of the joint action MODE is the transfer of best-practices in the field of organ donation and transplantation and the creation of positive synergies among participating European (EU) Member States (MS) apt to support authorities in possible decision-making and policy contexts. Methods The consortium has chosen to foster the exchange of best-practice through a series of exchange visits followed by the provision of a set of specialized trainings. Each participating MS has presented its strengths and weaknesses through a questionnaire based on the Organ Action Plan. Once the situation was clearer, countries with the strongest program organized and hosted the on-site visits and each country had the opportunity to perform five exchange visits on five selected topics. Specific courses for healthcare staff of organ coordinating and transplantation centres were organized. Based on evaluation of the results of the on-site visits and training needs indicated by the partners, the chosen topics were: • reporting on adverse events and reactions • quality assurance programme of the donation process in Spain • quality assurance of the transplantation process Results and conclusions The outcome is that within the EU, even among MS with well-developed services, the organ donation and transplantation activity has substantial differences so that all participating countries would benefit from investigating foreign donation and transplant systems. Collaboration at EU level can be beneficial for all systems and the joint action MODE indicated that in some countries the sharing of expertise across the EU Member States has already proved to be useful in starting a virtuous circle in organization and training that would allow to increase organ donor rates and improve overall performance. PMID:23421414

  3. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  4. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  5. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: Promoting Excess Food Donation to Nonprofit...

  6. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  7. Organ donation and the ethics of muddling through.

    PubMed

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja M B

    2011-01-01

    Organ donation offers opportunities for people in critical care units to help save the lives of other patients. It is not always easy, however, to handle the transition from treating a patient to preserving a potential donor, and organ donation consistently provokes ethical questions in critical care units. What do we expect ethics to deliver? In light of a recent ethics conference in Denmark, we suggest that by acknowledging that decisions made in the clinic rarely abide to rational decision trees with clear ethical priorities, we can better learn from each other's experiences. We suggest embracing an 'ethics of muddling through' to enhance relevant reflections and stimulate a productive dialogue among health professionals. PMID:21345280

  8. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors. PMID:25761524

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nurses Regarding Organ Donation

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Mohadese; Hosseini, Mahdi; Hamissi, Jalaleddin; Hamissi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment team charged to help patients and their family making decision about donate organs in the final stage of life. Hence, their knowledge and attitude is important to plan of increasing the rate of organ donation. Materials and Methods: About 150 nurses recruited in this cross-sectional study randomly. After taking informed consent, questionnaires were filled. The data collection tool was a multipart questionnaire including demographic information, 18 questions about attitude and practice and 15 question about knowledge toward organ donation. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using K-squire, Pearson correlation test, T-test, variance analyze on 95% confidence interval. Results: Most of participants (76%) were 25-44 years old. About 81.3% of them were female (n=122). The attitude average score between males and females was 85.25±35.61 and 70.37±46.53, respectively. The practice average score in females was 34.43±47.71 and between males was 29.63±46.53. The knowledge average scores were 50.60±16.19 and 56.54±17.48 for two groups (p>0.05). The knowledge average scores between different age groups was significant (p<0.05). There was a direct and significant relation between attitude and practice (r= +0.33, p<0.05), attitude and Factors influencing attitude and practice (r= 0.866, p<0.05), but the relation between attitude and knowledge was indirect and significant (r= -0.183, p<0.05). Conclusions: Since the medical team are most important adviser for promote activities related to organ donation, it seems that educational curriculum and facilities should applied to enhance attitude and behavior favorable change of personnel towards this issue. PMID:26153179

  10. Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat.

    PubMed

    Flayou, Kaoutar; Kouam, Nada; Miara, H; Raoundi, O; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Benamar, Loubna; Bayahia, Rabiaa; Rhou, Hakima

    2016-01-01

    The medical staff could play a major role in promoting for organ donation. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of the medical staff toward organ donation. It is a prospective study conducted over a period of six months. A questionnaire was distributed and explained to the medical staff in our institute. Fifteen questions were designed to include four main themes: sociodemographic information, attitude toward organ donation, perceived knowledge about organ donation, and reasons for refusal or acceptance of organ donation. Among the 245 respondents, 36.3% had prior knowledge about organ transplantation, 31.8% knew about the law of organ donation, 43.2% had already donated blood sometimes, 65.7% expressed their consent to organ donation during their lifetime, and 82.8% expressed their agreement to donation after their death. The grounds for refusal were generally: a misunderstanding of risks, desire for respect of corpse. The religious and the ethical motive were present too as a ground for decision making. The medical staff is the key for organ donation. To promote organ transplantation, personnel should be well informed about ethical, moral, and religious dimensions of organ donation and transplantation. PMID:27424694

  11. Clinical review: Moral assumptions and the process of organ donation in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Streat, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to review moral assumptions underlying organ donation in the intensive care unit. Data sources used include personal experience, and a Medline search and a non-Medline search of relevant English-language literature. The study selection included articles concerning organ donation. All data were extracted and analysed by the author. In terms of data synthesis, a rational, utilitarian moral perspective dominates, and has captured and circumscribed, the language and discourse of organ donation. Examples include "the problem is organ shortage", "moral or social duty or responsibility to donate", "moral responsibility to advocate for donation", "requesting organs" or "asking for organs", "trained requesters", "pro-donation support persons", "persuasion" and defining "maximising donor numbers" as the objective while impugning the moral validity of nonrational family objections to organ donation. Organ donation has recently been described by intensivists in a morally neutral way as an "option" that they should "offer", as "part of good end-of-life care", to families of appropriate patients. In conclusion, the review shows that a rational utilitarian framework does not adequately encompass interpersonal interactions during organ donation. A morally neutral position frees intensivists to ensure that clinical and interpersonal processes in organ donation are performed to exemplary standards, and should more robustly reflect societal acceptability of organ donation (although it may or may not "produce more donors"). PMID:15469581

  12. Communicating Effectively About Organ Donation: A Randomized Trial of a Behavioral Communication Intervention to Improve Discussions About Donation

    PubMed Central

    Siminoff, Laura A.; Traino, Heather M.; Genderson, Maureen Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Background Families’ refusal to authorize solid organ donation contributes to the organ deficit in the United States. The importance of communication to reducing refusal to requests for solid organ donation at the bedside and thus increasing the supply of transplantable organs cannot be overstated. This research compares 2 versions of an innovative communication skills training program for organ procurement organization request staff, Communicating Effectively About Donation (CEaD), designed to improve the quantity and quality of organ donation discussions with family decision makers of deceased patients. Methods We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of the CEaD intervention, comparing an online only version of the training (CEaD1) with the online version bolstered with in-person practice and feedback (CEaD2). Survey and interview data were collected from 1603 family decision makers and 273 requesters to assess the impact of both versions of the CEaD on requesters’ communication skills and behaviors; the rate of family authorization to solid organ donation was obtained from administrative data provided by 9 organ procurement organizations. Results Results revealed higher rates of authorization for requesters with less tenure (78% to 89%, P < 0.03) for both versions; however, CEaD1 also increased authorization rates for requesters with 3 or more years of experience (89% to 92%, P < 0.03). Both conditions resulted in an improvement in overall communication quality. Conclusions We conclude that the CEaD was effective in improving requesters’ communication skills, rates of family authorization to organ donation, and the overall quality of the donation experience. PMID:26146659

  13. For and against Organ Donation and Transplantation: Intricate Facilitators and Barriers in Organ Donation Perceived by German Nurses and Doctors.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mayr, Beate; Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Forsberg, Anna; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Background. Significant facilitators and barriers to organ donation and transplantation remain in the general public and even in health professionals. Negative attitudes of HPs have been identified as the most significant barrier to actual ODT. The purpose of this paper was hence to investigate to what extent HPs (physicians and nurses) experience such facilitators and barriers in ODT and to what extent they are intercorrelated. We thus combined single causes to circumscribed factors of respective barriers and facilitators and analyzed them for differences regarding profession, gender, spiritual/religious self-categorization, and self-estimated knowledge of ODT and their mutual interaction. Methods. By the use of questionnaires we investigated intricate facilitators and barriers to organ donation experienced by HPs (n = 175; 73% nurses, 27% physicians) in around ten wards at the University Hospital of Munich. Results. Our study confirms a general high agreement with the importance of ODT. Nevertheless, we identified both facilitators and barriers in the following fields: (1) knowledge of ODT and willingness to donate own organs, (2) ethical delicacies in ODT, (3) stressors to handle ODT in the hospital, and (4) individual beliefs and self-estimated religion/spirituality. Conclusion. Attention to the intricacy of stressors and barriers in HPs continues to be a high priority focus for the availability of donor organs. PMID:27597891

  14. For and against Organ Donation and Transplantation: Intricate Facilitators and Barriers in Organ Donation Perceived by German Nurses and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Beate; Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Forsberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Significant facilitators and barriers to organ donation and transplantation remain in the general public and even in health professionals. Negative attitudes of HPs have been identified as the most significant barrier to actual ODT. The purpose of this paper was hence to investigate to what extent HPs (physicians and nurses) experience such facilitators and barriers in ODT and to what extent they are intercorrelated. We thus combined single causes to circumscribed factors of respective barriers and facilitators and analyzed them for differences regarding profession, gender, spiritual/religious self-categorization, and self-estimated knowledge of ODT and their mutual interaction. Methods. By the use of questionnaires we investigated intricate facilitators and barriers to organ donation experienced by HPs (n = 175; 73% nurses, 27% physicians) in around ten wards at the University Hospital of Munich. Results. Our study confirms a general high agreement with the importance of ODT. Nevertheless, we identified both facilitators and barriers in the following fields: (1) knowledge of ODT and willingness to donate own organs, (2) ethical delicacies in ODT, (3) stressors to handle ODT in the hospital, and (4) individual beliefs and self-estimated religion/spirituality. Conclusion. Attention to the intricacy of stressors and barriers in HPs continues to be a high priority focus for the availability of donor organs. PMID:27597891

  15. Forced organ donation: the presumed consent to organ donation laws of the various states and the United States Constitution.

    PubMed

    Powhida, A

    1999-01-01

    The issues presented in this Comment pertain to whether there are substantive limits imposed by the Fourteenth Amendment upon the state legislatures which would defeat the recent, tentative steps of many states to pass laws authorizing presumed consent to organ donation. The final and perhaps least effective presumed consent law creates a presumption of consent to organ donation. The potential organ donor makes the choice whether to donate or not during his lifetime. This form of the presumed consent law would probably have the least impact on increasing the number of available donor organs. It permitted the coroner to harvest the eyes and corneas of deceased individuals if the coroner was unaware of objections from either the decedent or the family of the decedent. Presumed consent statutes should be found unconstitutional because they infringe upon a family's property interest in a deceased relative's corpse. However, due to the family's property interest in a relative's deceased body, as set forth in the next section, the result is that presumed consent statutes are unconstitutional. In order to find the presumed consent law unconstitutional, the Court would have to find that either: (a) the Fourteenth Amendment's liberty component included the family's right to determine what happens to a relative's body after death, or (b) that the property component included a vested state law property interest in the dead body. PMID:16506330

  16. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  17. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: ‘basic elective ventilation’; ‘epistemically complex elective ventilation’; ‘practically complex elective ventilation’; and ‘epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation’. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation. PMID:23222143

  18. [Questions on organ donation. An exploratory study of medical students and overview of the literature].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1996-01-01

    The attitudes of 83 medical students, aged 19-27 years, toward organ donation were assessed using a short questionnaire. 43% stated great interest, 49% were willing to come to a decision regarding organ donation and 53% showed hesitation. The most important factors for the decision were the definition and time of death, the use of the donated organs, consideration of the relatives and treatment of the corpse. The attitude toward kidney donation was most unequivocal, the willingness to donate an eye or the heart most ambivalent. PMID:8975267

  19. Do the myths still exist? Revisiting people's negative beliefs about organ donation upon death.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; Wihardjo, Kylie R; White, Katherine M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of myths preventing people partial to donation in Australia from consenting is unknown. Respondents (N = 468: 381 donors, 26 non-donors, 61 undecided) were surveyed about their (negative) donation beliefs. Approximately 30% of donors were neutral or supported negative beliefs about organ allocation, especially donation to undesirable organ recipients and a black market organ trade. Confusion about brain death, lack of family and religious support, and discomfort with donation were negative beliefs endorsed by some respondents irrespective of donor preference. Proportionally, donors had greater trust in hospitals/doctors than other groups. Some myths still exist but may vary with donation preference. PMID:22304301

  20. Attitudes of young adults from the UK towards organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines the attitudes of young British adults towards donating their own organs and those of their family members. Methods An opportunity sample of 119 participants (65 female) completed an attitude questionnaire. Results Most participants were in favour of donation though substantially fewer had signed up to the organ donation register. A minority of participants was aware of the proposed opt-out system for donation. Conclusions The results from this study corroborate and extend previous work in that more participants were prepared to receive an organ than donate one. Knowing someone who had donated an organ was associated with a more positive attitude towards donation. Implications for policy are discussed. PMID:23683554

  1. Organ donation after circulatory death in a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D

    2016-07-01

    Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process. PMID:27456178

  2. Financial incentives to increase Canadian organ donation: quick fix or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoll, Greg; Levin, Adeera; Cole, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement. PMID:24200461

  3. Evaluation of an educational, theater-based intervention on attitudes toward organ donation in Risaralda, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Juliana; Gómez, Sandra; Guerra, Alvaro; Lucumí, Leidy; Romero, César

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The shortage of organs for transplantation is a worldwide problem and the main cause is the refusal of family members to donate. Consent to donate is influenced by many factors and educational interventions are strongly recommended. Objective: To evaluate the impact of an educational, theaterbased strategy on the attitudes toward organ donation. Methods: This study employed an intervention using theater as the central tool. The impact of this intervention on the intention to donate was assessed through a controlled, prospective, nonrandomized designed study. The sample consisted of 1,038 people. All the participants answered a survey that asked about sex, age and intent to donate. Afterward, one portion of the sample was exposed to the play, The Gift of Life, and a subsequent discussion forum that was guided by experts. The same survey was administered again after the intervention. Results: Before the intervention, donation attitudes were positive in 68.3% of the responses, negative in 6.8% and uncertain in 24.9%. Females showed a greater intent to donate while age had no apparent influence on the donation decision. Those exposed to the intervention were found to be more likely to donate and show a favorable change in attitude toward donation than those who were not exposed to the intervention. Conclusion: An educational intervention using theater is an effective tool to generate a short-term change in the intent to donate. Educational strategies should be employed to increase the rates of organ donation. PMID:24892320

  4. [An interdisciplinary approach of the organ donation decision: the Lausanne's experience].

    PubMed

    Bosisio, Francisca; Merminod, Gilles; Burger, Marcel; Pascual, Manuel; Moretti, Dianne; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2013-11-27

    Since 2007, the Interdisciplinary Ethics Platform (Ethos) of the University of Lausanne is leading an interdisciplinary reflection on the organ donation decision. On this basis, the project "Organ transplantation between the rhetoric of the gift and a biomedical view of the body" studies the logics at stake in the organ donation decision-making process. Results highlight many tensions within practices and public discourses in the field of organ donation and transplantation and suggest lines of inquiry for future adjustments. PMID:24383251

  5. Organ donation after circulatory death: the forgotten donor?

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L; McGregor, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be performed on neurologically intact donors who do not fulfill neurologic or brain death criteria before circulatory arrest. This commentary focuses on the most controversial donor-related issues anticipated from mandatory implementation of DCD for imminent or cardiac death in hospitals across the USA. We conducted a nonstructured review of selected publications and websites for data extraction and synthesis. The recommended 5 min of circulatory arrest does not universally fulfill the dead donor rule when applied to otherwise neurologically intact donors. Scientific evidence from extracorporeal perfusion in circulatory arrest suggests that the procurement process itself can be the event causing irreversibility in DCD. Legislative abandonment of the dead donor rule to permit the recovery of transplantable organs is necessary in the absence of an adequate scientific foundation for DCD practice. The designation of organ procurement organizations or affiliates to obtain organ donation consent introduces self-serving bias and conflicts of interest that interfere with true informed consent. It is important that donors and their families are not denied a 'good death', and the impact of DCD on quality of end-of-life care has not been satisfactorily addressed to achieve this. PMID:17020597

  6. Effects of entertainment (mis) education: exposure to entertainment television programs and organ donation intention.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jina H; Tian, Yan

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates antecedents and outcomes of entertainment television consumption in organ donation with the Orientation₁-Stimulus-Orientation₂-Response (O₁-S-O₂ -R) model. It reveals that organ donation knowledge seems significantly related to recall of entertainment television programs and attitudes toward organ donation. Meanwhile, recall of entertainment television programs significantly predicts people's perception of medical mistrust, which in turn negatively predicts attitudes toward organ donation, while attitudes toward organ donation significantly predict behavioral intention in signing a donor card. It also suggests significant mediation relationships among the pre-orientation variable, stimulus, post-orientation variable, and attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. This study provides an integrative theoretical framework to study media effects on organ donation and empirical evidence for "entertainment miseducation" (Morgan, Harrison, Chewning, Davis, & DiCorcia, 2007). PMID:21271421

  7. Factors Associated With Medical and Nursing Students’ Willingness to Donate Organs

    PubMed Central

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Tang, Li Yoong; Chong, Mei Chan; Mohd Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nurhidayah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Malaysia suffers from a chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation. Medical and nursing students (MaNS) are future health professionals and thus their attitude toward organ donation is vital for driving national donation rates. This study investigates MaNS’ willingness to donate organs upon death and the factors influencing their willingness. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 500 students (264 medical and 236 nursing) at the University of Malaya. A self-administrated questionnaire was used. The responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of all respondents, 278 (55.6%) were willing to donate organs upon death, while the remaining 222 (44.4%) were unwilling to donate. Only 44 (8.8%) had donor cards. The multiple logistic regression revealed that the minorities ethnic group was more willing to donate organs than Malay respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.98, P = 0.010). In addition, medical students were more willing to donate than nursing students (aOR = 2.53, P = 0.000). Respondents who have a family member with a donor card were more willing to donate than respondents who do not (aOR = 3.48, P = 0.006). MaNS who believed that their religion permits deceased donation were more willing to donate than their counterparts (aOR = 4.96, P = 0.000). Household income and sex were not significant predictors of MaNS’ willingness to donate organs upon death. MaNS have moderate willingness, but low commitment toward deceased organ donation. Strategies for improving MaNS’ attitude should better educate them on organ donation, targeting the most the Malay and nursing students, and should consider the influence of family attitude and religious permissibility on MaNS’ willingness. PMID:27015207

  8. Factors Associated With Medical and Nursing Students' Willingness to Donate Organs.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Tang, Li Yoong; Chong, Mei Chan; Mohd Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nurhidayah

    2016-03-01

    Malaysia suffers from a chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation. Medical and nursing students (MaNS) are future health professionals and thus their attitude toward organ donation is vital for driving national donation rates. This study investigates MaNS' willingness to donate organs upon death and the factors influencing their willingness. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 500 students (264 medical and 236 nursing) at the University of Malaya. A self-administrated questionnaire was used. The responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of all respondents, 278 (55.6%) were willing to donate organs upon death, while the remaining 222 (44.4%) were unwilling to donate. Only 44 (8.8%) had donor cards. The multiple logistic regression revealed that the minorities ethnic group was more willing to donate organs than Malay respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.98, P = 0.010). In addition, medical students were more willing to donate than nursing students (aOR = 2.53, P = 0.000). Respondents who have a family member with a donor card were more willing to donate than respondents who do not (aOR = 3.48, P = 0.006). MaNS who believed that their religion permits deceased donation were more willing to donate than their counterparts (aOR = 4.96, P = 0.000). Household income and sex were not significant predictors of MaNS' willingness to donate organs upon death. MaNS have moderate willingness, but low commitment toward deceased organ donation. Strategies for improving MaNS' attitude should better educate them on organ donation, targeting the most the Malay and nursing students, and should consider the influence of family attitude and religious permissibility on MaNS' willingness. PMID:27015207

  9. Abandoning the dead donor rule? A national survey of public views on death and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Green, Sydney R; Sutin, Angelina R

    2015-04-01

    Brain dead organ donors are the principal source of transplantable organs. However, it is controversial whether brain death is the same as biological death. Therefore, it is unclear whether organ removal in brain death is consistent with the 'dead donor rule', which states that organ removal must not cause death. Our aim was to evaluate the public's opinion about organ removal if explicitly described as causing the death of a donor in irreversible apneic coma. We conducted a cross-sectional internet survey of the American public (n=1096). Questionnaire domains included opinions about a hypothetical scenario of organ removal described as causing the death of a patient in irreversible coma, and items measuring willingness to donate organs after death. Some 71% of the sample agreed that it should be legal for patients to donate organs in the scenario described and 67% agreed that they would want to donate organs in a similar situation. Of the 85% of the sample who agreed that they were willing to donate organs after death, 76% agreed that they would donate in the scenario of irreversible coma with organ removal causing death. There appears to be public support for organ donation in a scenario explicitly described as violating the dead donor rule. Further, most but not all people who would agree to donate when organ removal is described as occurring after death would also agree to donate when organ removal is described as causing death in irreversible coma. PMID:25260779

  10. Organ donation and pre-emptive kidney transplantation: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that pre-emptive transplants have several clinical advantages. However, pre-emptive transplants raise a number of ethical issues. Pre-emptive transplants from living donors offer distinctly greater benefits than those from deceased donors and some pre-emptive transplantation programmes actively encourage living organ donations. Moreover, the offer of a pre-emptive transplant to a patient who is not yet on dialysis unquestionably penalises patients already on dialysis who may have been on the waiting list for a long time. Therefore preemptive transplants give rise to conflicts between justice and utility. Several factors should be considered: health conditions, clinical urgency, probability of imminent worsening of a patient's clinical condition, the future chances of finding a matching organ, and others. From the various values at stake, ethical issues are analysed in search of an acceptable synthesis. PMID:24045524

  11. Minority Organ Donation: The Power of an Educated Community

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Clive O; Miles, Patrice V

    2010-01-01

    Background In 1978 - Washington, DC, we became aware of the scarcity of minority donors especially African Americans. Study Design From then until now 4 decades later, we have been involved in a grass roots effort emphasizing community education and empowerment combined with the use of mass media which has successfully increased minority donation rates exponentially. This program was initiated with a $500 grant from Howard University and subsequently funded by the National Institutes of Health grants and other funding totaling more than $10 million between 1993 and 2008. Results Between 1990 and 2008 minority donations percentages have doubled (15%-30%). African American organ donors per million (O.D.M.) have quadrupled from 8 O.D.M. - 53 O.D.M between 1982 and 2008. Conclusions While the investment of $10 million may seem substantial, when we look at the cost benefit ratio associated with the cost savings of $135,000 per donor, it is small when compared to the more than $200 million saved by kidney donors alone associated with the expected increase in minority donors percentage to 35% by 2010 or the equivalent of 1750 minority donors. PMID:20421035

  12. Organ donation: Transplant Games, the "Island Effect," and other successful methods.

    PubMed

    Slapak, M

    1997-11-01

    We have alluded to data showing that effective organisation has a well-documented effect on organ donation. We have also presented data demonstrating the positive effect of the Transplant Games on public opinion and through positive media influence, producing a very marked increase in organ donation. Attention has also been drawn to the surprising phenomenon we call the "Island Effect," which may endorse the concept of decentralisation and close communication as an effective way of increasing organ donation. Finally, we conclude that, with professional help, both into the organisation of organ donation, and the creation of a positive media effect on public opinion, there is a great scope for increasing human organ donation to levels that are very much higher than that which we now experience. Both the Transplant Games and the "Island Effect" have indicated routes that we can and must explore and use to narrow the vital gap between organ need and organ supply for transplantation. PMID:9365660

  13. Coverage of the organ donation process on Grey's Anatomy: the story of Denny Duquette.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of Grey's Anatomy viewing on a host of organ donation-related variables: organ donation beliefs and attitudes and a willingness to discuss organ donation with family. Following exposure to a storyline in which two myths were presented: (i) the rich and famous can buy their way to the top of organ waiting lists (purchase myth) and (ii) friends and family of medical professionals receive organ transplants quicker than other individuals (relationship myth), results revealed that loyal viewers of Grey's Anatomy are less likely to believe the purchase myth compared to non-viewers. No difference emerged between these two groups with respect to the relationship myth. Additionally, loyal viewers were more likely to talk about their willingness to donate organs than non-viewers. Results are discussed with an emphasis on how Grey's Anatomy portrayals can impact perceptions and action tendencies related to organ donation. PMID:19191808

  14. Ethical controversies in organ donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    The persistent mismatch between the supply of and need for transplantable organs has led to efforts to increase the supply, including controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD). Controlled DCD involves organ recovery after the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and the declaration of death according to the cardiorespiratory criteria. Two central ethical issues in DCD are when organ recovery can begin and how to manage conflicts of interests. The "dead donor rule" should be maintained, and donors in cases of DCD should only be declared dead after the permanent cessation of circulatory function. Permanence is generally established by a 2- to 5-minute waiting period. Given ongoing controversy over whether the cessation must also be irreversible, physicians should not be required to participate in DCD. Because the preparation for organ recovery in DCD begins before the declaration of death, there are potential conflicts between the donor's and recipient's interests. These conflicts can be managed in a variety of ways, including informed consent and separating the various participants' roles. For example, informed consent should be sought for premortem interventions to improve organ viability, and organ procurement organization personnel and members of the transplant team should not be involved in the discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment or the declaration of death. It is also important to emphasize that potential donors in cases of DCD should receive integrated interdisciplinary palliative care, including sedation and analgesia. PMID:23629612

  15. Factors related to attitudes toward organ donation after death in the immigrant population in Spain.

    PubMed

    López, Jorge S; Valentín, María O; Scandroglio, Barbara; Coll, Elisabeth; Martín, María J; Sagredo, Encarnación; Martínez, José M; Serna, Emilio; Matesanz, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Considering the relevance of the migratory processes in Western societies, the attitudes toward organ donation after death are analyzed by means of a survey applied to a representative random sample of the resident immigrant population in Spain, comprising 1202 subjects (estimated margin of error of ± 2.88%, p = q, p < 0.05). Considered variables were disposition toward own organ donation, disposition toward deceased relatives' donation in different situations, arguments against donation, socio-demographic indicators, religious beliefs, social integration, and information about organ donation and transplantation. Predisposition to donate varies strongly across geographical origin and religious beliefs and also shows relationships with additional socio-demographic, social integration, and informative variables. In turn, the relationship between religious beliefs and attitude toward donation varies as a function of the degree of social integration. In Spain, the immigrant population is a heterogeneous collective that requires differential strategies to promote donation. Such strategies should be aimed at reinforcing the existing positive attitudes of citizens from West Europe and Latin America, and at familiarizing and informing about donation in citizens from the East, and at making specific efforts to break down the cultural and religious barriers toward donation in African citizens, with special emphasis on people of the Muslim faith. PMID:22283230

  16. Project ACTS: an intervention to increase organ and tissue donation intentions among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing, which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers (control group) or Project ACTS educational materials (intervention group). The primary outcomes assessed at 1-year follow-up were readiness to express donation intentions via one's driver's license, donor card, and discussion with family. Results indicate a significant interaction between condition and time on readiness to talk to family such that participants in the intervention group were 1.64 times more likely to be in action or maintenance at follow-up than were participants in the control group (p = .04). There were no significant effects of condition or condition by time on readiness to be identified as a donor on one's driver's license and by carrying a donor card. Project ACTS may be an effective tool for stimulating family discussion of donation intentions among African Americans although additional research is needed to explore how to more effectively affect written intentions. PMID:19858313

  17. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. PMID:27012736

  18. The principles of gift law and the regulation of organ donation.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Alexandra K

    2011-04-01

    The principles of gift law establish a consistent international legal understanding of consent to donation under a range of regulatory systems. Gift law as the primary legal principle is important to both the foundation of systems that prevent organ sales and the consideration of strategies to increase organ donation for transplantation. PMID:21276090

  19. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye, organ and tissue donation. 1.485a Section 1.485a Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.485a Eye, organ and tissue donation. A VHA health care facility may disclose...

