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Sample records for organ residence time

  1. Indoor Residence Times of Semivolatile Organic Compounds: Model Estimation and Field Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor residence times of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major and mostly unavailable input for residential exposure assessment. We calculated residence times for a suite of SVOCs using a fugacity model applied to residential environments. Residence times depend on...

  2. Dissolved organic carbon lability increases with water residence time in the alluvial aquifer of a river floodplain ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, Ashley M.; Wright, Meredith S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Cory, Rose M.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2015-04-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lability and composition throughout the alluvial aquifer of the 16 km2 Nyack Floodplain in northwest Montana, USA. Water influx to the aquifer derives almost exclusively from the Middle Fork of the Flathead River, and water residence times within the aquifer range from days to months. Across seasons and channel discharge conditions, we measured DOC concentration, lability, and optical properties of aquifer water sampled from 12 wells, both near and ~3 m below the water table. Concentrations of DOC were typically low (542 ± 22.7 µg L-1; mean ± se), and the percentage of labile DOC averaged 18 ± 12% during 3 day laboratory assays. Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices revealed two humic-like and two amino acid-like fluorescence groups. Total DOC, humic-like components, and specific UV absorbance decreased with water residence time, consistent with sorption to aquifer sediments. However, labile DOC (both concentration and fraction) increased with water residence time, suggesting a concurrent influx or production of labile DOC. Thus, although the carbon-poor, oxygen-rich aquifer is a net sink for DOC, recalcitrant DOC appears to be replaced with more labile DOC along aquifer flow paths. Our observation of DOC production in long flow paths contrasts with studies of hyporheic DOC consumption along short (centimeters to meters) flow paths and highlights the importance of understanding the role of labile organic matter production and/or influx in alluvial aquifer carbon cycling.

  3. Structure, provenance and residence time of terrestrial organic carbon: insights from Programmed temperature Pyrolysis-Combustion of river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Galy, V.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roe, K. M.; Williams, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial organic carbon (OC) represents one of the largest reservoirs of C on earth and thus plays a crucial role in the global C cycle, participating to the regulation of atmospheric chemistry. While degradation of sedimentary OC (petrogenic C) is a source of CO2 for the atmosphere, burial of biospheric C (e.g. plant debris and soil OC) is a long-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Over short timescales, the atmospheric CO2 level is also sensitive to variations of the residence time of carbon in continental reservoirs. Fluvial transport plays a crucial role in the organic carbon cycle, constituting the connection between the different reservoirs and promoting the transfer of C from one reservoir to the other. Moreover, thanks to the integrating effect of erosion, studying river sediments allows the spatial and temporal integration of organic carbon exchanges occurring in a given basin. OC transported by rivers (riverine OC) is known to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and reactivity, however; ranging from extremely refractory petrogenic C (e.g. graphite) to soil complex OC to labile vegetation debris. Here we use a recently developed method, a programmed-temperature pyrolysis-combustion system (PTP-CS) coupled to multiisotopic analysis, to determine the reactivity, age and nature of OC in river sediments. The method takes advantage of the wide range of reactivity and radiocarbon content of different components of riverine OC. We submitted to PTP-CS a set of river sediments from 1) the Ganges-Brahmputra river system and, 2) the lower Mississippi river. Preliminary results highlight the heterogeneous nature of riverine OC. Different components of the riverine OC pool decompose at different temperature and are characterized by extremely variable isotopic compositions. The decomposition of radiocarbon dead petrogenic C at very high temperature allows estimating the respective contribution of biospheric and petrogenic C. Moreover, biospheric OC appears to

  4. Sources and Residence Times of Exported Organic Carbon From High-standing Tropical Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, J. D.; Galy, V.; Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.

    2015-12-01

    Steep, mountainous rivers draining high standing islands within the ITCZ export a disproportionately high amount of sediment given their small area - up to 20% of global export in 3% of the total exorheic land area. Typhoons strongly influence climate in this region, leading to increased sediment discharge, hyperpycnal flow, and efficient burial of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) in marine sediments. Here, we investigate the exported POC from high-resolution (~hours) sampling on the LiWu River, Taiwan, during three sequential typhoons in 2008 as well as from soil profiles taken throughout the catchment. We utilize the recently developed Ramped Pyrox technique to investigate the chemical structure and isotopic distribution (14C, δ13C) of different OC sources by separating OC components based on thermo-stability. We show that even the most labile OCbio can exhibit protracted storage in soils (up to ca. 2000 14C years), and that soil OC displays a large increase in apparent age with increasing thermal stability, likely due to contribution by microbially re-worked petrogenic carbon. Additionally, exported POCbio is too depleted and POCpetro too enriched in δ13C to be sourced from upper-catchment soil biomass. Rather, exported POC during large storm events can be best explained by a downstream source. Our results therefore offer an updated view on the mechanisms of organic carbon export from steep mountainous rivers by showing that: (i.) high erosion rates do not preclude significant pre-ageing of soil OC and (ii.) exported POC during large storm events is dominated by a local, downstream signal.

  5. Solid organ transplant training objectives for residents.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Vicente, R; Ballesteros, M A; Sabater, J; Roca, O; Rello, J

    2012-11-01

    With the aim of analyzing the current state of the educational objectives in the training of medical residents in solid organ transplantation (SOT), we conducted a review of the status of the official programs of the specialities involved in SOT, focusing particularly on lung transplantation. A survey of medical residents was also conducted to allow reflexion about the topic. We obtained 44 surveys from 4 University Hospitals with active programs in SOT, mainly from intensive care medicine and anesthesiology residents. We detected an important number of courses oriented to organ donation but very limited in terms of basic training in the management of the immediate postoperative period, principles of immunosuppression and updates on immunosuppressive therapy and complications (particularly rejection and infection). We also identified that these educational aspects should be directed not only to medical residents from specialities with a close retation to SOT, but also to all who may at some time have a relation to such patients. The use of information and communication techniques (ICTs), on-line courses and also simulations should be instruments to take into account in the biomedical training of medical residents. We conclude that we need a specific training program in complications of SOT, as well as fundamental principles in immunology and immunosuppressor pharmacology. PMID:22980670

  6. Understanding the diurnal cycle in fluvial dissolved organic carbon - The interplay of in-stream residence time, day length and organic matter turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing interest in characterising the diurnal fluctuation of stream solute concentrations because observed data series derived from spot samples may be highly subjective if such diurnal fluctuations are large. This can therefore lead to large uncertainties, bias or systematic errors in calculation of fluvial solute fluxes, depending upon the particular sampling regime. A simplistic approach would be to assume diurnal fluctuations are constant throughout the water year, but this study proposes diurnal cycles in stream water quality can only be interpreted in the context of stream residence time and changing day length. Three years of hourly dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flow data from the River Dee catchment (1674 km2) were analysed, and statistical analysis of the entire record shows there is no consistent diurnal cycle in the record. From the 3-year record (1095 days) there were only 96 diurnal cycles could be analysed. Cycles were quantified in terms of their: relative and absolute amplitude; duration; time to maximum concentration; asymmetry; percentile flow and in-stream residence time. The median diurnal cycle showed an amplitude that was 9.2% of the starting concentration; it was not significantly asymmetric; and occurred at the 19th percentile flow. The median DOC removal rate was 0.07 mg C/l/hr with an inter-quartile range of 0.052-0.100 mg C/l/hr. Results were interpreted as controlled by two, separate, zero-order kinetic rate laws, one for the day and one for the night. There was no single diurnal cycle present across the record, rather a number of different cycles controlled by the combination of in-stream residence time and exposure to contrasting light conditions. Over the 3-year period the average in-stream loss of DOC was 32%. The diurnal cycles evident in high resolution DOC data are interpretable, but require contextual information for their influence on in-stream processes to be understood or for them to be utilised.

  7. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  8. Modeling the rate of turnover of DOC and particulate organic carbon in a UK, peat-hosted stream: Including diurnal cycling in short-residence time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Moody, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes a multicomponent, multiprocess scheme to explain the turnover of organic matter (particulate and dissolved organic matter) in streams. The scheme allows for production and degradation of organic matter by both photic and aphotic processes with transformation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to increasingly refractory forms. The proposed scheme was compared to 10 months of experimental observations of the turnover and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter in stream water from a peat-covered catchment. The scheme was able to explain average decline in DOC concentration of 65% over 70 h with a 13% mean average percentage error based on turnover in three types of organic matter (particulate, labile dissolved, and refractory dissolved) although the order and rate of reactions did change between sets of experimental observations. The modeling suggests that activation energies are low for all except the most refractory forms of DOC in turn, suggesting that processes are not sensitive to temperature change. Application of the modeling scheme to organic matter turnover in the River Tees, northern England, showed that annual removal of total organic carbon was equivalent to between 13 and 33 t C/km2/yr from an at source export of between 22 and 56 t C/km2/yr giving a total in-stream loss rate of between 53 and 62% over a median in-stream residence time of 35 h.

  9. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    SciTech Connect

    He Bin; Du Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-02-15

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  10. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Du, Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT∕CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of

  11. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Du, Yong; Segars, W Paul; Wahl, Richard L; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C

    2009-02-01

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans, Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  12. Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-04

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

  13. 13C/Palynological evidence of differential residence times of organic carbon prior to its sedimentation in East African Rift Lakes and peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Aucour, Anne-Marie; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Riollet, Guy; Vincens, Annie; Williamson, David

    Most terrestrial plants producing large amounts of organic matter in the East African Rift follow the Calvin (C3) photosynthetic pathway. Their end products have δ13C values of ca. -27 ± 2‰ (vs. PDB). On the contrary, most Cyperaceae (notably Cyperus papyrus and C. latifolius) are characterized by higher 13C contents ° 13C = -10.5 ± 1‰ ) in relation to their Hatch and Slack (C4) photosynthetic cycle. In consequence, δ13C values in total organic matter (TOM) from peat bog or lake cores essentially responded to the proportion of detritus from C4-Cyperaceae. Immediate evidence of the development or disappearance of Cyperaceae around lake margins or in peat bogs can be found in pollen assemblages. Lag times between pollen signals and correlative ° 13C shifts in TOM from cores are therefore indicative of the residence time of organic matter prior to its sedimentation. Delayed sedimentation of TOM will result in 14C anomalies which depend on several parameters, most of them being site specific as shown by examples from a peat bog in Burundi and from southern Lake Tanganyika. An independent assessment of the chronology by high resolution paleomagnetic correlations indicates a ca. 1.5 ka apparent 14C age of TOM in Lake Tanganyika at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  14. Residence time statistics for N renewal processes.

    PubMed

    Burov, S; Barkai, E

    2011-10-21

    We present a study of residence time statistics for N renewal processes with a long tailed distribution of the waiting time. Such processes describe many nonequilibrium systems ranging from the intensity of N blinking quantum dots to the residence time of N Brownian particles. With numerical simulations and exact calculations, we show sharp transitions for a critical number of degrees of freedom N. In contrast to the expectation, the fluctuations in the limit of N→∞ are nontrivial. We briefly discuss how our approach can be used to detect nonergodic kinetics from the measurements of many blinking chromophores, without the need to reach the single molecule limit. PMID:22107497

  15. Radiocarbon-based residence time estimates of soil organic carbon in a temperate forest: Case study for the density fractionation for Japanese volcanic ash soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Miyuki; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-04-01

    The world's soils store significantly more carbon than that is present in the atmosphere. To understand the distribution and dynamics of the soil organic carbon (SOC) reservoir and make a prediction about the response of the soil carbon pool to climate change, it is necessary to quantitatively constrain rate of soil carbon cycling. Following previous studies [24], we investigated the method for physically preparation of Japanese volcanic ash soil for the mean residence time (MRT) estimates in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan, at one of Asia Flux monitoring sites. Sequentially isolated density fractions clearly differed in C contents and C/N ratios in soil surface (3-8 cm) and deep soil layer (38-43 cm). In soil surface layer, the light fractions (1.6-1.8, 1.6-1.8, 1.8-2.1 g cm -3) accounted for nearly 90% of SOC and their MRT ranged from 6 to 150 year. In deep layer, the 2.1-2.4 g cm -3 fraction accounted for more than 60% of SOC and its MRT was 3100 year. The lighter fractions (1.6-1.8, 1.8-2.1) comprised small portion of total SOC and were significantly slowly MRT (2038-2335 year), although it seems to consist of labile carbon.

  16. Stochastic resonance: A residence time approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gammaitoni, L. |; Marchesoni, F. |; Menichella Saetta, E.; Santucci, S.

    1996-06-01

    The Stochastic Resonance phenomenon is described as a synchronization process between periodic signals and the random response in bistable systems. The residence time approach as a useful tool in characterizing hidden periodicities is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  18. Residence time of osmium in the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxburgh, Rachel

    2001-06-01

    Estimates of osmium residence time in the oceans that are based on oceanic mass balance calculations (35-50 kyr) appear irreconcilable with those inferred from the recent evolution of the osmium isotope composition of seawater (3-4 kyr). It is argued that the osmium budget of the oceans is currently close to steady state and thus that the estimates made by the two methods should agree. As the inventory of osmium in the oceans is relatively well constrained, these disparate residence time estimates imply wildly different osmium input fluxes to the oceans. An osmium residence time of 8-10 kyr is proposed by evaluating the uncertainties and limitations of both methods, and it is argued that osmium inputs to the ocean are currently underestimated by a factor of ˜3. This reflects in part the underestimation of the river input of osmium to the oceans owing to a bias within the existing data set and in part the probable existence of sources of osmium to the oceans that have not yet been identified. The very short residence time of 3-4 kyr inferred from the postglacial change in seawater composition (assuming a single step change in input flux) is rejected as it implies unreasonably high osmium input fluxes to the oceans. It is concluded that a postglacial spike in osmium flux, associated with a meltwater event, must have driven part of the change in seawater composition. However, it is also shown that such a spike cannot be the dominant cause of the most recent shift in seawater 187Os/188Os.

  19. Mean residence time in barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Yang, X.; Rozier, O.; Narteau, C.

    2013-12-01

    A barchan dune migrates when the sediment trapped on its lee side is remobilized by the flow. Then, sand grains may undergo many dune turnover cycles before their ejection along the horns, but the amount of time a sand grain contributes to the dune morphodynamics remains unknown. To estimate such a residence time, we analyze sediment particle motions in steady-state barchan dunes by tracking individual cells of a 3D cellular automaton dune model. The overall sediment flux may be decomposed into advective and dispersive fluxes to estimate the relative contribution of the underlying physical processes to the barchan dune shape. The net lateral sediment transport from the center to the horns indicates that dispersion on the stoss slope is more efficient than avalanches on the lee slope. The combined effect of these two antagonistic dispersive processes restricts the lateral mixing of sediment particles in the central region of barchan dunes. Then, for different flow strengths and dune sizes, we find that the mean residence time of sediment particles in barchan dunes is equal to the surface of the central longitudinal dune slices divided by the input sand flux. We infer that this central slice contains most of the relevant information about barchan dune morphodynamics. Finally, we initiate a discussion about sediment transport and memory in presence of bed forms using the advantages of the particle tracking technique.

  20. Mean sediment residence time in barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Yang, X.; Rozier, O.; Narteau, C.