  20. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matten, M R; Sliepcevich, E M; Sarvela, P D; Lacey, E P; Woehlke, P L; Richardson, C E; Wright, W R

    1991-01-01

    The acute shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation has been attributed in part to health professionals, including nurses, for their reluctance to recognize and refer suitable candidates for donation. In 1988, nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation were assessed using a 70-item questionnaire. Respondents included 1,683 nurses employed in 62 rural and urban hospitals in the Midwest. Only 365 respondents (21.7 percent) reported having requested tissue donations and 243 (14.4 percent) reported having requested organ donations. However, of those who requested tissue or organ donations, 270 (74 percent) obtained consents for tissues and 150 (61.7 percent) obtained consent for organ donations. Respondents were knowledgeable about organ and tissue donation (mean score of 7.5 on a 0 to 10 knowledge scale with 10 as highest) and reported attitudes and beliefs were moderately positive. Factors that were significantly correlated with the number of requests made for organs and tissues and the number of consents obtained included nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about donation; nurses' perception of their own confidence in their ability to request tissues and organs; being a supervisor; and working in an emergency department. PMID:1902308

  1. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  2. Perceptions of organ donors and willingness to donate organs upon death: a test of the prototype/willingness model.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding people's organ donation decisions may narrow the gap between organ supply and demand. In two studies, participants who had not recorded their posthumous organ donation decision (Study 1, N = 210; Study 2, N = 307) completed items assessing prototype/willingness model (PWM; attitude, subjective norm, donor prototype favorability and similarity, willingness) constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, and prototype similarity predicted willingness to donate. Prototype favorability and a Prototype Favorability × Similarity interaction predicted willingness (Study 2). These findings provide support for the PWM in altruistic health contexts, highlighting the importance of people's perceptions about organ donors in their donation decisions. PMID:24758216

  3. Perceptions of Organ Donors and Willingness to Donate Organs Upon Death: A Test of the Prototype/Willingness Model.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2014-06-01

    Understanding people's organ donation decisions may narrow the gap between organ supply and demand. In two studies, participants who had not recorded their posthumous organ donation decision (Study 1 N = 210; Study 2 N = 307) completed items assessing Prototype/Willingness Model (PWM) (attitude, subjective norm, donor prototype favorability and similarity, willingness) constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, and prototype similarity predicted willingness to donate. Prototype favorability and a prototype favorability x similarity interaction predicted willingness (Study 2). These findings provide support for the PWM in altruistic health contexts, highlighting the importance of people's perceptions about organ donors in their donation decisions. PMID:24910896

  4. Non-heart-beating organ donation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Geraci, P M; Sepe, V

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 the non-heart-beating organ donation (NHBD) "Programma Alba" (Sunrise Programme) started in Pavia, Italy. The initial plan was to cut down waiting list for kidney transplantation, while its final aim is to shorten organ transplantation waiting lists. When compared to European countries and the USA, the Italian NHBD program has taken longer to get established. Initially Italian physicians were not entirely aware of the NHBD organ viability for transplantation, furthermore ethical issues and the need to regulate medical requirements to Italian law slowed down the NHBD program. In particular, Italian legislation provides for death ascertainment after irreversible cardiac arrest, 20-minute flat electrocardiogram. This no-touch period is longer when compared to worldwide legislation, and organ viability has been a main concern for Italian transplant doctors over the years. However, recent data let up to 40-minute warm ischemia time to preserve organ viability; this has encouraged Pavia's group to establish the NHBD "Programma Alba". It was designed according to Italian legislation from death diagnosis to graft placement, from this perspective must the significant role of the Transplant coordinator be recognized. Since 2007 seven kidneys have been gathered from seven NHBD. Of these, six NHBD kidneys have been transplanted. Currently, four patients are out of dialysis. This report is a detailed description of NHBD "Programma Alba" and its preliminary results. PMID:21617625

  5. Specialist nurse training programme: dealing with asking for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, G

    1998-08-01

    The issue of cadaveric organ transplantation is by its very nature emotional as it is associated with the very traumatic time of a loved one's death. Making a request for organs needs to be handled very sensitively by health professionals when discussing the issue with a family. Those nurses working in critical care areas are most likely to confront this issue and need to be equipped for dealing with ensuing events. The major challenge for the nurse is to address the concerns with brain death and organ donation in an environment of grief and sadness. Asking for organ consent is the most important element of all and needs to be done in the most sensitive manner, providing appropriate support to the donor family. To facilitate this process specialist training programmes in the nursing curriculum are imperative. Education programmes should incorporate presentations, role play situations and discussions based upon past experiences of organ requests. This would hopefully result in increased rates of donor consent and thereby a reduction in transplant waiting lists. PMID:9725739

  6. NHSBT consideration to ignore family override of consent to organ donation.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-02-01

    NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the agency responsible for allocating donated organs and maintaining the organ donor register, is considering proceeding with harvesting organs from a registered donor in spite of objections from the deceased's family, in order to raise the number of available organs. District nurses are witness to the need for an increase in the number of donated organs, given the care they provide to those waiting for transplant, and it is essential that district nurses inform this debate. In this article, the author discusses the NHSBT proposal and reviews the law of consent in relation to organ donation. PMID:26844605

  7. A televised entertainment-education drama to promote positive discussion about organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Georges E.; Rintamaki, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates pathways between the exposure to an entertainment-education (E-E) television drama called Three Rivers and positive discussion of organ donation among viewers of the drama in the United States. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online advertising for a period of one week. Survey participants included 1325 adults living in the United States, who had viewed the first episode of Three Rivers on television. Data were collected on recall of events in the storyline, perceived entertainment value, perceived accuracy of the presented health information, rejection of organ donation myths and positive discussion of organ donation and the storyline. Covariates were registration for organ donation, membership to the donation or transplant community and demographic variables. Results show that viewers with high recall of the storyline were more likely to reject myths about organ donation and engage in pro-donation discussions with others. Perceived entertainment value and perceived accuracy acted as mediators in such relationships. The insertion of accurate health information in television drama may be effective in promoting positive discussions about organ donation and myth rejection. Recall of events from the televised E-E drama Three Rivers, entertainment value and accuracy perception were associated with positive discussion. PMID:24399264

  8. Metaphors of organ donation, social representations of the body and the opt-out system.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Mary Anne

    2009-11-01

    Organ donation is the only available treatment for end-stage failure of organs such as liver, lung, and heart and therefore increasing the number of organ donors is a priority for most countries. One measure that could be taken by a country to increase the number of organ transplants is to introduce the opt-out system of organ donation. Public opinion is divided on this issue and policy makers need to tread with caution before introducing legislation. This paper proposes that understanding the social representations the public has of organ donation is important in taking the right policy decisions. We propose here that an in-depth study of the views held by people on the issue is essential in this regard and that this can best be done by investigating the metaphors people use to describe organ donation, interpreted within the theory of social representation. In this study, the social representations of organ donation were investigated through five focus groups with 57 participants living in Malta. Analysis of the transcriptions of these focus groups yielded pertinent issues related to organ donation. Moreover, metaphors of organ donations and how these were related to social representations of the body and attitudes towards the opt-out system are discussed. It is being suggested that these findings could be of relevance to the present discussion on the opt-out system in the UK and in other countries. PMID:19159505

  9. UK Polish Migrant Attitudes Toward Deceased Organ Donation: Findings from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Chloe; Randhawa, Gurch

    2015-08-01

    There is a critical shortage of transplantable organs in the UK. At present, there is no literature on Polish migrants' (the fastest growing community in the UK) attitudes toward organ donation. This is the first study to explore the views of the Polish community towards organ donation in the UK. There were 31 participants that took part in semi-structured interviews or small focus groups to discuss organ donation for approximately 1½-2 h. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory methods to elicit thematic categories and sub-categories. Overall, participants had a positive attitude towards organ donation but demonstrated a lack of knowledge about the organ donation systems and processes in the UK and wanted to learn more about these issues. As little detailed data on ethnicity is collected on the NHS Organ Donor Register and on the active transplant waiting list, it is currently unclear as to how organ donation affects the Polish community living in the UK. However, the findings of the study highlight the Polish community could benefit from tailored education for a clearer understanding of organ donation processes and systems in the UK and registering as an organ donor. PMID:24989496

  10. Incentivizing Authorization for Deceased Organ Donation With Organ Allocation Priority: The First 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Stoler, A; Kessler, J B; Ashkenazi, T; Roth, A E; Lavee, J

    2016-09-01

    The allocation system of donor organs for transplantation may affect their scarcity. In 2008, Israel's Parliament passed the Organ Transplantation Law, which grants priority on waiting lists for transplants to candidates who are first-degree relatives of deceased organ donors or who previously registered as organ donors themselves. Several public campaigns have advertised the existence of the law since November 2010. We evaluated the effect of the law using all deceased donation requests made in Israel during the period 1998-2015. We use logistic regression to compare the authorization rates of the donors' next of kin in the periods before (1998-2010) and after (2011-2015) the public was made aware of the law. The authorization rate for donation in the period after awareness was substantially higher (55.1% vs. 45.0%, odds ratio [OR] 1.43, p = 0.0003) and reached an all-time high rate of 60.2% in 2015. This increase was mainly due to an increase in the authorization rate of next of kin of unregistered donors (51.1% vs. 42.2%). We also found that the likelihood of next-of-kin authorization for donation was approximately twice as high when the deceased relative was a registered donor rather than unregistered (89.4% vs. 44.6%, OR 14.27, p < 0.0001). We concluded that the priority law is associated with an increased authorization rate for organ donation. PMID:27013023

  11. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant1

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. Method this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. Results the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. Final considerations knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation. PMID:26107829

  12. Developing a tissue donation advocacy program in a rural emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sebach, Aaron M; McDowell, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Although major strides have been made with regard to organ and tissue donation, there continues to be a lack of available donors. Currently more than 100,000 persons are awaiting a life-saving transplant, and 1 million others have conditions such as blindness, dermal burns, and malfunctioning heart valves that could be improved with a tissue transplant. Because approximately 40 persons can benefit from just one donor and because many families are comforted knowing that their loved one was able to help others in need, tissue donation efforts are a priority for health care professionals. A limited number of emergency departments across the United States have developed programs in which nurses introduce tissue donation to families after cardiac death occurs. The concept of emergency nurse-initiated tissue donation dialogues with family members is relatively new. As a result, few resources, literature, and programs are available, and thus guidance and support in the development of future programs are needed. This article discusses the development and implementation of a tissue donation advocacy program in a rural emergency department. Planning, training, and recommendations for others wishing to implement a similar program are highlighted. Preliminary outcome information and planned evaluations are included. PMID:21497895

  13. Organ donation and transplantation-the Chennai experience in India.

    PubMed

    Shroff, S; Rao, S; Kurian, G; Suresh, S

    2007-04-01

    evolve a model to take this program to the national level and more so as it recently has been granted 100% tax exemption on all donations to form a countrywide network for organ sharing. PMID:17445579

  14. Development of standard definitions for surveillance of complications related to blood donation.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M; Land, K; Robillard, P; Wiersum-Osselton, J

    2016-02-01

    Standard definitions of donor reactions allow each blood establishment to monitor donor adverse events and compare with other organizations to develop best practices. The ISBT Haemovigilance Working Party leads a multi-organizational effort to update the 2008 ISBT standard for surveillance of complications related to blood donation. Revised definitions have been developed and endorsed by the ISBT, AABB, International Haemovigilance Network (IHN) and other international organizations. PMID:26361365

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Taimur; Ishaque, Sidra; Habib, Nida; Hussain, Syedda Saadia; Jawed, Areeba; Khan, Aamir Ali; Ahmad, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mian Omer; Mughal, Hamza Pervez; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars. PMID:19534793

  16. The View of Religious Officials on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Zeytinburnu District of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat

    2015-12-01

    One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and raise

  17. Changing Patterns of Organ Donation: Brain Dead Donors Are Not Being Lost by Donation After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Helen M; Glazier, Alexandra K; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-02-01

    The clinical characteristics of all New England Organ Bank (NEOB) donors after circulatory death (DCD) donors were analyzed between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2014. During that 5-year period, there were 494 authorized medically suitable potential DCDs that the NEOB evaluated, constituting more than 30% of deceased donors coordinated annually by the NEOB. From the cohort of 494 authorized potential DCDs, 331 (67%) became actual DCD, 82 (17%) were attempted as a DCD but did not progress to donation, and 81 (16%) transitioned to an actual donor after brain death (DBD). Two hundred seventy-six organs were transplanted from the 81 donors that transitioned from DCD to actual DBD, including 24 heart, 70 liver, 12 single and 14 bilateral lung, and 12 pancreas transplants. When patients with devastating brain injury admitted to the intensive care units are registered donors, the Organ Procurement Organization staff should share the patient's donation decision with the health care team and the patient's family, as early as possible after the comfort measures only discussion has been initiated. The experience of the NEOB becomes an important reference of the successful implementation of DCD that enables an expansion of deceased donation (inclusive of DBD). PMID:26516669

  18. Randomised, Double Blind, Controlled Trial of the Provision of Information about the Benefits of Organ Donation during a Family Donation Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Aranha, Sarah; Pilcher, David V.; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is unclear how much information should be provided to families of potential organ donors about the benefits of organ donation. Whilst this information is material to the donation decision, it may also be perceived as coercive. Methods Randomised, double blind, controlled trial in which community members watched one of two videos of a simulated organ donation conversation that differed only in the amount of information provided about the benefits of donation. Participants then completed a questionnaire about the adequacy of the information provided and the degree to which they felt the doctor was trying to convince the family member to say yes to donation. Results There was a wide variability in what participants considered was the “right” amount of information about organ donation. Those who watched the conversation that included information about the benefits of donation were more likely to feel that the information provided to the family was sufficient. They were more likely to report that the doctor was trying to convince the family member to say yes to donation, yet were no more likely to feel uncomfortable or to feel that the doctor was uncaring or cared more about transplant recipients than he did for the patient and their family. Conclusions This study suggests that community members are comfortable with health care staff providing information to family members that may be influential in supporting them to give consent for donation. PMID:27322832

  19. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P < 0.006). Correction of coagulopathy was attained in 70 per cent (seven of 10) patients. Of these seven patients, consent for donation was obtained in six patients and resulted in 19 solid organs being procured. The cost of PCC per patient was $1022 ± 544. PCC effectively reveres coagulopathy associated with lethal traumatic brain injury and enabled patients to proceed to organ donation. Although various methodologies exist for the treatment of coagulopathy to facilitate organ donation, PCC provides a rapid and cost-effective therapy for reversal of coagulopathy in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. PMID:24887662

  20. Factors influencing the family consent rate for organ donation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hulme, W; Allen, J; Manara, A R; Murphy, P G; Gardiner, D; Poppitt, E

    2016-09-01

    The refusal rate for organ donation in the UK is 42%, among the highest in Europe. We extracted data on every family approach for donation in UK ICUs or Emergency Departments between 1st April 2012 and 30th September 2013, and performed multiple logistic regression to identify modifiable factors associated with consent. Complete data were available for 4703 of 4899 approaches during the study period. Consent for donation after brain death was 68.9%, and for donation after circulatory death 56.5% (p < 0.0001). Patient ethnicity, knowledge of a patient's wishes and involvement of a specialist nurse in organ donation in the approach were strongly associated with consent (p < 0.0001). The impact of the specialist nurse was stronger for donation after circulatory death than for donation after brain death, even after accounting for the impact of prior knowledge of patients' wishes. Involvement of the specialist nurse in the approach, encouraging family discussions about donation wishes and promotion of the organ donor register are key strategies to increase UK consent rates, and are supported by this study. PMID:27440055

  1. [Role of an anesthesiologist-resuscitation specialist in organ donation for transplantation].

    PubMed

    Iaroshetskiĭ, A I; Protsenko, D N; Gel'fand, B R

    2010-01-01

    There is an annual reduction in the number of donors worldwide. An anesthesiologist-resuscitation specialist is a key figure in the whole system of organ donation. The so-called transplantation, i.e., the organization of the whole process of interaction between a healthy care facility, a local organ donation center, and ancillary laboratory and diagnostic services is one of his/her primary roles in organ donation. The organizational, legal, and ethic issues of organ donation for transplantation are discussed from the viewpoint of an anesthesiologist-resuscitation specialist. There is a parallel between the treatment of a patient with multiple organ dysfunction and the management of a donor with brain death. PMID:20737699

  2. Transplantation, multi-organ donation & presumed consent: a 3 year survey of university students.

    PubMed

    Healy, G; Sharma, K; Healy, D G

    2009-10-01

    We profile the practises and attitudes of university students in Ireland towards consent for organ donation. 1103 students were surveyed. Only 34.6% (382/1103) carried organ donor consent cards, although the majority were favourably disposed towards donation. Only 9% (96/1103) were against donation. In regard to presumed consent only 38% (177/470) were in favour of changing the current "opt-in" consent methodology to presumed consent. These findings show a favourable opinion towards donation among Irish university students. However this may result in few actual donations in the event of brain death, as the majority do not carry donor cards and do not want to change to a presumed consent regime. The most common answer for not carrying a card was that the individual had not formalised a decision. Mandated choice at a fixed point could significantly reduce this ambivalence. PMID:19902652

  3. From attitude formation to behavioral response in organ donation: using marketing to increase consent rates.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Alicia; Guy, Bonnie; Roggenkamp, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical analysis of attitude formation and the relationship to stated behavioral intentions as it relates to the decision to donate organs. This analysis reveals the presence of three distinct paths to behavior of potential donors, groups differing in their involvement with organ donation. Promotional objectives and campaign strategies designed to influence attitudes and behaviors should differ according to the behavioral path in operation and the involvement of the audience. Mass media campaigns are likely to reach high involvement groups only. Therefore, personal selling, underutilized in previous donation campaigns, should be brought into the donation strategy to appeal to low involvement groups. By recognizing differences in audience involvement and implementing different strategies, overall donation rates could substantially increase. PMID:15018000

  4. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale

    PubMed Central

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. Results We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. Conclusion The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective. PMID:19226449

  5. Intensive care practices in brain death diagnosis and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Escudero, D; Valentín, M O; Escalante, J L; Sanmartín, A; Perez-Basterrechea, M; de Gea, J; Martín, M; Velasco, J; Pont, T; Masnou, N; de la Calle, B; Marcelo, B; Lebrón, M; Pérez, J M; Burgos, M; Gimeno, R; Kot, P; Yus, S; Sancho, I; Zabalegui, A; Arroyo, M; Miñambres, E; Elizalde, J; Montejo, J C; Domínguez-Gil, B; Matesanz, R

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a multicentre study of 1844 patients from 42 Spanish intensive care units, and analysed the clinical characteristics of brain death, the use of ancillary testing, and the clinical decisions taken after the diagnosis of brain death. The main cause of brain death was intracerebral haemorrhage (769/1844, 42%), followed by traumatic brain injury (343/1844, 19%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (257/1844, 14%). The diagnosis of brain death was made rapidly (50% in the first 24 h). Of those patients who went on to die, the Glasgow Coma Scale on admission was ≤ 8/15 in 1146/1261 (91%) of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage, traumatic brain injury or anoxic encephalopathy; the Hunt and Hess Scale was 4-5 in 207/251 (83%) of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage; and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was ≥ 15 in 114/129 (89%) of patients with strokes. Brain death was diagnosed exclusively by clinical examination in 92/1844 (5%) of cases. Electroencephalography was the most frequently used ancillary test (1303/1752, 70.7%), followed by transcranial Doppler (652/1752, 37%). Organ donation took place in 70% of patients (1291/1844), with medical unsuitability (267/553, 48%) and family refusal (244/553, 13%) the main reasons for loss of potential donors. All life-sustaining measures were withdrawn in 413/553 of non-donors (75%). PMID:26040194

  6. Identification of Strategies to Facilitate Organ Donation among African Americans using the Nominal Group Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L.; Mannon, Elinor C.; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. Results In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants’ reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). Conclusions These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one’s death

  7. Ethical debate over organ donation in the context of brain death.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Mary Jiang; Mahler, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated what information about brain death was available from Google searches for five major religions. A substantial body of supporting research examining online behaviors shows that information seekers use Google as their preferred search engine and usually limit their search to entries on the first page. For each of the five religions in this study, Google listings reveal ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death. These results suggest that family members who go online to find information about organ donation in the context of brain death would find information about ethical controversy in the first page of Google listings. Organ procurement agencies claim that all major world religions approve of organ donation and do not address the ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death that is readily available online. PMID:19076119

  8. [Report of Sata Clinical Fellowship; brain death and organ donation in hospital for sick children, Toronto, Canada].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M

    2000-04-01

    I have experienced two cases of pediatric organ donation from the brain dead patients in Hospital for Sick Children in three months. First case was a 9-year-old boy after a traffic accident. Second case was an 11-year-old boy with intracranial hemorrhage. Brain death is diagnosed by clinical criteria alone in Canada, as in many of developed countries. EEG or brain flow studies are not mandatory. In the first case, brain death was confirmed after additional brain flow study, EEG, and SSEP because of cervical spinal injury. Second case was diagnosed as brain death by clinical criteria alone, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed after brain death diagnosis. MORE (multiple organ receival and exchange program of Ontario), Organ Donation Team (critical care physicians, nurses, organ donation coordinators, social workers and chaplains) in HSC, and volunteers play the important role to help the family and to make the organ transplantation successful. In Canada, pediatric brain death and organ donation are widely accepted, but there remains an imbalance between the demand for transplantation and the number of organs available. PMID:10793535

  9. [The anticipated organ donation approach in the emergency department, the role of the nurse coordinator].

    PubMed

    Arsonneau, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    The anticipated organ donation approach aims to increase the number of donors and transplants. This approach requires a procedural framework. It also helps the families begin their grieving process, without any added suffering. PMID:27596501

  10. The Relevance of Directive 2010/53/EU for Living Organ Donation Practice: An ELPAT View.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Sterckx, Sigrid; Lennerling, Annette; Mamode, Nizam; Citterio, Franco; Frunza, Mihaela; Zuidema, Willij C; Burnapp, Lisa; Weimar, Willem; Dor, Frank J M F

    2015-10-01

    With the recent transposition of Directive 2010/53/EU into the transplant regulation of EU Member States, the time is right to have a closer look at its implications for living organ donation practice. We first discuss the relevance of the Action Plan which forms the basis for the policy of the European Commission in the field of organ donation and transplantation. We then analyze the impact of Directive 2010/53/EU which was adopted to support the implementation of the Priority Actions set out in the Action Plan. We more specifically focus on the obligations of transplant centers engaged in living organ donation and highlight their significance for clinical practice. Finally, we point out some strengths and weaknesses of the Directive in addressing living organ donation. PMID:25856404

  11. What ICU nurses in different Austrian hospitals know and think about the Austrian organ donation law.

    PubMed

    Zettel, Gabriele; Horvath, Angela; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina; Auburger, Christian; Zink, Michael; Stiegler, Philipp; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported a high level of information on the Austrian organ donation law in medical and non-medical students, patients and ICU nurses, whereby ICU nurses at University Hospital in Graz (n = 185) were very well informed and also had the most critical view of the Austrian organ donation law.This letter reports the extension of our previous study to ICU nurses from hospitals with a Christian background (n = 60). We found that ICU nurses in hospitals run by religious congregations considered the Austrian organ donation law to be good more often than did those at the University Hospital in Graz. A positive attitude was also influenced by gender and prior knowledge of the law.Reasons for this could be the Christian orientation of the hospitals or exposure to organ donation and transplantation procedures on the job. PMID:24938119

  12. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines. PMID:25160964

  13. Promoting organ donation to Hispanics: the role of the media and medicine.

    PubMed

    Frates, Janice; Bohrer, Gloria Garcia; Thomas, David

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of a paid media advertising campaign employing Spanish language, culturally sensitive television and radio spots airing on major Hispanic stations in southern California. An advertising tracking study with a baseline and three postintervention telephone surveys was conducted from 2001 through 2003 among 500 randomly selected self-identified, primarily Spanish language dominant adult Hispanics. Measures of organ donation attitudes and behaviors (decision and declared intent to donate organs) improved significantly (P < .05) in 2001 and 2002, then leveled off or declined in 2003. Among the reasons given for not making a decision to donate was fear that medical personnel might withhold care from identified organ donors, suggesting lack of knowledge and distrust of the health care system. Few respondents talked to health care professionals or contacted the organ procurement agency for information either before or after the campaign. Findings from this study indicate a need for ongoing public education in the Hispanic community about organ transplantation and donation. Health professionals need to become more engaged in encouraging Hispanic patients to learn about organ transplantation and donation, and to inform their families that they have made the personal decision to donate. PMID:17074735

  14. Partnership for transplantation: a new initiative to increase deceased organ donation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kosieradzki, M; Czerwinski, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Kubik, T; Zawilinska, E; Kobryn, A; Bohatyrewicz, R; Zieniewicz, K; Nyckowski, P; Becler, R; Snarska, J; Danielewicz, R; Rowinski, W

    2012-09-01

    Despite the long-standing history of transplantation, the shortage of organs has remained its most restrictive factor. In 2010, the number of actual deceased organ donors in Poland was 13.5/million population (pmp). However, a huge difference in organ recovery rates is evident between various regions, eg, 32 pmp, in western Pomerania compared with 1-3 pmp in southern districts. A substantial number of patients who die while awaiting organ transplantations could be saved were effective programs able to overcome barriers in deceased organ donation. Such programs, eg, the European Donor Hospital Education Program, Donor Action, European Training Program on Organ Donation, United States Collaborative in Donation were introduced several years ago, but after transient improvements there has not been real progress. A new comprehensive program-Regional Partnership for Transplantation-was initiated a year ago in 4 districts of southern Poland by the Polish Union for Transplantation Medicine. The letter of intent to activate the donation program was signed by the local administration, the president of the local medical school, president of the Physician's Chamber, transplant centers, the Polish Union for Transplantation, and the Polish Transplant Coordinating Center. The plan of action included training of in-hospital coordinators, visits to all regional hospitals in company of a representative of the hospital founding body, examination of the real donation pool and the need for participation in a donation program training and education of the hospital staff in legal and organizational aspects of donation, brain death recognition, and various aspects of donor care. In addition, the program included communication skills workshops for intensive care unit physicians (with participation of 2 actors, an experienced anesthesiologist, and a psychologist), lectures for high school and university students and for hospital chaplains as well as alumni of higher seminaries. The

  15. Public perception and attitude of saudis toward organ and tissue donation.

    PubMed

    Al-Jumah, Mohammed A; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A

    2011-03-01

    Biobanks depend on the willingness of people to contribute samples for both research and storage; however, the requirements to perform research on biobanked samples are different than the requirements for their use in organ transplants. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize public attitudes toward tissue and organ donation for transplantation and biobanking and (2) to identify significant predictors of these attitudes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1051 adult subjects, all of whom accompanied their ill relatives to the outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City. All subjects were given an interview questionnaire about their previous healthcare experiences and an attitude scale to assess their willingness to participate in organ donation for transplantation or tissue donation for research. A total of 64.7% of all participants reported having a positive attitude toward organ donation, and 68.8% of participants reported having a positive attitude toward biobanking. There was a significant and direct correlation between the attitude score related to organ donation and the attitude score related to tissue donation for research (r = 0.513, P < 0.001). After adjusting for other variables by multiple regression analyses, a positive attitude toward either organ donation or tissue donation for research was significantly more prevalent among females (P < 0.001), those who had previously participated in health-related research (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), and those who were aware of organ retention controversies (P = 0.036 and P = 0.001, respectively). Other significant predictors of positive attitudes toward only biobanking were a history of previous blood tests (P = 0.038) and the completion of secondary education (P < 0.001). The attitude of the Saudi public is favorable toward both organ donation and tissue biobanking. Attitudes about the 2 types of donations are related

  16. Development of A Questionnaire to Measure Attitude toward Oocyte Donation

    PubMed Central

    Omani Samani, Reza; Mounesan, Leila; Ezabadi, Zahra; Vesali, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no valid and comprehensive questionnaire that considers attitude toward oocyte donation (OD). Therefore this study has aimed to design and develop a tool entitled attitude toward donation-oocyte (ATOD-O) to measure attitude toward OD. Materials and Methods This methodological, qualitative research was undertaken on 15 infertile cases. In addition, we performed a literature review and search of various databases. Validity of this questionnaire was conducted by knowledgeable experts who determined indices such as relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness. Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed based on the opinions of experts and infertile couples referred to Royan Institute. Results ATOD-O was designed in 52 statements that covered various issues such as the OD process, donor and recipient characteristics, as well as family, emotional, psychological, legal, religious, and socio-economic dimensions. Results were scored as five points: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (somewhat), 4 (agree), and 5 (strongly agree). The overall relevancy of the questionnaire was 97% and clarity was 96%. Overall comprehensiveness was 100%. Conclusion The findings from this preliminary validation study have indicated that ATOD-O is a valid measure for measuring and assessing attitude toward donated oocytes. This questionnaire can be used in studies regarding different groups of a society. PMID:26644863

  17. Organ Donation From Deceased Donors: A Proactive Detection Program in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Attar, Besher; Ibrahim, Amal; Alsayyari, Abdulla

    2015-11-01

    Several challenging obstacles remain to increasing the number of organ donations from deceased patients in a hospital setting. These include medical, administrative, and ethical issues. Possible medical obstacles include the failure of early recognition of possible donors and inadequate care of potential and actual donors. To maximize the use of donated organs, proper care of the donors and expedited donor consent cannot be overemphasized. The care rendered to patients should ensure appropriate perfusion and nutrition of the organs, with meticulous follow-up until organ recovery. For example, patients involved in accidents are presumed to be healthy, but many have no available medical history on file. At the time of organ recovery, unexpected infections or malignancies can be minimized by raising the index of suspicion of the presence of serious conditions in donors, especially in donors with unknown medical history. A careful physical examination and an appropriate and aggressive laboratory investigation may disclose the cause of suspected clinical conditions in these potential donors. Individuals who work in intensive care units are the main group of health care providers directly involved in the process of organ donation. Appointing a donor coordinator in each intensive care unit could improve all aspects of organ donation. Such coordination could harmonize efforts toward the goals mentioned above and surmount the obstacles encountered during deceased-donor organ donation. Here, we describe the preliminary results of the Proactive Detection Program, a collaboration between the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation (the national organ donation and transplant supervising center) and intensive care units of donating hospitals. With its success in Saudi Arabia, it is hoped that it will be widely adopted in other regions. PMID:26640899

  18. Life and Death Decisions: Using School-Based Health Education to Facilitate Family Discussion about Organ and Tissue Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…

  19. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes

  20. [Structure, methodology and ethics of German commissions on living organ donation].

    PubMed

    Sievers, K; Neitzke, G

    2006-06-01

    Living organ donation is a medically established and morally acceptable method of transplantation. According to German Transplantation Law, an expert review by a local "Commission on Living Donation" (Lebendspendekommission, LSK) is required before transplantation. The legal task of this review is to ensure a voluntary decision by the donor and to rule out illegal trading of organs. Results from a national survey among all LSKs show that the process of review and assessment varies considerably among German LSKs. Most of them carry out a compulsory hearing of every potential donor, but this is omitted by some LSKs in a number of cases. Only 60% of all LSKs feel confident to determine donors' free will and protect their self-determination. Only 33% claim to be able to recognise illegal trading of organs. The LSKs even disagree on the exact borderline between legal incentives and illegal commerce. An expansion of living donation by financial incentives, pool-donation or crossover donation is supported only by a minority of German LSKs. The article argues in favour of establishing national standards for the process of LSK-reviews in order to foster procedural ethics and trustworthiness in the field of living organ donation. PMID:16755426

  1. Stimulus for organ donation: a survey of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons membership.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, J R; Crist, K; Roberts, J P; Freeman, R B; Merion, R M; Reed, A I

    2009-09-01

    Federal legislation has been proposed to modify the National Organ Transplant Act in a way that would permit government-regulated strategies, including financial incentives, to be implemented and evaluated. The Council and Ethics Committee of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons conducted a brief web-based survey of its members' (n = 449, 41.6% response rate) views on acceptable or unacceptable strategies to increase organ donation. The majority of the membership supports reimbursement for funeral expenses, an income tax credit on the final return of a deceased donor and an income tax credit for registering as an organ donor as strategies for increasing deceased donation. Payment for lost wages, guaranteed health insurance and an income tax credit are strategies most strongly supported by the membership to increase living donation. For both deceased and living donation, the membership is mostly opposed to cash payments to donors, their estates or to next-of-kin. There is strong support for a government-regulated trial to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of financial incentives for both deceased and living donation. Overall, there is strong support within the ASTS membership for changes to NOTA that would permit the implementation and careful evaluation of indirect, government-regulated strategies to increase organ donation. PMID:19624568

  2. Empirically based recommendations to support parents facing the dilemma of paediatric cadaver organ donation.

    PubMed

    Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Papadatou, D

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the challenges donor and non-donor parents encounter before, during, and after the organ donation decision, and to identify parents' needs and expectations from health care professionals. A further aim was to propose evidence-based recommendations for effectively introducing the option of donation, and supporting families through the grieving process. This study was undertaken as part of a larger research project investigating the experiences of Greek parents who consented or declined organ and tissue donation, using a qualitative methodology for data collection and analysis. The experiences of 22 Greek bereaved parents of 14 underage brain dead children were studied through semi-structured interviews. Parents' decision-making process was described as challenging and fraught with difficulties both before and after the donation period. Identified challenges were clustered into: (a) personal challenges, (b) conditions of organ request, and (c) interpersonal challenges. Parents' main concern following donation was the lack of information about transplantation outcomes. Findings led to a list of recommendations for nurses and other health professionals for approaching and supporting parents in making choices about paediatric organ donation that are appropriate to them, and for facilitating their adjustment to the sudden death of their underage child. PMID:17475498

  3. Assessing family members' motivational readiness and decision making for consenting to cadaveric organ donation.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M L; Levesque, D A; Redding, C A; Johnson, J L; Prochaska, J O; Rohr, M S; Peters, T G

    2001-09-01

    This study assessed the applicability of two important components of the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) to family consent for cadaveric organ donation. Men and women (N = 169), who consented or refused to donate the organs of a family member, completed a telephone survey reflecting the stage of change and decisional balance constructs. Psychometric analyses resulted in a two-factor decisional balance scale: a seven-item scale representing negative perceptions of consent (cons), and a seven-item scale representing positive perceptions of consent (pros). The pros and cons were significantly associated with stage of readiness for donation consent and with the family consent decision. Research utilizing this measure has the potential to enhance intervention programs to increase donation consent rates. PMID:22049451

  4. Attitudes and beliefs on organ donation among students in a university in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almohsen, Shahd S.; Alobaishy, Somaya M.; Alghammas, Nada I.; Albulayhi, Shumukh K.; Alrashid, Sarah M.; Aljamal, Randah Y.; Alotaibi, Maram M.; Dandash, Khadiga

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Thousands of people with end-stage organ disease and organ failures die waiting for donations. Although, Saudi Arabia has an active center for organ transplantation, the number of donors is still low. The study focus was the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of university students toward organ donation, because the youth are agents of change in their communities and could help to promote organ donation. Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design and included randomly selected 195 students (97 males and 98 females) between the ages of 19-25 in Qassim University between January and March 2013. A 23-question self-administrated questionnaire in both Arabic and English was completed. The questionnaire was pre-tested on 10 students for validity and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 13. Results: The primary source of students’ knowledge on organ donation was television (61.5%). Most students (85.1%) believed that there is low public awareness regarding the subject. However, 37.4% of the students agreed to donate in the future and 68.2% would donate for a relative. One-third of students knew about organ donation cards, but none have signed them. The main reason for refusal was fear of side effects (51.8%). Half of the students (48.7%) think there are misconceptions of the Islamic perspective, as a result there are fewer donors. Medical students showed significantly higher knowledge about organ donation cards and the effectiveness of transplantation as a treatment compared to non-medical students. Conclusions: College students have little knowledge on the benefits of organ donations. Further, religious misconceptions and accessibility of donor cards are barriers to donations. Public health promotion campaigns could address religious beliefs while a systematic intervention should be put in place to make donor registration more available. A nationwide

  5. Taking values seriously: Ethical challenges in organ donation and transplantation for critical care professionals.

    PubMed

    Aulisio, Mark P; Devita, Michael; Luebke, Donna

    2007-02-01

    Last year, >28,000 people received organ transplants from >14,000 donors in the United States. Unfortunately, the wait list now tops 91,000, with the gap between recipient needs and available donor organs at around 60,000. This has motivated a host of efforts to increase organ supply, including driver's license and donor registry initiatives, educational and advertising campaigns, and "required request" and mandatory Organ Procurement Organization notification when a patient's death is imminent. Other more controversial efforts to increase the donor pool include expanded criteria for cadaveric donors, such as older or sicker donors and so-called non-heart-beating donation, now referred to as donation after cardiac death. Perhaps the most controversial of all efforts to address the organ shortage have focused on increasing the number of living organ donors, which in 2001 for the first time exceeded the number of cadaveric donors. Critical care professionals know the sad reality behind the statistical scarcity of organ supply. They must manage anxious patients and family members who may be waiting for an organ that never comes, triage patients into and out of the intensive care unit, and work through the propriety of shifting goals from cure to comfort when those same patients deteriorate to the point that transplant may no longer be an appropriate medical option or when a transplant fails. Equally significant ethical challenges arise on the donor side, whether it is working through difficult end-of-life decisions, identifying when to call the organ procurement organization, caring for brain-dead patients, managing a candidate for donation after cardiac death, or caring for a living donor postoperatively. This article discusses some of the difficult ethical challenges raised by organ donation and transplantation for critical care professionals, focusing on end-of-life decision making, donation after cardiac death, and living organ donation. PMID:17242610

  6. Mandated choice for organ donation: time to give it a try.

    PubMed

    Spital, A

    1996-07-01

    A severe shortage of organs greatly limits the ability to deliver the miracle of transplantation to people suffering from end-stage organ disease. Contributing to this shortage is a high rate of refusal among families who are asked for permission to remove organs from a recently deceased relative. Mandated choice offers an alternative to obtaining consent from the family by returning control to the individual. This plan would require all adults to record their wishes about posthumous organ donation and would consider those wishes binding. By moving the decision-making process to a relaxed setting and ensuring that a person's wishes would be honored, mandated choice would hopefully take advantage of favorable public attitudes toward donation and thereby facilitate organ procurement. Preliminary research suggests that public commitment to organ donation would increase under mandated choice. A pilot study of this promising proposal should be undertaken. PMID:8644990

  7. The Instability of Organ Donation Decisions by Next-of-Kin and Factors that Predict It

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the instability of organ donation decisions made by next-of-kin and factors that predict whether non-donors wish they had consented to donation. Next-of-kin of donor-eligible individuals from one organ procurement organization participated in a semi-structured telephone interview. Participants were asked if they would make the same decision if they had to make it again today. Of the 147 next-of-kin donors, 138 (94%) would make the same decision again; 6 (4%) would not consent to donation, and 3 (2%) were unsure. Of the 138 next-of-kin non-donors, 89 (64%) would make the same decision again, 37 (27%) would consent to donation, and 12 (9%) were unsure. Regret among non-donors was more likely when the next-of-kin had more favorable transplant attitudes (OR=1.76, CI=1.15, 2.69), had the first donation discussion with a non-OPO professional (OR=0.21, CI=0.13, 0.65), was not told their loved one was dead before this discussion (OR=0.23, CI=0.10, 0.50), did not feel they were given enough time to make the decision (OR=0.25, CI=0.11, 0.55), had not discussed donation with family members (OR=0.30, CI=0.13, 0.72), and had not heard a public serve announcement about organ donation (OR=0.29, CI=0.13, 0.67). OPOs should consider targeting these variables in educational campaigns and donation request approaches. PMID:18853951

  8. Donating blood and organs: using an extended theory of planned behavior perspective to identify similarities and differences in individual motivations to donate.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; Knowles, Simon R; White, Katherine M

    2013-12-01

    Due to the critical shortage and continued need of blood and organ donations (ODs), research exploring similarities and differences in the motivational determinants of these behaviors is needed. In a sample of 258 university students, we used a cross-sectional design to test the utility of an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) including moral norm, self-identity and in-group altruism (family/close friends and ethnic group), to predict people's blood and OD intentions. Overall, the extended TPB explained 77.0% and 74.6% of variance in blood and OD intentions, respectively. In regression analyses, common contributors to intentions across donation contexts were attitude, self-efficacy and self-identity. Normative influences varied with subjective norm as a significant predictor related to OD intentions but not blood donation intentions at the final step of regression analyses. Moral norm did not contribute significantly to blood or OD intentions. In-group altruism (family/close friends) was significantly related to OD intentions only in regressions. Future donation strategies should increase confidence to donate, foster a perception of self as the type of person who donates blood and/or organs, and address preferences to donate organs to in-group members only. PMID:23943782

  9. Who are the donors in organ donation? The family's perspective in mandated choice.

    PubMed

    Klassen, A C; Klassen, D K

    1996-07-01

    Evidence that families requested to permit organ donation refuse half the time has led to proposals for mandated choice. Under mandated choice, a person's donation wishes would be collected and retrieved at death, and requests to families would be avoided. There are both ethical and logistic problems with mandated choice. The view of the family should be respected in organ requests, even when patient wishes are known. Public sentiment against overriding family wishes could cause low rates of pro-donation registration. Caregivers have usually refused to take organs when families oppose donation. Logistic issues with mandated choice include the cost and complexity of maintaining a national database on donors and the enforcement of registration. No such database of adults currently exists, even for tax purposes. Two states that have mandated choice programs through departments of motor vehicles report relatively low number of pro-donation registrants compared with nondonors or undecided persons. Public education and voluntary donor identification hold more potential to increase donation. PMID:8644991

  10. Donate Life America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us News You Have the Power to Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor ... reach 30K milestone, thanks to increased donations Donate Life America Announces 2015 James S. Wolf, M.D., Courage ...

  11. Organ donation video messaging: differential appeal, emotional valence, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, J R; Fleishman, A; Vishnevsky, T; Fitzpatrick, S; Boger, M

    2014-10-01

    Video narratives increasingly are used to draw the public's attention to the need for more registered organ donors. We assessed the differential impact of donation messaging videos on appeal, emotional valence, and organ donation intentions in 781 non-registered adults. Participants watched six videos (four personal narratives, one informational video without personal narrative, and one unrelated to donation) with or without sound (subtitled), randomly sequenced to minimize order effects. We assessed appeal, emotional valence, readiness to register as organ donors, and donation information-seeking behavior. Compared to other video types, one featuring a pediatric transplant recipient (with or without sound) showed more favorable appeal (p < 0.001), generated more positive emotional valence (p < 0.01), and had the most favorable impact on organ donor willingness (p < 0.001). Ninety-five (12%) participants clicked through to a donation website after viewing all six videos. Minority race (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.20, 3.13, p = 0.006), positive change in organ donor readiness (OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.48, p < 0.001), and total positive emotion (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.07, p < 0.001) were significant multivariable predictors of clicking through to the donation website. Brief, one-min videos can have a very dramatic and positive impact on willingness to consider donation and behavioral intentions to register as an organ donor. PMID:25125237

  12. The Cost of Organ Donation: Potential Living Kidney Donors' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Wray, Natalie; Boudville, Neil

    2015-11-01

    Living kidney transplantation is a treatment option for some people with end-stage kidney disease. The procedure has low complication rates and positive outcomes; despite this evidence, the number of living kidney donations has decreased in recent years, and the causes are not well understood. This qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of potential living kidney donors before the transplantation. A total of 19 semistructured interviews were conducted with potential living kidney donors in Perth, Western Australia. Results reported here relate to participants' experience of the employment and financial implications of living kidney donation. Participants incurred direct and indirect costs during the time leading up to the transplantation, and many had concerns about the potential financial impact during the recovery period. Employment status, occupation type, and financial commitments affected participants' experiences, and financial concerns were exacerbated for those who were donating to their partners. Results suggest that potential living kidney donors would benefit from tailored financial planning advice to help them prepare for the time of the surgery and the recovery period. PMID:26638507

  13. Use of social media and college student organizations to increase support for organ donation and advocacy: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Peltier, James W; Dahl, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    This report focuses on the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics organ procurement organization's efforts to increase deceased organ and tissue donation by using social media and personalized messages targeting members of university student organizations, their families, and their friends. A grant from the US Department of Health and Human Services funded a 2-year study to (1) identify barriers/opportunities for increasing awareness, attitudes, and behaviors related to organ and tissue donation; (2) implement an intervention using social media and personalized message to increase knowledge, support, and donor registrations; (3) measure impact on awareness and attitudinal and behavioral changes within the organization; and (4) assess behavioral measures across a host of social media analytics and organ donor registrations. The results show increases in knowledge about and support for organ donation, including a 20% increase in donor registration. As a result, funding was secured to continue the project for an additional 2 years. PMID:23187063

  14. The impact of social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions on college students' support for organ donation.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A M; Peltier, J W; Dahl, A J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how college students can be social support catalysts for organ donation and how social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions impact organ donor registration. A total of 317 people participated in the exploratory portion of the project and a total of 1800 responses were obtained from an online survey to members of a national student organization. The findings show that perceptions of the benefits of organ donation and altruistic motives had the greatest impact on the support for organ donation while respondents' knowledge about how to register to be an organ donor was the dominant dimension for donor registration status. Social-based communications had the next greatest impact for both support and donor registration. Based on the findings, an 18-month social media campaign was launched with the student organization that had 20 421 website visitors, 4473 Facebook members, 1189 YouTube video submissions with 164 000 views, motivated 19 623 people to go to a state's organ donor registration page, and had 9000 documented organ donor registrations. Within the student organization, organ donor registration increased by 28%. On the basis of these project results, Donate Life America and other sponsors have provided funding for two additional years. PMID:21992480

  15. [Fear of death and willingness to consider organ donation among medical students].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study represents an attempt to examine the relationship of fear of death and willingness to consider organ donation. A group of 124 medical students, 72 entering and 52 graduating from university, aged 19-37 years, completed a fear of death and dying scale (FVTS of Ochsmann) and a questionnaire about behavioral and attitude variables concerning organ donation. There were no significant sex and age differences on the FVTS in the total sample. 1st-year medical students had higher scores for the fear of meeting death related to lacking experiences with dying friends or patients. Selected item analyses for focus groups of students, who were for or against organ donation, had reservations about donation or had signed an organ donor card, revealed only a few significant differences on the FVTS. Both students without donor card and with reservations about donation scored significantly higher for fear of physical destruction. Organ donor card holders, however, scored significantly lower and accepted autopsy and anatomic dissection of their corpses twice as frequently as the others. Possible implications of these findings for medical education and future research are addressed. PMID:10081298

  16. Egalitarian and maximin theories of justice: directed donation of organs for transplant.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1998-08-01

    It is common to interpret Rawls's maximin theory of justice as egalitarian. Compared to utilitarian theories, this may be true. However, in special cases practices that distribute resources so as to benefit the worst off actually increase the inequality between the worst off and some who are better off. In these cases the Rawlsian maximin parts company with what is here called true egalitarianism. A policy question requiring a distinction between maximin and "true egalitarian" allocations has arisen in the arena of organ transplantation. This case is examined here as a venue for differentiating maximin and true egalitarian theories. Directed donation is the name given to donations of organs restricted to a particular social group. For example, the family of a member of the Ku Klux Klan donated his organs on the provision that they go only to members of the Caucasian race. While such donations appear to be discriminatory, if certain plausible assumptions are made, they satisfy the maximin criterion. They selectively advantage the recipient of the organs without harming anyone (assuming the organs would otherwise go unused). Moreover, everyone who is lower on the waiting list (who, thereby, could be considered worse off) is advantaged by moving up on the waiting list. This paper examines how maximin and more truly egalitarian theories handle this case arguing that, to the extent that directed donation is unethical, the best account of that conclusion is that an egalitarian principle of justice is to be preferred to the maximin. PMID:9892035

  17. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Lattes, R; Jacob, N; de la Fuente, J; Fragale, G; Massari, P

    2010-04-01

    One of the concerns regarding the pandemic of novel influenza A/H1N1 virus is its potential to hamper transplant programs if the decision is made that organs from donors with influenza A/H1N1 should not be used. Evidence of transmissibility through organ transplantation is speculative at best. We report the outcome of 2 kidney transplant recipients who received kidneys from the same deceased donor, in whom the diagnosis of infection by the novel virus became available only after engraftment. The donor also had received a complete course of antiviral treatment before donation. The recipients were transplanted at 2 different facilities and were managed differently. Neither recipient developed flu syndrome, and both had an uneventful outcome. It is possible to speculate that kidneys from donors who have had confirmed influenza A/H1N1 and who have received antiviral treatment can be safely used in transplantation. PMID:20180928

  18. Current knowledge and attitudes about organ donation and transplantation among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J

    2006-11-01

    Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future. PMID:17112824

  19. Premortem interventions in dying children to optimise organ donation: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Joe; Shaw, David

    2016-07-01

    A range of interventions in dying patients can improve both the possibility of successful organ donation and the likely long-term success of transplantation. The ethical and legal issues surrounding such interventions, which most frequently occur in the context of donation after circulatory determination of death, are complex, controversial and many remain unresolved. This is true with adults, but even more so with children, where the issue of organ donation and premortem interventions to facilitate it, are highly sensitive. Essentially, such interventions are being undertaken in dying children who cannot medically benefit from them, though arguments have been advanced that becoming a donor might be in a child's extended best interest. However, certain interventions carry a potential risk, although small, of direct harm and of course overall objections to child donation after circulatory determination of death per se are still expressed in the literature. But, unlike the case in critically ill adults, those giving permission for such interventions are normally able to fully participate in decision-making, and indeed to consent, to both donation and premortem interventions. We review the issue of the use of premortem interventions in dying children to facilitate organ donation, including decision-making and ethical justification. Individual interventions are then considered, including an ethical analyse of their use. Finally, we recommend an approach using a combination of welfare checklist strategy, coupled with the establishment of an agreed zone of parental discretion about individual interventions which might be used in dying children to increase the possibility of successful organ donation. PMID:27030483

  20. [Attitudes towards cadaveric organ donation--results from a representative survey of the German population].

    PubMed

    Beutel, M E; Greif-Higer, G; Haselbacher, A; Galle, P R; Otto, G

    2006-11-01

    The increasing deficit of organs causes a drastic decline in the quality of life and survival of numerous patients in need of a transplantation. The purpose of this representative community study was to survey attitudes toward transplantation in the German population and to identify underlying determinants. Unlike previous surveys, fears and concerns were elicited based on a concrete case vignette. Among the 1,002 participants, 90 % were in favour of organ donation in general; 21 % reported having signed an organ donor card. Consent to organ donation was associated with younger age and higher social class; the same was true for the possession of an organ donor card. In the virtual decision situation, the majority (77 %) voted in favour of an organ donation based on saving lives, consolation for bereaved and the absence of disadvantages for the donor. Common (up to 50 %), however, were also fears and concerns regarding determination of the time of death, displacement of medical concern from the donor to the recipient of the organ, utilisation of organs for other purposes, or explantation before death. The knowledge of the determinants identified, of existing fears and concerns are helpful not only for informing the public, but also for the dialogue with the next of kin of potential donors. Here, it may be helpful not only to address arguments pro organ donation, but also to address potential fears and concerns. PMID:17115354

  1. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sarnaik, Ajit A.

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation. PMID:26636051

  2. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Sarnaik, Ajit A

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation. PMID:26636051

  3. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) that an eye bank or tissue bank has complied with the FDA registration requirements of 21 CFR part 1271... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye, organ and tissue... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.485a Eye, organ and tissue donation. A...

  4. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) that an eye bank or tissue bank has complied with the FDA registration requirements of 21 CFR part 1271... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye, organ and tissue... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.485a Eye, organ and tissue donation. A...

  5. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with subthemes) were identified; religious conviction; invisibility of organ donation; medical suspicion; owning the decision; and reciprocal benefit. Conclusions Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving ‘gift’, representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process. Making positive decisions about organ donation would likely require resolving tensions between respecting family, community and religious values versus their individual autonomy. Providing targeted education about the process and benefits of organ donation within the Arabic community may clarify ambiguities surrounding cultural and religious-based views on organ donation, reduce taboos and suspicion towards donation, and in turn, lead to increased organ donation rates. PMID:26787253

  6. Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

  7. Palliative care consultation in the process of organ donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Catherine McVearry; Lyckholm, Laurie J; Coyne, Patrick J; Smith, Thomas J

    2007-02-01

    Palliative care consultation has been demonstrated to be useful in many situations in which expert symptom management, communication around sensitive issues, and family support may serve to enhance or improve care. The process of organ donation is an example of this concept, specifically the process of donation after cardiac death (DCD). DCD allows patients with severe, irreversible brain injuries that do not meet standard criteria for brain death to donate organs when death is declared by cardiopulmonary criteria. The DCD method of donation has been deemed an ethically appropriate means of organ donation and is supported by the organ procurement and medical communities, as well as the public. The palliative care (PC) team can make a significant contribution to the care of the patient and family in the organ donation process. In this paper we describe the controlled DCD process at one institution that utilizes the PC team to provide expert end-of-life care, including comprehensive medical management and family support. PC skills and principles applicable to the DCD process include communication, coordination of care, and skillful ventilator withdrawal. If death occurs within 90 minutes of withdrawal of life support, organs may be successfully recovered for transplantation. If the patient survives longer than 90 minutes, his or her care continues to be provided by the PC team. Palliative care can contribute to standardizing quality end-of-life care practices in the DCD process and provide education for involved personnel. Further experience, research and national discussions will be helpful in refining these practices, to make this difficult and challenging experience as gentle and supportive as possible for the courageous families who participate in this process. PMID:17298260

  8. Organ and tissue donation in migrants: advanced course for cross-cultural mediators.

    PubMed

    Potenza, R; Guermani, A; Grosso, M; Fossarello, L; Fontaneto, C; Casciola, A; Donadio, P P

    2013-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2010 in Piedmont (Italy Northern Region) 1556 brain-death situations were reported, including 113 (7.3%) in migrants as potential organ and tissue donors. The health staff often has to face migrants, who show great cultural differences and language difficulties. The Molinette Hospital Customer Care Service, the Piedmont Regional Tissue and Organ Procurement Coordination Agency (RPC), and the Cross-Cultural Mediators Association (CMA) organized a special course for intercultural mediators, to decrease misunderstandings between the health staff and the migrants' families and to improve professional communication. In 2011, 28 cultural-linguistic mediators representing different groups of migrants in Piemonte took part in a specific course. Over a 5 month period they were informed about emotional and communicative aspects, proper to the moment of death, as well as organ donation as an intercultural field, the professional role of the mediator, the clinical and forensic aspects of brain death and donation, and the psychological aspects of organ donation. The course was organized by cultural-linguistic mediators of the CMA, the staff of the RPC and the teachers at Turin University. The list of the 21 mediators who passed the final exam was given to organ and tissue donation hospital co-ordinators in Piedmont, so that if necessary, they could obtain the cooperation of these qualified people. PMID:24033996

  9. Intimacy or utility? Organ donation and the choice between palliation and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bendorf, Aric; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Organ donation after brain death provides the most important source for deceased organs for transplantation, both because of the number of potential organ donors that it makes available and also because of the unparalleled viability of the organs retrieved. Analysis of worldwide deceased organ donation rates demonstrates that all countries with high deceased organ donation rates (>20 donors per million population per year) have high brain death rates (>40 brain deaths per million population per year). This analysis makes it clear that countries striving to increase their deceased organ donor rates to world leading levels must increase the rates of donation after brain death. For countries with end-of-life care strategies that stress palliation, advance care planning and treatment withdrawal for the terminally ill, the adoption of initiatives to meaningfully raise deceased donor rates will require increasing the rate at which brain death is diagnosed. This poses a difficult, and perhaps intractable, medical, ethical and sociocultural challenge as the changes that would be required to increase rates of brain death would mean conjugating an intimate clinical and cultural focus on the dying patient with the notion of how this person's death might be best managed to be of benefit to others. PMID:23714404

  10. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises. PMID:26338158

  11. The human connection: the role of the nurse in organ donation.

    PubMed

    Weber, P

    1985-04-01

    Organ transplantation has greatly improved the grim outlook of patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Unfortunately, many of these waiting patients will not realize their dream of being transplanted since the number of organ donors referred to transplant programs simply does not meet the need. This article describes the role the nurse can play in organ donation by discussing medical criteria needed to assess the donor, the determination of neurologic death, and guidelines to approaching families for consent. PMID:3845960