    2014-03-01

    When a barchan dune migrates, the sediment trapped on its lee side is later mobilized when exposed on the stoss side. Then sand grains may undergo many dune turnover cycles before their ejection along the horns, but the amount of time a sand grain contributes to the dune morphodynamics remains unknown. To estimate such a residence time, we analyze sediment particle motions in steady state barchans by tracking individual cells of a 3-D cellular automaton dune model. The overall sediment flux may be decomposed into advective and dispersive fluxes to estimate the relative contribution of the underlying physical processes to the barchan shape. The net lateral sediment transport from the center to the horns indicates that dispersion on the stoss slope is more efficient than the convergent sediment fluxes associated with avalanches on the lee slope. The combined effect of these two antagonistic dispersive processes restricts the lateral mixing of sediment particles in the central region of barchans. Then, for different flow strengths and dune sizes, we find that the mean residence time of sediment particles in barchans is equal to the surface of the central longitudinal dune slices divided by the input sand flux. We infer that this central slice contains most of the relevant information about barchan morphodynamics. Finally, we initiate a discussion about sediment transport and memory in the presence of bed forms using the advantages of the particle tracking technique.

  1. The residence time of carbon in Amazonian primary forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, S.; Vieira, S. A.; Camargo, P.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Selhorst, D.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2004-12-01

    The residence time of carbon is a major determiner of the capacity of an ecosystem to function as a source or sink of carbon. The overall residence time of carbon in primary forests is determined by (1) what fraction of photosynthetic products get respired quickly and (2) the residence time of C allocated to living plant tissues, and (3) the time each of these components takes to decay, including what fraction is oxidized to CO2 versus what becomes stabilized in soil organic matter. Using radiocarbon to determine the age of carbon in various pools in forests, we conclude that: (1) carbon use efficiency of these forests is low, with ~70% of photosynthetic products respired within a year, and only 30% allocated to growth of wood, root and leaf tissues; (2) carbon resides on average for 2-3 years in leaves and 3-10 years in fine roots; very rapid or ephemeral root turnover is assigned in our budgets to AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A<Å"autotrophicAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAø respiration (3) the mean age of carbon in living trees is longer (200-260 years) than the mean residence time of carbon derived from the biomass stock divided by annual wood growth increment (40-100 years) because most of the biomass is in the largest, fastest growing, trees, while most of the individuals are smaller, slower growing, shaded trees; (4) decomposition rates are rapid, but potentially recycling of carbon in the microbial community leads to a significant decadally cycling pool in near-surface organic matter. We will summarize these findings and use them with models of carbon dynamics to estimate carbon storage and loss potential on interannual to decadal timescales. The overall age of heterotrophically respired carbon (carbon derived from microbial decomposition) is 6-10 years, with much of the time lag due to the time spent by C in living leaf and root tissues. Even when combined with 70% autotrophically respired C with residence times of <1 year, this significant time lag can lead to large

  2. RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN STIRRED ANNULAR PHOTOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When gases flow through an annular photoreactor at constant rate, some of the gas spends more or less than the average residence time in the reactor. This spread of residence time can have an important effect on the performance of the reactor. this study tested how the residence...

  3. Time- versus Competency-Based Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vu T; Losee, Joseph E

    2016-08-01

    Graduate medical education is at the brink of a paradigm shift in educating the next generation of physicians. Over 100 years ago, the Flexner report helped usher in the Halstedian residency, based on timed exposure and knowledge assessment as the cornerstones of medical education. The addition of operative case logs and respective board examinations to the current model of surgical education has served to establish practice minimums; however, they do not provide any assessment of actual operative capability or clinical competence. Although these facets have been tempered over time, one could argue that they currently exist only as surrogates for the true goal of all graduate medical education: the development of competent, graduating physicians, capable of independent and ethical practice. There now exists a growing body of evidence that competency-based medical education is this century's Flexnerian revolution. By the objective, subjective, and global assessment of competence, it is thought that we can more effectively and efficiently educate our trainees, provide much needed accountability to our individual patients and to the public as a whole, and establish a lasting model of self-motivated, lifelong learning. PMID:27465174

  4. Timely Completion of Paperwork: Are Some Residents Consistently Late Responders?

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Background One element of competence in professionalism entails the timely completion of paperwork. Early identification of residents who are consistently late in completing their assignments might be the first step in helping them change this habit. Objective This study sought to determine if program coordinators' ratings of residents' response habits to completing assignments were associated with existing measures of resident response times tracked by the institution. Methods Program coordinators rated residents as early, mid, or late responders based on their experience with them. We compared coordinators' ratings with the response time of these same residents in returning orientation materials to the institution, completing a patient safety survey and duty hour logs, and providing their required countersignature on telephone and verbal orders. A total of 196 residents enrolled at this institution were eligible for this comparison in the 2012–2013 academic year. Results Program coordinators rated 23% (40 of 177) of the residents as late responders. These ratings were significantly associated with the response time of residents in returning orientation materials and the completed patient safety survey. Residents identified as late responders were 2.45 times (confidence interval, 1.09 ± 5.64) more likely to have delinquent medical records. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that residents who are late responders can be identified as early as orientation and that they likely maintain this response habit in completing assignments throughout residency. To address this professionalism issue, programs should track and counsel residents on their timeliness in completing paperwork. PMID:24949137

  5. Reducing natural organic matter and disinfection by-product precursors by alternating oxic and anoxic conditions during engineered short residence time riverbank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Farré, Maria José; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2016-09-15

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) with days to months of residence time has been successfully used as treatment or pre-treatment process to improve water quality for decades. However, its feasibility depends on the local hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, for sites unsuitable to traditional RBF, a smaller engineered RBF may be an option. This study evaluates the performance of engineered short residence time RBF on improving water quality, focusing on the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and the reduction of precursors of carbon and nitrogen disinfection by-products (DBP). Lab-scale experiments were conducted with surface feed water from a drinking water plant. The results showed that within 6days hydraulic retention time (HRT), 60-70% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 70-80% ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm (UV254) could be removed. During the whole filtration process, biodegradation was responsible for the removal of organic matter, and it was found that alternating redox condition between oxic and anoxic was beneficial for the overall performance of the RBF. Dissolved oxygen (DO) had a substantial impact on the removal of DBP precursors. For carbon-containing DBP (C-DBP) precursors' removal, re-aeration after a sequence of oxic and anoxic conditions could further increase the removal efficiencies from 50%, 60%, and 60% to 80%, 90%, and 80% for trihalomethanes (THMs), chloral hydrate (CH), and haloketones (HKs). Prolonged anoxic conditions were however beneficial for the removal of nitrogen-containing DBP (N-DBP) precursors. PMID:27203522

  6. Prolonged and tunable residence time using reversible covalent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, J. Michael; McFarland, Jesse M.; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Bisconte, Angelina; Tam, Danny; Phan, Vernon T.; Romanov, Sergei; Finkle, David; Shu, Jin; Patel, Vaishali; Ton, Tony; Li, Xiaoyan; Loughhead, David G.; Nunn, Philip A.; Karr, Dane E.; Gerritsen, Mary E.; Funk, Jens Oliver; Owens, Timothy D.; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A.; Hill, Ronald J.; Goldstein, David M.; Taunton, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Drugs with prolonged, on-target residence time often show superior efficacy, yet general strategies for optimizing drug-target residence time are lacking. Here, we demonstrate progress toward this elusive goal by targeting a noncatalytic cysteine in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with reversible covalent inhibitors. Utilizing an inverted orientation of the cysteine-reactive cyanoacrylamide electrophile, we identified potent and selective BTK inhibitors that demonstrate biochemical residence times spanning from minutes to 7 days. An inverted cyanoacrylamide with prolonged residence time in vivo remained bound to BTK more than 18 hours after clearance from the circulation. The inverted cyanoacrylamide strategy was further utilized to discover fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitors with residence times of several days, demonstrating generalizability of the approach. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with inverted cyanoacrylamides may serve as a broadly applicable platform that facilitates “residence time by design”, the ability to modulate and improve the duration of target engagement in vivo. PMID:26006010

  7. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  8. Long residence times - bad tracer tests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests conducted at geothermal well doublets or triplets in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley [1] all face, with very few exceptions so far, one common issue: lack of conclusive tracer test results, or tracer signals still undetectable for longer than one or two years after tracer injection. While the reasons for this surely differ from site to site (Riehen, Landau, Insheim, Bruchsal, ...), its effects on how the usefulness of tracer tests is perceived by the non-tracer community are pretty much the same. The 'poor-signal' frustration keeps nourishing two major 'alternative' endeavours : (I) design and execute tracer tests in single-well injection-withdrawal (push-pull), 'instead of' inter-well flow-path tracing configurations; (II) use 'novel' tracer substances instead of the 'old' ones which have 'obviously failed'. Frustration experienced with most inter-well tracer tests in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley has also made them be regarded as 'maybe useful for EGS' ('enhanced', or 'engineered' geothermal systems, whose fluid RTD typically include a major share of values below one year), but 'no longer worthwhile a follow-up sampling' in natural, large-scale hydrothermal reservoirs. We illustrate some of these arguments with the ongoing Bruchsal case [2]. The inter-well tracer test conducted at Bruchsal was (and still is!) aimed at assessing inter-well connectivity, fluid residence times, and characterizing the reservoir structure [3]. Fluid samples taken at the geothermal production well after reaching a fluid turnover of about 700,000 m3 showed tracer concentrations in the range of 10-8 Minj per m3, in the liquid phase of each sample (Minj being the total quantity of tracer injected as a short pulse at the geothermal re-injection well). Tracer signals might actually be higher, owing to tracer amounts co-precipitated and/or adsorbed onto the solid phase whose accumulation in the samples was unavoidable (due to pressure relief and degassing during the very sampling

  9. Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically resolved model (BAMS1) to soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, W. J.; Maggi, F.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M. S.; Tang, J. Y.; Dwivedi, D.; Guerry, N.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate representation of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in Earth system models is critical for future climate prediction, yet large uncertainties exist regarding how, and to what extent, the suite of proposed relevant mechanisms should be included. To investigate how various mechanisms interact to influence SOM storage and dynamics, we developed an SOM reaction network integrated in a one-dimensional, multi-phase, and multi-component reactive transport solver. The model includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, multiple archetypal polymeric and monomeric carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, aqueous advection and diffusion, gaseous diffusion, and adsorption (and protection) and desorption from the soil mineral phase. The model predictions reasonably matched observed depth-resolved SOM and dissolved organic matter (DOM) stocks and fluxes, lignin content, and fungi to aerobic bacteria ratios. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses under equilibrium and dynamic conditions to examine the role of dynamic sorption, microbial assimilation rates, and carbon inputs. To our knowledge, observations do not exist to fully test such a complicated model structure or to test the hypotheses used to explain observations of substantial storage of very old SOM below the rooting depth. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that a reasonable combination of sorption parameters, microbial biomass and necromass dynamics, and advective transport can match observations without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates, as is often done. We conclude that, contrary to assertions derived from existing turnover time based model formulations, observed carbon content and Δ14C vertical profiles are consistent with a representation of SOM consisting of carbon compounds with relatively fast reaction rates, vertical aqueous transport, and dynamic protection on mineral surfaces.

  10. A revised picture of the atmospheric moisture residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läderach, Alexander; Sodemann, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Refined Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics are applied on an air mass transport climatology covering the period 1979-2013 to provide an estimate of the atmospheric moisture residence time. Our diagnostics yield an estimate of about 4-5 days for the global mean residence time, which is about half compared to depletion times that are commonly interpreted as proxies for the residence time. The discrepancies to depletion times are mainly explained by the fact that these are based on simplified representations of precipitation processes. The revised picture given by our results is supported by the overall consistency with the footprints of precipitation producing weather systems in different regions of the Earth.

  11. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

  12. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

  13. A METHOD TO INCORPORATE ECOLOGY INTO RESIDENCE TIME OF CHEMICALS IN EMBAYMENTS: LOCAL EFFECT TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residence times are classically defined by the physical and chemical aspects of water bodies rather than by their ecological implications. Therefore, a more clear and direct connection between the residence times and ecological effects is necessary to quantitatively relate these ...

  14. Effect of residence time on the efficacy of antidandruff shampoos.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Uhoda, E; Loussouarn, G; Saint-Léger, D; Piérard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic shampoos active against Malassezia spp. These products also remove the loosely attached scales. This study was performed to assess the effect of a 5-min residence time on the efficacy of antidandruff shampoos. Two commercially available shampoos were used in two groups of 21 panelists with severe dandruff. They contained either 1% ketoconazole or 1% piroctone olamine. In each group, intraindividual comparisons were made by a split-scalp design between the effect of a 5-min residence time versus no residence time. Both shampoos induced significant reductions in scaliness and yeast colonization. The beneficial effects were obvious immediately after one single shampooing and 3 days later as well. The improvement was greater with a 5-min residence time. The piroctone olamine treatment benefited more than the ketoconazole treatment from the extension of shampoo-exposure time. In conclusion, the benefit of a residence time in treating dandruff is documented. The level of improvement in efficacy may vary according to the nature of the shampoo. PMID:18494909

  15. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous salt concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.

  16. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous saltmore » concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.« less

  17. Nonlinear sensors: an approach to the residence time detection strategy.

    PubMed

    Dari, A; Bosi, L; Gammaitoni, L

    2010-01-01

    The monitoring of the residence time difference in bistable sensors has been recently proposed as a valid scheme for improving the detection capabilities of sensors as diverse as fluxgate magnetometers, ferroelectric sensors and mechanical sensors. In this paper we propose an approach to the residence time based detection strategy based on the measurement of the slope m of the sensor output integral. We demonstrate that such a method, far from degrading the detection performances can provide an easier way to realize fast and reliable sensors without the computationally demanding task related with the computation of the residence time difference. We introduce the receiver operating characteristic curve as a quantitative estimator for the comparison of the two methods and show that the detector performances increase with increasing the periodic bias amplitude A up to a maximum value. This condition has potentially relevant consequences in the future detectors design. PMID:20365331

  18. Estimation of residence time in a shallow lacustrine embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razmi, A. M.; Barry, D. A.; Lemmin, U.; Bakhtyar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Near-shore water quality in lacustrine bays subjected to effluent or stream discharges is affected by, amongst other things, the residence time within a given bay. Vidy Bay, located on the northern shore of Lake Geneva, Switzerland, receives discharge from a wastewater treatment plant, the Chamberonne River and a storm-water drain. The residence time of water in the bay largely depends on water exchanges with the main basin (Grand Lac) of Lake Geneva. Field investigations and modeling of the hydrodynamics of Vidy Bay have shown that currents are variable, due mainly to wind variability over the lake. However, in broad terms there are two main current patterns in the bay, (i) currents are linked to large gyres in the Grand Lac, or (ii) currents are partially independent of the Grand Lac and are controlled by small-scale gyres within the bay. Residence times in Vidy Bay were computed using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D. Since the Vidy Bay shoreline follows a shallow arc, the definition of the off-shore extent of the bay is ambiguous. Here, the largest within-bay gyre is used. Particle tracking was conducted for each of the three discharges into the bay. Model results were computed using meteorological data for 2010, and thus include the natural variability in wind patterns and seasonal stratification. An analysis of the results shows that a water parcel from the waste water outfall has a residence time ranging from hours to days. The water residence time is minimum near to the surface and maximum at the near bottom layer. The results confirmed that wind force, thermal stratification, and water depth are the main factors influencing residence time.

  19. ON THE RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION IN IDEALIZED GROUNDWATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative cumulative frequency distribution of residence times F(T) is calculated for an entire groundwatershed under steady-state conditions and assuming Dupuit-Forchheimer flow. It appears that F(T) is always the same: , provided that the aquifer recharge rate and are cons...