  12. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  13. A test of three interventions to promote people's communication of their consent for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    People's decision to join an organ donor registry and have a discussion with family about their organ donation preference increases the likelihood that their family will consent to donation of their organs. This study explores the effectiveness of three interventions compared to a control condition to increase individual consent (registering and discussing donation wishes) for organ donation. Australian residents who had not previously communicated their consent (N = 177) were randomly allocated to complete an online survey representing either an extended theory of planned behaviour motivational intervention (strengthening intention via attitudes, subjective norms, control, moral norms and identity), a volitional intervention using constructs from the health action process approach (strengthening the translation of intentions into action using action plans and coping plans), a combined motivational and volitional intervention, or a control condition. Registering, but not discussing, intentions increased in the motivational compared to non-motivational conditions. For joining the organ donor registry, the combination of strengthening intentions (motivational) as well as forming specific action (when, where, how, and with whom for discussing) and coping (listing potential obstacles and how these may be overcome) plans (volitional) resulted in significantly higher rates of self-reported behaviour. There was no evidence for this effect on discussion. PMID:23057535

  14. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Organ Donation among Indian Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Chakradhar, K.; Doshi, D.; Srikanth Reddy, B.; Kulkarni, S.; Padma Reddy, M.; Sruthi Reddy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Of the overall 9.5 million deaths annually in India, nearly 100,000 are due to organ failure. To save and extend lives, organ donation and organ transplantation have become the only hope. Health care professionals (HCPs) are a key element in facilitating cadaveric organ donation process. Objective: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding organ donation among undergraduate dental students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 undergraduate dental students of the Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A 27-item self-administered questionnaire, which assessed the levels of knowledge (Q1–13), positive attitude (Q14–24) and practice habits (Q25–27) regarding organ donation with dichotomous scale (Yes/No). Results: As compared to males, females reported better mean±SD scores in knowledge (8.22±1.51) and practice (0.91±0.8); higher mean±SD attitude scores (8.55±1.56) were reported among males (p<0.001). While second year dental students had higher scores for their knowledge (8.55±1.56) and practice (1.02±0.44) compared to other year of training, third year students showed a significant higher mean attitude score (1.73±1.17) (p=0.02). Hindus and Muslims scored significantly lower mean knowledge, attitude and practice habits compared to others (Christians, Jains and Athesists) (p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between mean knowledge, attitude, and practice habits. Conclusion: There are an average level of knowledge and low levels of positive attitude and practice habits among studied dental students towards organ donation and transplantation. PMID:26889371

  16. Inquiry in bioethics and the philosophy of medicine: organ donation, defining death, and fairness in distribution.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Victor

    2015-06-01

    This issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy brings together fresh essays addressing three main genres of questions: (1) questions about the nature of bioethical inquiry and the relevance of the humanities to medical practice; (2) questions regarding the ethics of organ donation; (3) questions bearing on the application of fairness to the distribution of medical resources. PMID:25990748

  17. Willingness to Participate in Organ Donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Malcolm; Cort, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied a group of black and white Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students (N = 334) to compare the power of religious socialization with racial socialization. Methods: The authors compared the levels of willingness to donate organs between black and nonblack students in an availability sample. Results:…

  18. The nurse's role in organ donation from a brainstem dead patient: management of the family.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C

    1992-09-01

    This paper suggests ways in which the nurse in charge of a brainstem dead patient can help in the management of the patient's family so that they can more easily and effectively come to terms with his or her death and consider the possibility of organ donation. Many nurses, in spite of their basic training, are unprepared to assume such a role successfully, and three areas are preliminarily identified for closer study, i.e. 1) the preparation of the family for brainstem death, 2) the approach to the family for possible organ donation, and 3) the care of the family throughout the process of organ donation. Certain recommendations are suggested which might help to promote the necessary caring approach to the problem. Review of literature on the nurse's role in such a situation shows how important that role is thought to be. Guidelines are tentatively laid down for explaining brainstem death and preparing the family for it; and the importance of their acceptance of the finality of death is stressed, so that they can begin the essential grieving process. Emphasis is also laid on the need for the nurse to adopt a sensitive, caring and supportive attitude which will help the family in their bereavement and encourage them to accept the possibility of organ donation. In conclusion, it is recommended that nurses be provided with more detailed advice and guidance on managing the family in the many aspects of such a situation. PMID:1421959

  19. A Televised Entertainment-Education Drama to Promote Positive Discussion about Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Georges E.; Rintamaki, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates pathways between the exposure to an entertainment-education (E-E) television drama called "Three Rivers" and positive discussion of organ donation among viewers of the drama in the United States. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online advertising for a period of one week. Survey participants…

  20. Protection behaviour: a phenomenon affecting organ and tissue donation in the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Kent, B C

    2004-03-01

    UK statistics show that whilst waiting lists for transplantation surgery continue to increase, donor numbers are static. This paper describes the hermeneutic phase of a mixed method study and puts forward the concept of protection behaviour as one explanation for nurses' reticence to discuss post-mortem donation wishes with patients' relatives. The desire to protect appears to influence attitudes, confidence levels and perceived ability to become involved in donor identification and donation discussion, consequently affecting the availability of transplantable organs and tissue. By understanding more fully why protective behaviours are employed, it increases the likelihood of a solution being found. PMID:14967184

  1. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    PubMed

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals. PMID:26673595

  2. Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.

    PubMed

    Sanner, M

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one

  3. Recovery of transplantable organs after cardiac or circulatory death: Transforming the paradigm for the ethics of organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Organ donation after cardiac or circulatory death (DCD) has been introduced to increase the supply of transplantable organs. In this paper, we argue that the recovery of viable organs useful for transplantation in DCD is not compatible with the dead donor rule and we explain the consequential ethical and legal ramifications. We also outline serious deficiencies in the current consent process for DCD with respect to disclosure of necessary elements for voluntary informed decision making and respect for the donor's autonomy. We compare two alternative proposals for increasing organ donation consent in society: presumed consent and mandated choice. We conclude that proceeding with the recovery of transplantable organs from decedents requires a paradigm change in the ethics of organ donation. The paradigm change to ensure the legitimacy of DCD practice must include: (1) societal agreement on abandonment of the dead donor rule, (2) legislative revisions reflecting abandonment of the dead donor rule, and (3) requirement of mandated choice to facilitate individual participation in organ donation and to ensure that decisions to participate are made in compliance with the societal values of respect for autonomy and self-determination. PMID:17519030

  4. Recovery of transplantable organs after cardiac or circulatory death: transforming the paradigm for the ethics of organ donation.

    PubMed

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Organ donation after cardiac or circulatory death (DCD) has been introduced to increase the supply of transplantable organs. In this paper, we argue that the recovery of viable organs useful for transplantation in DCD is not compatible with the dead donor rule and we explain the consequential ethical and legal ramifications. We also outline serious deficiencies in the current consent process for DCD with respect to disclosure of necessary elements for voluntary informed decision making and respect for the donor's autonomy. We compare two alternative proposals for increasing organ donation consent in society: presumed consent and mandated choice. We conclude that proceeding with the recovery of transplantable organs from decedents requires a paradigm change in the ethics of organ donation. The paradigm change to ensure the legitimacy of DCD practice must include: (1) societal agreement on abandonment of the dead donor rule, (2) legislative revisions reflecting abandonment of the dead donor rule, and (3) requirement of mandated choice to facilitate individual participation in organ donation and to ensure that decisions to participate are made in compliance with the societal values of respect for autonomy and self-determination. PMID:17519030

  5. Should we allow organ donation euthanasia? Alternatives for maximizing the number and quality of organs for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives. PMID:20459428

  6. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death. PMID:24973193

  7. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  8. To solve a deadly shortage: economic incentives for human organ donation.

    PubMed

    Harris, C E; Alcorn, S P

    2001-01-01

    In this article Dr. Harris and attorney Alcorn propose the establishment of a governmentally regulated, posthumous organ market, with economic incentives for the donors, in order to increase the supply of transplantable organs. The authors review transplant technology, provide a short history of donation and sale of organs, tissues, and cells, discuss the various legislative approaches that have been made to increase the supply of organs, and analyze the problems with the open market approach. They conclude with a proposal for a regulated posthumous organ market. PMID:11285861

  9. The donor organ as an 'object a': a Lacanian perspective on organ donation and transplantation medicine.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub

    2014-11-01

    Bioethical discourse on organ donation covers a wide range of topics, from informed consent procedures and scarcity issues up to 'transplant tourism' and 'organ trade'. This paper presents a 'depth ethics' approach, notably focussing on the tensions, conflicts and ambiguities concerning the status of the human body (as something which constitutes a whole, while at the same time being a set of replaceable elements or parts). These will be addressed from a psychoanalytical (Lacanian) angle. First, I will outline Lacan's view on embodiment as such. Subsequently, I will argue that, for organ recipients, the donor organ becomes what Lacan refers to as an object a, the 'partial object' of desire, the elusive thing we are deprived of, apparently beyond our grasp. Within the recipient's body an empty space emerges, a kind of 'vacuole', once occupied by a faltering organ (now removed). This space can only be filled by a 'gift' from the other, by an object a. Once implanted, however, this implant becomes an 'extimate' object: something both 'external' and 'intimate', both 'embedded' and 'foreign', and which is bound to remain an object of concern for quite some time, if not for life. A Lacanian analysis allows us, first of all, to address the question what organ transplantation has in common with other bodily practices involving bodily parts procured from others, such as cannibalism. But it also reveals the basic difference between the two, as well as the distance between the 'fragmented body' of Frankenstein's 'monster'--as an aggregate of replaceable parts--and the multiple organ recipients (the 'puzzle people') of today. PMID:24634062

  10. Anencephalic organ donation in Oklahoma. Right problem, wrong answer.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G K

    1993-03-01

    The scarcity of donor organs results in the death of some pediatric transplant candidates while they wait for an organ. The use of anencephalic infants has been suggested as a way to increase the donor pool. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are reviewed, and recommendations made for the state of Oklahoma. PMID:8445460

  11. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants. PMID:24635790

  12. Attitudes to organ donation among South Asians in an English high street.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, W; Harris, S; Brown, E

    1999-01-01

    In the UK, people of South Asian origin are at more than twice the risk of end-stage renal failure encountered in the Caucasian population but are under-represented among organ donors. Difficulties with matching mean that few donated kidneys are suitable for transplantation to South Asian recipients. A survey of attitudes in 100 South Asian adults was conducted in the main street of Southall, Middlesex. 90 of those questioned were aware of organ transplantation and 69 had heard about donor cards. However, the 16% who carried a donor card was lower than the 28% reported in the general population. The main reason for the low organ donation rate by South Asians seemed to be lack of knowledge, and this could be remedied by more targeting of information in the Asian media. PMID:10692883

  13. Advance statement of consent from patients with primary CNS tumours to organ donation and elective ventilation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Umang Jash

    2013-03-01

    A deficit in the number of organs available for transplantation persists even with an increase in donation rates. One possible choice of donor for organs that appears under-referred and/or unaccepted is patients with primary brain tumours. In spite of advances in the treatment of high-grade primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours, the prognosis remains dire. A working group on organs from donors with primary CNS tumours showed that the risk of transmission is small and outweighs the benefits of waiting for a normal donor, in survival and organ life-years, with caveats. This paper explores the possibility that, if information on organ donation were made available to patients and their families with knowledge of their inevitable fate, perhaps some will choose to donate. It would be explained that to achieve this, elective ventilation would be performed in their final moments. This would obviate the consent question because of an advance statement. It is accepted that these are sensitive matters and there will be logistic issues. This will need discussion with the public and other professionals, but it could increase the number of donors and can be extrapolated to encompass other primary CNS tumours. PMID:23303178

  14. The Influence of Socioeconomic and Demographic Variables on Willingness to Donate Cadaveric Human Organs in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K.; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents’ willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents’ willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age. About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively. Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of

  15. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic variables on willingness to donate cadaveric human organs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-11-01

    The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents' willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above.A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents' willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age.About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively.Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of Malaysians willing to become

  16. Intra-hospital organ and tissue donation coordination project: cost-effectiveness and social benefits

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vanessa Silva e; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Leite, Renata Fabiana; de Oliveira, Priscilla Caroliny; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira De’ Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the viability of a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees of organ and tissue donation for transplantation. METHODS Epidemiological, retrospective and cross-sectional study (2003-2011 and 2008-2012), which was performed using organ donation for transplants data in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Nine hospitals were evaluated (hospitals 1 to 9). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the differences in the number of brain death referrals and actual donors (dependent variables) after the professional specialist started work (independent variable) at the intra-hospital committee of organ and tissue donation for transplantation. To evaluate the hospital invoicing, the hourly wage of the doctor and registered nurse, according to the legislation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws, were calculated, as were the investment return and the time elapsed to do so. RESULTS Following the nursing specialist commencement on the committee, brain death referrals and the number of actual donors increased at hospital 2 (4.17 and 1.52, respectively). At hospital 7, the number of actual donors also increased from 0.005 to 1.54. In addition, after the nurse started working, hospital revenues increased by 190.0% (ranging 40.0% to 1.955%). The monthly cost for the nurse working 20 hours was US$397.97 while the doctor would cost US$3,526.67. The return on investment was 275% over the short term (0.36 years). CONCLUSIONS This paper showed that including a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees for organ and tissue donation for transplantation proved to be cost-effective. Further economic research in the area could contribute to the efficient public policy implementation of this organ and tissue harvesting model. PMID:26487290

  17. Intra-hospital organ and tissue donation coordination project: cost-effectiveness and social benefits.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa Silva e; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Leite, Renata Fabiana; Oliveira, Priscilla Caroliny de; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira De' Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the viability of a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees of organ and tissue donation for transplantation.METHODS Epidemiological, retrospective and cross-sectional study (2003-2011 and 2008-2012), which was performed using organ donation for transplants data in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Nine hospitals were evaluated (hospitals 1 to 9). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the differences in the number of brain death referrals and actual donors (dependent variables) after the professional specialist started work (independent variable) at the intra-hospital committee of organ and tissue donation for transplantation. To evaluate the hospital invoicing, the hourly wage of the doctor and registered nurse, according to the legislation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws, were calculated, as were the investment return and the time elapsed to do so.RESULTS Following the nursing specialist commencement on the committee, brain death referrals and the number of actual donors increased at hospital 2 (4.17 and 1.52, respectively). At hospital 7, the number of actual donors also increased from 0.005 to 1.54. In addition, after the nurse started working, hospital revenues increased by 190.0% (ranging 40.0% to 1.955%). The monthly cost for the nurse working 20 hours was US$397.97 while the doctor would cost US$3,526.67. The return on investment was 275% over the short term (0.36 years).CONCLUSIONS This paper showed that including a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees for organ and tissue donation for transplantation proved to be cost-effective. Further economic research in the area could contribute to the efficient public policy implementation of this organ and tissue harvesting model. PMID:26487290

  18. Perceptions of the gift relationship in organ and tissue donation: Views of intensivists and donor and recipient coordinators.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rhonda

    2010-02-01

    The international literature on organ donation and transplantation has drawn attention to the popularity of "gift of life" discourse among pro-donation advocates, transplantation specialists, and within organisations lobbying for improved donation rates to promote the benefits of organ donation among members of the general public. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, gift of life discourse is robust. Aside from attempts to elicit altruism by promoting tissue donation in the public domain, gift terminology separates the act of donation from that of commerce and the commodification of body tissues. In distancing donation from commodification and the potential to degrade and exploit human beings, it is assumed that gift discourse transmits the positive message that donation is a noble and morally worthy act. Recent sociological research has shown that assumptions of the gift as one-way and altruistic do not necessarily align with people's perceptions and experience of donating body tissues, and that the vocabulary used to describe these acts is often at variance with reality. This article draws on interview data with 15 critical care specialists (intensivists) and donor and recipient coordinators, examining their perceptions of the relevance of gift discourse and its applicability in the context of deceased donation in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The data indicate several problems with gift rhetoric to describe the situations health professionals encounter. In sum, gift terminology tends to downplay the sacrifice involved in tissue donation generally, as well as depoliticising the exchange relations of tissue transfer in contemporary consumer culture and in the global context. This raises questions about the underlying ethics of language choice and what, if anything, empirical accounts of tissue transfer can contribute to ethical debates. PMID:19931963

  19. International indicators of donation and solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Protto, S; Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The main goal of any organ procurement organization (OPO) is to offer the greatest number of organs achievable with the goal of reducing mortality and the waiting list time of patients. Evaluation of OPO activity is mandatory to identify causes of missed potential donors seeking to implement changes in steps susceptible of improvement. In this review, we have presented the classical indicators of brain death along with new indicators. We observed that when the donor generation capacity is adjusted to the deaths, the indicator is more reliable for comparisons of countries with different mortality rates. We concluded that the indicators are complementary, because they measure different aspects of the process. To have a better understanding of the situation, country, institution, or hospital, one should simultaneously use all of the indicators. PMID:19857771

  20. Promoting organ donation through an entertainment-education TV program in Korea: Open Your Eyes.

    PubMed

    Byoung Kwan Lee; Hyun Soon Park; Choi, Myung-Il; Cheon Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the characteristics of the program, Open Your Eyes, an entertainment-education TV program in Korea, on parasocial interaction and behavioral intention for organ donation. The results indicated that affective evaluation positively affected parasocial interaction with the program but cognitive evaluation negatively affected involvement with beneficiaries in the program. Also, it was found that cognitive evaluation of Open Your Eyes had a significant positive effect on behavioral intention. In addition, a significant positive effect of program engagement on the behavioral intention was found. Thus, the results indicate that individuals who feel program engagement of Open Your Eyes will be more likely to proceed with organ donation. However, no direct effect of involvement with the beneficiary and program hosts was found. PMID:20032038

  1. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  2. An International Comparison of the Effect of Policy Shifts to Organ Donation following Cardiocirculatory Death (DCD) on Donation Rates after Brain Death (DBD) and Transplantation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Bendorf, Aric; Kelly, Patrick J.; Kerridge, Ian H.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Myerson, Brian; Stewart, Cameron; Pussell, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade an increasing number of countries have adopted policies that emphasize donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) in an attempt to address the widening gap between the demand for transplantable organs and the availability of organs from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. In order to examine how these policy shifts have affected overall deceased organ donor (DD) and DBD rates, we analyzed deceased donation rates from 82 countries from 2000–2010. On average, overall DD, DBD and DCD rates have increased over time, with the proportion of DCD increasing 0.3% per year (p = 0.01). Countries with higher DCD rates have, on average, lower DBD rates. For every one-per million population (pmp) increase in the DCD rate, the average DBD rate decreased by 1.02 pmp (95% CI: 0.73, 1.32; p<0.0001). We also found that the number of organs transplanted per donor was significantly lower in DCD when compared to DBD donors with 1.51 less transplants per DCD compared to DBD (95% CI: 1.23, 1.79; p<0.001). Whilst the results do not infer a causal relationship between increased DCD and decreased DBD rates, the significant correlation between higher DCD and lower DBD rates coupled with the reduced number of organs transplanted per DCD donor suggests that a national policy focus on DCD may lead to an overall reduction in the number of transplants performed. PMID:23667452

  3. The ethics of organ transplantation reconsidered: paid organ donation and the use of executed prisoners as donors.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J S; Hoffenberg, R

    1999-02-01

    We examine the arguments for and against the practice of paid organ donation and the use of judicially executed prisoners as seen in a world context. Although Western opinion is almost universally against both practices, we seek to establish that this has arisen largely from justification of an initial revulsion against both and not from reasoned ethical debate. In examining the most commonly cited arguments against these practices, we demonstrate that this revulsion arises mainly from the abuses to which both processes have been subjected, rather than the acts themselves, together with opposition to a death penalty. At the moment and for some future time, in the absence or shortage of dialysis in large parts of the developing world, transplanted organs represent the only means of treating end-stage renal failure. Thus, a clear ethical conflict arises as to whether greater harm or good is done by allowing individuals to die or adopting strategies for obtaining organs that raise ethical problems. We call for continued reasoned ethical debate on both issues, rather than accepting that the argument is already over. PMID:9987097

  4. Should We Reject Donated Organs on Moral Grounds or Permit Allocation Using Non‐Medical Criteria?: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Moorlock, Greg; Ives, Jonathan; Bramhall, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conditional and directed deceased organ donations occur when donors (or often their next of kin) attempt to influence the allocation of their donated organs. This can include asking that the organs are given to or withheld from certain types of people, or that they are given to specified individuals. Donations of these types have raised ethical concerns, and have been prohibited in many countries, including the UK. In this article we report the findings from a qualitative study involving interviews with potential donors (n = 20), potential recipients (n = 9) and transplant staff (n = 11), and use these results as a springboard for further ethical commentary. We argue that although participants favoured unconditional donation, this preference was grounded in a false distinction between ‘medical’ and ‘non‐medical’ allocation criteria. Although there are good reasons to maintain organ allocation based primarily upon the existing ‘medical’ criteria, it may be premature to reject all other potential criteria as being unacceptable. Part of participants' justification for allocating organs using ‘medical’ criteria was to make the best use of available organs and avoid wasting their potential benefit, but this can also justify accepting conditional donations in some circumstances. We draw a distinction between two types of waste – absolute and relative – and argue that accepting conditional donations may offer a balance between these forms of waste. PMID:26132802

  5. Should We Reject Donated Organs on Moral Grounds or Permit Allocation Using Non-Medical Criteria?: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg; Ives, Jonathan; Bramhall, Simon; Draper, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Conditional and directed deceased organ donations occur when donors (or often their next of kin) attempt to influence the allocation of their donated organs. This can include asking that the organs are given to or withheld from certain types of people, or that they are given to specified individuals. Donations of these types have raised ethical concerns, and have been prohibited in many countries, including the UK. In this article we report the findings from a qualitative study involving interviews with potential donors (n = 20), potential recipients (n = 9) and transplant staff (n = 11), and use these results as a springboard for further ethical commentary. We argue that although participants favoured unconditional donation, this preference was grounded in a false distinction between 'medical' and 'non-medical' allocation criteria. Although there are good reasons to maintain organ allocation based primarily upon the existing 'medical' criteria, it may be premature to reject all other potential criteria as being unacceptable. Part of participants' justification for allocating organs using 'medical' criteria was to make the best use of available organs and avoid wasting their potential benefit, but this can also justify accepting conditional donations in some circumstances. We draw a distinction between two types of waste - absolute and relative - and argue that accepting conditional donations may offer a balance between these forms of waste. PMID:26132802

  6. Ethical and policy issues in altruistic living and cadaveric organ donation.

    PubMed

    Spital, A

    1997-04-01

    Organs for transplantation are usually obtained from living genetic relatives or from heart-beating cadavers. Unfortunately, these sources have so far been unable to keep up with demand. As a result, there is a large and steadily increasing number of potential recipients awaiting transplantation, some of whom will die before an organ can be found. In an attempt to rectify this tragic situation, several solutions have been proposed. This review will consider proposals designed to increase the availability of human organs without resorting to commercialism. These include expanding the use of living donors by: 1) encouraging donations by genetic relatives; 2) allowing volunteers a greater voice in determining their own suitability; 3) encouraging the use of emotionally related individuals and accepting altruistic strangers; and 4) considering motivated identical twin minors and older adolescents as donors. Suggestions for increasing the pool of cadaveric donors include: 1) overcoming the family consent barrier by presuming consent, mandating completion of binding advanced directives, or by eliminating the need for consent entirely; 2) reconsidering non-heart-beating donors; 3) elective ventilation for organ donation; and 4) accepting organs from anencephalic infants before brain death occurs. All of these proposals raise concerns which are discussed. Those approaches considered to be ethically acceptable and to hold promise for success should be vigorously pursued, beginning with carefully designed pilot studies. Hopefully, such an approach will eventually increase the number of organs available for patients suffering from end-stage organ disease. PMID:9113441

  7. Life or death. The issue of payment in cadaveric organ donation.

    PubMed

    Peters, T G

    1991-03-13

    In view of the increasing need for transplantable organs and the failure of awareness education and legislation to increase organ donation, Peters proposes as a policy a death benefit payment to motivate families of potential cadaveric donors. The program, which would be administered through existing organ procurement agancies, would pay $1000 to the consenting next-of-kin in any case where solid organ recovery for transplantation is completed. Peters discusses the issues of altruism and coercion, organ brokerage, benefits to the socially and economically deprived, legal aspects, and the payment process. He proposes establishing pilot programs to determine the impact of death benefit payments on organ recovery, with a national program to follow if the supply of donor organs increases. PMID:1995979

  8. Inflammatory Signalling Associated with Brain Dead Organ Donation: From Brain Injury to Brain Stem Death and Posttransplant Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Ryan P.; Thom, Ogilvie; Fraser, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Brain death is associated with dramatic and serious pathophysiologic changes that adversely affect both the quantity and quality of organs available for transplant. To fully optimise the donor pool necessitates a more complete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of organ dysfunction associated with transplantation. These injurious processes are initially triggered by catastrophic brain injury and are further enhanced during both brain death and graft transplantation. The activated inflammatory systems then contribute to graft dysfunction in the recipient. Inflammatory mediators drive this process in concert with the innate and adaptive immune systems. Activation of deleterious immunological pathways in organ grafts occurs, priming them for further inflammation after engraftment. Finally, posttransplantation ischaemia reperfusion injury leads to further generation of inflammatory mediators and consequent activation of the recipient's immune system. Ongoing research has identified key mediators that contribute to the inflammatory milieu inherent in brain dead organ donation. This has seen the development of novel therapies that directly target the inflammatory cascade. PMID:23691272

  9. Development of the center for living donation: incorporating the role of the nurse practitioner as director.

    PubMed

    Rudow, Dianne Lapointe

    2011-12-01

    For decades, live organ donors have been cared for within the transplant program by the same team that cared for the recipient without any standardization, practice guidelines, or evidence-based evaluation. In an effort to improve the care of living donors, regulations and guidelines to dictate care and follow-up have been instituted. Practices still vary from center to center, and the quality of care that live donors receive also varies. A "Living Donor Center" focused solely on the care of actual and potential donors before and after donation is one way to provide the infrastructure to comply with regulatory mandates and deliver high-quality care to this specialized population of patients. A Center for Living Donation was developed within a Transplantation Institute to address the short- and long-term needs of live donors and confine all donor care to a team of experts led by a doctorally prepared nurse practitioner as the director. A transplant nurse practitioner is uniquely poised to assume such a role because of such competencies as clinical and professional leadership, ability to act as a change agent, communication skills, and ability to lead a multidisciplinary team. PMID:22548993

  10. Deceased organ donation in India: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Nagral, Sanjay; Amalorpavanathan, J

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation represents one of the best examples of the scientific achievements of medical science. However, its success has also led to some of the fiercest ethical challenges in modern medicine. Partly as a response to the uncovering of a flourishing clandestine kidney trade, the Central government promulgated the Human Organs Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1994. HOTA, along with its amendments, was a step forward in recognising concepts such as brain death. Nevertheless, there are numerous ethical challenges still to be resolved, particularly with regard to consent, incentives to donors and families, and equitable distribution of donated organs. PMID:25160968

  11. Making the case for directed organ donation to registered donors in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of deceased donor organ donations in Israel is lower than average when compared to other Western World countries. To address the organ gap, the 2008 Organ Transplantation Law provides new interventions, including important incentives to donors (and their families). The most notable of these was granting priority to registered donors (i.e., people on the waiting list who signed a donor card). The current study presents the normative arguments as well as the first documentation of public attitudes in Israel towards another possible incentive – allowing individuals to influence the allocation of their organs by permitting them to designate, to direct their donated organs [DD] to other registered donors, instead of the current allocation based primarily on medical criteria. Methods A structured phone survey of 695 Israelis was conducted during Feb-March 2012. The sample is representative of the Israeli society in terms of age mix and gender, with adequate representation of the Arab and ultra-orthodox Jewish subgroups. Results Among all Israelis, 68% stated a willingness to donate their organs, but only 16% reported to have already signed a donor card. 85% stated their interest in receiving an organ if the need arises. Overall, 64% of respondents felt that DD to a group of others who have registered as donors is justified, and the rate was remarkably higher in the Arab group (84%), and lower in the religious and ultraorthodox Jewish groups (52% and 50% respectively). Conclusions The majority of the Israeli public supports organ donation and its proven benefits. Thus, organ recovery policy should be grounded in a strong communitarian strategy as we all stand to benefit from cooperation. However, current legislation and practices are modeled on individual disposition based on an opt-in legal framework. DD allows personal choices of to-be donors that might interfere with social interests, principles, and values such as equal access to care (i

  12. Saudi Nursing and Medical Student’s Knowledge and Attitude toward Organ Donation- A Comparative Cross-Sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Proper awareness among health professionals about organ donation is important for increasing organ procurement. Personal commitment and attitude of nurses are imperative as they have key role in identifying potential donors. The aim of this study was to compare prevailing knowledge and attitude of undergraduate female Saudi nursing and medical students’ toward organ donation. Methodology A cross sectional questionnaire using 29 item were filled by nursing (n=46) and medical (n=63) students’ at University of Dammam (KSA) during academic year 2014–15, to check and compare their knowledge and attitude about organ donation. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics; chi square test and bivariate analysis to find out correlation. Results Level of knowledge of nursing group were significantly lower (p=0.000) than medical group while no significant difference in attitude score (p=0.591) between the two groups were found. Major source of knowledge for nursing was media (65.2%) and college/university for medical (50.8%) group. Both groups chose “anyone in need” as preferred recipients’ upon donation (nursing 60.3% and medical 52.2%) and opted “anyone” as donor in case of recipient (nursing 52.2% and medical 49.2%). The results indicate positive correlation between level of knowledge and attitude toward organ donation. Conclusions Nursing students have low knowledge toward organ donation as compared to medical students although they shows positive attitude toward this issue. This study ascertains the need of an effective educational program for nursing students of Saudi Arabia to improve their knowledge regarding organ donation and to raise organ procurement. PMID:27103903

  13. The decrease in organ donations from 1985 to 1990 caused by increasing medical contraindications and refusals by relatives.