  20. Stable, Ultra-Low Residence Time Partial Oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Hickman, Daniel A.

    1997-07-15

    A process for the catalytic partial oxidation of methane in gas phase at very short residence time (800,000 to 12,000,000 hr.sup.-1) by contacting a gas stream containing methane and oxygen with a metal supported catalyst, such as platinum deposited on a ceramic monolith.

  1. A revised picture of the atmospheric moisture residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läderach, Alexander; Sodemann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle is a key component of variability in the global water and energy budget. We study the transport of moisture by weather systems using a refined Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics on a global air mass transport climatology calculated with the FLEXPART model for the period 1979-2013. The diagnostics determine source-sink relationships for all precipitation events in the ERA-Interim data set, which provides a new estimate of the atmospheric moisture residence time (defined as the time moisture spends in the atmosphere between evaporation and precipitation). The global mean residence time of 4 to 5 days obtained from our diagnostics is about half the value assumed so far. This is mainly because previous estimates neglect moisture transport, and assume that depletion time constants can be considered as a proxy for the time moisture spends in the atmosphere. We show from different arguments that these assumptions are generally not fulfilled. The revised spatial and temporal picture of the atmospheric moisture residence time reveals patterns that are consistent with the footprints of precipitation producing weather systems in different regions of the earth. This will be exemplified with examples from tropical and extratropical regions.

  2. Financial Implications of Residency Programs for Sponsoring Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores cost implications of residency programs within the Veterans Administration health care system, particularly the costs and benefits of residencies in family medicine, osteopathic medicine, and general dentistry, because they resemble optometric residencies most closely. Costs of an existing vision therapy residency are examined, and…

  3. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  4. Residence and exposure times : when diffusion does not matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhez, Éric J. M.; Deleersnijder, Éric

    2012-12-01

    Under constant hydrodynamic conditions and assuming horizontal homogeneity, negatively buoyant particles released at the surface of the water column have a mean residence time in the surface mixed layer of h/ w, where h is the thickness of the latter and w ( > 0) is the sinking velocity Deleersnijder (Environ Fluid Mech 6(6):541-547, 2006a). The residence time does not depend on the diffusivity and equals the settling timescale. We show that this behavior is a result of the particular boundary conditions of the problem and that it is related to a similar property of the exposure time in a one-dimensional infinite domain. In 1-D advection-diffusion problem with a constant and uniform velocity, the exposure time—which is a generalization of the residence time measuring the total time spent by a particle in a control domain allowing the particle to leave and reenter the control domain—is also equal to the advection timescale at the upstream boundary of the control domain. To explain this result, the concept of point exposure is introduced; the point exposure is the time integral of the concentration at a given location. It measures the integrated influence of a point release at a given location and is related to the concept of number of visits of the theory of random walks. We show that the point exposure takes a constant value downstream the point of release, even when the diffusivity varies in space. The analysis of this result reveals also that the integrated downstream transport of a passive tracer is only effected by advection. While the diffusion flux differs from zero at all times, its integrated value is strictly zero.

  5. Residence Times of Receptors in Dendritic Spines Analyzed by Stochastic Simulations in Empirical Domains

    PubMed Central

    Hoze, Nathanael; Holcman, David

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of high-density superresolution imaging of receptors reveals the organization of dendrites at nanoscale resolution. We present here an apparently novel method that uses local statistics extracted from short-range trajectories for the simulations of long-range trajectories in empirical live cell images. Based on these empirical simulations, we compute the residence time of a receptor in dendritic spines that accounts for receptors’ local interactions and geometrical membrane organization. We report here that depending on the type of the spine, the residence time varies from 1 to 5 min. Moreover, we show that there exists transient organized structures, previously described as potential wells that can regulate the trafficking of receptors to dendritic spine: the simulation results suggest that receptor trafficking is regulated by transient structures. PMID:25517165

  6. The residence time of intensively managed agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, Laura; Cherkauer, Keith; Chiu, Chun-mei; Rahman, Sanoar

    2015-04-01

    Much of the agricultural landscape across the Midwestern United States is intensively managed through numerous surface and subsurface drainage improvements, and the growing extraction of groundwater resources. The relatively recent glaciation of the North Central region means that the landscape is less dissected and hydrologically connected than older till areas. Low topographic gradients and underlying dense till which restricts vertical water movement, as well as kettle depressions, have led to poorly drained soils and extensive wetlands within the landscape. Large areas of this land could only be farmed once the excess water was removed through artificial surface and subsurface drainage. Conventional wisdom in the region maintains that subsurface tile drainage reduces the occurrence of peak flow events by increasing soil water storage capacity. At the watershed scale, this view does not take into account the coincident increase in surface drainage and reduction in residence time in surface depressions. This paper explores to what degree water management and irrigation has changed surface and subsurface water storage and residence time over the last century and how this has impacted flow duration throughout the Wabash River system in Indiana, USA. The effects of subsurface tile drains, wetlands and aquifer storage are explicitly represented within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. We maintain a focus on the entire Wabash River, a river system of historic importance that is also representative of many similar areas in the till plain region of the agricultural Midwest, which contribute to water quality and flood dynamics of the Mississippi river system. By lowering the water table, surface and subsurface drainage improvements have increased the subsurface storage capacity at the beginning of rain events, but this is overwhelmed by the decrease in surface storage capacity for intermediate to large events, decreasing the current

  7. UASB reactor hydrodynamics: residence time distribution and proposed modelling tools.

    PubMed

    López, I; Borzacconi, L

    2010-05-01

    The hydrodynamic behaviour of UASB (Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors based on residence time distribution curves allows the implementation of global models, including the kinetic aspects of biological reactions. The most relevant hydrodynamic models proposed in the literature are discussed and compared with the extended tanks in series (ETIS) model. Although derived from the tanks in series model, the ETIS model's parameter is not an integer. The ETIS model can be easily solved in the Laplace domain and applied to a two-stage anaerobic digestion linear model. Experimental data from a 250 m3 UASB reactor treating malting wastewater are used to calibrate and validate the proposed model. PMID:20540420

  8. A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsen, N.E.; Cloern, J.E.; Lucas, L.V.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    Applications of transport time scales are pervasive in biological, hydrologic, and geochemical studies yet these times scales are not consistently defined and applied with rigor in the literature. We compare three transport time scales (flushing time, age, and residence time) commonly used to measure the retention of water or scalar quantities transported with water. We identify the underlying assumptions associated with each time scale, describe procedures for computing these time scales in idealized cases, and identify pitfalls when real-world systems deviate from these idealizations. We then apply the time scale definitions to a shallow 378 ha tidal lake to illustrate how deviations between real water bodies and the idealized examples can result from: (1) non-steady flow; (2) spatial variability in bathymetry, circulation, and transport time scales; and (3) tides that introduce complexities not accounted for in the idealized cases. These examples illustrate that no single transport time scale is valid for all time periods, locations, and constituents, and no one time scale describes all transport processes. We encourage aquatic scientists to rigorously define the transport time scale when it is applied, identify the underlying assumptions in the application of that concept, and ask if those assumptions are valid in the application of that approach for computing transport time scales in real systems.

  9. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  10. Residence time estimates for asymmetric simple exclusion dynamics on strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Krehel, Oleh; Muntean, Adrian; van Santen, Rutger; Sengar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The target of our study is to approximate numerically and, in some particular physically relevant cases, also analytically, the residence time of particles undergoing an asymmetric simple exclusion dynamics on a two-dimensional vertical strip. The sources of asymmetry are twofold: (i) the choice of boundary conditions (different reservoir levels) and (ii) the strong anisotropy from a drift nonlinear in density with prescribed directionality. We focus on the effect of the choice of anisotropy on residence time. We analyze our results by means of two theoretical models, a Mean Field and a one-dimensional Birth and Death one. For positive drift we find a striking agreement between Monte Carlo and theoretical results. In the zero drift case we still find agreement as long as particles can freely escape the strip through the bottom boundary. Otherwise, the two models give different predictions and their ability to reproduce numerical results depends on the horizontal displacement probability. The topic is relevant for situations occurring in pedestrian flows or biological transport in crowded environments, where lateral displacements of the particles occur predominantly affecting therefore in an essentially way the efficiency of the overall transport mechanism.

  11. THE LOCAL EFFECT TIME (LET) AND HOW IT INCORPORATES ECOLOGY INTO RESIDENCE TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    A clear and direct connection between constituent/water residence times and ecological effects is necessary to quantitatively relate these time scales to ecology. The concept of "local effect time" (LET) is proposed here as a time scale with adequate spatial resolution to relate ...

  12. Are we missing the tail (and the tale) of residence time distributions in watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Wilson, John L.; Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Phillips, Fred M.; Campbell, Andrew R.

    2013-09-01

    times provide vital information on hydrological, geochemical, and ecological processes in watersheds. The common perception is that mean residence times in watersheds are very short, on the order of days to years. However, there is growing concern that longer residence times of centuries to millennia are not being captured by traditional surface water age-dating methods. We hypothesize that if mean residence times are biased short, then weathering rates calculated from mean residence times will be forced unrealistically high to match observed solute concentrations. We test this hypothesis by calculating weathering rates from springs based upon residence times estimated using three different age-dating methods. Observed solute concentrations require unrealistically large weathering rates if typical short residence times are employed as compared to rates derived from longer residence times. Residence time distributions in watersheds have substantially longer tails than previously thought, with implications for age-dating methods and their interpretation to infer process behavior.

  13. Air Parcel Residence Times within Tropical Forest Canopies and Implications for Reactive Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the world's largest natural emitter of reactive trace gases. Due to its dense vegetation (leaf area index > 4), turbulence fluctuations are highly attenuated deep inside the canopy. However, strong coherent eddies that penetrate the upper portion of the canopy can be very effective in transporting gases. Sweeps and ejections act in the order of seconds and transport air parcels into or out of the canopy. The effects of coherent structures on the air parcel residence times and associated chemical processing of reactive gases remain largely unquantified in tropical forests. We combine canopy resolving Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and field observations in the Brazilian Amazon to study residence times of air parcels in the rainforest as a function of canopy structure and height (h). Good agreement is obtained between simulated and observed turbulence statistics within and above the forest. Coherent structure properties obtained from quadrant analysis are also well reproduced. A Lagrangian particle tracking algorithm is used to quantify the distribution of residence times of air parcels "released" at different heights. Canopy residence times were determined from the particle trajectories. The resulting probability density function (PDF) strongly depended on the particle release height (z). For particles released in the upper canopy (at z/h=0.75) the most frequent residence times were in the order of 30s, with 50% of all particles ejected from the canopy after ~2 minutes. The mean residence time was close to 5 minutes, indicating a very skewed PDF. At z/h=0.25 the PDF was more evenly distributed with its median and mean in the order of ~10 minutes. Due to sweeps, both simulations had a non- negligible fraction of particles transported deep into the canopy, thus increasing greatly their residence times. As the reaction timescales of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are in the order of seconds to minutes, significant chemical

  14. Mineralogical Controls over Carbon Storage and Residence Times in Grassland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, D.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.; Spycher, N.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains approximately three times more carbon than the atmosphere and terrestrial vegetation contain combined. However, it is not well understood why some SOM persists for a long time while other SOM decomposes quickly. For future climate predictions, representing soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics accurately in Earth system models is essential. Soil minerals stabilize organic carbon in soil; however, there are gaps in our understanding of how soil mineralogy controls the quantity and turnover of long-residence-time organic carbon. To investigate the impact of soil mineralogy on SOM dynamics, we used a new model (Biotic and Abiotic Model of SOM—BAMS1 [Riley et al., 2014]) integrated with a three-dimensional, multiphase reactive transport solver (TOUGHREACT). The model represents bacterial and fungal activity, archetypal polymer and monomer carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, gaseous diffusion, aqueous advection and diffusion, and adsorption and desorption processes. BAMS1 can predict bulk SOM and radiocarbon signatures without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates. Results show a reasonable match between observed and simulated depth-resolved SOM and ∆14C in grassland ecosystems (soils formed on terraces south of Eureka, California, and the Central Chernozem Region of Russia) and were consistent with expectations of depth-resolved profiles of lignin content and fungi:aerobic bacteria ratios. Results also suggest that clay-mineral surface area and soil sorption coefficients constitute dominant controls over organic carbon stocks and residence times, respectively. Bibliography: Riley, W.J., F.M. Maggi, M. Kleber, M.S. Torn, J.Y. Tang, D. Dwivedi, and N. Guerry (2014), Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically resolved model (BAMS1) to soil carbon dynamics, Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 7, 1335

  15. RTDB: A memory resident real-time object database

    SciTech Connect

    Jerzy M. Nogiec; Eugene Desavouret

    2003-06-04

    RTDB is a fast, memory-resident object database with built-in support for distribution. It constitutes an attractive alternative for architecting real-time solutions with multiple, possibly distributed, processes or agents sharing data. RTDB offers both direct and navigational access to stored objects, with local and remote random access by object identifiers, and immediate direct access via object indices. The database supports transparent access to objects stored in multiple collaborating dispersed databases and includes a built-in cache mechanism that allows for keeping local copies of remote objects, with specifiable invalidation deadlines. Additional features of RTDB include a trigger mechanism on objects that allows for issuing events or activating handlers when objects are accessed or modified and a very fast, attribute based search/query mechanism. The overall architecture and application of RTDB in a control and monitoring system is presented.

  16. Residence times and boundary-following behavior in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Sebastian; Blanco, Stéphane; Fournier, Richard; Gautrais, Jacques; Jost, Christian; Theraulaz, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Many animals in heterogeneous environments bias their trajectories displaying a preference for the vicinity of boundaries. Here we propose a criterion, relying on recent invariance properties of residence times for microreversible Boltzmann's walks, that permits detecting and quantifying boundary-following behaviors. On this basis we introduce a boundary-following model that is a nonmicroreversible Boltzmann's walk and that can represent all kinds of boundary-following distributions. This allows us to perform a theoretical analysis of field-resolved boundary following in animals. Two consequences are pointed out and are illustrated: A systematic procedure can now be used for extraction of individual properties from experimental field measurements, and boundary-curvature influence can be recovered as an emerging property without the need for individuals perceiving the curvature via complex physiological mechanisms. The presented results apply to any memoryless correlated random walk, such as the run-and-tumble models that are widely used in cell motility studies.

  17. Teaching Affective Skills to Residents in Decreased Instruction Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Elizabeth B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study to determine whether affective skills could be taught to residents in a family practice center without placing arduous constraints on their schedules is described. Residents at the University of Louisville Department of Family Practice were videotaped during a regular patient visit and then scheduled for review sessions. (MLW)

  18. Ligand Release Pathways Obtained with WExplore: Residence Times and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Alex; Lotz, Samuel D

    2016-06-23

    The binding of ligands with their molecular receptors is of tremendous importance in biology. Although much emphasis has been placed on characterizing binding sites and bound poses that determine the binding thermodynamics, the pathway by which a ligand binds importantly determines the binding kinetics. The computational study of entire unbiased ligand binding and release pathways is still an emerging field, made possible only recently by advances in computational hardware and sampling methodologies. We have developed one such method (WExplore) that is based on a weighted ensemble of trajectories, which we apply to ligand release for the first time, using a set of three previously characterized interactions between low-affinity ligands and the protein FKBP-12 (FK-506 binding protein). WExplore is found to be more efficient that conventional sampling, even for the nanosecond-scale unbinding events observed here. From a nonequilibrium ensemble of unbinding trajectories, we obtain ligand residence times and release pathways without using biasing forces or a Markovian assumption of transitions between regions. We introduce a set of analysis tools for unbinding transition pathways, including using von Mises-Fisher distributions to model clouds of ligand exit points, which provide a quantitative proxy for ligand surface diffusion. Differences between the transition pathway ensembles of the three ligands are identified and discussed. PMID:27231969

  19. Tissue residency of innate lymphoid cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiger, Georg; Fan, Xiying; Dikiy, Stanislav; Lee, Sue Y.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) contribute to barrier immunity, tissue homeostasis, and immune regulation at various anatomical sites throughout the body. How ILCs maintain their presence in lymphoid and peripheral tissues is currently unknown. We found that in the lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs of adult mice, ILC are tissue-resident cells that were maintained and expanded locally under physiologic conditions, upon systemic perturbation of immune homeostasis, and during acute helminth infection. However, at later time points post-infection, cells from hematogenous sources helped to partially replenish the pool of resident ILCs. Thus, ILC are maintained by self-renewal in broadly different microenvironments and physiological settings. Such an extreme “sedentary” lifestyle is consistent with the proposed roles of ILCs as sentinels and local keepers of tissue function. PMID:26472762

  20. Particle tracking and mean residence time in barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deguo; Narteau, Clement; Rozier, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    We analyze sediment particles motions in steady-state barchan dunes by tracking individual cells of a 3-D cellular automaton dune model. The overall sediment flux may be decomposed into advective and dispersive fluxes to estimate the relative contribution of the underlying physical processes to the barchan dune shape. The net lateral sediment transport from the center to the horns indicates that dispersion on the stoss slope is more efficient than avalanches on the lee slope. The combined effect of these two antagonistic dispersive processes restricts the lateral mixing of sediment particles in the central region of barchan dunes. Then, for different flow strength and dune size, we find that the mean residence time of sediment particles in barchan dunes is equal to the surface of the central longitudinal dune slices divided by the input sand flux. We infer that this central slice contains most of the relevant information about barchan dune morphodynamics. Finally, we initiate a discussion about sediment transport and memory in presence of bedforms using the advantages of the particle tracking technique.

  1. Sediment residence time distributions: Theory and application from bed elevation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voepel, Hal; Schumer, Rina; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2013-12-01

    distance and residence time probability distributions are the key components of stochastic models for coarse sediment transport. Residence time for individual grains is difficult to measure, and residence time distributions appropriate to field and laboratory settings are typically inferred theoretically or from overall transport characteristics. However, bed elevation time series collected using sonar transducers and lidar can be translated into empirical residence time distributions at each elevation in the bed and for the entire bed thickness. Sediment residence time at a given depth can be conceptualized as a stochastic return time process on a finite interval. Overall sediment residence time is an average of residence times at all depths weighted by the likelihood of deposition at each depth. Theory and experiment show that when tracers are seeded on the bed surface, power law residence time will be observed until a timescale set by the bed thickness and bed fluctuation statistics. After this time, the long-time (global) residence time distribution will take exponential form. Crossover time is the time of transition from power law to exponential behavior. The crossover time in flume studies can be on the order of seconds to minutes, while that in rivers can be days to years.

  2. Inpatient Performance of Primary Care Residents: Impact of Reduction in Time on the Ward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goroll, Allan H.

    1979-01-01

    The inpatient (ward/intensive care unit) performance of primary care medical residents was compared with that of their peers in the standard internal medicine residency program. Nearly identical performances of the two groups suggests that substantial time in the first two years of residency can be devoted successfully to ambulatory training.…

  3. Controls on residence time and exchange in a system of shallow coastal bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safak, I.; Wiberg, P. L.; Richardson, D. L.; Kurum, M. O.

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of transport and residence time influence the morphology, ecology and biogeochemistry of shallow coastal bay systems in important ways. To better understand the factors controlling residence time and exchange in coastal bays, a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model was set up and validated with field observations of circulation in a system of 14 shallow coastal bays on the Atlantic coast of the USA (Virginia Coast Reserve). Residence times of neutrally buoyant particles as well as exchange among the bays in the system and between the bays and the ocean were examined with Lagrangian particle tracking. There was orders of magnitude variation in the calculated residence time within most of the bays, ranging from hours in the tidally refreshed (repletion) water near the inlets to days-weeks in the remaining (residual) water away from the inlets. Residence time in the repletion waters was most sensitive to the tidal phase (low vs. high) when particles were released whereas residence time in the residual waters was more sensitive to wind forcing. Wind forcing was found to act as a diffuser that shortens particle residence within the bays; its effect was higher away from the inlets and in relatively confined bays. Median residence time in the bays significantly decreased with an increase in the ratio between open water area and total area (open water plus marsh). Exchange among the bays and capture areas of inlets (i.e., exchange between the bays and the ocean) varied considerably but were insensitive to tidal phase of release, wind, and forcing conditions in different years, in contrast to the sensitivity of residence time to these factors. We defined a new quantity, termed shortest-path residence time, calculated as distance from the closest inlet divided by root-mean-square velocity at each point in model domain. A relationship between shortest-path residence time and particle-tracking residence time provides a means of estimating residence time

  4. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-4 - Residency time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meets the substantial presence test is the first day during the calendar year on which the individual is... resident test (green card test), described in paragraph (b)(1) of § 301.7701(b)-1, is the first day during... test and the green card test will be the earlier of the first day the individual is physically...

  5. Groundwater Residence Times: A Key Parameter for Investigating Effects of River Restoration on Riverbank Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Tobias; Hoehn, Eduard; Schneider, Philipp; Schirmer, Mario; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2010-05-01

    Many Swiss municipal pumping wells, located near the banks of a losing river, are designed to capture a mixture of freshly infiltrated river water and old alluvial groundwater. Riverbank filtration is assumed to substantially reduce concentrations of pathogens, pesticides, and organic pollutants relative to the river water. Although the number of river restoration projects increases, the effects of river restoration on riverbank filtration are still not well understood. River restoration includes widening of the riverbed and removal of bank armoring in order to establish a more natural sediment transport regime and give the river more space. These measures improve ecological habitat diversity and contribute to flood protection. However, they may cause conflicts with groundwater abstraction for drinking water, because travel times from rivers to pumping stations may be significantly reduced. In Switzerland the minimum mean travel time required for the protection of a drinking-water well is 10 days. Thus, for detailed investigation on river water infiltration into the aquifer, the distribution of groundwater travel times from rivers to observation and production wells and mixing ratios of freshly infiltrated and older alluvial groundwater are key parameters. Due to the high hydraulic conductivity of most Swiss prealpine gravel aquifers, the residence time of water entering many pumping wells is the range of weeks. Therefore, special methods are needed to assess residence times of young groundwater. We analyze time series of electrical conductivity in the river and adjacent groundwater observation wells to investigate travel times of young hyporheic groundwater in adjoining channelized and restored sections of the River Thur in North-East Switzerland. The test site has been established by the RECORD Project (Assessment and Modeling of Coupled Ecological and Hydrological Dynamics in the Restored Corridor of a River (Restored Corridor Dynamics)). To quantify residence

  6. Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically-resolved model (TOUGHREACTv1) to soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, W. J.; Maggi, F. M.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M. S.; Tang, J. Y.; Dwivedi, D.; Guerry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate representation of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in Earth System Models is critical for future climate prediction, yet large uncertainties exist regarding how, and to what extent, the suite of proposed relevant mechanisms should be included. To investigate how various mechanisms interact to influence SOM storage and dynamics, we developed a SOM reaction network integrated in a one-dimensional, multi-phase, and multi-component reactive transport solver. The model includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, multiple archetypal polymeric and monomeric carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, aqueous advection and diffusion, gaseous diffusion, and adsorption (and protection) and desorption from the soil mineral phase. The model predictions reasonably matched observed depth-resolved SOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stocks in grassland ecosystems as well as lignin content and fungi to aerobic bacteria ratios. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses under equilibrium and dynamic conditions to examine the role of dynamic sorption, microbial assimilation rates, and carbon inputs. To our knowledge, observations do not exist to fully test such a complicated model structure or to test the hypotheses used to explain observations of substantial storage of very old SOM below the rooting depth. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that a reasonable combination of sorption parameters, microbial biomass and necromass dynamics, and advective transport can match observations without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates, as is often done. We conclude that, contrary to assertions derived from existing turnover time based model formulations, observed carbon content and δ14C vertical profiles are consistent with a representation of SOM dynamics consisting of (1) carbon compounds without designated intrinsic turnover times, (2) vertical aqueous transport, and (3) dynamic protection on mineral surfaces.

  7. Effects of zebra mussels on food webs: Interactions with juvenile bluegill and water residence time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.; Bartsch, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated how water residence time mediated the impact of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus on experimental food webs established in 1100-1 outdoor mesocosms. Water residence time was manipulated as a surrogate for seston resupply - a critical variable affecting growth and survival of suspension-feeding invertebrates. We used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design with eight treatment combinations (3 replicates/treatment) including the presence or absence of Dreissena (2000 per m2), juvenile bluegill (40 per mesocosm), and short (1100 1 per d) or long (220 1 per d) water residence time. Measures of seston concentration (chlorophyll a, turbidity and suspended solids) were greater in the short- compared to long water-residence mesocosms, but intermediate in short water-residence mesocosms containing Dreissena. Abundance of rotifers (Keratella and Polyarthra) was reduced in Dreissena mesocosms and elevated in short residence time mesocosms. Cladocera abundance, in general, was unaffected by the presence of Dreissena; densities were higher in short-residence time mesocosms, and reduced in the presence of Lepomis. The growth of juvenile Lepomis were unaffected by Dreissena because of abundant benthic food. The final total mass of Dreissena was significantly greater in short- than long-residence mesocosms. Impacts of Dreissena on planktonic food webs may not only depend on the density of zebra mussels but also on the residence time of the surrounding water and the resupply of seston. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. Modelling residence-time response to freshwater input in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenrui; Spaulding, M.

    2002-10-01

    Residence time of an estuary can be used to estimate the rate of removal of freshwater and pollutants from river inflow. In this study, a calibrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to determine residence time in response to the change of freshwater input in Apalachicola Bay. The bay is about 40 km long and 7 km wide, with an average 3 m water depth. Through hydrodynamic model simulations, the spatial and temporal salinity and the total freshwater volume in the bay were calculated. Then the freshwater fraction method was used to estimate the residence time. Results indicate that the residence time in Apalachicola Bay typically ranges between 3 and 10 days for the daily freshwater input ranging from 177 m3/s to 4561 m3/s. Regression analysis of model results shows that an exponential regression equation can be used to correlate the estuarine residence time to changes of freshwater input.

  9. Residence time control on hot moments of net nitrate production and uptake in the hyporheic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2014-01-01

    moments of net production and uptake, enhancing NO3- production as residence times approach the anaerobic threshold, and changing zones of net NO3- production to uptake as residence times increase past the net sink threshold. The anaerobic and net sink thresholds for beaver-influenced streambed morphology occur at much shorter residence times (1.3 h and 2.3 h, respectively) compared to other documented hyporheic systems, and the net sink threshold compares favorably to the lower boundary of the anaerobic threshold determined for this system with the new oxygen Damkohler number. The consistency of the residence time threshold values of NO3- cycling in this study, despite environmental variability and disparate morphology, indicates that NO3- hot moment dynamics are primarily driven by changes in physical hydrology and associated residence times.

  10. Training for Efficiency: Work, Time and Systems-based Practice in Medical Residency*

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Julia E.; Bosk, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Medical residency is a period of intense socialization with a heavy workload. Previous sociological studies have identified efficiency as a practical skill necessary for success. However, many contextual features of the training environment have undergone dramatic change since these studies were conducted. What are the consequences of these changes for the socialization of residents to time management and the development of a professional identity? Based on observations of and interviews with internal medicine residents at 3 training programs, we find that efficiency is both a social norm and strategy that residents employ to manage a workload for which the demand for work exceeds the supply of time available to accomplish it. We found that residents struggle to be efficient in the face of seemingly intractable “systems” problems. Residents work around these problems, and in doing so develop a tolerance for organizational vulnerabilities. PMID:22863601

  11. Mixing and residence times of stormwater runoff in a detection system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Edward H.

    1989-01-01

    Five tracer runs were performed on a detention pond and wetlands system to determine mixing and residence times in the system. The data indicate that at low discharges and with large amounts of storage, the pond is moderately mixed with residence times not much less than the theoretical maximum possible under complete mixing. At higher discharges and with less storage in the pond, short-circuiting occurs, reducing the amount of mixing in the pond and appreciably reducing the residence times. The time between pond outlet peak concentrations and wetlands outlet peak concentrations indicate that in the wetlands, mixing increases with decreasing discharge and increasing storage.

  12. Children's Perspectives on Everyday Experiences of Shared Residence: Time, Emotions and Agency Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Gry Mette D.

    2010-01-01

    Shared residence is often presented as an arrangement that is in the best interests of the child following the divorce of its parents. Based on in-depth interviews with Norwegian children who have experienced shared residence, this article seeks to explore some dilemmas concerning time, agency and the children's emotions. Three characteristics of…

  13. Queues and care: how medical residents organize their work in a busy clinic.

    PubMed

    Finlay, W; Mutran, E J; Zeitler, R R; Randall, C S

    1990-09-01

    How do medical residents organize their work in settings where queue demands are heavy and resources are limited? Under such conditions, a queue theory would predict the delivery of care that is indifferent to clients' needs or that gets rid of clients as quickly as possible. In an exploratory case study of medical residents in a Veterans Administration outpatient clinic, we found instead that the medical residents' work was characterized by a high level of professional commitment: they provided thorough medical examinations and attempted to expedite patient care in other ways. We attribute the residents' professional ethos to opportunities provided in the VA hospital to learn the craft of routine medicine and to be directly responsible for patient care; such opportunities were not available in other settings. PMID:2133482

  14. Comparison of Residence Time Estimation Methods for Radioimmunotherapy Dosimetry and Treatment Planning—Monte Carlo Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Wahl, Richard L.; Du, Yong; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Flinn, Ian; Frey, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating the residence times in tumor and normal organs is an essential part of treatment planning for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This estimation is usually done using a conjugate view whole body scan time series and planar processing. This method has logistical and cost advantages compared to 3-D imaging methods such as Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), but, because it does not provide information about the 3-D distribution of activity, it is difficult to fully compensate for effects such as attenuation and background and overlapping activity. Incomplete compensation for these effects reduces the accuracy of the residence time estimates. In this work we compare residence times estimates obtained using planar methods to those from methods based on quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstructions. We have previously developed QSPECT methods that provide compensation for attenuation, scatter, collimator-detector response, and partial volume effects. In this study we compared the use of residence time estimation methods using QSPECT to planar methods. The evaluation was done using the realistic NCAT phantom with organ time activities that model 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan. Projection data were obtained using Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) that realistically model the image formation process including penetration and scatter in the collimator-detector system. These projection data were used to evaluate the accuracy of residence time estimation using a time series of QSPECT studies, a single QSPECT study combined with planar scans and the planar scans alone. The errors in the residence time estimates were <3.8%, <15%, and 2%–107% for the QSPECT, hybrid planar/QSPECT, and planar methods, respectively. The quantitative accuracy was worst for pure planar processing and best for pure QSPECT processing. Hybrid planar/QSPECT methods, where a single QSPECT study was combined with a series of planar scans, provided a large and statistically significant improvement

  15. Using a composite grid approach in a complex coastal domain to estimate estuarine residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John C.; Rockwell Geyer, W.; Arango, Hernan G.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the processes that influence residence time in a partially mixed estuary using a three-dimensional circulation model. The complex geometry of the study region is not optimal for a structured grid model and so we developed a new method of grid connectivity. This involves a novel approach that allows an unlimited number of individual grids to be combined in an efficient manner to produce a composite grid. We then implemented this new method into the numerical Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and developed a composite grid of the Hudson River estuary region to investigate the residence time of a passive tracer. Results show that the residence time is a strong function of the time of release (spring vs. neap tide), the along-channel location, and the initial vertical placement. During neap tides there is a maximum in residence time near the bottom of the estuary at the mid-salt intrusion length. During spring tides the residence time is primarily a function of along-channel location and does not exhibit a strong vertical variability. This model study of residence time illustrates the utility of the grid connectivity method for circulation and dispersion studies in regions of complex geometry.