    PubMed

    Faltin, D L; Jeannet, M; Suter, P M

    1992-07-01

    After the progressive improvement in the results of organ transplantation we now face the challenge of shortage in organ supply. The decreasing number of organ retrievals performed in 1990 at our hospital has raised questions concerning loss of potential organ donors and opposition to donation by the next of kin. We investigated these questions and the number of organs available per million inhabitants in the area covered by our university hospital. Our surgical intensive care unit provides about 85% of all organ donations for this area. To this end, all 375 deaths occurring in the surgical ICU during the period between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1990 were analyzed. Of 138 brain-stem deaths, 43 presented medical contraindications preventing organ harvesting for transplantation. Consent for donation was sought from the families of the 95 remaining potential donors and was refused for 17 patients. Organ retrieval followed all of the 78 agreements to donate, so that no suitable donor was lost. Over the 6 years surveyed, a progressive decrease in organs procured was observed, due to an increase of medical contraindications to organ harvesting for transplantation (P less than 0.001) and a higher rate of refusals to donate organs (P less than 0.002). The rate of kidney retrieval was thereby reduced from 45 to less than 25 per million population per year between 1985 and 1990 for our hospital's catchment area. The reasons cited by the families for denying organ donation suggest that the publicity campaigns aimed at the medical community and the public concerning organ transplant programs should be modified, and that a careful selection of indications for transplantation seems mandatory. PMID:1631950

  14. 'You have to die first': Exploring the thoughts and feelings on organ donation of British women who have not signed up to be donors.

    PubMed

    Nizza, Isabella E; Britton, Heather P; Smith, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    Four White British women who had not signed up to be organ donors were interviewed in depth to investigate their feelings on organ donation. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to reveal how the ability to detach from the body affects the acceptance of organ donation, how organ donation can trigger difficult thoughts and how the family can be used to explain not having signed up. The findings confirm previous empirical evidence but also offer original insight on the discrepancy between attitudes and behaviours, how fears can inhibit action and the importance of communicating organ donation wishes to family. PMID:24801327

  15. Effectiveness of Organ Donation Information Campaigns in Germany: A Facebook Based Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Settmacher, Utz; Wurst, Christine; Dirsch, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background The German transplantation system is in a crisis due to a lack of donor organs. Information campaigns are one of the main approaches to increase organ donation rates. Since 2012, German health insurance funds are obliged by law to inform their members about organ donation. We raised the hypothesis: The willingness to sign a donor card rises due to the subsequent increase of specific knowledge by receiving the information material of the health insurance funds. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the influence of information campaigns on the specific knowledge and the willingness to donate organs. Methods We conducted an online survey based on recruitment via Facebook groups, advertisements using the snowball effect, and on mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany. Besides the demographic data, the willingness to hold an organ donor card was investigated. Specific knowledge regarding transplantation was explored using five factual questions resulting in a specific knowledge score. Results We recruited a total of 2484 participants, of which 32.7% (300/917) had received information material. Mean age was 29.9 (SD 11.0, median 26.0). There were 65.81% (1594/2422) of the participants that were female. The mean knowledge score was 3.28 of a possible 5.00 (SD 1.1, median 3.0). Holding a donor card was associated with specific knowledge (P<.001), but not with the general education level (P=.155). Receiving information material was related to holding a donor card (P<.001), but not to a relevant increase in specific knowledge (difference in mean knowledge score 3.20 to 3.48, P=.006). The specific knowledge score and the percentage of organ donor card holders showed a linear association (P<.001). Conclusions The information campaign was not associated with a relevant increase in specific knowledge, but with an increased rate in organ donor card holders. This effect is most likely related to the feeling of being informed, together with an easy

  16. Organ and tissue donation in clinical settings: a systematic review of the impact of interventions aimed at health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices. PMID:24628967

  17. Fear, ambivalence, and liminality: key concepts in refusal to donate an organ after brain death.

    PubMed

    Rassin, Michal; Lowenthal, Miri; Silner, Dina

    2005-01-01

    The refusal to donate an organ is a phenomenon in need of exploration and explanation. This article refers to the major fear of becoming an organ donor in relation to a global culture perspective and to the Halacha (Jewish law). A theoretical critique about the ambivalence demonstrated by health care providers and families will discuss these concepts in relation to brain death, from the stages of hospitalization, through the period prior to the assertion of brain death, ending with brain death, and its perspective as a liminal situation.Finally, we conclude that nursing practices during the care of the "brain dead" patient, and toward the patient's family, should convey an unequivocal message. That is, brain death describes irreversible cessation of all brain function, and therefore, the patient becomes a dead body and can be treated as a potential organ donor. PMID:16148573

  18. Neuroscience and awareness in the dying human brain: Implications for organ donation practices.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Consciousness has 2 components: wakefulness (arousal) and awareness (perception of the self and the external environment). Functional neuroimaging has identified 2 distinctive functional networks that mediate external awareness of the surrounding environment and internal awareness of the self. Recent studies suggest that awareness is not always associated with wakefulness. There is little clinical research that has specifically focused on determining awareness in the dying phase, after the cessation of systemic circulation. Pana et al (J Crit Care, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.04.001) concluded from a retrospective analysis of published human and animal studies that the cessation of clinical brain function and spontaneous electroencephalography activity occurred within 30 seconds of circulatory arrest. They inferred from this that a 5-minute period of cessation of circulation constitutes a valid indicator that awareness has ceased. This aligns with the 5-minute no-touch time after the loss of arterial pulse, the current circulatory standard of death determination in non-heart-beating organ donation. We argue that the capacity for awareness may not be irreversibly lost after a relatively brief period of cessation of systemic circulation, and outline empirical data in support of the claim that awareness without wakefulness may be present. Obviously, if correct, this will have practical and ethical implications on organ donation practices. PMID:27288623

  19. What factors influence people's decisions to register for organ donation? The results of a nominal group study.

    PubMed

    Irving, Michelle J; Jan, Stephen; Tong, Allison; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steven; Rose, John; Cass, Alan; Allen, Richard D; Howard, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    Rates of transplantation from deceased donors remain low, despite high rates of expressed support. We aimed to better understand this mismatch through determining community attitudes regarding willingness to register as organ donors. Participants were recruited from the general public in four Australian states. Using nominal group techniques, participants ranked factors they believed were important when deciding to register as a deceased donor. Thirteen nominal groups with 114 participants were conducted. 24 factors were ranked by three or more groups. The top ten factors were as follows: saving lives, own decision to donate, family opinions, benefit to recipients, process of organ donation, positive media, positive closure, clarity of consent and body dignity. Other factors included: the consent system, religious and cultural beliefs and incentives for donation. Participant age was a potential modifier of responses. Willingness to register as an organ donor is highly influenced by the altruistic motive of saving lives and improving lives for others; this should be harnessed in communication campaigns. Further research on ethical incentives for organ donation and continued efforts to promote support from religious groups may be useful. Many believe the sole right to consent to donation is theirs and not their families; consent policies reflecting this should be explored. PMID:24617320

  20. Organ Donation and Transplantation for Older Donors and Recipients: Resources from the U.S. Government

    MedlinePlus

    ... NeuroBioBank How to Become a Donor Why Donate? National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke Brain and Tissue Banks Resources Alzheimer’s Foundation of America Your Brain: A Priceless Donation to Science (PDF, 245K) Brain donation for Alzheimer’s disease patients ...

  1. Educational Web-Based Intervention for High School Students to Increase Knowledge and Promote Positive Attitudes toward Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Merion, Robert M.; Couper, Mick P.; Jones, Eleanor G.; Dong, Yihui

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 490 high school students from 81 schools in Michigan participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental Web site. The experimental Web site provided exposure to educational material about the process of organ donation and organ transplantation. The control Web site provided…

  2. Attitudes toward Financial Incentives, Donor Authorization, and Presumed Consent among Next-of-Kin Who Consented vs. Refused Organ Donation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent are strategies designed to increase organ donation rates. Surveys designed to assess attitudes toward these initiatives have been conducted with the general public, transplant patients, and transplant professionals. Methods To assess attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent and to identify multivariate predictors of such attitudes, we conducted telephone interviews with 561 family members who had recently been asked for consent to donate the organs of a deceased family member (348 donors, 213 nondonors). Results Financial incentives would have made a difference in the donation decision for 54% of nondonors (vs. 46% of donors, P = 0.02), and a higher percentage of nondonors would themselves become donors if financial incentives were available (P = 0.03). Donors had significantly more favorable attitudes toward donor authorization (P < 0.0001) and presumed consent (P < 0.0001) policies. Overall, 54% of participants thought that family permission for donation was unnecessary when the deceased documented their donation intention, and 24% favored a presumed consent law with an opting out provision. Conclusions Of the three initiatives, donor authorization is likely supported by more donor and nondonor families than either financial incentives or presumed consent. Public education efforts should aim to better inform the public regarding existing and proposed donor authorization legislation and its benefits for registered organ donors and their families. PMID:16699449

  3. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD) age was 32(9) year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p < 0.001), donor-only informed consent (5[3,7], p < 0.001), and presumed consent (7[3,10], p < 0.001). The addition of a financial or medical incentive, respectively, reduced ranking of mandated choice to 7[4,9], p < 0.001, and 5[3,8], p < 0.001; for donor-or-surrogate informed consent to 7[5,9], p < 0.001, and 5[3,7], p = 0.004; and for donor-only informed consent to 8[6,10], p < 0.001, and 5[3,7], p = 0.56. Distribution of ranking score of perception of norm and preference were similar except for no-organ donation (11[7,11] vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002). Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p < 0.001), more preferred mandated choice with financial incentive option (6[3,8] vs. 8[4,9], p < 0.001), and

  4. Intentions of becoming a living organ donor among Hispanics: a theory-based approach exploring differences between living and nonliving organ donation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Dominick, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This research examines perceptions concerning living (n = 1,253) and nonliving (n = 1,259) organ donation among Hispanic adults, a group considerably less likely than the general population to become donors. Measures are derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and Vested Interest Theory (Crano, 1983, 1997). A substantial percentage of respondents reported positive attitudes and high personal stake concerning organ donation. Mean differences in norms, attitudes, intentions, and assumed immediacy of payoff were found between living and nonliving donor groups, suggesting that these two donation formats are dissimilar and should be examined independently. Accordingly, separate hierarchical multiple regression models were estimated for living and nonliving donation. Analyses supported both theoretical frameworks: Constructs associated with Planned Behavior and Vested Interest independently contributed to donor intentions. The implications of these results, and our recommendations for future health campaigns, are presented in light of these theoretical models. PMID:18307137

  5. A qualitative analysis of a significant barrier to organ and tissue donation: receiving less-than-optimal medical care.

    PubMed

    Denvir, Paul; Pomerantz, Anita

    2009-10-01

    A key reason for the shortage of transplantable organs and tissue in the United States is the degree of resistance among the public to donating organs and tissue after death. In this article, we explore a single barrier to donation: the concern that medical personnel might provide "less-than-optimal" care to intended donors. Using 2 qualitative methodologies-analysis of family discussions about donation and analysis of in-depth interviews about donation-we explore what participants' discourse reveals about the variations and texture of this concern. The analysis revealed 4 aspects of this concern: (a) Participants expressed different versions of less-than-optimal care, each reflecting different assumptions about how medical personnel may approach the treatment of potential donors. (b) Participants expressed their concerns by describing hypothetical scenarios of medical treatment. These scenarios were designed to play up the plausibility of receiving less-than-optimal care and situated the speaker as the victim in the scenario. (c) Participants' uncertainty about the quality of medical treatment was sufficient grounds for not donating. (d) Participants expressed their concerns about medical treatment in terms of the perceived corruptibility of sociocultural institutions, including medical institutions. This analysis also revealed the lines of reasoning through which participants overcame a concern about receiving less-than-optimal-care. In our view, the most promising line of reasoning expressed by participants was to trust the legal and procedural protections built into the recovery process. PMID:20183368

  6. Development of a questionnaire for assessing factors predicting blood donation among university students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jalalian, Mehrdad; Latiff, Latiffah; Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Hanachi, Parichehr; Othman, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    University students are a target group for blood donor programs. To develop a blood donation culture among university students, it is important to identify factors used to predict their intent to donate blood. This study attempted to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to be employed in assessing variables in a blood donation behavior model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), a commonly used theoretical foundation for social psychology studies. We employed an elicitation study, in which we determined the commonly held behavioral and normative beliefs about blood donation. We used the results of the elicitation study and a standard format for creating questionnaire items for all constructs of the TPB model to prepare the first draft of the measurement tool. After piloting the questionnaire, we prepared the final draft of the questionnaire to be used in our main study. Examination of internal consistency using Chronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total statistics indicated the constructs "Intention" and "Self efficacy" had the highest reliability. Removing one item from each of the constructs, "Attitude," "Subjective norm," "Self efficacy," or "Behavioral beliefs", can considerably increase the reliability of the measurement tool, however, such action is controversial, especially for the variables "attitude" and "subjective norm." We consider all the items of our first draft questionnaire in our main study to make it a reliable measurement tool. PMID:20578556

  7. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  8. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Education Program about Organ Donation and Registration, and the Intention for Continuance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…

  9. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  10. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  11. Donation FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  12. Optimal Decisions for Organ Exchanges in a Kidney Paired Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X-K; Zhou, Yan; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2014-05-01

    The traditional concept of barter exchange in economics has been extended in the modern era to the area of living-donor kidney transplantation, where one incompatible donor-candidate pair is matched to another pair with a complementary incompatibility, such that the donor from one pair gives an organ to a compatible candidate in the other pair and vice versa. Kidney paired donation (KPD) programs provide a unique and important platform for living incompatible donor-candidate pairs to exchange organs in order to achieve mutual benefit. In this paper, we propose novel organ allocation strategies to arrange kidney exchanges under uncertainties with advantages, including (i) allowance for a general utility-based evaluation of potential kidney transplants and an explicit consideration of stochastic features inherent in a KPD program; and (ii) exploitation of possible alternative exchanges when the originally planned allocation cannot be fully executed. This allocation strategy is implemented using an integer programming (IP) formulation, and its implication is assessed via a data-based simulation system by tracking an evolving KPD program over a series of match runs. Extensive simulation studies are provided to illustrate our proposed approach. PMID:24795783

  13. Development of a preclinical model of donation after circulatory determination of death for translational application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation is proposed for abdominal organ procurement from donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD). In France, the national Agency of Biomedicine supervises the procurement of kidneys from DCD, specifying the durations of tolerated warm and cold ischemia. However, no study has determined the optimal conditions of this technique. The aim of this work was to develop a preclinical model of DCD using abdominal normothermic oxygenated recirculation (ANOR). In short, our objectives are to characterize the mechanisms involved during ANOR and its impact on abdominal organs. Methods We used Large White pigs weighing between 45 and 55 kg. After 30 minutes of potassium-induced cardiac arrest, the descending thoracic aorta was clamped and ANOR set up between the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta for 4 hours. Hemodynamic, respiratory and biochemical parameters were collected. Blood gasometry and biochemistry analysis were performed during the ANOR procedure. Results Six ANOR procedures were performed. The surgical procedure is described and intraoperative parameters and biological data are presented. Pump flow rates were between 2.5 and 3 l/min. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and biochemical objectives were achieved under reproducible conditions. Interestingly, animals remained hemodynamically stable following the targeted protocol. Arterial pH was controlled, and natremia and renal function remained stable 4 hours after the procedure was started. Decreased hemoglobin and serum proteins levels, concomitant with increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, were observed as a consequence of the surgery. The serum potassium level was increased, owing to the extracorporeal circulation circuit. Conclusions Our ANOR model is the closest to clinical conditions reported in the literature and will allow the study of the systemic and abdominal organ impact of this technique. The translational relevance of the pig will permit

  14. Ethical issues in organ donation and transplantation: are we helping a few at the-expense of many?

    PubMed

    DePalma, J A; Townsend, R

    1996-05-01

    Ethical issues have always been apparent in the transplantation process and are becoming more evident as the demand for organs increases. The basic question is how just and ethical are the new policies enacted to encourage organ donation, considering that they affect the total public and benefit the small percentage of patients who require transplantation? Pros and cons of several of these policies will be discussed as will several clinical situations that raise ethical questions. PMID:8705695

  15. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  16. Attitudes and beliefs within the Sikh community regarding organ donation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Exley, C; Sim, J; Reid, N; Jackson, S; West, N

    1996-07-01

    The current shortage of organs for transplantation is a matter of considerable concern in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Whilst issues of histocompatibility create particular problems in this respect for the Asian population in the U.K., it is sometimes suggested that there is also a resistance to the idea of organ transplantation among this community. To explore this issue, a small-scale interview study was conducted in Coventry among members of the Sikh community. A judgemental sample of 22 individuals, from different strata of the local Sikh community, were interviewed either in one-to-one interviews or in a focus group. These interviews had two broad aims: to determine the prevailing attitudes towards organ transplantation, and to gauge the impact and acceptability of the current Department of Health campaign literature. It was found that, whilst there were a number of misgivings to do with notions of mutilation and reincarnation, and anxieties as to technical or clinical aspects of the transplantation process, the prevailing view was supportive of transplantation, and organ donation was seen as a highly appropriate means of exhibiting the altruistic tradition within Sikhism. Such barriers that exist to the idea of transplantation seem to have more to do with knowledge and understanding than with cultural or religious factors. Concerning the campaign literature, informants identified a number of shortcomings, and indicated ways in which the impact of the leaflets and posters might be enhanced. Although the generalizability of these findings is limited, and despite possible threats to the validity of the data collected, this study has produced findings with significant implications for future policy in this area. PMID:8816007

  17. Using the brain criterion in organ donation after the circulatory determination of death.

    PubMed

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Bernat, James L

    2016-06-01

    The UK, France, and Switzerland determine death using the brain criterion even in organ donation after the circulatory determination of death (DCDD), in which the United States and Canada use the circulatory-respiratory criterion. In our analysis of the scientific validity of the brain criterion in DCDD, we concluded that although it may be attractive in theory because it conceptualizes death as a unitary phenomenon, its use in practice is invalid. The preconditions (ie, the absence of reversible causes, such as toxic or metabolic disorders) for determining brain death cannot be met in DCDD. Thus, although brain death tests prove the cessation of tested brain functions, they do not prove that their cessation is irreversible. A stand-off period of 5 to 10 minutes is insufficient to achieve the irreversibility requirement of brain death. Because circulatory cessation inevitably leads to cessation of brain functions, first permanently and then irreversibly, the use of brain criterion is unnecessary to determine death in DCDD. Expanding brain death to permit it to be satisfied by permanent cessation of brain functions is controversial but has been considered as a possible means to declare death in uncontrolled DCDD. PMID:26857329

  18. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

  19. Decision solution, data manipulation and trust: The (un-)willingness to donate organs in Germany in critical times.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lars

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 and 2012 a change of rules and a data-manipulation scandal focused German public attention on organ donation. This increased citizens' background knowledge as well as their willingness to respond to surveys. The present study is an effort to seize this research opportunity and to create evidence on which policy recommendations can be conceivably based. It uses data from two major representative surveys from 2011 to 2012 to address four central questions: Which characteristics, experiences and attitudes correlate with the written or unwritten willingness of individuals to donate (WTD) their own organs post-mortem? How has the WTD changed over time? To what extent does the WTD depend on normative trust? Which factors correlate with trust? The data is analyzed through summary statistics and regression models. Several hypotheses regarding factors connected with the WTD are confirmed in the survey results. Altruistic motives, relevant knowledge and trust are decisive. The special role of trust is corroborated by the data. As current German politics prevents the introduction of post-mortem donation incentives, potential policy making proposals are restricted to institutional changes to regain trust including the implementation of an organ donor registry and the advancement of counselling talks with general practitioners. PMID:25684705

  20. Guidelines for drug donations.

    PubMed Central

    Hogerzeil, H. V.; Couper, M. R.; Gray, R.

    1997-01-01

    Drug donations are usually given in response to acute emergencies, but they can also be part of development aid. Donations may be given directly by governments, by non-governmental organisations, as corporate donations (direct or through private voluntary organisations), or as private donations to single health facilities. Although there are legitimate differences between these donations, basic rules should apply to them all. This common core of "good donation practice" is the basis for new guidelines which have recently been issued by the World Health Organisation after consultation with all relevant United Nations agencies, the Red Cross, and other major international agencies active in humanitarian emergency relief. This article summarises the need for such guidelines, the development process, the core principles, and the guidelines themselves and gives practical advice to recipients and donor agencies. PMID:9116555

  1. Organ Donation From Elderly Deceased Donors and Transplantation to Elderly Recipients in Poland: Numbers and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, D; Czerwiński, J; Hermanowicz, M; Przygoda, J; Podobińska, I; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    The age of a donor and recipient is one medical criterion in the kidney allocation system. The number of elderly donors and recipients is steadily growing. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the 5-year results of kidney transplantation from donors over 65 years of age to recipients over 60 years of age. In the years 1998 to 2010, 8526 potential deceased donation after brain death organ donors and 8206 people (81%), who had been treated with transplantation of kidneys were referred to the Poltransplant. The actual number of deceased donors >65 years was 358 and <65 years was 7207. The actual 5-year survival of a kidney transplant from donors >65 years was 59.2% (55.3% of recipients >60 years and 60.7% of recipients <60 years of age; P < .0001) and from donors <65 years was 75.1% (67.5% of recipients >60 years and 75.7% of recipients <60 years; P < .0001). The actual 5-year survival of kidney recipients from all donors >65 years was 75.6% (79.5% younger recipients vs 65.9% elderly recipients; P < .0001). The 5-year survival of kidney recipients from all donors <65 years was 88.1% (P < .0001); 89% younger recipients and 74.3% elderly recipients (P < .0001). The above analysis of the material from the Polish registry displayed significantly worse results of kidney transplantation from donors >65 years, regardless of the age group of recipients. PMID:27496412

  2. Patients on state organ donor registries receive similar levels of intensive care compared to those who are not: an opportunity to increase public intent to donate.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhukar S; Raza, Shariq S; Bhakta, Akash; Ewing, Tyler; Bukur, Marko; Vagefi, Parsia A; Salim, Ali; Malinoski, Darren J

    2016-06-01

    The intent to donate organs is affected by the public perception that patients on state registries receive less aggressive life-saving care in order to allow organ donation to proceed. However, the association between first person authorization to donate organs and the actual care received by eventual organ donors in hospitals is unknown. From August 2010 to April 2011, all eight organ procurement organizations in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 prospectively recorded demographic data and organ utilization rates on all donors after neurologic determination of death (DNDDs). Critical care and physiologic parameters were also recorded at referral for imminent neurologic death and prior to authorization for donation to reflect the aggressiveness of provided care. There were 586 DNDDs and 23% were on a state registry. Compared to non-registered DNDDs, those on state registries were older but were noted to have similar critical care parameters at both referral and authorization. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in organs procured per donor or organs transplanted per donor between registered and non-registered DNDDs. Thus, DNDDs who are on state donor registries receive similar levels of intensive care compared to non-registered donors. The association noted in this study may therefore help to dispel a common misperception that decreases the intent to donate. PMID:26992655

  3. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and (2) Exempt from tax under section 501(a) of that Code. (b) In... tier, who will perform, under this contract, the provision, service, or sale of food in the United... provided under the Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act (42 U.S.C. 1791). Nothing in this...