  16. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Talebizadeh, Pouyan; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Babaie, Meisam; Javadi Anaghizi, Saeed; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode. PMID:26496630

  17. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor.

    PubMed

    Talebizadeh, Pouyan; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Babaie, Meisam; Javadi Anaghizi, Saeed; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode. PMID:26496630

  18. The effect of tidal exchange on residence time in a coastal embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, Patrick; Reniers, Ad; van de Kreeke, Jacobus; MacMahan, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations of an idealized lagoon that is connected to the ocean via a tidal inlet show that the mean residence time is inversely proportional to tidal exchange. In the Delft3D model the tidal exchange is controlled by varying the inlet length, width and depth. These changes in the inlet geometry affect the tidal prism and the ebb/flood flow structure, which are shown to control the exchange of lagoon water with seawater. To map residence time within the lagoon, a new method that implements dye tracer is developed and shows that the tidally averaged residence time exhibits significant spatial variability. For inlet systems in which, as a first approximation, the lagoon can be described by a uniformly fluctuating water level, a simple transport model is developed to elucidate the specific processes that control tidal exchange and their effect on residence time. In this transport model tidal exchange is decomposed into two fractions, an ocean exchange fraction and a lagoon exchange fraction. It is shown that both fractions need to be included to better describe tidal exchange. Specifically, inclusion of a lagoon exchange fraction improves previous tidal prism models that assume complete mixing in the lagoon. The assumption of complete mixing results in an under-prediction of residence time. Relating the spatially averaged residence time results to the exchange fractions for each inlet geometry show that the residence time is inversely proportional to the product of the tidal exchange fractions. For these single inlet systems, Keulegan's 0-D hydrodynamic model shows good agreement with Delft3D in predicting the tidal prism, maximum flow velocity, and exchange fractions. With these parameters, estimates of the mean residence time can be reached through a relationship derived from the simple transport model.

  19. Modelling and observations of tidal wave propagation, circulation and residence times in Puttalam Lagoon, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Rydberg, L.

    2007-09-01

    Tidal measurements and a depth-averaged 2D model are used to examine wave progression and circulation in a long, shallow, micro-tidal lagoon in Sri Lanka. Ranges and phase lags for different tidal constituents are used to calibrate the model. A single drag coefficient, Cd = 0.0032, gives almost perfect agreement with data. Current measurements are used for validation of the model. The lagoon tide consists of a combination of progressive and standing waves, where progressive waves dominate in the outer part and standing waves in the inner. A Lagrangian based particle-tracking method is developed to study tidally and wind induced residence times. If tides were the only factor affecting the residual circulation, the residence time inside the narrowest section would be approximately 100 days. Steady winds (of typical monsoon average) decrease the residence times to 60-90 days. Estuarine forcing due to net freshwater supply is not modelled (due to lack of reliable runoff data), but independent, long-term salinity observations and calculations based on volume and salt conservation during periods of negligible freshwater supply (the lagoon is seasonally hypersaline) indicate residence times ranging from 40 to 80 days. Model derived residence times based on tides alone represent a minimum exchange. Even weak forcing, through winds, excess evaporation or freshwater supply efficiently reduces residence times.

  20. Peak Alert Time and Rapport between Residence Hall Roommates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether peak alert time is related to compatibility for college roommates. Data from 66 male pairs and from 55 female pairs of roommates revealed that pairs who were similar on self-reported peak circadian alertness had higher levels of rapport. (Author/NB)

  1. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-4 - Residency time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement (described in paragraph (c)(3)(v)(C) of this section) to the individual's income tax return (Form... tax return for the election year, the alien individual may request an extension of time for filing the return until a reasonable period after he or she has satisfied such test, provided that the...

  2. The social organization of a sedentary life for residents in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Kathleen; Rankin, Janet; Edwards, Nancy; Ploeg, Jenny; Legault, Frances

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, the literature reports that many residents in long-term care (LTC) homes are sedentary. In Canada, personal support workers (PSWs) provide most of the direct care in LTC homes and could play a key role in promoting activity for residents. The purpose of this institutional ethnographic study was to uncover the social organization of LTC work and to discover how this organization influenced the physical activity of residents. Data were collected in two LTC homes in Ontario, Canada through participant observations with PSWs and interviews with people within and external to the homes. Findings explicate the links between meals, lifts and transfers, and the LTC standards to reveal that physical activity is considered an add-on program in the purview of physiotherapists. Some of the LTC standards which are intended to product good outcomes for residents actually disrupt the work of PSWs making it difficult for them to respond to the physical activity needs of residents. This descriptive ethnographic account is an important first step in trying to find a solution to optimize real activities of daily living into life in LTC. PMID:26314937

  3. The imprint of climate and geology on the residence times of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Condon, Laura E.; Kollet, Stefan J.; Maher, Kate; Haggerty, Roy; Forrester, Mary Michael

    2016-01-01

    Surface and subsurface flow dynamics govern residence time or water age until discharge, which is a key metric of storage and water availability for human use and ecosystem function. Although observations in small catchments have shown a fractal distribution of ages, residence times are difficult to directly quantify or measure in large basins. Here we use a simulation of major watersheds across North America to compute distributions of residence times. This simulation results in peak ages from 1.5 to 10.5 years, in agreement with isotopic observations from bomb-derived radioisotopes, and a wide range of residence times—from 0.1 to 10,000 years. This simulation suggests that peak residence times are controlled by the mean hydraulic conductivity, a function of the prevailing geology. The shape of the residence time distribution is dependent on aridity, which in turn determines water table depth and the frequency of shorter flow paths. These model results underscore the need for additional studies to characterize water ages in larger systems.

  4. Residence time and Posidonia oceanica in Cabrera Archipelago National Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfila, A.; Jordi, A.; Basterretxea, G.; Vizoso, G.; Marbà, N.; Duarte, C. M.; Werner, F. E.; Tintoré, J.

    2005-07-01

    Flushing time and residence time are studied in a small inlet in Cabrera National Park, Western Mediterranean Sea. Flushing time is studied using ADCP in situ data. Observed flushing time data are compared with the simulations from a three-dimensional coastal ocean numerical model. Residence time is assessed using virtual lagrangian particles and studying the number remaining within the analyzed domain. Results show a good agreement between observations and modeling estimations of the flushing time (i.e. 6 days from the ADCP data and 5.6 days from the numerical model). Residence time estimations yield a broad range of values, from 1 h in the Bay to over 30 days depending also on the horizontal and vertical position where particles were released. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model for the Port yields a value of 8.7 days. Results obtained for the residence time appear to have a determinant impact over the meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, present inside the Port. Recirculation patterns and complex flows in coastal environments create a non-uniform distribution of the areas of accumulation of non-conservative properties that indicate that residence time concept is the correct approach when studying the impact of water transport over biological communities.

  5. Combining direct residence time measurements and biogeochemistry to calculate in-situ reaction rates in the hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittroff, Marco; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The hyporheic zone is an active interface between groundwater, riparian and surface water systems. Exchange and reaction of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur due to variations in surface and groundwater flow regimes, bed topography and active biogeochemistry fuelled by bioavailable carbon. There has been an increasing focus on coupling the residence time of surface water in the hyporheic zone with biogeochemical reactions. However, there are very few tracers that can be used to measure residence times in-situ, especially in complex groundwater-surface water settings. In this work we have used the natural radioisotope Radon (222Rn) as an in-situ tracer for river water residence time in a riffle-pool sequence (Rote Main River), and combined this information with biogeochemical parameters (DOC and C quality, O3, NO3, CO2). We can clearly observe a dependence of reaction progress on the water residence times, with oxygen and nitrate reduction following inverse logarithmic trends as a function of time. By comparing with initial concentrations (the river end member) with riverbed levels we have estimated first-order in-situ reduction rates for nitrate and oxygen. Nitrate reduction rates are at the higher end of published values, which is likely due to the continual supply of bioavailable carbon from the river system. This work helps to better understand the function and efficiency of the hyporheic zone as a natural filter for redox sensitive species such as nitrate at the groundwater - steam interface. It also provides a useful method for estimating residence times in complex, higher order river systems.

  6. Observations and modeling of exchange and residence time in tidal inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, Patrick Forde

    The exchange of water in a coastal embayment with seawater is forced by tidally driven and gravitational flows. Tidal flows oscillate temporally based on planetary motion, while gravitational flows like those found in rivers act in one direction from high to low altitude. These flows determine the residence time, or the time water will remain within an embayment. At the ocean boundary, many coasts contain barrier islands with inlets through which these flows propagate. The effect that inlets have on the exchange of inland water with the sea has been the subject of research for nearly a century. Residence time is a bulk parameter that can be used to indicate the efficiency of an inlet system to rid itself of contaminants and maintain good water quality. Because coastal embayments are often exposed to anthropogenic pollutants, understanding the processes that control residence time improves our ability to protect coastal ecosystems. Inlet systems, including lagoons and estuaries, are subject to processes of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As such, past efforts to identify which processes control the motion and transport of water often rely on assumptions that simplify the kinematics. Today, the rapid evolution of personal computing has enabled the creation of numerical models that resolve the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Equations (RANS) for complex flows found in inlet environments. This dissertation focuses on utilizing such a model to examine the flow in tidal inlet systems and to identify the dominant processes that control exchange and residence time. First, modeling experiments of idealized lagoons are conducted with the aim of quantifying how the shape of an inlet affects residence time. Seventeen different inlet configurations are examined. Methods of quantifying residence time based on previous analytical models are applied to a numerical model for the first time. To better understand the mechanism of exchange, a simple transport model is

  7. Controlling factors for water residence time and flow patterns in Ekeby treatment wetland, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellin, Johan; Wörman, Anders; Johansson, Håkan; Lindahl, Anna

    2007-04-01

    Treatment wetlands play an important role in reducing nutrient content and heavy metals in wastewater and run-off water. The treatment efficiency strongly depends on flow pattern and residence times of the water. Here, we study the impact of different factors on water flow patterns based on a tracer experiment with tritiated water in a 2.6 ha constructed wetland pond. A 2D flow and inert transport model was used to evaluate the relative importance of bottom topography, vegetation distribution, water exchange with stagnant zones and dispersion. Results from computer simulations and independent measurements of friction losses as well as wetland geometry showed that variations in bottom topography, formed by several deep zones, decreased the variance in water residence times to a minor extent. Heterogeneity in vegetation, on the other hand, significantly contributed to the spread in water residence times and explained the multiple peaks observed in the breakthrough curves. Analyses showed that in the Ekeby treatment wetland, basin shape explained about 10% of the variance in the observed residence times, whereas vegetation explained about 60-80%. To explain all variance secondary factors were needed, such as dispersion and water exchange with stagnant zones. These were shown to contribute to the spread of residence times and primarily to the long tail of the observed breakthrough curves.

  8. Experimental study of residence time distributions of ball-mill circuits grinding coal-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Ohtake, A.; Austin, L.G.

    2008-08-15

    Residence time distributions (RTDs) were estimated by water tracing in a number of wet overflow ball mills (diameters 0.38 to 4.65 m) producing dense, coal-water slurries. In open-circuit mills of 0.38 m diameter and various length-diameter (LID) ratios, the mean residence times of solid were also determined from measured mill holdups. Holdup increased with increased mill feed rate, but the mean residence times of coal and water were still equal to each other. The experimental residence time distributions were fitted to the Mori-Jimbo-Yamazaki semi-infinite, axial mixing model, and the dimensionless mixing coefficient was determined for each of 25 tests in single- and two-compartment mills. This coefficient was found to be independent to the feed rate but linearly proportional to the D/L ratio. The mixing coefficient was smaller for two-compartment mills than for single-compartment mills, showing that there was reduced mixing introduced by the diaphragm separating the compartments. Equations are given to scale residence time distributions for changes in mill diameter and length.

  9. Consistent Estimates for the Residence Time of Micro-tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, B.; Josefson, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Water exchange and residence time are calculated for 31 small Danish estuaries to assess the spatial variability of estuarine processes and biogeochemical properties. To identify the uncertainty of the residence time estimates, three different model types have been applied to the estuaries. The dynamic models applied comprise hydrodynamic (HD) models, and a well-mixed batch reactor model for the winter-nitrate concentration. Residence times of the dynamic models range from 0·3 to 127 d. The median value of the deviation between the results of these two model types is 30%. Furthermore, a morphological model is formulated. It includes entrance width as the independent variable, and the approximation that the saltwater flow per unit entrance width is equal for investigated Danish estuaries. This model yields a fair representation of water exchange and residence time over three and two orders of magnitude, respectively. The deviation from the dynamic model results is 40%. Hence, in comparison to entrance width, differences in mixing and forcing appear to be of limited importance to the water exchange variability between Danish estuaries. The morphological model may thus be used to give a sound estimate of the water exchange for Danish estuaries, where more detailed modelling is lacking. However, in either model comparison, the deviation between model results is less than the residence time variability between the estuaries. The models may thus supplement one another for making quantitatively acceptable analysis of processes and bio-geochemical properties in Danish estuaries.

  10. Residency Time as an Indicator of Reproductive Restraint in Male Burying Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashlee N.; Belk, Mark C.; Creighton, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles. PMID:25295755

  11. Strategic Application of Residence-Time Control in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Mándity, István M; Ötvös, Sándor B; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    As a sustainable alternative for conventional batch-based synthetic techniques, the concept of continuous-flow processing has emerged in the synthesis of fine chemicals. Systematic tuning of the residence time, a key parameter of continuous-reaction technology, can govern the outcome of a chemical reaction by determining the reaction rate and the conversion and by influencing the product selectivity. This review furnishes a brief insight into flow reactions in which high chemo- and/or stereoselectivity can be attained by strategic residence-time control and illustrates the importance of the residence time as a crucial parameter in sustainable method development. Such a fine reaction control cannot be performed in conventional batch reaction set-ups. PMID:26246983

  12. Computation of residence time in the simulation of pulsatile ventricular assist devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. C.; Esmaily-Moghadam, M.; Marsden, A. L.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2014-10-01

    A continuum-based model of particle residence time for moving-domain fluid mechanics and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computations is proposed, analyzed, and applied to the simulation of an adult pulsatile ventricular assist device (PVAD). Residence time is a quantity of clinical interest for blood pumps because it correlates with thrombotic risk. The proposed technique may be easily implemented in any flow or FSI solver. In the context of PVADs the results of the model may be used to assess how efficiently the pump moves the blood through its interior. Three scalar measures of particle residence time are also proposed. These scalar quantities may be used in the PVAD design with the goal of reducing thrombotic risk.

  13. Catchment travel and residence time distributions: a theoretical framework for solute transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The probability density functions (pdf's) of travel and residence times are key descriptors of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes to receiving water bodies. In this contribution we derive a general stochastic framework applicable to arbitrary catchment control volumes, where time-variable precipitation, evapotranspiration and discharge are assumed to be the major hydrological drivers for water and solutes. A master equation for the residence time pdf is derived and solved analytically, providing expressions for travel and residence time pdf's as a function of input/output fluxes and of the relevant mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant upatke. Our solutions suggest intrinsically time variant travel and residence time pdf's through a direct dependence on the underlying hydrological forcings and soil vegetation dynamics. The proposed framework highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and integrates age-dating and tracer hydrology techniques by providing a coherent framework for catchment transport models. An application to the release of pesticides from an agricultural watershead is also discussed.

  14. Relating hyporheic fluxes, residence times, and redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes upstream of beaver dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura; Hare, Danielle K.

    2013-01-01

    ¨hler number seemed to overestimate the actual transition as indicated by multiple secondary electron acceptors, illustrating the gradient nature of anaerobic transition. Temporal flux variability in low-flux morphologies generated a much greater range in hyporheic redox conditions compared to high-flux zones, and chemical responses to changing flux rates were consistent with those predicted from the empirical relationship between redox condition and residence time. The Raz tracer revealed that hyporheic flow paths have strong net aerobic respiration, particularly at higher residence time, but this reactive exchange did not affect the net stream signal at the reach scale.

  15. Estimation of organ dose equivalents from residents of radiation-contaminated buildings with Rando phantom measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Dong, S L; Wu, T H

    1999-05-01

    Since August 1996, a dose reconstruction model has been conducted with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-embedded chains, belts and badges for external dose measurements on the residents in radiation-contaminated buildings. The TLD dosimeters, worn on the front of the torso, would not be adequate for dose measurement in cases when the radiation is anisotropic or the incident angles of radiation sources are not directed in the front-to-back direction. The shielding and attenuation by the body would result in the dose equivalent estimation being somewhat skewed. An organ dose estimation method with a Rando phantom under various exposure geometries is proposed. The conversion factors, obtained from the phantom study, may be applicable to organ dose estimations for residents in the contaminated buildings if the incident angles correspond to the phantom simulation results. There is a great demand for developing a mathematical model or Monte Carlo calculation to deal with complicated indoor layout geometry problems involving ionizing radiation. Further research should be directed toward conducting laboratory simulation by investigating the relationship between doses delivered from multiple radiation sources. It is also necessary to collaborate with experimental biological dosimetry, such as chromosome aberration analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and retrospective ESR-dosimetry with teeth, applied to the residents, so that the organ dose equivalent estimations may be more reliable for radio-epidemiological studies. PMID:10214706

  16. Radiogenic and Radioactive Isotopic Evidence for a Dynamic Residence Time of the Athabasca Glacier Subglacial Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, C. A.; Aciego, S.; Sims, K. W.; Aarons, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the time it takes precipitation, input of water from reservoirs, surface melt, and basal melt to migrate to the base of a glacier and discharge. Previous work on the residence time of subglacial water has proven to be either inconclusive or inconsistent. Our research will address the primary subglacial water questions; the flux of subglacial water correlates directly to the mass balance of a glacier but what role does subglacial water storage play in that mass balance? Can we determine residence time of subglacial water? And, how variable is residence time seasonally and on longer time scales? The regional focus of our research is the Athabasca Glacier, part of the Columbia Icefield located in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. Uranium-series (U-series) dating methods based on the ingrowth of daughter isotopes from parents (234U, 230Th and 222Rn from the primary parent 238U) have been used to study the residence time of aquifer systems. Here we show the feasibility of applying these techniques to subglacial water. Samples were collected over two 25-day field periods to account for hydrological and chemical fluctuations between the onset of melt and peak melt. Daily physical observations, 222Rn concentrations (from a Durridge RAD7), conductivity, total alkalinity, pH, maximum velocity, and discharge measurements were taken. Fifty daily 10-40L subglacial water and filtered sediment samples were collected and filtered at our collection site in the main channel at the toe of the Athabasca Glacier. The 238U /234U and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions and U, Th, and Sr concentrations of the filtrate and captured sediments is pending. We will extrapolate the residence time of the water based on the accumulation of 234U and 230Th in our samples from alpha decay, which can be coupled to a radiometric timescale. Given that the 238U /234U and 234U/230Th isotopic composition of subglacial water is dependent on recoil and sediment dissolution processes

  17. Effect of channel size on solute residence time distributions in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Hoon-Shin; Ghimire, Bhuban

    2010-09-01

    The effect of channel size on residence time distributions (RTDs) of solute in rivers is investigated in this paper using tracer test data and the variable residence time (VART) model. Specifically, the investigation focuses on the influence of shear dispersion and hyporheic exchange on the shape of solute RTD, and how these two transport processes prevail in larger and smaller streams, respectively, leading to distinct tails of RTD. Simulation results show that (1) RTDs are dispersion-dependent and thereby channel-size (scale) dependent. RTDs increasing longitudinal dispersion coefficient. Small streams with negligible dispersion coefficient may display various types of RTD from upward curving patterns to a straight line (power-law distributions) and further to downward curving lognormal distributions when plotted in log-log coordinates. Moderate-sized rivers are transitional in terms of RTDs and commonly exhibit lognormal and power-law RTDs; (2) the incorporation of water and solute losses/gains in the VART model can improve simulation results and make parameter values more reasonable; (3) the ratio of time to peak concentration to the minimum mean residence time is equal to the recovery ratio of tracer. The relation provides a simple method for determining the minimum mean residence time; and (4) the VART model is able to reproduce various RTDs observed in rivers with 3-4 fitting parameters while no user-specified RTD functions are needed.

  18. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  19. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-08-26

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high

  20. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  1. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-08-26

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amountsmore » of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high

  2. Factors Associated with Time to Identify Physical Problems of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Christine R.; Logan, Brent R.; Simpson, Michelle R.; Reynolds, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    This study describes new problems emerging over six weeks for nursing home residents with advanced dementia and factors associated with time to identify the problems. The sample of 65 developed 149 new acute problems or exacerbations of existing conditions over the six weeks of data collection. The majority of these problems involved uncontrolled pain, new infections and severe psychoses. Nurse assessment skill was associated with a shorter time to identify the new problem and more time spent on the problem. A higher ratio of new to existing interventions was also associated with a shorter time to identify the problem. Other patient characteristics associated with time to identify problems included non-specific vocalizations, physical signs, cognitive status and length of stay. While future research is warranted, findings from this study highlight the frequency of problems requiring treatment and suggest that improved assessment of residents may decrease the time to identify new problems. PMID:20237337

  3. Control of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis by tuning nanoparticle properties and reactor residence time.

    PubMed

    Gross, Elad; Liu, Jack Hung-Chang; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2012-11-01

    A combination of the advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis could enable the development of sustainable catalysts with novel reactivity and selectivity. Although heterogeneous catalysts are often recycled more easily than their homogeneous counterparts, they can be difficult to apply in traditional organic reactions and modification of their properties towards a desired reactivity is, at best, complex. In contrast, tuning the properties of homogeneous catalysts by, for example, modifying the ligands that coordinate a metal centre is better understood. Here, using olefin cyclopropanation reactions catalysed by dendrimer-encapsulated Au nanoclusters as examples, we demonstrate that changing the dendrimer properties allows the catalytic reactivity to be tuned in a similar fashion to ligand modification in a homogeneous catalyst. Furthermore, we show that these heterogeneous catalysts employed in a fixed-bed flow reactor allow fine control over the residence time of the reactants and thus enables the control over product distribution in a way that is not easily available for homogeneous catalysts. PMID:23089871

  4. Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km 2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources—prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of

  5. Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the

  6. Recruitment, growth and residence time of fishes in a tropical Australian mangrove system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alistar I.; Duke, Norman C.

    1990-11-01

    Twenty fish species accounted for > 96% of the catch by numbers in mangrove habitats in Alligator Creek, in tropical Queensland, Australia. The timing of recruitment, residency status, the period of residence and growth of fish during the time they spent in the mangrove habitat was assessed by examining gonad maturity and following changes in size-frequency plots for each species over 13 months. Five species were permanent residents, completing their life-cycles in mangrove swamps; eight were 'long-term' temporary residents, being present for ˜ 1 year as juveniles before moving to other near-shore habitats; and seven were 'short-term' residents or sporadic users of the mangrove habitat. Amongst the latter group, four species lived in the mangrove habitat for between 1 and 4 consecutive months, while three engraulid species appeared to move rapidly, and often, between mangrove and other near-shore habitats. One of the resident species spawned and recruited throughout the year, but recruitment for most species was highly seasonal, being concentrated in the late dry season (October) to mid wet season (February) period. Temporary resident species dominated the fish community in the wet season (December-April), but resident species comprised more than 90% of total fish numbers in the mid dry season (August) after temporary residents left the mangroves in the early dry season. Several species had more than one peak of recruitment during the wet season. The cohort of 0 + aged Leiognathus equulus which recruited in December grew more rapidly and remained in the mangroves for a shorter period than the cohort which recruited later in the wet season (February). Only nine of the 20 species examined are strictly dependent on mangrove-lined estuaries, the remaining 11 are captured in significant numbers in other near-shore habitats. Only four of the 20 species are of direct commercial importance in Australia, but most are major prey for several valuable, commercial species

  7. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LOADING, FRESHWATER RESIDENCE TIME, AND INTERNAL LOSSES ON NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple model is presented that uses the annual loading rate of total nitrogen (TN) and the water residence time to calculate: 1) average annual TN concentration and intemalloss rates (e.g. denitrification and incorporation in sediments) in an estuary, and 2) the rate of nitroge...

  8. Conceptual framework for model-based analysis of residence time distribution in twin-screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; Panouillot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Juuti, Mikko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2015-04-25

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batchwise wet granulation processes. The twin-screw granulator (TSG) screws consist of transport and kneading element modules. Therefore, the granulation to a large extent is governed by the residence time distribution within each module where different granulation rate processes dominate over others. Currently, experimental data is used to determine the residence time distributions. In this study, a conceptual model based on classical chemical engineering methods is proposed to better understand and simulate the residence time distribution in a TSG. The experimental data were compared with the proposed most suitable conceptual model to estimate the parameters of the model and to analyse and predict the effects of changes in number of kneading discs and their stagger angle, screw speed and powder feed rate on residence time. The study established that the kneading block in the screw configuration acts as a plug-flow zone inside the granulator. Furthermore, it was found that a balance between the throughput force and conveying rate is required to obtain a good axial mixing inside the twin-screw granulator. Although the granulation behaviour is different for other excipients, the experimental data collection and modelling methods applied in this study are generic and can be adapted to other excipients. PMID:25698071

  9. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  10. HOW TO MODEL HYDRODYNAMICS AND RESIDENCE TIMES OF 27 ESTUARIES IN 4 MONTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrodynamics and residence times of 27 embayments were modeled during the first year of a project whose goal is to define the relation between nitrogen loadings and ecological responses of 44 systems that range from small to the size of Narragansett Bay and Buzzards Bay. The...

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Kinetic Measurements to Estimate and Predict Protein-Ligand Residence Times.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Luca; Theret, Isabelle; Antoine, Mathias; Perron-Sierra, Françoise; Charton, Yves; Fourquez, Jean-Marie; Wierzbicki, Michel; Boutin, Jean A; Ferry, Gilles; Decherchi, Sergio; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Ducrot, Pierre; Cavalli, Andrea

    2016-08-11

    Ligand-target residence time is emerging as a key drug discovery parameter because it can reliably predict drug efficacy in vivo. Experimental approaches to binding and unbinding kinetics are nowadays available, but we still lack reliable computational tools for predicting kinetics and residence time. Most attempts have been based on brute-force molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which are CPU-demanding and not yet particularly accurate. We recently reported a new scaled-MD-based protocol, which showed potential for residence time prediction in drug discovery. Here, we further challenged our procedure's predictive ability by applying our methodology to a series of glucokinase activators that could be useful for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined scaled MD with experimental kinetics measurements and X-ray crystallography, promptly checking the protocol's reliability by directly comparing computational predictions and experimental measures. The good agreement highlights the potential of our scaled-MD-based approach as an innovative method for computationally estimating and predicting drug residence times. PMID:27391254

  12. Untangling hyporheic residence time distributions and whole stream metabolisms using a hydrological process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenkirch, Nora; Mutz, Michael; Molkenthin, Frank; Zlatanovic, Sanja; Trauth, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of the water residence time in hyporheic sediments with the sediment metabolic rates is believed to be a key factor controlling whole stream metabolism. However, due to the methodological difficulties, there is little data that investigates this fundamental theory of aquatic ecology. Here, we report on progress made to combine numerical modeling with a series of manipulation to laboratory flumes overcoming methodological difficulties. In these flumes, hydraulic conditions were assessed using non-reactive tracer and heat pulse sensor. Metabolic activity was measured as the consumption and production of oxygen and the turnover of reactive tracers. Residence time and metabolic processes were modeled using a multicomponent reactive transport code called Min3P and calibrated with regard to the hydraulic conditions using the results obtained from the flume experiments. The metabolic activity was implemented in the model via Monod type expressions e.g. for aerobic respiration rates. A number of sediment structures differing in residence time distributions were introduced in both, the model and the flumes, specifically to model the biogeochemical performance and to validate the model results. Furthermore, the DOC supply and surface water flow velocity were altered to test the whole stream metabolic response. Using the results of the hydrological process model, a sensitivity analysis of the impact of residence time distributions on the metabolic activity could yield supporting proof of an existing link between the two.

  13. LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN LAMINAR FLOW STIRRED ANNULAR PHOTOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and Numerical Investigations of Residence Time Distribution of Fluids in Laminar Flow Stirred Annular Photoreactor

    E. Sahle-Demessie1, Siefu Bekele2, U. R. Pillai1

    1U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    Sustainable Technology Division,...

  14. Residence times of 234Th and 7Be in Lake Geneva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, J.; Schuler, Ch.; Santschi, P. H.

    1989-07-01

    The activities of two short-lived natural radionuclides, 234Th and 7Be, were measured in Lake Geneva water, suspended solids and sediments, in order to obtain their removal residence times in the lake. Four independent methods of estimation are presented and compared. The calcuated residence times of 234Th and 7Be vary from 60 to 280 days and from 60 to 1100 days, respectively, depending on season and the method used. In general, 7Be residence times are significantly longer than those of 234Th. For both nuclides the removal residence times are significantly longer than their respective radioactive mean-lives. As a consequence, the estimates based on their water column inventories are not as reliable as the estimates obtained from the measured fluxes of these nuclides into sediment traps. Estimates based on the bottom sediment inventories are similar in magnitude to those obtained from flux into sediment traps, but occasionally are erroneous because of small-scale sediment heterogeneity.