  4. Ethnic differences in intention to enroll in a state organ donor registry and intention to talk with family about organ donation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W; Yun, Doshik

    2009-10-01

    This study compared African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and White Americans on their intentions to enroll in a state organ donor registry and to talk with family about organ donation. The overall results showed that attitudes and subjective norms from the theory of planned behavior were significantly related to intention to enroll whereas perceived behavioral control was not. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly related to intention to talk with family. The differences among ethnic groups were small, but the relationship between attitudes and intention to enroll was stronger for Asian Americans and weaker for African Americans than for White Americans. The implications of these and other findings are discussed for organ donation campaigns. PMID:20183372

  5. Organizing the Donation of Convalescent Plasma for a Therapeutic Clinical Trial on Ebola Virus Disease: The Experience in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Delamou, Alexandre; Haba, Nyankoye Yves; Mari-Saez, Almudena; Gallian, Pierre; Ronse, Maya; Jacobs, Jan; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Kadio, Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier; Guemou, Achille; Kolie, Jean Pe; De Crop, Maaike; Chavarin, Patricia; Jacquot, Chantal; Lazaygues, Catherine; De Weggheleire, Anja; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Although convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was prioritized among potential Ebola treatments by the World Health Organization, there were concerns on the feasibility of its implementation. We report on the successful organization of donor mobilization and plasma collection as part of the Ebola-Tx clinical trial from November 2014 to July 2015 in Conakry, Guinea. Project implementation registers, tools and reports, mission reports, and minutes of research team meetings were used to reconstruct the sequence of events on how donor mobilization was organized, plasmapheresis was set up, and how effective this approach was in collecting CP. An initial needs assessment of the Guinean National Blood Transfusion Center resulted in targeted training of staff on site, resulting in autonomy and independent production of CP within 3 months. The Conakry Ebola Survivors Association played a direct role in donor mobilization and organization of CP donations. A total of 98 Ebola survivors were screened for plasma donation, of which 84 were found eligible for plasmapheresis. Of these, 26 (30.9%) were excluded. The remaining 58 donors made a total of 90 donations, corresponding to 50.9 L of CP. This sufficed to treat the 99 eligible patients enrolled in the trial. Within a poor resource emergency context, transfusion capacity could be rapidly improved through the strengthening of local capacities and gradual transfer of skills coupled with active involvement of Ebola survivors. However, large-scale plasma collection or multisite studies may require further adaptations of both strategy and logistics. The Ebola-Tx trial was funded by the European Union and others. PMID:27430546

  6. Organizing the Donation of Convalescent Plasma for a Therapeutic Clinical Trial on Ebola Virus Disease: The Experience in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Delamou, Alexandre; Haba, Nyankoye Yves; Mari-Saez, Almudena; Gallian, Pierre; Ronse, Maya; Jacobs, Jan; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Kadio, Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier; Guemou, Achille; Kolie, Jean Pe; Crop, Maaike De; Chavarin, Patricia; Jacquot, Chantal; Lazaygues, Catherine; Weggheleire, Anja De; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Although convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was prioritized among potential Ebola treatments by the World Health Organization, there were concerns on the feasibility of its implementation. We report on the successful organization of donor mobilization and plasma collection as part of the Ebola-Tx clinical trial from November 2014 to July 2015 in Conakry, Guinea. Project implementation registers, tools and reports, mission reports, and minutes of research team meetings were used to reconstruct the sequence of events on how donor mobilization was organized, plasmapheresis was set up, and how effective this approach was in collecting CP. An initial needs assessment of the Guinean National Blood Transfusion Center resulted in targeted training of staff on site, resulting in autonomy and independent production of CP within 3 months. The Conakry Ebola Survivors Association played a direct role in donor mobilization and organization of CP donations. A total of 98 Ebola survivors were screened for plasma donation, of which 84 were found eligible for plasmapheresis. Of these, 26 (30.9%) were excluded. The remaining 58 donors made a total of 90 donations, corresponding to 50.9 L of CP. This sufficed to treat the 99 eligible patients enrolled in the trial. Within a poor resource emergency context, transfusion capacity could be rapidly improved through the strengthening of local capacities and gradual transfer of skills coupled with active involvement of Ebola survivors. However, large-scale plasma collection or multisite studies may require further adaptations of both strategy and logistics. The Ebola-Tx trial was funded by the European Union and others. PMID:27430546

  7. Presumed consent for organ preservation in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death in the United States: a public policy with serious consequences

    PubMed Central

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Organ donation after cessation of circulation and respiration, both controlled and uncontrolled, has been proposed by the Institute of Medicine as a way to increase opportunities for organ procurement. Despite claims to the contrary, both forms of controlled and uncontrolled donation after cardiac death raise significant ethical and legal issues. Identified causes for concern include absence of agreement on criteria for the declaration of death, nonexistence of universal guidelines for duration before stopping resuscitation efforts and techniques, and assumption of presumed intent to donate for the purpose of initiating temporary organ-preservation interventions when no expressed consent to donate is present. From a legal point of view, not having scientifically valid criteria of cessation of circulation and respiration for declaring death could lead to a conclusion that organ procurement itself is the proximate cause of death. Although the revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 2006 provides broad immunity to those involved in organ-procurement activities, courts have yet to provide an opinion on whether persons can be held liable for injuries arising from the determination of death itself. Preserving organs in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death requires the administration of life-support systems such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These life-support systems can lead to return of signs of life that, in turn, have to be deliberately suppressed by the administration of pharmacological agents. Finally, allowing temporary organ-preservation interventions without expressed consent is inherently a violation of the principle of respect for a person's autonomy. Proponents of organ donation from uncontrolled donation after cardiac death, on the other hand, claim that these nonconsensual interventions enhance respect for autonomy by allowing people, through surrogate decision making, to execute their right to donate organs. However, the lack of transparency

  8. Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Barilan, Michael Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving. PMID:23908808

  9. Pecuniary and non-pecuniary incentives to increase the rate of organ donations from the living: a moral exploration.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Michael Y

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving. PMID:23908808

  10. The moral code in Islam and organ donation in Western countries: reinterpreting religious scriptures to meet utilitarian medical objectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life. PMID:24888748

  11. The moral code in Islam and organ donation in Western countries: reinterpreting religious scriptures to meet utilitarian medical objectives.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life. PMID:24888748

  12. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n = 755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p = 0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p < 0.001). Women held donor cards significantly more often (28.6%) than men (19.4%, p = 0.004). The majority of students were against direct payments as incentives for deceased and living donations. Nevertheless, 37.5% of the respondents support the idea that the funeral expenses of deceased organ donors should be covered. Women voted significantly less often for the coverage of expenses than men (women 31.6%, men 44.0%, p = 0.003). The number of those in favor of allowing to sell one’s organs for money (living organ donation) was highest among students of economics (p = 0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward. PMID:24996438

  13. Early liver transplantation for patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis: public views and the effects on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Stroh, G; Rosell, T; Dong, F; Forster, J

    2015-06-01

    Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis may not survive to fulfill the standard 6 months of abstinence and counseling prior to transplantation. A prospective study demonstrated that early liver transplantation in such patients improved 2 year survival from 23% to 71% and only 3 of 26 patients returned to drinking after 1140 days; graft function was unaffected. Nonetheless, this treatment protocol may raise public concerns and affect organ donation rates. A total of 503 participants took a survey made available at an online crowdsourcing marketplace. The survey measured attitudes on liver transplantation generally and early transplantation for this patient population, in addition to measuring responses to nine vignettes describing fictional candidates. The majority of respondents (81.5%, n = 410) was at least neutral toward early transplantation for these patients; only a minority (26.3%) indicated that transplantation in any vignette would make them hesitant to donate their organs. Middle-aged patients with good social support and financial stability were viewed most favorably (p < 0.001). Age was considered the most important selection factor and financial stability the least important factor (each p < 0.001). Results indicate early transplantation for carefully selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis may not be as controversial to the public as previously thought. PMID:25707427

  14. 11 CFR 300.37 - Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C. 441i(d)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organization described in 26 U.S.C. 527, unless the organization is: (i) A political committee under 11 CFR 100.5; (ii) A State, district, or local committee of a political party; (iii) The authorized campaign... local committee of a political party must not solicit any funds for, or make or direct any donations...

  15. Framing life and death on YouTube: the strategic communication of organ donation messages by organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    VanderKnyff, Jeremy; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of YouTube videos posted on the YouTube channels of organ procurement organizations, a content analysis was conducted to identify the frames used to strategically communicate prodonation messages. A total of 377 videos were coded for general characteristics, format, speaker characteristics, organs discussed, structure, problem definition, and treatment. Principal components analysis identified message frames, and k-means cluster analysis established distinct groupings of videos on the basis of the strength of their relationship to message frames. Analysis of these frames and clusters found that organ procurement organizations present multiple, and sometimes competing, video types and message frames on YouTube. This study serves as important formative research that will inform future studies to measure the effectiveness of the distinct message frames and clusters identified. PMID:25494919

  16. Principles and concepts of brain death and organ donation: the Jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Z H; Rappaport, I T

    1998-08-01

    The harvesting of organs for transplantation is dependent on a stringent definition of brain death. Different societies have had to struggle with their cultural heritage, adapting their traditional attitudes to conform to the advances in medical science and the needs of the sick. In this article, the development of the concept of brain death as it applies to organ transplantation in Judaism is outlined. The ability of traditional Jewish values to address themselves to the challenges of modern medicine can serve as a basis for cultural cross-fertilization and comparison in modern societies. PMID:9753405

  17. Principles and concepts of brain death and organ donation: the Jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Z H; Rappaport, I T

    1999-01-01

    The harvesting of organs for transplantation is dependent on a stringent definition of brain death. Different societies have had to struggle with their cultural heritage, adapting it to conform to the advances in medical science and the need of the sick. In this article, the development of the concept of brain death as it applies to organ transplantation in Judaism is outlined. The ability of traditional Jewish values to address themselves to the challenges of modern medicine can serve as a basis for cultural cross-fertilization and comparison in modern societies. PMID:10549346

  18. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, simple, ... this test, as well as during the donation process, is sterile, used only once and then disposed. ...

  19. 11 CFR 300.37 - Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C. 441i(d)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C. 441i(d)). 300.37 Section 300.37 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF 2002-(BCRA) REGULATIONS NON-FEDERAL FUNDS State, District, and Local Party Committees...

  20. Can I Donate My Organs If I've Had Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To learn more National organizations and websites* United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Toll-free number: 1- ... MA, Delmonici FL. First report of the United Network for Organ Sharing Transplant Tumor Registry: Donors with ...

  1. Paid donation: a global view.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Rizvi, S Adibul Hasan; Padilla, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Paying for kidney or other organ donation has lead to heated debates about donor and recipient welfare. Many have argued that paying for donation leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor, and, in the end, produces more harm than good. Others have said that payment helps the poor, and we should all have sovereignty over our bodies and, thus, should be allowed to donate for remuneration. Although World Health Organizations and governments in many countries have now banned the process of paying for donation, there is still ongoing payment legally and illegally. Thus, this timely set of three articles from Iran, Pakistan, and the Philippines, where paid donation has been extensively performed, will allow the reader to decide for themselves whether the benefits and/or harms of this practice are now clear. PMID:22732047

  2. Information program about organ and tissue transplant-donation process at the secondary schools in the province of Girona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mate, G; Morilla, T; Colon, L L; Masnou, N; Casellas, L; Valles, M; Bronsoms, J; Torguet, P; Massanet, C; Garcia, I; Mauri, J M

    2005-11-01

    We believe that it is important to spread information about the organ and tissue transplant-donation (T-D) process to obtain the participation of all society. We prepared an information program about the T-D process for secondary school students in collaboration with the Education Department. We chose these students because they wish to receive information about life and are already conscious about its possible loss, and because they take risks practicing sports or driving cars. We spoke about the frequency of the T-D process in our hospitals, the organs and tissues that can be transplanted the number of people on the waiting list, as well as the origin and circumstances of potential donors. During the last 3 years we have done more than 200 lessons at 44 secondary schools. We consider our experience to be pleasant and useful. Students have accepted us and 96.5% of them have recommended the T-D lessons to future classmates. PMID:16386490

  3. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organ, eye, or tissue donor if: (a) The individual is currently an inpatient in a VHA health care...) that an eye bank or tissue bank has complied with the FDA registration requirements of 21 CFR part 1271... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye, organ and...

  4. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organ, eye, or tissue donor if: (a) The individual is currently an inpatient in a VHA health care...) that an eye bank or tissue bank has complied with the FDA registration requirements of 21 CFR part 1271... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye, organ and...

  5. Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Dialogue with American Indian Healers and Western Health-Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Bellanger, Patricia; Norman, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Surgically replacing organs in the human body has become an acceptable and successful procedure in Western medicine. In more recent years, replacing major organs in the human body with those procured from deceased or living donors has become commonplace. Disparities exist at the earliest stages in the donor and transplantation process in that…

  6. When organ donation from living donors serves as the main source of organ procurement: a critical examination of the ethical and legal challenges to Turkey's recent efforts to overcome organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Sert, G; Guven, T; Gorkey, S

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Turkey has implemented a number of legislative and regulatory efforts to increase cadaveric donations, live donors still serve as the main source of organ procurement in this country. To address this problem, Turkey's regulatory authorities have sought to increase the number of brain death declarations. A new regulation issued in 2012 repeats the criteria for brain death that were first issued in 1993. This paper argues that these efforts are far from adequate owing to a number of complicated, ethical, and legal challenges that must be addressed to increase cadaveric organ donations. After examining these factors, which are completely neglected in current policies, we conclude that Turkey needs a realistic ethically justifiable organ procurement policy that must be supported by a framework of patient rights to implement the concept of patient autonomy and respect for human dignity in health care services as the primary goal. PMID:23953519

  7. Organ donation from a patient with bacterial meningoencephalitis -- the first case in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gopcević, Aleksandar; Gavranović, Zeljka; Pavlović, Milan

    2011-06-01

    The growing number of patients with terminal organ failure waiting for transplantation and the limited number of available organs demand that explantation teams see brain-dead patients with infectious diseases such as bacterial meningoencephalitis as potential donors, although until recently organ explantation from such donors has been contraindicated. This paper presents the first case of successful organ explantation from a donor with confirmed bacterial meningoencephalitis in our country. In this previously healthy patient (only with mild arterial hypertension in personal history), bacterial meningoencephalitis caused fulminant worsening and he deteriorated from mild disorder of consciousness (GCS 12) to brain death within only 24 hours. After the transplantation of organs was performed (heart, kidneys, liver and corneas were explanted), antibiotic therapy was continued in all organ recipients and two days after the transplantation none of the recipients showed any signs of infectious complications. This paper proves that this type of patients should also be treated as potential donors, under condition of appropriate microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic therapy and sustained hemodynamic stability, which should enlarge the number of organs available for transplantation. PMID:22263393

  8. Lower Consent Rates for Organ Donation Found among Racial and Ethnic Minorities and Older Donors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  9. Religious justifications for donating body parts.

    PubMed

    May, W F

    1985-02-01

    May discusses religious justifications for organ donation as alternatives to marketplace purchase, voluntary donation, and routine salvaging. He responds to Feinberg's proposal for a national system of salvaging and his criticism of the tendency to invest a dead body with symbolism that hampers organ donation. After exploring the implications for transplantation of the Christian Scientist, dualist, and Gnostic outlooks, May considers aspects of the Judeo-Christian tradition that influence attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. He calls upon religious institutions to assume a leadership role in arousing conscience and in encouraging organized giving of organs. PMID:3980204

  10. A Kantian argument for a duty to donate one's own organs. A reply to Nicole Gerrand.

    PubMed

    Merle, J C

    2000-01-01

    Nicole Gerrand is right to criticize Munzer for not connecting a person's dignity to the "capacity to exhibit humanity by acting rationally." However, connecting these does not mean that they are one and the same concept. Gerrand fails to make two distinctions that are decisive in the context of Kant's ethics. First, she does not distinguish between vital organs, integral organs and mere "accumulations", each of which requires a specific moral argument. Second, she does not distinguish between human rational nature in itself, or the capacity to have free will, and the possibility of action rationally, or freedom of choice. Having drawn these distinctions, I argue that Kant's own principles fully allow certain kinds of organ transplants such as blood, skin and marrow transplants from living bodies as well as the transplantation of both vital organs and essential organs from fresh corpses. In fact, Kant's own moral principles should make of these an enforceable duty of right. Unlike Gerrand, then, I think that the question of whether or not donors should be paid--and the patient should pay--is a key issue even in a Kantian context. PMID:11758595

  11. The use of ephemera with particular reference to blood and organ donation: a review of sources.

    PubMed

    Rose, G M

    1994-06-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon a study of the use made of ephemera such as leaflets, pamphlets and booklets by non-professional staff working in British statutory organizations such as health authorities, community health councils and family health services authorities as well as voluntary organizations such as charities, citizens' advice bureaux and patient participation groups. Publicity methods and the use made of ephemeral materials by those statutory and voluntary organizations involved in recruiting and retaining blood and organ donors is highlighted. Research findings confirm that patients, carers and others, wish to receive comprehendable and appropriate health information. Ephemera provided in support of this need are not comprehensive in subject coverage and lack any standardization of format. In particular, great care needs to be taken with the design of leaflets, pamphlets and booklets. Ephemeral materials are difficult to locate and obtain, and no bibliographical centre exists to coordinate and support existing activity by identifying, acquiring, storing, advertising and distributing such health care material. Marketing and publicity skills, and much time and effort are required to rectify this deficiency, and thus to satisfy the needs of consumers. PMID:10136650

  12. The non-compliance of clinical guidelines for organ donation with Australian statute law.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James

    2008-10-01

    Organ procurement is possible under statutes defining death as either irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain or irreversible cessation of the circulation, thus fulfilling the "dead donor rule". However, present practice does not conform strictly to these conditions. Clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of whole-brain death are equated, with coma, to absence of brain-stem reflexes which essentially means the absence of spontaneous respiration which is clinically interpreted as "dead enough" or "as good as dead" for the purpose. Moreover, Krommydas v Sydney West Area Health Service [2006] NSWSC 901 suggests public distrust of brain-stem reflexes as tests to diagnose whole-brain death. Mandatory adoption of a test of brain blood circulation, at present optional, would strengthen reliability of the diagnosis. Organ procurement is performed after cessation of the circulation following orchestrated withdrawal of futile life-support and is commenced when the heart fails to "auto-resuscitate" two minutes after it stops, rather than proven irreversible cessation. Ante-mortem procedures are performed on the donor to increase organ availability and viability but may contribute to or cause death. State and national ethical guidelines on this practice conflict and it appears proscribed under State guardianship legislation which requires actions in the best interests of the donor, not the recipient. Considerations should be given to organ procurement in situations where the donor is dying or in which survival is impossible. Simple abandonment of the "dead donor rule", however, is not feasible since organ procurement would be the direct cause of death. PMID:19010008

  13. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  14. Organization Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers on organization development and human resources. "Identification of Key Predictors of Rapid Change Adaptation in a Service Organization" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Carol Hansen) reports on the results of an exploratory study, which suggests that rapid change adaptation will be more likely to occur in an…

  15. 11 CFR 300.11 - Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C 441i(d)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C 441i(d)). 300.11 Section 300.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF 2002-(BCRA) REGULATIONS NON-FEDERAL FUNDS National Party Committees § 300.11 Prohibitions...

  16. The role of nurses in the risk management of organ and tissue donation.

    PubMed

    Saviozzi, A

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of organ and tissue procurement, lack of transplantation and the resulting missed opportunity for wait-listed patients might be considered as an untoward effect, since it results in longer wait-list times, higher mortality rates for potential candidates, and harm to the entire society. Beyond the classical definition holding that an adverse event is the inadvertent transmission of disease from a donor to a recipient, we advocate it should also include nonreporting of potential deceased donors; unsuccessful donor management; failure in organ/tissue procurement as the result of impossibility to assess brain death, lack of clinical data, or technical problems during surgical procedures. Based on their education, experience, and competencies, nurses share the responsibility to participate in the evaluation of risks and in the implementation of appropriate strategies for error prevention during the entire procurement process. PMID:20692444

  17. Trust and altruism--organ distribution scandals: do they provide good reasons to refuse posthumous donation?

    PubMed

    Dufner, Annette; Harris, John

    2015-06-01

    A recent organ distribution scandal in Germany raises questions of general importance on which many thousands of lives may well depend. The scandal in Germany has produced reactions that are likely to occur whenever and wherever distribution irregularities occur and become public knowledge. After it had become known that physicians in three German hospitals were in the habit of manipulating records in order to fast-track their patients' cases, the country experienced a decrease of available organs by a staggering 40% in October 2012. Even though this loss of trust by donors and their families is understandable, and potentially a legitimate form of protest against wrongful distribution, the withdrawal of agreement to serve as a posthumous donor in response to irregularities also inevitably results in avoidable poor outcomes for highly vulnerable individuals. In this paper, we provide a moral analysis of such dilemmas and make recommendations as to the way forward. PMID:25889262

  18. Role of patient factors, preferences, and distrust in health care and access to liver transplantation and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Julius M; Oloruntoba, Omobonike O; Muir, Andrew J; Moylan, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    Despite major improvements in access to liver transplantation (LT), disparities remain. Little is known about how distrust in medical care, patient preferences, and the origins shaping those preferences contribute to differences surrounding access. We performed a single-center, cross-sectional survey of adults with end-stage liver disease and compared responses between LT listed and nonlisted patients as well as by race. Questionnaires were administered to 109 patients (72 nonlisted; 37 listed) to assess demographics, health care system distrust (HCSD), religiosity, and factors influencing LT and organ donation (OD). We found that neither HCSD nor religiosity explained differences in access to LT in our population. Listed patients attained higher education levels and were more likely to be insured privately. This was also the case for white versus black patients. All patients reported wanting LT if recommended. However, nonlisted patients were significantly less likely to have discussed LT with their physician or to be referred to a transplant center. They were also much less likely to understand the process of LT. Fewer blacks were referred (44.4% versus 69.7%; P = 0.03) or went to the transplant center if referred (44.4% versus 71.1%; P = 0.02). Fewer black patients felt that minorities had as equal access to LT as whites (29.6% versus 57.3%; P < 0.001). For OD, there were more significant differences in preferences by race than listing status. More whites indicated OD status on their driver's license, and more blacks were likely to become an organ donor if approached by someone of the same cultural or ethnic background (P < 0.01). In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates persistent barriers to LT and OD. With improved patient and provider education and communication, many of these disparities could be successfully overcome. Liver Transplantation 22 895-905 2016 AASLD. PMID:27027394

  19. Pediatric Deceased Donation-A Report of the Transplantation Society Meeting in Geneva.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dominique E; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Siebelink, Marion J; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Brierley, Joe; Dobbels, Fabienne; Rodrigue, James R; Sarwal, Minnie; Shapiro, Ron; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Sweet, Stuart C; Trompeter, Richard S; Moazam, Farhat; Bos, Michael A; Delmonico, Francis L

    2015-07-01

    The Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society convened a meeting on pediatric deceased donation of organs in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 21 to 22, 2014. Thirty-four participants from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, Europe, and North and South America explored the practical and ethical issues pertaining to pediatric deceased donation and developed recommendations for policy and practice. Their expertise was inclusive of pediatric intensive care, internal medicine, and surgery, nursing, ethics, organ donation and procurement, psychology, law, and sociology. The report of the meeting advocates the routine provision of opportunities for deceased donation by pediatric patients and conveys an international call for the development of evidence-based resources needed to inform provision of best practice care in deceased donation for neonates and children. PMID:25996634

  20. [Civil and criminal laws regarding the donation, removal and transfer of organs (Transplantation Law) in Germany with respect to administrative and clinical autopsies].

    PubMed

    Dufková, J

    2000-07-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, transplantation medicine, which is relatively young and still developing, is now regulated by the law governing the donation, removal and transfer of organs (Transplantation Law--TPG) of 05. 11. 1997 and has been given a legal basis which satisfies even present-day standards. By evaluating the highly personal rights to potential organ donor and of his next-of-kin against the interests of maintaining life and health of others, the law works along the lines of the so-called extended consent solution. The basic civil law stipulations of sections 3 + 4 TPG, while protecting the donor's individual freedom of decision, give his next-of-kin or trusted confidant at or immediately following death the right to communicate his presumes wishes. In addition, it must be stated that through recent decisions handed down by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) in response to various complaints, this regulation has been recognised as conforming to constitutional laws. The basic content of the penal regulations states that violations of civil law rules and trafficking in organs are an offence. Current disclosed requirements for suitable donor organs, in particular for 1998, make it appear likely that the current deficit can be eliminated by the introduction of the organisational measures contained in the law. In conclusion, the situation with regard to autopsy should be addressed since, in contrast to the federal transplantation law which applies to all states, autopsy is regulated differently and, from a legal-political standpoint, unsatisfactorily by each individual state. It is desirable that this legal ambiguity be corrected by standardising the inconsistent and at times non-existent legal stipulations. PMID:10974752

  1. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Public Attitudes Toward a Presumed Consent System for Organ Donation Without and With a Priority Allocation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Mutalib, Muzalwana Abdul Talib @ Abdul; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Said, Saad Mohd; Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md; Lu, Yong Sook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the public's attitude towards a presumed consent system (PCS) of organ donation was estimated in 2 scenarios: without and with a priority allocation scheme (PAS). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 775 respondents. Using multiple logistic regressions, respondents’ objections to donating organs in both scenarios were estimated. In total, 63.9% of respondents would object to donating under a PCS, whereas 54.6% would object under a PCS with a PAS. Respondents with pretertiary education were more likely to object than were respondents with tertiary education, in both the first (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.615) and second (AOR = 1.728) scenarios. Young respondents were less likely to object than were middle-aged respondents, in both the first (AOR = 0.648) and second (AOR = 0.572) scenarios. Respondents with mid-ranged personal monthly income were more likely to object than were respondents with low income, in both the first (AOR = 1.994) and second (AOR = 1.519) scenarios. It does not seem that Malaysia is ready to implement a PCS. The educational level, age, and income of the broader public should be considered if a PCS, without or with a PAS, is planned for implementation in Malaysia. PMID:26496282

  2. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Public Attitudes Toward a Presumed Consent System for Organ Donation Without and With a Priority Allocation Scheme.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Mutalib, Muzalwana Abdul Talib Abdul; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Said, Saad Mohd; Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md; Lu, Yong Sook

    2015-10-01

    The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the public's attitude towards a presumed consent system (PCS) of organ donation was estimated in 2 scenarios: without and with a priority allocation scheme (PAS). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 775 respondents. Using multiple logistic regressions, respondents' objections to donating organs in both scenarios were estimated. In total, 63.9% of respondents would object to donating under a PCS, whereas 54.6% would object under a PCS with a PAS. Respondents with pretertiary education were more likely to object than were respondents with tertiary education, in both the first (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.615) and second (AOR = 1.728) scenarios. Young respondents were less likely to object than were middle-aged respondents, in both the first (AOR = 0.648) and second (AOR = 0.572) scenarios. Respondents with mid-ranged personal monthly income were more likely to object than were respondents with low income, in both the first (AOR = 1.994) and second (AOR = 1.519) scenarios. It does not seem that Malaysia is ready to implement a PCS. The educational level, age, and income of the broader public should be considered if a PCS, without or with a PAS, is planned for implementation in Malaysia. PMID:26496282

  3. Rational Design of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Small Molecules as Donating Materials for Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ruifa; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small molecules have been designed to explore their optical, electronic, and charge transport properties as organic solar cell (OSCs) materials. The calculation results showed that the designed molecules can lower the band gap and extend the absorption spectrum towards longer wavelengths. The designed molecules own the large longest wavelength of absorption spectra, the oscillator strength, and absorption region values. The optical, electronic, and charge transport properties of the designed molecules are affected by the introduction of different π-bridges and end groups. We have also predicted the mobility of the designed molecule with the lowest total energies. Our results reveal that the designed molecules are expected to be promising candidates for OSC materials. Additionally, the designed molecules are expected to be promising candidates for electron and/or hole transport materials. On the basis of our results, we suggest that molecules under investigation are suitable donors for [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its derivatives as acceptors of OSCs. PMID:26343640

  4. Rational Design of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Small Moleculesas Donating Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruifa; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small molecules have been designed to explore their optical, electronic, and charge transport properties as organic solar cell(OSCs) materials. The calculation results showed that the designed molecules can lower the band gap and extend the absorption spectrum towards longer wavelengths.The designed molecules own the large longest wavelength of absorption spectra,the oscillator strength, and absorption region values. The optical, electronic, and charge transport properties of the designed molecules are affected by the introduction of different π-bridges and end groups. We have also predicted the mobility of the designed molecule with the lowest total energies. Our results reveal that the designed molecules are expected to be promising candidates for OSC materials. Additionally, the designed molecules are expected to be promising candidates for electron and/or hole transport materials. On the basis of our results, we suggest that molecules under investigation are suitable donors for[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its derivatives as acceptors of OSCs. PMID:26343640

  5. Collagen in organ development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to know whether microgravity will adversely affect developmental processes. Collagens are macromolecular structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which may be altered by perturbations in gravity. Interstitial collagens have been shown to be necessary for normal growth and morphogenesis in some embryonic organs, and in the mouse salivary gland, the biosynthetic pattern of these molecules changes during development. Determination of the effects of microgravity on epithelial organ development must be preceded by crucial ground-based studies. These will define control of normal synthesis, secretion, and deposition of ECM macromolecules and the relationship of these processes to morphogenesis.

  6. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be an apheresis donation of plasma or plasma and platelets. The donation takes approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes. Call 1-800-RED-CROSS to find plasma apheresis donation opportunities near you. Learn More about ...

  7. Organization Development and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on organization development and change. "The Effectiveness of Total Quality Management: A Response to the Critics" (Douglas H. Smith, Ralph G. Lewis) identifies four effectiveness principles: customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, speaking with facts, and respect for people. "Fast Cycle…

  8. Improving kidney and live donation rates in Asia: living donation.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Hashmi, A; Akhtar, F; Hussain, M; Ahmed, E; Zafar, M N; Abbas, Z; Jawad, F; Sultan, S; Hasan, S M

    2004-09-01

    Organ transplantation started with organs donated by living subjects. Increasing demands brought cadaveric organ donation. The brain-death law, mandatory for this procedure, is prevalent in all countries involved in organ transplantation except Pakistan. Spain is the leading country in cadaveric organ donation (32.5 pmp). Despite the sources of living and cadaveric organs, both heart-beating and non-heart-beating, the gap between the demand and supply has widened. An example is the United States, where the numbers of patients on the waiting list for kidney transplantation have risen from 30,000 in 1988 to more than 116,000 in 2001. This has caused a resurgence in living donors all over the world. These can be related, unrelated, spousal, marginal, or ABO-incompatible donors. Family apprehensions, medical care costs, and nonexistent social security can be barriers to this form of organ donation. Unrelated organ donation can open the doors to commercialism. To make this process more successful, transplantation should be made reachable by all sectors of the population. This is possible when transplantation is taken to the public sector institutions and financed jointly by the government and community. To increase living organ donation especially in Asian countries, which face barriers of low literacy rates, ignorance, and cultural and religious beliefs, more efforts are needed. Public awareness and education play an important role. Appreciation and supporting the donors is necessary and justified. It is a noble act and should be recognized by offering job security, health insurance, and free education for the donor's children. PMID:15518688

  9. Anatomists' views on human body dissection and donation: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José Luis; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-12-01

    A survey was conducted to test three hypotheses: anatomists believe that dissection by students conveys not just anatomical knowledge but also essential skills and attitudes, including professionalism; anatomists approve of the donation of their own bodies or body parts/organs for medical/health-care training and research; attitudes towards body dissection and donation are not dependent upon gender or upon the extent of teaching experience, but are related to transcendental convictions relating to beliefs in the afterlife. Eighty-one anatomists, from 29 countries responded to the survey; 80% indicated that they required medical/health-care students to dissect human cadavers (60% females-86% males, p=0.02). Most teachers recorded that dissection was an instrument for training undergraduate students, an instrument for the development of professional skills, and an instrument to help to control emotions in the future doctor rather than being only a means of teaching/learning anatomy facts. Males were more receptive to the concept that dissection helps to control emotions in the future doctor (p=0.02). Most teachers (75%) said they were willing to donate their bodies, 41% saying they would donate body organs only, 9% would donate their entire bodies only, 25% would separately donate organs and also the entire body. The willingness to donate increased significantly with the years of teaching experience (p=0.04). Teachers who were not believers in the afterlife were more likely to donate their organs/bodies than were believers (p=0.03). Our findings showed that anatomists' attitudes towards body dissection and donation are dependent upon gender, upon the extent of teaching experience, and upon transcendental convictions. PMID:25048843

  10. The authority of next-of-kin in explicit and presumed consent systems for deceased organ donation: an analysis of 54 nations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M.; Horvat, Lucy D.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Background. The degree of involvement by the next-of-kin in deceased organ procurement worldwide is unclear. We investigated the next-of-kin’s authority in the procurement process in nations with either explicit or presumed consent. Methods. We collected data from 54 nations, 25 with presumed consent and 29 with explicit consent. We characterized the authority of the next-of-kin in the decision to donate deceased organs. Specifically, we examined whether the next-of-kin’s consent to procure organs was always required and whether the next-of-kin were able to veto procurement when the deceased had expressed a wish to donate. Results. The next-of-kin are involved in the organ procurement process in most nations regardless of the consent principle and whether the wishes of the deceased to be a donor were expressed or unknown. Nineteen of the 25 nations with presumed consent provide a method for individuals to express a wish to be a donor. However, health professionals in only four of these nations responded that they do not override a deceased’s expressed wish because of a family’s objection. Similarly, health professionals in only four of the 29 nations with explicit consent proceed with a deceased’s pre-existing wish to be a donor and do not require next-of-kin’s consent, but caveats still remain for when this is done. Conclusions. The next-of-kin have a considerable influence on the organ procurement process in both presumed and explicit consent nations. PMID:22121233

  11. [The transplant coordinator nurse, the harvesting of organs and tissues].