  15. Bridging Home: Building Relationships between Immigrant and Long-Time Resident Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is rising evidence that relationships that bridge between immigrants and long-time residents are critical to immigrant integration and to the overall heath of communities. The processes by which this bridging social capital is built are not well understood. Schools in new immigrant destinations, as spaces in which diverse youth…

  16. The role of residence times in two-patch dengue transmission dynamics and optimal strategies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmi; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The reemergence and geographical dispersal of vector-borne diseases challenge global health experts around the world and in particular, dengue poses increasing difficulties in the Americas, due in part to explosive urban and semi-urban growth, increases of within and between region mobility, the absence of a vaccine, and the limited resources available for public health services. In this work, a simple deterministic two-patch model is introduced to assess the impact of dengue transmission dynamics in heterogeneous environments. The two-patch system models the movement (e.g. urban versus rural areas residence times) of individuals between and within patches/environments using residence-time matrices with entries that budget within and between host patch relative residence times, under the assumption that only the human budgets their residence time across regions. Three scenarios are considered: (i) resident hosts in Patch i visit patch j, where i≠j but not the other way around, a scenario referred to as unidirectional motion; (ii) symmetric bi-directional motion; and (iii) asymmetric bi-directional motion. Optimal control theory is used to identify and evaluate patch-specific control measures aimed at reducing dengue prevalence in humans and vectors at a minimal cost. Optimal policies are computed under different residence-matrix configurations mentioned above as well as transmissibility scenarios characterized by the magnitude of the basic reproduction number. Optimal patch-specific polices can ameliorate the impact of epidemic outbreaks substantially when the basic reproduction number is moderate. The final patch-specific epidemic size variation increases as the residence time matrix moves away from the symmetric case (asymmetry). As expected, the patch where individuals spend most of their time or in the patch where transmissibility is higher tend to support larger patch-specific final epidemic sizes. Hence, focusing on intervention that target areas where

  17. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    PubMed

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  18. Influence of substrate heterogeneity on the hydraulic residence time and removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza-Diaz, O.; Brovelli, A.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Horizontal, subsurface flow constructed wetlands are wastewater treatment devices. The influent polluted water flows through a porous substrate where the contaminants are removed, for example by microbial oxidation, surface adsorption and mineral precipitation. These systems are widely used with varying degrees of success to treat municipal and agricultural contaminated waters and remove the organic carbon and nutrient load. Constructed wetlands are an appealing and promising technology, because they (i) are potentially very efficient in removing the pollutants, (ii) require only a small external energy input and (iii) require low maintenance. However, practical experience has shown that the observed purification rate is highly variable and is often much smaller than expected. One of the numerous reasons proposed to explain the variable efficiency of constructed wetlands is the existence of highly conductive zones within the porous substrate, which produce a dramatic reduction of the hydraulic residence time and therefore directly decreases the overall water purification rate. This work aims to understand quantitatively the relationship between the spatial variability in the hydraulic properties of the substrate and the effective residence time in constructed wetlands. We conducted two suites of stochastic numerical simulations, modelling the transport of a conservative tracer in a three-dimensional simulated constructed wetland in one case, and the microbial oxidation of a carbon source in the other. Within each group of simulations, different hydraulic conductivity fields were tested. These were based on a log-normal, spatially correlated random field (with exponential spatial correlation). The amount of heterogeneity was varied by changing the variance correlation length in the three directions. For each set of parameters, different realizations are considered to deduce both the expected residence time for a certain amount of heterogeneity, and its range of

  19. Sustained increase in resident meal time hand hygiene through an interdisciplinary intervention engaging long-term care facility residents and staff.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Marguerite; Harris, Tony; Horn, Terancita; Midamba, Blondelle; Primes, Vickie; Sullivan, Nancy; Shuler, Rosalyn; Zabarsky, Trina F; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-02-01

    Hand hygiene by patients may prevent acquisition and dissemination of health care-associated pathogens, but limited efforts have been made to engage patients in hand hygiene interventions. In a long-term care facility, we found that residents were aware of the importance of hand hygiene, but barriers, such as inaccessible products or difficult to use products, limited compliance. A dramatic and sustained improvement in meal time hand hygiene was achieved through engagement of staff and residents. PMID:25637117

  20. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K.; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

  1. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation. PMID:26961124

  2. Inverse dependency of particle residence times in ponds to the concentration of phosphate, the limiting nutrient.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly A; Santschi, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    234Th, a commonly used short-lived particle-reactive tracer in marine systems, was measured in three different holding pond series at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Colorado, along with its parent nuclide 238U, to determine steady-state residence times of particle-reactive actinides such as Pu, and of particles. Series B ponds, which received industrial effluent that includes ortho-phosphate (PO4) and actinides, differed from series A and C ponds, which did not. This difference was also evident in the calculated particle residence times, which were <1 day for the ponds B4 and B5, where PO4 concentrations were higher (1.4 and 1.8 mg/l), and 3 and 3.4 days for ponds A3 and C2, respectively, where ortho-phosphate concentrations were lower (<0.1 mg/l). Particle residence times thus showed an inverse relationship with the concentration of ortho-phosphate, the limiting nutrient in fresh water systems. The same relationship to the concentration of ortho-phosphate or any of the other nutrient elements was not evident for the residence times of dissolved 234Th, which ranged between 0.1 and 2 days. This can be attributed to higher concentrations of dissolved and particulate ligands with greater binding potential for actinides such as four-valent Th and Pu in ponds with higher ortho-phosphate concentrations. Regardless of actual ortho-phosphate concentration, however, at water residence (holding) times of 1 month in these ponds, particles and associated actinides would be expected to be completely removed from the pond water to sediments. PMID:15261419

  3. Flume experiments elucidate relationships between stream morphology, hyporheic residence time, and nitrous oxide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Annika; Farrell, Tiffany B.; Reeder, William Jeffrey; Feris, Kevin P.; Tonina, Daniele; Benner, Shawn G.

    2015-04-01

    The hyporheic zone is a potentially important producer of nitrous oxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. The location and magnitude of nitrous oxide generation within the hyporheic zone involves complex interactions between multiple nitrogen species, redox conditions, microbial communities, and hydraulics. To better understand nitrous oxide generation and emissions from streams, we conducted large-scale flume experiments in which we monitored pore waters along hyporheic flow paths within stream dune structures. Measurements of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and dissolved nitrous oxide showed distinct spatial relationships reflecting redox changes along flow paths. Using residence times along a flow path, clear trends in oxygen conditions and nitrogen species were observed. Three dune sizes were modeled, resulting in a range of residence times, carbon reactivity levels and respiration rates. We found that the magnitude and location of nitrous oxide production in the hyporheic zone is related to nitrate loading, dune morphology, and residence time. Specifically, increasing exogenous nitrate levels in surface water to approximately 3 mg/L resulted in an increase in dissolved N2O concentrations greater than 500% (up to 10 µg/L N-N2O) in distinct zones of specific residence times. We also found, however, that dissolved N2O concentrations decreased to background levels further along the flow path due to either reduction of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen gas or degassing. The decrease in measurable N2O along a flow path strongly suggests an important relationship between dune morphology, residence time, and nitrous oxide emissions from within stream sediments. Relating streambed morphology and loading of nitrogen species allows for prediction of nitrous oxide production in the hyporheic zone of natural systems.

  4. Microbial Biogeography along an Estuarine Salinity Gradient: Combined Influences of Bacterial Growth and Residence Time

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Byron C.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Hobbie, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Shifts in bacterioplankton community composition along the salinity gradient of the Parker River estuary and Plum Island Sound, in northeastern Massachusetts, were related to residence time and bacterial community doubling time in spring, summer, and fall seasons. Bacterial community composition was characterized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA. Average community doubling time was calculated from bacterial production ([14C]leucine incorporation) and bacterial abundance (direct counts). Freshwater and marine populations advected into the estuary represented a large fraction of the bacterioplankton community in all seasons. However, a unique estuarine community formed at intermediate salinities in summer and fall, when average doubling time was much shorter than water residence time, but not in spring, when doubling time was similar to residence time. Sequencing of DNA in DGGE bands demonstrated that most bands represented single phylotypes and that matching bands from different samples represented identical phylotypes. Most river and coastal ocean bacterioplankton were members of common freshwater and marine phylogenetic clusters within the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Estuarine bacterioplankton also belonged to these phyla but were related to clones and isolates from several different environments, including marine water columns, freshwater sediments, and soil. PMID:15006771

  5. Hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry litter: Effects of treatment temperature and residence time on yields and chemical properties of hydrochars.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Bashir M; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, hydrochars were prepared by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of poultry litter (PL) at temperatures between 150-300°C with residence times of 30, 120 and 480min. The effects of treatment temperature and residence time on the yield and composition of hydrochar were investigated. Both treatment temperature and residence time effects were observed however, the effect of residence time was lower. The results indicated that the HHV was improved by up to 25.17% and the overall ash in hydrochar was significantly lower compared to PL, however this coincided with a lower hydrochar yield. PMID:27262091

  6. Residence time distribution (RTD) of particulate foods in a continuous flow pilot-scale ohmic heater.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Sanjay; Heskitt, Brian; Tulsiyan, Priyank; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2009-08-01

    The residence time distribution (RTD) of a model particulate-fluid mixture (potato in starch solution) in the ohmic heater in a continuous sterilization process was measured using a radio frequency identification (RFID) methodology. The effect of solid concentration and the rotational speed of the agitators on the RTD were studied. The velocity of the fastest particle was 1.62 times the mean product velocity. In general, particle velocity was found to be greater than the product bulk average velocity. Mean particle residence time (MPRT) increased with an increase in the rotational speed of the agitators (P < 0.05), and no particular trend was observed between the MPRT and the solid concentration. The distribution curves E (theta) were skewed to the right suggesting slow moving zones in the system. PMID:19723195

  7. Estimating Regional Water Residence Time Changes in the Colonial Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. B.; Arrigo, J.; Duncan, J.; Parolari, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Northeast United States experienced a fundamental change following colonization by Europeans. During the period from 1600 to 1800 forests were cleared, agricultural lands were expanded, beavers were hunted to near-extinction, wetlands were drained or filled, and cities were built. Such activities had important implications for the stocks of water on and the fluxes of water through that landscape. We have made an early attempt to quantify the changed water stocks and fluxes in the Northeast during this time period using historical information and simple analyses. Simple calculations and estimates of stock and flux uncertainty were used to compute the distribution of land surface water residence times at the beginning and ending of the Colonial Era. Our estimates show that humans shifted water residence towards shorter times, which would have important implications for geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and how humans responded to their alteration of the hydrologic cycle.

  8. Th-230 - U-238 series disequilibrium of the Olkaria rhyolites Gregory Rift Valley, Kenya: Residence times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, S.; Macdonald, R.; Kelly, M.

    1993-01-01

    U-series disequilibrium analyses have been conducted on samples from Olkaria rhyolite centers with ages being available for all but one center using both internal and whole rock isochrons. 67 percent of the rhyolites analyzed show U-Th disequilibrium, ranging from 27 percent excess thorium to 36 percent excess uranium. Internal and whole rock isochrons give crystallization/formation ages between 65 ka and 9 ka, in every case these are substantially older than the eruptive dates. The residence times of the rhyolites (U-Th age minus the eruption date) have decreased almost linearly with time, from 45 ka to 7 Ka suggesting a possible increase of activity within the system related to increased basaltic input. The long residence times are mirrored by large Rn-222 fluxes from the centers which cannot be explained by larger U contents.

  9. Spatial Patterns of Carbon Residence Time and Sequestration Capacity in Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Xu, T.; Luo, Y.

    2005-12-01

    To model carbon (C) sequestration and its spatial pattern, three key parameters need to be quantified: (1) canopy carbon influx; (2) carbon residence time in an ecosystem; and (3) initial values of pool sizes. While spatial distributions of canopy carbon influx have been extensively studied, spatial patterns of carbon residence times have not been carefully characterized. In this study, we conducted an inverse analysis to estimate the carbon residence times in ecosystems of the conterminous US from 12 data sets. The 12 data sets are three NPP data sets (i.e., NPP in leaves, stems, and roots), five biomass data sets (i.e., biomass of leaves, stem, and roots in three soil layers), one litter data set (i.e., fine litter mass), and three SOC data sets in the three soil layers. The inverse analysis was based on a process-based Terrestrial ECOsystem Regional (TECOR) model and used the genetic algorithm for optimal parameter estimation. The inverted residence times and increase trends of net primary production (NPP) were then fed into a forward modeling analysis to map spatial patterns of carbon sequestration capacity. Our analysis estimated that the mean residence time for the whole conterminous US is 46 years with a range from 10 to 150 years. The central Great Plains have the lowest residence times (mean = 28 years, std = 13 years) and the west regions have the highest ones (mean = 64 years, std = 34 years) with the east regions in between (mean = 41 years, std = 20 years). When a 0.5 percent increase of NPP per year was uniformly applied to the whole conterminous US, our forward modeling showed that most of the eastern regions and some of the northwest regions have large carbon sequestration capacity. When a satellite-data-derived spatial distribution of NPP was applied in the forward modeling, it was estimated that the cropland has the largest carbon sequestration capacity followed by the deciduous broadleaf forest, grassland, wooded grassland, and mixed forest. The

  10. The Pools, Fluxes and Residence Time of Water Across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Fisher, J. B.; McDonnell, J.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    What can ecology tell us about the hydrology of the Amazon? And what can hydrology tell us about the ecology? From a hydrological perspective, plant water storage and use contributes to determining the rate and time scales at which water is recycled from soil to the atmosphere. From an ecological perspective, plant water storage and use contributes to determining the rate and time scales at which water plants can support function. Conceptualized as residence time, the relationship between plant water storage and use can provide fundamental insights into ecohydrology. We explore the spatial variation in the aboveground storage, use, and residence time of water across the Amazon. To do so, we pair estimates of aboveground woody biomass from 413 1-ha old growth forest census plots situated across the Amazon Basin with high resolution estimates of intra- and inter- annual evapotranspiration derived from remote sensing. Aboveground water storage capacity (17.4 ± 6.3 mm) and evapotranspiration (3.7 ± 0.4 mm day-1) result in a residence time of 4.7 ± 1.5 days, equivalent to the use of ca. 24% of stored water day-1. The results indicate that residence time varies due to a predictable relationship between evapotranspiration and biomass at local, regional and landscape scales. The ecohydrology of the Amazon plays a critical role in water and carbon cycling on a global scale. We discuss how our results can help inform our understanding of both the hydrology and ecology of the Amazon Basin in the context of anthropogenic change.

  11. Radiochemical constraints on the crustal residence time of submarine hydrothermal fluids: Endeavour Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Kadko, D. ); Moore, W. )

    1988-03-01

    The {sup 210}Pb/Pb and {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios measured in fluids and particles venting from the Endeavour Ridge are used to constrain the crustal residence time of the convecting hydrothermal fluid from the initiation of basalt alteration where Mg{sup +2} loss from seawater results in rapidly falling pH conditions, to termination at seafloor venting. The {sup 210}Pb/Pb ratios of hot, low Mg fluids are close to that of the basalts, suggesting a residence time of no greater than ten years. Particles associated with these vents have slightly higher ratios which may in part be due to scavenging of seawater {sup 210}Pb. The {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios of the fluids and an associated Ba-rich particle samples were also close to the basalt ratios, further constraining the residence time to 3 years or less. These estimates indicate that the mass of fluid interacting with newly formed crust at any one time is less than 9 x 10{sup 13}kg, if the axial heat flux is to be no greater than 30% of the total advective heat loss from the oceanic crust.