    PubMed

    Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Development of the transplantation of organs and tissues are not linked solely to the feats of surgery and biology. Without quality of the organization for the donation and the organ removal, nothing would be possible. Figurehead of this organization: the coordinator nurse for donation and the organ procurement. PMID:27338689

  12. An Interactive, Bilingual, Culturally Targeted Website About Living Kidney Donation and Transplantation for Hispanics: Development and Formative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Feinglass, Joe; Carney, Paula; Ramirez, Daney; Olivero, Maria; O'Connor, Kate; MacLean, Jessica; Brucker, James; Caicedo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background As the kidney shortage continues to grow, patients on the waitlist are increasingly turning to live kidney donors for transplantation. Despite having a disproportionately higher prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), fewer waitlisted Hispanic patients received living donor kidney transplants (LDKTs) than non-Hispanic whites in 2014. Although lack of knowledge has been identified as a barrier to living kidney donation (LKD) among Hispanics, little is known about information needs, and few bilingual educational resources provide transplant-related information addressing Hispanics’ specific concerns. Objective This paper describes the process of developing a bilingual website targeted to the Hispanic community. The website was designed to increase knowledge about LKD among Hispanic patients with ESKD, their families, and the public, and was inspired by educational sessions targeted to Hispanic transplant patients provided by Northwestern University’s Hispanic Kidney Transplant Program. Methods Northwestern faculty partnered with the National Kidney Foundation of Illinois for expertise in ESKD and Hispanic community partners across the Chicago area. We established a Community Advisory Board (CAB) of 10 Chicago-area Hispanic community leaders to provide insight into cultural concerns and community and patients’ needs. Website content development was informed by 9 focus groups with 76 adult Hispanic kidney transplant recipients, living kidney donors, dialysis patients, and the general Hispanic public. The website development effort was guided by community input on images, telenovela scripts, and messages. After initial development, formal usability testing was conducted with 18 adult Hispanic kidney transplant recipients, dialysis patients, and living kidney donors to identify ways to improve navigability, design, content, comprehension, and cultural sensitivity. Usability testing revealed consistently high ratings as “easy to navigate”,

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  14. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  15. 12 CFR 701.25 - Charitable contributions and donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on...

  16. 12 CFR 701.25 - Charitable contributions and donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on...

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  18. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  19. 12 CFR 701.25 - Charitable contributions and donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on...

  20. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  1. Asystole to cross-clamp period predicts development of biliary complications in liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death donors.

    PubMed

    Taner, C Burcin; Bulatao, Ilynn G; Perry, Dana K; Sibulesky, Lena; Willingham, Darrin L; Kramer, David J; Nguyen, Justin H

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to determine the procurement factors that lead to development of intrahepatic bile duct strictures (ITBS) and overall biliary complications in recipients of donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver grafts. Detailed information for different time points during procurement (withdrawal of support; SBP < 50 mmHg; oxygen saturation <30%; mandatory wait period; asystole; incision; aortic cross clamp) and their association with the development of ITBS and overall biliary complications were examined using logistic regression. Two hundred and fifteen liver transplants using DCD donors were performed between 1998 and 2010 at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of all the time periods during procurement, only asystole-cross clamp period was significantly different between patients with ITBS versus no ITBS (P = 0.048) and between the patients who had overall biliary complications versus no biliary complications (P = 0.047). On multivariate analysis, only asystole-cross clamp period was significant predictor for development of ITBS (P = 0.015) and development of overall biliary complications (P = 0.029). Hemodynamic changes in the agonal period did not emerge as risk factors. The results of the study raise the possibility of utilizing asystole-cross-clamp period in place of or in conjunction with donor warm ischemia time in determining viability or quality of liver grafts. PMID:22703372

  2. Platelet Donation (Apheresis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an appointment. You can also download the free Blood Donor App . Donating Blood Why Donate Blood? Eligibility Requirements ... Directed First Time Donors The Fear of Needles Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars ...

  3. In-hospital logistics: what are the key aspects for succeeding in each of the steps of the process of controlled donation after circulatory death?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Paul; Boffa, Catherine; Manara, Alex; Ysebaert, Dirk; de Jongh, Wim

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are becoming an increasingly important population of organ donors in Europe and worldwide. We report the state of the art regarding controlled DCD donation describing the organizational and technical aspects of establishing a controlled DCD programme and provide recommendations regarding the introduction and development of this type of programme. PMID:26497951

  4. Psychiatric disorders: are they an absolute contraindication to living donation?

    PubMed

    Rowley, Anthony A; Hong, Barry A; Martin, Susan; Jones, Linda; Vijayan, Anitha; Shenoy, Surendra; Jendrisak, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Little information has been published about the suitability of candidates for living organ donation who have a past or current psychiatric diagnosis. A retrospective review of 445 living donor kidney transplants performed at Barnes-Jewish Hospital's transplant center from 1995 to 2005 disclosed 42 donor candidates with such a history, prompting detailed psychological evaluation. Although 41 candidates (10% of the donor pool) met criteria for 1 or more psychiatric diagnoses, none were considered psychologically unfit for donation. Of these, 22 candidates underwent kidney donation without medical or surgical complications and without development of subsequent active psychological problems. Several donors maintained long-term contact up to 12 years to report good health and a high degree of satisfaction with the decision to donate. This experience suggests that for donor candidates with a psychiatric diagnosis, formal psychiatric evaluation to evaluate current mental health stability is warranted. Stable individuals, on or off therapy, can be considered fit to donate with expected short- and long-term outcome prognoses similar to those for the general population. PMID:19588662

  5. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  6. Platelet Donation (Apheresis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be ideal for a simultaneous platelet and plasma donation. Anyone in need can receive your plasma, it is universal. Only 4% of the U.S. ... can donate up to 24 times per year. Plasma can be collected simultaneously with a platelet donation. ...

  7. Recent development in organic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrocks, D. L.; Wirth, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    Discussion on recent developments of organic scintillators includes studies of organic compounds that form glass-like masses which scintillate and are stable at room temperature, correlations between molecular structure of organic scintillators and self-quenching, recently developed fast scintillators, and applications of liquid-scintillation counters.

  8. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran. PMID:27203584

  9. Outcome evaluation of 'sharing the gift of life': an organ and tissue donation educational program for American Indians.

    PubMed

    Fahrenwald, N L; Belitz, C; Keckler, A

    2010-06-01

    Culturally focused education about deceased donation is needed for American Indians (AIs). This study tested a program designed to impact intention to serve as a deceased donor for reservation dwelling AIs. A pre/posttest design and a community-based participatory research approach were used. The study was based upon the Transtheoretical Model. Adult participants (N = 1580, 58% women) were from four Northern Plains reservations. An outreach coordinator delivered the program using print and video materials. The outcome was stage of motivational readiness (SMR) to serve as a deceased donor. McNemar's test was used to compare pre- to postintervention changes in SMR. At baseline, 55% of participants were not thinking about being a donor (precontemplation stage) and 45% were thinking about it (contemplation stage). Postintervention, 43.1% of participants were unchanged in SMR and 56.9% progressed in SMR. Of those who progressed, 26.5% (n = 418) changed to the contemplation stage, 19.4% (n= 306) changed to the preparation stage (signed a donor card or joined a registry), and 11.1% (n = 175) confirmed a discussion of the decision with family (action stage). Progression in SMR from pre/post was significant, chi(2)(1) = 18.32, p < 0.05. The intervention resulted in important changes in deceased donor intentions for reservation dwelling AIs. PMID:20486910

  10. Developing Organizations: Diagnosis and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Paul R.; Lorsch, Jay W.

    This book represent s a personal statement of the authors' evolving experience as collaborators in the work of developing organizations. Focus is on three critical interfaces: the organization-environment, the group-group, and the individual organization. Close attention is paid to the attainment both of organizational goals and of individual…

  11. Crises in EFL Proficiency and Teacher Development in the Context of International Donation and Transformation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Ethiopia has been working to come out of social crises, modernise itself and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Although provided with billions of dollars by the West and their international agents, little has been changed and the crises seem never to abate, especially in the educational system. This study, thus, critically…

  12. Team-building through sailing: effects on health status, job satisfaction and work performance of health care professionals involved in organ and tissue donation.

    PubMed

    Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be

  13. Live kidney donation from a person with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Christopher; Masengu, Agnes; Courtney, Aisling E; Benson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There are many documented cases of a person with haemophilia successfully receiving a solid organ transplant, including liver and kidney. However, there is no literature reporting live organ donation by a person with haemophilia. Presumably, this is because the associated risks of excessive bleeding, inhibitor development after a period of intensive treatment with factor replacement and the possibility of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmission in those previously treated with blood products, are considered excessive. This case describes a 24-year-old man who was diagnosed with mild haemophilia A during his pretransplant work up as a potential live kidney donor to his sister. He then went on to successfully donate his kidney, without complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a person with haemophilia being a living organ donor. PMID:26628308

  14. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cell transplant; Allogeneic-donation ... There are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. "Auto" means self. Allogenic bone marrow transplant is when another person ...

  15. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  16. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  17. Organization Development: Strategies and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckhard, Richard

    This book, written for managers, specialists, and students of management, is based largely on the author's experience in helping organization leaders with planned-change efforts, and on related experience of colleagues in the field. Chapter 1 presents the background and causes for the increased concern with organization development and planned…

  18. Blood donation on posters: a worldwide review.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Originally pasted on walls and on locations reserved specially for that purpose, the poster is a medium for advertising and promotion to be seen on the streets and in public places. More recently, it has spread, in a smaller format, on dedicated indoor sites: billboards, columns, street furniture, and so forth. For transfusion, it appeared early on that the poster constitutes an important medium to promote blood donation. Thousands of posters supporting regional, national, or international blood donation campaigns have been created all over the planet, with a great variability of images, symbols, and slogans, which are particularly revealing about the image and the reality of blood donation. The topic is rich in information, particularly sociologic, on the variety of ways in which transfusion organizations promote blood donation. The authors present in this article the results of a study based on a total of 283 posters from nations on every continent, divided into 24 different themes. PMID:22070660

  19. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to…

  20. Sperm donation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Mor-Yosef, S; Schenker, J G

    1995-04-01

    Science and technology in the field of human reproduction present new legal, ethical and religious questions which do not always have immediate answers. The first step in the rapidly developed field of reproductive technology was the use of sperm donation (artificial insemination by donor, AID) and the establishment of sperm banks. The state of Israel faced these problems when the regulations for sperm donation were discussed. The fact that the main holy places for the three monotheistic religions are in Israel directly influences the make-up of the population constituents. Therefore, besides a majority of secular people, a high percentage of the population of Israel is very religious: Jews, Moslems and Christians. Thus any resolution relating to AID should take this demographic combination into account. The practice of AID is opposed by the different monotheistic religions. To avoid the conflict between secular and religious people, and between the different religions' perspectives, the legal problem of AID in Israel was solved not by laws but by regulations which were published by the Ministry of Health. The main idea behind this attitude is that the state and its authorities should not and do not deal with ethical or religious questions. Thus, the decision was left to the couples and to the donors. The regulations address technical requirements, health problems and confidential issues concerning the couple, the donor and the child. In this paper we present the different views relating to these problems as perceived by the different religions, and describe the solution that was accepted by the Israeli Ministry of Health. PMID:7650152

  1. Negative impact of trading in human organs on the development of transplantation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Abouna, G M

    1993-06-01

    With recent advances in transplanting human organs, increasing numbers of people in need of replacement organs are opting for transplantation. These medical advances and the subsequent public demand have, however, led to a supply-demand problem in which more patients request replacement organs than the number which are readily available. A flourishing international trade in human organs has developed in response to the comparatively high demand for organs. Organs in demand are bought from the poor for transplantation to wealthy clientele. For their contacts and services, brokers, private hospitals, and physicians earn enormous profits. It is estimated that more than 2000 kidneys since 1990 have been sold annually in India to wealthy recipients from the Middle East, the Far East, and Europe. The phenomenon has alarmed the medical profession, the public, and many governments and has been condemned by all major religions and most transplant societies. The author also condemns the sale of human organs as being damaging to the cause of transplantation as well as many other moral, religious, and ethical values and beliefs of society. The sale of organs negatively affects their altruistic donation by the public as well as the development of local cadaver procurement programs by national governments. All forms of paid organ donation should therefore be made illegal in all countries of the world. Sections consider the donor, the recipient, local transplant programs, the medical profession, and the impact upon society. PMID:8516911

  2. Body Donation after Death: The Mental Setup of Educated People

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Aniruddha; Mandal, Shyamash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Without dissection of cadavers teaching and learning of anatomy is nearly difficult; there remains a gap between the practical knowledge and the gathered theoretical knowledge. But there is a scarcity in the availability of the donated bodies for the sake of medical education. On the other hand a large number of people in our country are in waiting list for organ transplantation which could be overcome by deceased organ donation. Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness regarding body donation after death. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students, engineering students and doctors in Indian population. Total 300 participants were answered the questionnaire providing information about the knowledge and attitude towards body and organ donation. Result 46.33% of entire study group had strongly positive attitude about cadaveric organ donation and 17% had no idea about this. 18% of total participants were unwilling for body donation after death. Conclusion The present study has been done elaborately to find out the different barriers for body or organ donation. It is clear from the study that though there is high level of awareness, nobody has filled up the pledge form till now. It indicates that there is a gap between the knowledge and motivation for organ and body donation after death which has to be overcome by proper guidance and education. Media and other voluntary organisations could take an important role for this purpose. PMID:26266106

  3. Donation intentions among African American college students: decisional balance and self-efficacy measures.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kara L; Robbins, Mark L; Paiva, Andrea; Knott, J Eugene; Harris, Lorna; Mattice, Burton

    2007-12-01

    Although the need for transplantation among African Americans is high, their donation rates are disproportionately low. This study describes the development and validation of culturally adapted psychosocial measures, including Transtheoretical Model constructs, Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-efficacy, related to deceased organ and tissue donation for an African American college population. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses for Decisional Balance and Self-efficacy measures demonstrated factor structures similar to previous studies of other behavioral applications, indicated excellent model fit and showed good internal and external validity. This study developed brief measures with good psychometric properties for an emerging behavior change domain in a new population. PMID:17674183

  4. Tryptophan promotes charitable donating

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between serotonin (5-HT) and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP), the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others. PMID:25566132

  5. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  6. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  7. Increasing awareness of tissue donation: in the non-heart beating donor.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Susan

    2004-10-01

    Many healthcare professionals (nursing and medical staff) are familiar with asking families to consider organ donation in the brain-stem death patient. In contrast few healthcare professionals raise the subject of tissue donation with the newly bereaved non-heart beating donor (NHBD) families following cardiac death. The failure of healthcare professionals to approach theses families is strongly supported in the literature [Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. N. Am. 4 (1992) 63; William and Calif, 1996; Prof. Nurse 12 (1997) 482]. Coyle [Intensive Crit. Care Nurs. 16 (2000) 45] identified that for many nurses the conflict arises from the ethical principle of beneficence to do good and non-maleficence to do no harm. However, why is requesting organ and/or tissue donation an ethical issue, should it not be part and parcel of the care offered to bereaved families? Are healthcare professionals not making an issue of it? This article critically analyses the issues surrounding tissue donation and the role of healthcare professionals in raising awareness of eligibility for tissue donation. A tool of structured reflection [J. Nurse Manager 1 (1993) 9] will be used to highlight the use of reflective practice following a critical incident. On the basis of analysis of current practice consideration will be given for future theoretical arguments in development, research, and education. PMID:15450618

  8. 78 FR 20217 - National Donate Life Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07921 Filed 4-3-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8950 of March 29, 2013 National Donate Life Month, 2013 By the President of... commitment to one another. During National Donate Life Month, we renew the call for organ and tissue...

  9. The Mectizan Donation Program (MDP).

    PubMed

    Thylefors, B

    2008-09-01

    The launch of the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) in 1987, by Merck & Co., Inc., created a number of new opportunities for onchocerciasis control. The microfilaricide Mectizan was rapidly put to ?use by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), for mass treatment by field teams in selected areas. Other milestones in Mectizan treatment included the establishment, in 1992, of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, and the creation of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in 1995, the latter programme covering all African countries in need outside of the OCP area. In 1998, the donation of Mectizan was expanded to include the treatment of lymphatic filariasis in those African countries where that disease is co-endemic with onchocerciasis. In the past, the development of a broad partnership around the MDP played a very important role, including non-governmental development organizations collaborating with the ministries of health in endemic countries. A new community-directed treatment strategy, which made it easier to reach out to all those in need, including those in remote areas, was developed by the APOC in collaboration with the World Health Organization's Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). Several drug-management issues, including dosing, shelf-life, safety, and the reporting of severe adverse experiences, were addressed by the MDP, through its Mectizan Expert Committee, and by Merck & Co., Inc. A major research effort for the safe treatment of onchocerciasis in loiasis-endemic areas has also been supported by the MDP. Presently there are national programmes for Mectizan mass treatment in all 33 endemic countries in need of such treatment; >69 million Mectizan treatments for onchocerciasis were provided during 2006, and this number is expected to grow to at least 100 million treatments/year by 2010. This achievement has resulted in great public-health and socio

  10. Does living donation have advantages over deceased donation in liver transplantation?

    PubMed

    Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment option for patients with end-stage liver disease. Living donor LT (LDLT) has developed as an alternative to deceased donor LT (DDLT) in order to overcome the critical shortage of deceased organ donations, particularly in Asia. LDLT offers several advantages over DDLT. The major advantage of LDLT is the reduction in waiting time mortality. Especially among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), LDLT can shorten the waiting time and lower the dropout rate. The Hong Kong group reported that median waiting time was significantly shorter for LDLT than for DDLT. Intention-to-treat survival rates of HCC patients with voluntary live donors were significantly higher than those of patients without voluntary live donors. In contrast, a multicenter adult-to-adult LDLT retrospective cohort study reported that LDLT recipients displayed a significantly higher rate of HCC recurrence than DDLT recipients, although LDLT recipients had shorter waiting times than DDLT recipients. The advantage of LDLT involves the more liberal criteria for HCC compared with those for DDLT. Various preoperative interventions including nutritional treatment can also be planned for both the donor and recipient in LDLT. Conversely, LDLT has marked unfavorable characteristics in terms of donor risks. Donor morbidity is not infrequent and the donor mortality rate is estimated at around 0.1-0.3%. In conclusion, living donation is not necessarily advantageous over deceased donation in LT. Taking the advantages and disadvantages of each option into consideration, LDLT and DDLT should both be used to facilitate effective LT for patients requiring transplant. PMID:20880167

  11. "The Tramp", a blood donation propagandist?

    PubMed

    Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    The French pioneer for blood transfusion, who eventually organized the very early blood transfusion centers worldwide, went to imagine a scenario written in purpose for Charlie Chaplin, the unique character of "The Tramp" ("Charlot" in French). The movie Star was offered to feature a blood donation propagandist, and no longer the perpetual, well-known, "loser". This anecdote, besides being amusing, tells a lot on how Arnault Tzank encompassed all the difficulties in collecting blood enough to meet the demand, at all times; his proposal turns out to be extremely modern and questions nowadays marketing for blood donation. PMID:26778105

  12. "Why can't I give you my organs after my heart has stopped beating?" An overview of the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues concerning organ donation after circulatory death in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Alberto; Abelli, Massimo; Azzoni, Giampaolo; Biancofiore, Gianni; Citterio, Franco; Geraci, Paolo; Latronico, Nicola; Picozzi, Mario; Procaccio, Francesco; Riccioni, Luigi; Rigotti, Paolo; Valenza, Franco; Vesconi, Sergio; Zamperetti, Nereo

    2016-03-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of functioning organs for transplantation. Clinical results are promising and public acceptance is quite good in most western countries. Yet, although DCD is widespread in Europe, several problems still persist in Italy as well as in some other countries. This paper aims to describe the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues at stake, bearing in mind the particular situation created by Italian legislation. Currently, as regards DCD, Italy is somewhat different from other countries. Therefore, every effort should be made for the safe and effective implementation of DCD programs: uncontrolled DCD programs should be promoted and encouraged, within the framework of shared and authoritative rules. At the same time, we need to tackle the question of controlled DCD, promoting debate among all involved subjects regarding the fundamental issues of end-of-life care within protocols that best integrate the highest standard of care for the dying and the legitimate interests of those awaiting a life-saving organ. PMID:26372113

  13. Voluntary Body Donation: The Gift that Lives on Forever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-10-01

    Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.

  14. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities. PMID:22732046

  15. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory and separated into components (red blood cells, plasma and sometimes into platelets and cryoprecipitate). After processing, the red blood cells can be stored for up to 42 days. Apheresis An apheresis blood donation is one where the blood goes through a special machine ...

  16. Living kidney donation: outcomes, ethics, and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Reese, Peter P; Boudville, Neil; Garg, Amit X

    2015-05-16

    Since the first living-donor kidney transplantation in 1954, more than half a million living kidney donations have occurred and research has advanced knowledge about long-term donor outcomes. Donors in developed countries have a similar life expectancy and quality of life as healthy non-donors. Living kidney donation is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, although this outcome is uncommon (<0·5% increase in incidence at 15 years). Kidney donation seems to elevate the risks of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Many donors incur financial expenses due to factors such as lost wages, need for sick days, and travel expenses. Yet, most donors have no regrets about donation. Living kidney donation is practised ethically when informed consent incorporates information about risks, uncertainty about outcomes is acknowledged when it exists, and a donor's risks are proportional to benefits for the donor and recipient. Future research should determine whether outcomes are similar for donors from developing countries and donors with pre-existing conditions such as obesity. PMID:26090646

  17. Pregnancy and child outcome after oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Söderström-Anttila, V

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade oocyte donation has been highly successful for treating women previously thought to be hopelessly infertile. The pregnancy rate after oocyte donation is among the highest reported for any fertility-enhancing procedure. Most investigators have noted an increased rate of obstetric complications in these pregnancies. In particular, pregnancy-induced hypertension appears to occur more often than expected, and the Caesarean section rate is high. However, the majority of oocyte recipients experience a favourable pregnancy and perinatal outcome. When perinatal complications occur they are usually related to multiple gestation. The high frequency of multiple pregnancy after oocyte donation, as well as in all other fields of assisted reproduction, deserves attention, and efforts to avoid multi-fetal gestation must be made. There are only a few studies on post-natal growth and development of young children born after oocyte donation. The health of these children appears to be within normal ranges. The psychological consequences of the treatment on the child require further investigation. Thus far, studies have shown normal socio-emotional development in the child and a warm relationship between the parents and the child in oocyte donation families. PMID:11212070

  18. A Scarcity of Organs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areen, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Resistance to organ donation and the continuing shortage of donated organs is discussed and four legal approaches to organ acquisition are examined. A fifth, based on the principle of supported individual autonomy, is proposed. (MSE)

  19. Ethical criteria for procuring and distributing organs for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Childress, J F

    1989-01-01

    This article provides an ethical analysis and assessment of various actual and proposed policies of organ procurement and distribution in light of moral principles already embedded in U.S. institutions, laws, policies, and practices. Evaluating different methods of acquisition of human body parts--donation (express and presumed), sales, abandonment, and expropriation--the author argues for laws and policies, including required request, to maintain and facilitate express donation of organs by individuals and their families. Such laws and policies need adequate time for a determination of their effectiveness before society moves to other major alternatives, such as a market. In organ allocation and distribution, which have close moral connections with organ procurement, the author defends the judgment of the federal Task Force on Organ Transplantation that the community should have dispositional authority over donated organs, that professionals should be viewed as trustees and stewards of donated organs, and that the public should be heavily involved in the formation of policies of allocation and distribution. Concentrating on policies being developed in the United Network for Organ Sharing, the author examines the point system for cadaveric kidneys, the access of foreign nationals to organs donated in the U.S., and the multiple listings of patients seeking transplants. He concludes by identifying two major problems of equitable access to donated organs that will have to be addressed by social institutions other than UNOS: access to the waiting list for donated organs and the role of ability to pay in extrarenal transplants. PMID:2654283

  20. 3 CFR 8792 - Proclamation 8792 of April 2, 2012. National Donate Life Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... encourage every American to consider becoming an organ and tissue donor; to consult their family, friends... state organ donor registry. To learn more about organ and tissue donation and how to enroll in a donor registry, visit: www.OrganDonor.gov. Even as millions of Americans choose to donate life, our...

  1. 3 CFR 8950 - Proclamation 8950 of March 29, 2013. National Donate Life Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....OrganDonor.gov. Together, we can respond to the donor shortage that keeps thousands of patients from... organ transplant. To help them get the care they need, millions of Americans choose to be organ and... another. During National Donate Life Month, we renew the call for organ and tissue donation. Most...

  2. Donation after cardiac death and the emergency department: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jeremy R; Schears, Raquel M; Padela, Aasim I

    2014-01-01

    Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasingly considered as an option to address the shortage of organs available for transplantation, both in the United States and worldwide. The procedures for DCD differ from procedures for donation after brain death and are likely less familiar to emergency physicians (EPs), even as this process is increasingly involving emergency departments (EDs). This article explores the ED operational and ethical issues surrounding this procedure. PMID:24552527

  3. Overcoming beneficiary race as an impediment to charitable donations: social dominance orientation, the experience of moral elevation, and donation behavior.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Dan; Aquino, Karl; McFerran, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between social dominance orientation (SDO), the experience of moral elevation, and Whites' donations to charitable organizations. Study 1 used video clips depicting acts of moral excellence to elicit a state of moral elevation (a distinctive feeling of warmth and expansion, which is accompanied by admiration, affection, and even love for people whose exemplary moral behavior is being observed). Results show that moral elevation increased participants' willingness to donate to a Black-oriented charity and attenuated the negative effect of the group-based dominance (GBD) component of SDO on donation behavior. Studies 2 and 3 replicate and extend these findings by using a written story to elicit a state of moral elevation and examining actual donations to a Black-oriented charity. Results show that moral elevation increased donations to the Black-oriented charity and neutralized the negative influence of GBD. PMID:19017786

  4. Completion of advanced care directives is associated with willingness to donate.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J. Daryl; Curtis, J. Randall; Allen, Margaret D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A useful framework for initiating organ donation discussions in the primary care setting may help increase willingness to donate and thereby increase the frequency of organ transplantation. Given the lower willingness to donate among African Americans and that a higher proportion of African Americans die while waiting for an organ transplant, this is an important group to consider in such an approach. We examined the association among completion of a living will and willingness to donate and the influence of race in this relationship. METHODS: A nationwide telephone interview survey using random digit dialing of households in high- and low-density African-American census blocks. Results: One hundred-eighty-eight adults participated (41% cooperation rate). In a multivariate model, factors associated with willingness to donate included having signed a living will (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.13-5.23), talking with a physician about organ donation (OR=3.04, 95% CI=1.07-8.67) and white race (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.23-5). CONCLUSION: The public is generally supportive of organ donation although African Americans remain less willing to donate after controlling for confounding variables. Physicians interested in increasing donation rates should consider incorporating organ donation into discussions of advance care planning and end-of-life care. PMID:16775911

  5. Development of a thermoacoustic organ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodola, Nathan; Tillotson, Ben; Bruno, Bradford

    2005-09-01

    A new musical instrument based on the principles of thermoacoustics has been designed and a prototype has been constructed. The instrument, referred to as the Union Thermoacoustic Organ (UTO), is unique among instruments in several aspects. The UTO creates sound by imposing a temperature difference across a stack of closely spaced channels housed between two heat exchangers in a resonant tube (this arrangement creates a thermoacoustic heat engine). The hot and cold heat exchangers are maintained at temperature by propane flames and liquid nitrogen, respectively. The primary energy source used to create the sound is a flame, so the UTO falls into the broad classification of experimental instruments known as pyrophones. However, unlike previous pyrophones the sound produced by the UTO is easily controlled, so it can play recognizable melodies and even be integrated into ensembles with conventional instruments. The prototype UTO has 14 notes (and hence 14 tubes) which are actuated by means of a mechanical keyboard. The instrument was designed by two senior mechanical engineering students as a capstone design project. The paper describes the principles of operation of this unique instrument, discusses the design and development of the instrument, and gives examples of its musical capabilities.

  6. How to increase living donation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Connie L

    2011-04-01

    Living donation is the key to increasing access to successful solid organ transplantation worldwide. However, the means to expanding the number of living donors on a global scale are not known. Although there have been many suggestions for the best approach, cultural issues may limit the effectiveness of some strategies. Only a few ideas have been studied, and one in particular- outright payment to donors - may raise ethical issues that are difficult to surmount and might negatively alter altruistic behavior. With respect to the present environment, this article will describe some of the approaches that are being discussed to increase the number of living donors, with a particular focus on kidney transplantation. PMID:21210867

  7. 3 CFR 8491 - Proclamation 8491 of April 1, 2010. National Donate Life Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of circumstances through organ, tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life... groups, and private organizations to join forces to boost the number of organ, tissue, blood, and stem cell donors throughout our Nation. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day...

  8. 3 CFR 8356 - Proclamation 8356 of April 1, 2009. National Donate Life Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... A Proclamation Through organ, tissue, and marrow donation Americans can give the extraordinary gift... tradition of generosity through organ, tissue, and marrow donation. These selfless individuals have saved... contributions. I urge all Americans to follow these examples by considering becoming an organ, tissue, or...

  9. Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Peter F

    2006-10-01

    In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed. PMID:16810510

  10. Theological reflections on donation after circulatory death: the wisdom of Paul Ramsey and Moshe Feinstein.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, A

    2008-10-01

    Due to the worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation, there has been an increased use of organs obtained after circulatory death alone. A protocol for this procedure has recently been approved by a major transplant consortium. This development raises serious moral and ethical concerns. Two renowned theologians of the previous generation, Paul Ramsey and Moshe Feinstein, wrote extensively on the ethical issues relating to transplantation, and their work has much relevance to current moral dilemmas. Their writings relating to definition of death, organ transplantation and the care of the terminally ill are briefly presented, and their potential application to the moral problem of organ donation after circulatory death is discussed. PMID:18827098

  11. New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Marie; Ruiz, Angel; Evrard, Patrick; Kuiper, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Neuberger, James; Ploeg, Rutger

    2016-07-01

    In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation. PMID:26991858

  12. The CORE Model to Student Organization Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyne, Robert K.

    Student organization development (SOD) is an emerging technology for conducting intentional student development through positive alteration of student organizations. One model (CORE) for conceptualizing SOD is in use at the Student Development Center of the University of Cincinnati. The CORE model to SOD is comprised of three concentric rings, the…

  13. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide. PMID:25530794

  14. 42 CFR 121.6 - Organ procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organ procurement. 121.6 Section 121.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.6 Organ procurement. The suitability of organs donated...

  15. 42 CFR 121.6 - Organ procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organ procurement. 121.6 Section 121.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.6 Organ procurement. The suitability of organs donated...

  16. Institutional Management through Organization Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles O.

    This paper provides information on the role of organizational development in the institutional planning process at Florida Junior College (FJC), using short statements on the functions and objectives of each of the major components within the planning process. First, an overview is provided of organizational development and its value in…

  17. Racially conditional donation: the example of umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Komesaroff, Paul A; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Samuel, Gabrielle; Lipworth, Wendy; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    While direction of donated tissue to family members has long been accepted, direction to members of specific racial groups has been opposed, on the basis that it is discriminatory and contrary to the ethos the institution of organ donation seeks to promote. It has, however, recently been proposed that racially conditional donation may provide a useful--and ethically acceptable--way to address the social inequalities and injustices experienced by certain cultural groups. This article examines the ethical, legal and cultural arguments for and against racially conditional donation, concluding that the practice is more likely to undermine the values of equity and justice than to promote them and that it may also lead to other unfavourable personal and social outcomes. PMID:22558904

  18. Development and organization of a multiple organ transplantation program.

    PubMed Central

    Bahnson, H T; Starzl, T E; Hakala, T R; Hardesty, R L; Griffith, B P; Iwatsuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Multiple organ transplantation has come of age. Indications are that it will continue to grow, if not flourish. The complexity of modern surgical care, its multiperson dependency, and the need for the surgeon to retain knowledge and involvement with his patient's care and problems are nowhere more evident than in multiple organ transplantation. Each organ presents its own associated challenges, the prime solution of which lies with a skillful and dedicated surgeon; but with all organs there are challenges of expectantly waiting patients, housing during the wait and for postoperative observation, procurement, erratic scheduling of the operating room, nursing, social service, immunosuppression, immunopathology, interest of hospital public relations and of the news media, and perennial care. This report concerns the growth and development of the multiple organ transplant program at the University Health Center of Pittsburgh and describes some answers to the challenges presented. PMID:3521507

  19. [Donation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Ladrón Llorente, Yolanda; Rández Alvero, Mónica; Carrascosa Ridruejo, Ana Isabel; Bregua García, Judith; Blanco Sotés, Carmelo; Calavia Lacarra, Jesús

    2004-06-01

    The donation of blood by means of aphaeresis by means of a cellular separator is a procedure through which one obtains blood components in the most efficient manner, yielding the best quality in the final product although this procedure requires special characteristics on behalf of the donor and consequently has a higher cost. The authors have analyzed the characteristics of 81 donors who used this procedure and who voluntarily came to our blood bank over a 17 month period from January 2002 until May 2003; 287 such procedures were carried out. The quality of the product obtained, as a benefit for the possible receptor, compensates the greater dedication by the donor and the high cost of this technique. PMID:15315098

  20. Recommendations for donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Heurn, L W Ernest; Talbot, David; Nicholson, Michael L; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Sanchez-Fructuoso, Ana I; Weekers, Laurent; Barrou, Benoit

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors provides an invaluable source for kidneys for transplantation. Over the last decade, we have observed a substantial increase in the number of DCD kidneys, particularly within Europe. We provide an overview of risk factors associated with DCD kidney function and survival and formulate recommendations from the sixth international conference on organ donation in Paris, for best-practice guidelines. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Ovid Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Topics are discussed, including donor selection, organ procurement, organ preservation, recipient selection and transplant management. PMID:26340168

  1. EULID project: European living donation and public health.

    PubMed

    Manyalich, M; Ricart, A; Martínez, I; Balleste, C; Paredes, D; Vilardell, J; Avsec, D; Dias, L; Fehrman-Eckholm, I; Hiesse, C; Kyriakides, G; Line, P D; Maxwell, A; Nanni Costa, A; Paez, G; Turcu, R; Walaszewski, J

    2009-01-01

    The choice of transplantation from a living donor offers advantages over a deceased donor. However, it also carries disadvantages related to donor risks in terms of health and safety. Furthermore, there are several controversial ethical aspects to be taken into account. Several national and international institutions and the scientific community have stated standards that have great influence on professional codes and legislations. Living organ donation and transplantation are to some extent regulated by parliamentary acts in most European countries. It is necessary to take a step forward to develop a legal framework to regulate all of these processes to guarantee the quality and to prevent illegal and nonethical practices. It is also necessary to develop and implement living donor protection practices not only in terms of physical health, but also to minimize potential impacts on the psychological, social, and economic spheres. Finally, an additional effort should be made to create a database model with recommendations for registration practices as part of the standardized follow-up care for the living donor. The European Living Donation (EULID) project's (http://www.eulivingdonor.eu/) main objective was to contribute to a European consensus to set standards and recommendations about legal, ethical, and living donor protection practices to guarantee the health and safety of living donors. PMID:19715823

  2. How Somatic Adult Tissues Develop Organizer Activity.

    PubMed

    Vogg, Matthias C; Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The growth and patterning of anatomical structures from specific cellular fields in developing organisms relies on organizing centers that instruct surrounding cells to modify their behavior, namely migration, proliferation, and differentiation. We discuss here how organizers can form in adult organisms, a process of utmost interest for regenerative medicine. Animals like Hydra and planarians, which maintain their shape and fitness thanks to a highly dynamic homeostasis, offer a useful paradigm to study adult organizers in steady-state conditions. Beside the homeostatic context, these model systems also offer the possibility to study how organizers form de novo from somatic adult tissues. Both extracellular matrix remodeling and caspase activation play a key role in this transition, acting as promoters of organizer formation in the vicinity of the wound. Their respective roles and the crosstalk between them just start to be deciphered. PMID:26970630

  3. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by...

  4. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by...

  5. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by...

  6. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by...

  7. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by...

  8. 11 CFR 300.11 - Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C 441i(d)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organization described in 26 U.S.C. 527, unless the organization is: (i) A political committee under 11 CFR 100.5; (ii) A State, district, or local committee of a political party; or (iii) The authorized campaign... organizations (2 U.S.C 441i(d)). (a) Prohibitions. A national committee of a political party, including...

  9. Organization Development: Its Nature, Origins, and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren G.

    A primer on organization development (OD), this book presents a basic statement for people in organizations and for practitioners and students of OD. Many concrete examples are included. After a definition of OD, the basic conditions which create the need for OD are discussed: rapid change, growth in size, increasing diversity, change in…

  10. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood. PMID:18343199

  11. [Marketing in the world of blood donation].

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Public and non-profit organizations have long debated how marketing concepts and management styles apply to their sector of activity as they are largely derived from principles of consumerism and economic decision-making proper to the private sector. The arrival of marketing in the world of blood donation is no exception. The purpose of this article is to illustrate concretely how marketing techniques can contribute in achieving the objectives of a blood donation program: a marketing model that is adapted to the realities of blood donation in Quebec. Although types of marketing are as varied as the fields they are used in, the major marketing activities of this program fall under positioning, operational or relationship marketing. The process is presented in the form of a cycle that includes four major phases containing all marketing functions, that is, raising public awareness, acquiring a clientele, client retention and loyalty building, and establishing the relationship. Finally, the information and effective management of information are at the heart of the marketing process. In fact, research, understanding our customers and their expectations, and measuring our performance are essential for the success of any marketing initiative. PMID:17524694

  12. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  13. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  14. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  15. Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation: Reducing Financial Barriers to Live Kidney Donation--Recommendations from a Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Tushla, Lara; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Milton, Jennifer; Rodrigue, James R; Schold, Jesse D; Hays, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Live-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the best treatment for eligible people with late-stage kidney disease. Despite this, living kidney donation rates have declined in the United States in recent years. A potential source of this decline is the financial impact on potential and actual living kidney donors (LKDs). Recent evidence indicates that the economic climate may be associated with the decline in LDKT and that there are nontrivial financial ramifications for some LKDs. In June 2014, the American Society of Transplantation's Live Donor Community of Practice convened a Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Live Kidney Donation. The conference included transplant professionals, patients, and other key stakeholders (with the financial support of 10 other organizations) and sought to identify best practices, knowledge gaps, and opportunities pertaining to living kidney donation. This workgroup was tasked with exploring systemic and financial barriers to living kidney donation. The workgroup reviewed literature that assessed the financial effect of living kidney donation, analyzed employment and insurance factors, discussed international models for addressing direct and indirect costs faced by LKDs, and summarized current available resources. The workgroup developed the following series of recommendations to reduce financial and systemic barriers and achieve financial neutrality for LKDs: (1) allocate resources for standardized reimbursement of LKDs' lost wages and incidental costs; (2) pass legislation to offer employment and insurability protections to LKDs; (3) create an LKD financial toolkit to provide standardized, vetted education to donors and providers about options to maximize donor coverage and minimize financial effect within the current climate; and (4) promote further research to identify systemic barriers to living donation and LDKT to ensure the creation of mitigation strategies. PMID:26002904

  16. Treatment-donation-stockpile dynamics in ebola convalescent blood transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xi; Sun, Xiaodan; Lan, Kunquan; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-03-01

    The interim guidance issued by the World Health Organization during the West Africa 2014 Ebola outbreak provides guidelines on the use of convalescent blood from Ebola survivors for transfusion therapy. Here we develop a novel mathematical model, based on the interim guidance, to examine the nonlinear transmission-treatment-donation-stockpile dynamics during an Ebola outbreak and with a large scale use of the transfusion therapy in the population. We estimate the reduction of case fatality ratio by introducing convalescent blood transfusion as a therapy, and inform optimal treatment-donation-stockpile strategies to balance the treatment need for case fatality ratio reduction and the strategic need of maintaining a minimal blood bank stockpile for other control priorities. PMID:26721704

  17. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  18. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  19. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  20. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  1. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  2. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  3. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  4. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  5. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  6. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  7. Free blood donation mobile applications.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors. PMID:25732077

  8. The introduction of breast milk donation in a Muslim country.

    PubMed

    al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y

    2000-11-01

    Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU. PMID:11155613

  9. A Holistic Equilibrium Theory of Organization Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baiyin; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a holistic equilibrium theory of organizational development (OD). The theory states that there are three driving forces in organizational change and development--rationality, reality, and liberty. OD can be viewed as a planned process of change in an organization so as to establish equilibrium among these three interacting…

  10. Eligibility of patients withheld or withdrawn from life-sustaining treatment to organ donation after circulatory arrest death: epidemiological feasibility study in a French Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transplantation brings sustainably improved quality of life to patients with end-stage organ failure. Persisting shortfall in available organs prompted French authorities and practitioners to focus on organ retrieval in patients withdrawn from life-sustaining treatment and awaiting cardiac arrest (Maastricht classification category III). The purpose of this study was to assess the theoretical eligibility of non-heart-beating donors dying in the intensive care unit (ICU) after a decision to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment (WoWt). Methods We collected the clinical and biological characteristics of all consecutive patients admitted to our ICU and qualified for a WoWt procedure under the terms of the French Leonetti law governing end-of-life care during a 12-month period. The theoretical organ donor eligibility (for kidney, liver, or lung retrieval) of deceased patients was determined a posteriori 1) according to routine medical criteria for graft selection and 2) according to the WoWt measures implemented and their impact on organ viability. Results A total of 596 patients (mean age: 67 ± 16 yr; gender ratio M/F: 1.6; mean SAPS (Simplified Acute Physiology Score) II: 54 ± 24) was admitted to the ICU, of which 84 patients (mean age: 71 ± 14 yr, 14% of admissions, gender ratio M/F: 3.2) underwent WoWt measures. Eight patients left the unit alive. Forty-four patients presented a contraindication ruling out organ retrieval either preexisting admission (n = 20) or emerged during hospitalization (n = 24). Thirty-two patients would have been eligible as kidney (n = 23), liver (n = 22), or lung donors (n = 2). Cardiopulmonary support was withdrawn in only five of these patients, and three died within 120 minutes after withdrawal (the maximum delay compatible with organ viability for donor grafts). Conclusions In this pilot study, a significant number of patients deceased under WoWt conditions theoretically would

  11. The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, C; Bonizzoli, M; Valente, S; Cianchi, G; Migliaccio, M L; Gensini, G F; Peris, A

    2014-11-01

    Donor scarcity and the increased need for organ transplantation has prompted the development of an alternative source of donors to the more conventional brain dead donor. While in a Beating-Heart donor, abdominal and intrathoracic organs are perfused, in a non-beating heart donor (NHBD, or DCD), perfusion should be maintained, after confirmation of death, by means of ECMO and inflation of intra-aortic balloon accordingly to the localization of the organs that should be transplanted. In this setting, ECMO allows selective perfusion of the organs which should be transplanted ("compartmental ECMO"). The present review is aimed at summarizing the rationale for ECMO use in organ donation in DCD and the available evidence on this topic, as well as available evidence (in clinical studies) on normothermic organ preservation using ECMO in adults. Despite the fact that available studies suffer from methodological limitations (small cohorts, retrospective analysis, not always comparative), they all reach the same conclusion: the concept of extracorporeal support with oxygenation in DCD seems very promising since it has been reported to increase the available organ supply by approximately 20% to 25%2 by increasing the number of donors by approximately 33%. Centres with ECMO facilities should implement local programmes for donation after cardiac death (both in the emergency department and intensive care) using ECMO taking into account that this technique has been proven to increase donor pool. PMID:24430005

  12. Donor Hemovigilance with Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Diekamp, Ulrich; Gneißl, Johannes; Rabe, Angela; Kießig, Stephan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports on unexpected events (UEs) during blood donation (BD) inadequately consider the role of technical UEs. Methods Defined local and systemic UEs were graded by severity; technical UEs were not graded. On January 1, 2008, E.B.P.S.-Logistics (EBPS) installed the UE module for plasma management software (PMS). Donor room physicians entered UEs daily into PMS. Medical directors reviewed entries quarterly. EBPS compiled data on donors, donations, and UEs from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011. Results 6,605 UEs were observed during 166,650 BDs from 57,622 donors for a corrected incidence of 4.30% (0.66% local, 1.59% systemic, 2.04% technical UEs). 2.96% of BDs were accompanied by one UE and 0.45% by >1 UE (2-4). 6.3% of donors donating blood for their first time, 3.5% of those giving blood for their second time, and 1.9% of donors giving their third or more BD experienced UEs. Most common UEs were: discontinued collections due to venous access problems, repeated venipuncture, and small hematomas. Severe circulatory UEs occurred at a rate of 16 per 100,000 BDs. Conclusions Technical UEs were common during BD. UEs accompanied first and second donations significantly more often than subsequent donations. PMID:26195932

  13. Generation Y and Blood Donation: The Impact of Altruistic Help in a Darwiportunistic Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Summary This article focuses on the members of Generation Y and their willingness to offer voluntary (unpaid) blood donations. Using statistics from various sources, a three-stage model is developed to explain blood donation behaviour especially of this generation. It consists of i) developing altruism, ii) raising the willingness to donate blood, and iii) activating actual blood donation behaviour. Members of Generation Y live in a Darwinistic society. They also to some degree act opportunistically, but not in contradiction to altruism. For that reason, the article positions itself in the theoretical framework of Darwi-portunism and derives practical suggestions as well as implications for research. PMID:21048826

  14. Pro-Donation Behaviours of Nursing Students from the Four Countries of the UK

    PubMed Central

    McGlade, Donal; McClenahan, Carol; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of the organ donation system depends on the health professionals involved in procurement and in dealing with donors and their families. Concerns about lack of knowledge and experience of organ donation have been expressed among such professionals but there is a paucity of literature to indicate the basis of such concerns and where knowledge may be lacking. Given that regional variations in organ donation rates exist in the UK, this study investigates knowledge about and attitudes towards organ donation among student nurses in different countries of the UK and examines regional variations. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 667 student nurses (female:male = 582∶85) aged 18 to 50 years (mean [SD] 25.4 [7.1] years) recruited from a total of five Universities (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, England) during the period of January to September 2011. Results Registration behaviour among participants was shown to vary depending upon many different factors that include birthplace, residency, fear of death and concerns of medical distrust. Conclusions Regional variations in organ donation behaviour in the UK were found in the cohorts of student nurses who participated in this study. These variations include willingness to register and to donate specific body parts and not others. The relationship between attitude and behaviour and how this may influence the decision making process of organ donation, as well as the underlying factors that result in regional variations, require further investigation. PMID:24614807

  15. Voices of donors: case reports of body donation in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L; Chan, Lap Ki

    2012-01-01

    Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide information on how to increase the body-donation rate. To understand the factors involved in the decision to donate one's body, the authors interviewed a registered donor and the daughter of another donor in Hong Kong. The authors interpreted the information collected in light of the available published reports, which mostly focus on body donation in Western countries. Despite the consistency of some demographic factors and motivations between the participants in our study and those investigated in the published reports from Western countries, there are differences in education level and socioeconomic status between the donors in our study and those from Western studies. The authors also suggest that Confucianism and Buddhism in Chinese culture may motivate potential body donors in Hong Kong. Other important factors that influence the body-donation decision may include family members' body donation, registration as organ donors, and good doctor-patient relationships. Although case report studies have their limitations, this study allows us to explore the complexity of events and establish the interconnectivity of factors involved in body donation, which could not be achieved in previous survey-based studies. PMID:22532489

  16. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O

    2012-03-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 171st scientific meeting of the Dutch Anatomical Society in 2009 to see to what extent anatomical professionals are willing to donate their own body. The results reveal that none of the survey participants are registered as a whole body donor and that only a quarter of them would consider the possibility of body donation. We argue that the two main constraints preventing Dutch anatomical professionals from donating their own body are their professional and their social environments. In contrast to the absence of registered body donors, half of the anatomical professionals are registered as an organ donor. This figure far exceeds the proportion of registered organ donors among the general Dutch population. PMID:21748808

  17. Gendering the Gift of Life: Family Politics and Kidney Donation in Egypt and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Hamdy, Sherine F

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate how living kidney donation is a particularly gendered experience. We draw on anthropologists' contributions to understanding the globalization of reproductive technologies to argue that kidney donation similarly endangers and preserves fertility, thereby unsettling and reifying gendered familial labor. Based on fieldwork in two ethnographic sites--Egypt and Mexico--we examine how kidney donation is figured as a form of social reproduction. In both settings, kidney recipients rely almost exclusively on organs from living donors. We focus on how particular gender ideologies--as evident, for example, in the trope of the "self-sacrificing mother"--can serve as a cultural technology to generate donations in an otherwise organ-scarce medical setting. Alternatively, transplantation can disrupt gender norms and reproductive viability. In demonstrating the pervasiveness of gendered tropes in the realm of transplantation, we unsettle assumptions about the "family" as the locus of pure, altruistic donation. PMID:26083043

  18. [Current status and future of organ transplantation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Norihide

    2010-12-01

    When Organ Transplantation Law was issued, Japanese Organ Transplantation Network (JOT) was established. JOT plays a role in listing recipients, management and education of JOT coordinator(Co), publicity, and head-quarter at the time of organ donation. JOT Cos play roles in getting consent for organ donation from relatives, donor evaluation and management, organ transport, management of organ recovery and taking care of donor families during and after donation. Every prefecture has at least one own prefectural Co who is mainly working for public education and hospital development. They help JOT Co at the time of organ procurement. Most prefectures commission hospital staffs in procurement hospital to be an in-hospital Co, who find potential donors and support organ procurement. PMID:21174685

  19. Organ transplantation: the Latin American legislative response.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida-Puelma, H L

    1990-01-01

    As medical barriers to human organ transplants have fallen, serious legal and ethical obstacles have emerged. This article provides an overview of those obstacles, taking into account the relevant legislation in force in 16 Latin American countries in 1989. The author proceeds by considering postmortem and inter-vivos organ donations separately and examining the principal ethical and legal issues relating to each kind. In the case of postmortem donation these deal mainly with donor consent, recipient selection, funding of transplant costs, and possible conflict of interest. In the case of inter-vivos donation they relate again to donor consent and funding as well as to certain other matters-notably donor compensation, commerce in organs, and international sharing of organs. On the whole it is concluded that the countries of Latin America, together with the nations of the world in general, urgently need to develop more comprehensive legislation on organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:2073558

  20. Power Equalization through Organization Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartunek, Jean M.; Keys, Christopher B.

    The effects of a three-year Organization Development (OD) intervention on power equalization were examined in seven experimental and seven control schools. The principals and teachers from experimental schools participated in OD workshops, in a project-coordinating council for planning and policy, and in school goal-setting activities. The power…

  1. Organization Development. Symposium 16. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on organization development (OD) consists of three presentations. "A Study of Gender Management Preferences as Related to Predicted Organizational Management Paradigms for the Twenty-First Century" (Cathy Bolton McCullough) reports a study that found that access to diverse management preferences and the manner in which the…

  2. Human Resource Development in Small Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Rosemary; Stewart, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Case studies of three small and medium-sized enterprises in England examined how characteristics of small organizations influence their human resource development (HRD) policies and practices. Three models emerged, based on differences in planning, doing, and evaluating HRD activities. (SK)

  3. Organization Development and Change in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torraco, Richard J.; Hoover, Richard E.; Knippelmeyer, Sheri A.

    2005-01-01

    Organization development is an approach to planned change that is used in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors. However, relatively little is known about OD in universities. This paper examines the challenges associated with the use of OD in universities that may not be present in the private sector and other non-university settings. Five…

  4. Critical Care staffs' attitudes, confidence levels and educational needs correlate with countries' donation rates: data from the Donor Action database.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Spaight, Caroline; Smits, Jacqueline; Cohen, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate on the impact of Critical Care (CC) staffs' attitudes to donation, their acceptance of the brain death (BD) concept, their confidence with donation-related tasks and educational needs on national donation rates. Donor Action (DA) Hospital Attitude Survey (HAS) data were collected from 19 537 CC staff in 11 countries, including personal attitudes to donation, self-reported knowledge, involvement and comfort levels with donation-related tasks and educational requirements. Countries' donation performance was expressed as Procurement Efficiency Index (PEI) (organs procured and transplanted/deaths from eligible causes). National PEI rates correlated well with CC staffs' average support to donation (R = 0.700, P = 0.014), acceptance of the BD concept (R = 0.742, P = 0.007), confidence levels (R = 0.796, P = 0.002) and average educational requirements with donation-related tasks (R = -0.661, P = 0.025). Nurses reported significantly lower positive attitudes (P < 0.0001), acceptance of the BD concept (P < 0.0001), comfort levels (P < 0.0001) and requested more education (P = 0.0025) than medical staff members. DA's HAS is a powerful, standardized tool to assess CC staffs' attitudes and donation-related skills in different environments. Measures to improve countries' donation performance should focus on guidance and education of CC staff so as to ensure that all practitioners have sufficient knowledge and feel comfortable with donation-related issues. PMID:20210934

  5. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication. PMID:25413488

  6. Solving shortage in a priceless market: Insights from blood donation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianshu; Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2016-07-01

    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage. Using 447,357 individual donation records across 8 years from a large Chinese blood bank, we show that both methods are effective in addressing blood shortage in the short run but have different implications for total blood supply in the long run. We compare the efficacy of these methods and discuss their applications under different scenarios to alleviate shortage. PMID:27263024

  7. 48 CFR 245.609 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 245.609 Section 245.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.609 Donations. Agencies may donate, with GSA approval and without expense to the United...

  8. 17 CFR 256.426.1 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes....

  9. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  10. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  11. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  12. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  13. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  14. 17 CFR 256.426.1 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes....

  15. A Different Kind of Disaster Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary J.

    2006-01-01

    As one natural disaster after another seemed to define the year 2005, library workers across the nation generously donated money, materials, and labor to help victims and damaged institutions recover. Some librarians donated to specific institutions, while others donated to more general charities. Many worried about media reports of fraudulent…

  16. Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    IGISSINOV, Nurbek; KULMIRZAYEVA, Dariyana; MAGZUMOVA, Raushan; SIBINGA, Cees Th. Smit; ALPEISSOVA, Sholpan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011. Methods The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39). Results During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000) to 16.8 (2011), plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly. Conclusion This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work. PMID:26060761

  17. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  18. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance—to ensuring a safe blood supply—of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions

  19. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    PubMed Central

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a ‘beauty contest’ between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that ‘[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest’. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage. PMID:26126975

  20. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a 'beauty contest' between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that '[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest'. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage. PMID:26126975