  12. Experimental study and verification of the residence time distribution using fluorescence spectroscopy and color measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigner, Michael; Lepschi, Alexander; Aigner, Jakob; Garmendia, Izaro; Miethlinger, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    We report on the inline measurement of residence time (RT) and residence time distribution (RTD) by means of fluorescence spectroscopy [1] and optical color measurements [2]. Measurements of thermoplastics in a variety of single-screw extruders were conducted. To assess the influence of screw configurations, screw speeds and mass throughput on the RT and RTD, tracer particles were introduced into the feeding section and the RT was measured inline in the plasticization unit. Using special measurement probes that can be inserted into 1/2″ - 20 UNF (unified fine thread) bore holes, the mixing ability of either the whole plasticization unit or selected screw regions, e.g., mixing parts, can be validated during the extrusion process. The measurement setups complement each other well, and their combined use can provide further insights into the mixing behavior of single-screw plasticization units.

  13. Towards the reliable calculation of residence time for off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Kathleen C.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2016-08-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methods have the potential to extend the accessible timescales of off-lattice atomistic simulations beyond the limits of molecular dynamics by making use of transition state theory and parallelization. However, it is a challenge to identify a complete catalog of events accessible to an off-lattice system in order to accurately calculate the residence time for KMC. Here we describe possible approaches to some of the key steps needed to address this problem. These include methods to compare and distinguish individual kinetic events, to deterministically search an energy landscape, and to define local atomic environments. When applied to the ground state  ∑5(2 1 0) grain boundary in copper, these methods achieve a converged residence time, accounting for the full set of kinetically relevant events for this off-lattice system, with calculable uncertainty.

  14. Method for Making Measurements of the Post-Combustion Residence Time in a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method of measuring a residence time in a gas-turbine engine is provided, whereby the method includes placing pressure sensors at a combustor entrance and at a turbine exit of the gas-turbine engine and measuring a combustor pressure at the combustor entrance and a turbine exit pressure at the turbine exit. The method further includes computing cross-spectrum functions between a combustor pressure sensor signal from the measured combustor pressure and a turbine exit pressure sensor signal from the measured turbine exit pressure, applying a linear curve fit to the cross-spectrum functions, and computing a post-combustion residence time from the linear curve fit.

  15. An overview of oil palm biomass torrefaction: Effects of temperature and residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaacob, N.; Rahman, N. A.; Matali, S.; Idris, S. S.; Alias, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass is characterized as high moisture content, low bulk and energy density, possesses hygroscopic behaviour and poor grindability material as compared to the superior coal. A thermal treatment called torrefaction is a heating of biomass in a temperature range between 200°C to 300°C under inert atmosphere in order to upgrade biomass properties. Torrefied biomass has many similar characteristics to coal such as low moisture content, high bulk and energy density, hydrophobic and good grindability. This paper reviews the effects of oil palm biomass torrefaction in terms of temperature and residence time. This is because comprehensive studies on torrefaction parameters need to be carried out since different parameters might affect the chemical and physical characteristic of the torrefied product. Hence, this paper aims to discuss the effects of different torrefaction temperature and residence time towards physicochemical characteristic, mass and energy yield as well as calorific value of torrefied oil palm biomass.

  16. Use of simultaneous radionuclide and other trace constituent measurements to determine fluxes and atmospheric residence times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark

    1985-01-01

    Finding a way to use atmospheric concentrations to determine source strengths and atmospheric residence times pose considerable difficulties. An approach is to use simultaneously measured radionuclide concentrations as a means of deriving fluxes and residence times for certain atmospheric trace constituents of interest. The study and use of such methods in a pilot field experiment were among the original goals of this program. Four such approaches were studied or developed; suitable sampling and analysis systems were built and tested or are in the final stages of construction; and a small scale field experiment. The evolution is reviewed of the program and the field experiment is described along with the possibilities for its eventual extension to include other species of interest. The four radionuclide based approaches studied are: Mean vertical profiles; Trajectory correlation; Boundary layer discontinuity; and Lead deposition.

  17. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  18. Eulerian and Lagrangian Measurements of Water Flow and Residence Time in a Fringing Coral Reef Embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Messina, A. M.; Cheriton, O. M.; Biggs, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic processes on coral reefs are important for nutrient cycling, larval dispersal, temperature variability, and understanding the impacts of terrestrial sediment, nutrients, and contaminants from adjacent impaired watersheds on coral reef ecosystems. Our goal was to understand the spatial and temporal variability in flow velocities and the associated residence time of water in the fringing coral reef flat-lined embayment of Faga'alu, on the island of Tutuila in American Samoa. To accomplish this, data from three bottom-mounted acoustic current profilers and 102 individual Lagrangian ocean surface current drifter deployments (5 drifters x 21 deployments) were combined with meteorologic data and numerical wave model results. These data and model results, collected over nine days, made it possible to evaluate the relative contribution of tidal, wind, and wave forcing on the flow patterns. The high number of drifter deployments made it possible for the velocity data to be binned into 100 m x 100 m grid cells and the resulting residence times computed for the different sets of forcing conditions. Cumulative progressive vectors calculated from the acoustic current profilers closely matched the tracks from concurrently deployed surface current drifters, showing the applicability of this hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian measurement scheme to understand flow patterns in this geomorphically complex embayment. The bay-wide man current speeds (residence times) varied from 1-37 cm/s (2.78-0.08 hr), 1-36 cm/s (2.78-0.08 hr), and 5-64 cm/s (0.56-0.04 hr) under tidal, wind, and wave forcing, respectively; the highest speeds (shortest residence times) were measured on the outer reef flat closest to where waves were breaking on the reef crest and were slowest (longest) over the inner reef flat close to shore and deep in the embayment.

  19. Tracing time scales of fluid residence and migration in the crust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokochi, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Purtschert, R.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Müller, P.; Yang, G.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal fluids (water, gas and oil) mediate chemical reactions, and they may transport, concentrate or disperse elements in the crust; the fluids are often valuable resources in their own right. In this context, determining the time scales of fluid transport and residence time is essential for understanding geochemical cycle of elements, as well as risk and resource management. Crustal fluids contain stable and radioactive noble gases indigenous to the fluid, which may be of magmatic or atmospheric origin of various ages. In addition, radiogenic and nucleogenic noble gases (both stable and radioactive) are continuously produced by the decay of U, Th and K and related nuclear reactions in the crust at known rates and in known relative proportions. They may be released from their production sites and incorporated into the fluid, acting as natural spikes to trace fluid flow. The concentrations of a noble gas isotope in a crustal fluid in a system devoid of phase separation or mixing varies as a function of decay time and supply from the production sites into the fluids. The release rate of noble gases from the production sites in minerals to the fluid phase may be determined uniquely through the studies of noble gas radionuclides (Yokochi et al., 2012), which is fundamental to the behavior of volatile elements in geochemistry. A pilot study of noble gas radionuclides in an active geothermal system was performed at Yellowstone National Park (Yokochi et al., 2013). Prior studies of the Yellowstone system using stable noble gas isotopes show that the thermal fluids contain a mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and crustal components. Noble gas radionuclide measurements provide new chronometric constraints regarding the subsurface residence times of Yellowstone thermal fluids. Upper limits on deep thermal fluid mean residence times, estimated from 39Ar/40Ar* ratios, range from 118 to 137 kyr for features in the Gibbon and Norris Geyser Basin areas, and are about 16 kyr in

  20. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Zotarelli, L; Scholberg, J M; Dukes, M D; Muñoz-Carpena, R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns during the fall and spring to mimic short-term N uptake dynamics. Nitrogen was applied either 1, 3, or 7 d before a weekly leaching event, using KNO3 solution (total of 393 kg N ha(-1)). Residence times (tR) were tR-1, tR-3, and tR-7 d before weekly removal of residual soil N. Plant N uptake was calculated by comparing weekly N recovery from planted with non-planted columns. During the fall, N uptake values at 70 d after emergence were 59, 73, and 126 kg N ha(-1). During the spring, corresponding values were 54, 108, and 159 kg N ha(-1). A linear response of plant growth and yield to the tR was observed under cooler conditions, whereas a quadratic response occurred under warmer conditions. There was correlation between root length density and yield. It is concluded that increasing N fertilizer residence time, which is indicative of better irrigation practices, enhanced overall sweet corn growth, yield, N uptake, and FUE, consequently reduced the risk of N being leached below the root zone before complete N uptake. PMID:18453447

  1. Discovery of novel Jak2-Stat pathway inhibitors with extended residence time on target.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huiping; Lamb, Michelle L; Peng, Bo; Huang, Shan; Degrace, Nancy; Read, Jon; Hussain, Syeed; Wu, Jiaquan; Rivard, Caroline; Alimzhanov, Marat; Bebernitz, Geraldine; Bell, Kirsten; Ye, Minwei; Zinda, Michael; Ioannidis, Stephanos

    2013-05-15

    The discovery of the activating mutation V617F in the JH2 domain of Jak2 and the modulation of oncogenic Stat3 by Jak2 inhibitors have spurred a great interest in the inhibition of the Jak2/Stat pathway in oncology. In this Letter, we communicate the discovery of novel inhibitors of the Jak2/Stat5 axis, the N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amino derivatives. The rationale, synthesis and biological evaluation of these derivatives are reported. Two lead analogs from this series, 6 and 9, displayed prolonged residence time on Jak2, at enzymatic level. Although 6 and 9 exhibited moderate selectivity in a selected kinase panel, we chose to test these inhibitors in vivo as a consequence to their long residence time. However, extended inhibition of Jak2 due to the long residence time, in the form of inhibiting phosphorylation of downstream Stat5, was not recapitulated in an in vivo setting. PMID:23562594

  2. Influence of the gas and particle residence time on fast pyrolysis of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, L.J.; Song, W.L.; Zhang, J.Y.; Yao, J.Z.; Lin, W.G.

    2007-06-15

    Coal resource is abundant in China, while the reserves of natural gas and petroleum are limited. Due to the rapid increase in the number of automobiles, a competitive way to produce liquid fuels from coal is urgently needed in China. A so-called 'coal topping process' is under development at the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, from which liquid products can be obtained by flash pyrolysis in an integrated circulating fluidized bed system. In order to achieve a high yield of liquid products from high volatile coal, controlling the residence time of coal particles and produced gas may be of importance for minimizing the degree of the secondary reactions; i.e., polymerization and cracking of the liquid products. Experiments of the flash pyrolysis of coal have been conducted in an entrained bed reactor which is especially designed to study the influence of the coal particle residence time on the product distribution. The results show that the gaseous, liquid, and solid product distribution, the gas compositions as well as the liquid compositions depend strongly on the gas and particle residence time.

  3. Probabilistic approach of water residence time and connectivity using Markov chains with application to tidal embayments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, C.; Filgueira, R.; Guyondet, T.

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain analysis was recently proposed to assess the time scales and preferential pathways into biological or physical networks by computing residence time, first passage time, rates of transfer between nodes and number of passages in a node. We propose to adapt an algorithm already published for simple systems to physical systems described with a high resolution hydrodynamic model. The method is applied to bays and estuaries on the Eastern Coast of Canada for their interest in shellfish aquaculture. Current velocities have been computed by using a 2 dimensional grid of elements and circulation patterns were summarized by averaging Eulerian flows between adjacent elements. Flows and volumes allow computing probabilities of transition between elements and to assess the average time needed by virtual particles to move from one element to another, the rate of transfer between two elements, and the average residence time of each system. We also combined transfer rates and times to assess the main pathways of virtual particles released in farmed areas and the potential influence of farmed areas on other areas. We suggest that Markov chain is complementary to other sets of ecological indicators proposed to analyse the interactions between farmed areas - e.g., depletion index, carrying capacity assessment. Markov chain has several advantages with respect to the estimation of connectivity between pair of sites. It makes possible to estimate transfer rates and times at once in a very quick and efficient way, without the need to perform long term simulations of particle or tracer concentration.

  4. Flow rates, residence times and origin of fluids in the Hikurangi forearc, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    meteoric water and more intense interaction with the rock. Initial estimates of saline water residence time in Te Puia, based on present-day rates of subduction and uplift is <100ka. Possible residence times of other aqueous solutions, based on the intensity of water-rock interaction relative to Te Puia, are youngest in the central block and >100ka in several springs in the southern block. Fluids in the northern and southern blocks become increasingly enriched in Cl, I and Br contents and exhibit decreased water-rock interaction towards the central block. The central block is deemed most open, due to fracture permeability enhanced by localised tears in the overlying plate from the subduction of seamounts, to the most recent influx of subducted waters. The unusual occurrence of hot and cold springs in the central and northern blocks with high concentrations of isotopic He is attributed to anomalously deep and highly permeable faults that channel mantle gases and also allow aqueous solutions to rise very rapidly from as deep as the fracture zone between the overriding and down going plates.

  5. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h. PMID:27034103

  6. Burnout and training satisfaction of medical residents in Greece: will the European Work Time Directive make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of burnout in Greek medical residents, investigate its relationship with training satisfaction during residency and survey Greek medical residents' opinion towards the European Work Time Directive (EWTD). Methods A Multi-centre, cross-sectional survey of Greek residents was performed. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout, which was defined as high emotional exhaustion, combined with high depersonalization or low personal accomplishment. In addition, seven questions were designed for this study to evaluate self-reported resident training satisfaction and three questions queried residents' opinion on the EWTD and its effects on their personal and social life as well as their medical training. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical models were used for the evaluation of data. Results Out of 311 respondents (77.8% response rate), 154 (49.5%) met burnout criteria and 99 (31.8%) indicated burnout on all three subscale scores. The number of residents that were dissatisfied with the overall quality of their residency training were 113 individuals (36.3%). Only 32 residents (10.3%) believed that the EWTD implementation will not have any beneficial effects for them. Conclusions Both burnout and training dissatisfaction were common among Greek residents. Systemic interventions are thus required within the Greek health system, aimed at reducing resident impairment due to burnout and at improving their educational and professional perspectives. Although residents' opinion on the EWTD was not associated with burnout levels, the EWTD was found to be predominantly supported and anticipated by Greek residents and should be implemented to alleviate their workload and stress. PMID:20594310

  7. Predicting mean residence time and exchange velocity in the hyporheic zone of restored streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morén, Ida; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zones of streams and rivers have been identified as hotspots for biogeochemical reactions in the aquatic environment, making the retention time and exchange velocity of the hyporheic zone essential parameters in the modelling of these processes. However, exact site-specific values of those parameters are often missing in stream restoration projects because there are no well-defined scaling relationships linking them to measurable reach characteristics. In this study we derive semi-analytical solutions for the retention time and exchange velocity in the hyporheic zone. In particular the effect on hyporheic exchange is expressed by the use of physically based models and by superimposing different geomorphologic features of different scales. It is suggested that all exchange phenomena can be modelled as head anomalies expressed with a harmonic distribution along the stream with specific wavelength and head amplitude. The maximum head of an exchange phenomena is either dominated by hydrodynamic or hydrostatic water pressure, depending on the size of the feature causing the exchange. The theory leads to constitutive relationships for exchange velocity and residence time expressed as functions of the distribution of wavelengths, distribution of head amplitude and hydraulic conductivity. In order to validate and evaluate certain empirical coefficients, a number of Rhodamine WT tracer tests were performed in a partly restored agricultural stream in the south of Sweden called the Tullstorps brook. To evaluate the tracer test in sections where remediation actions have been undertaken we used the method of temporal moments. In conjunction with the tracer tests a characterisation of the stream was carried out where hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and stream morphology was measured. The study verifies that the residence time in the hyporheic zone decreases with the maximum hydraulic head of the largest (dominating) geomorphic feature of the reach, and

  8. A contaminant transport model for wetlands accounting for distinct residence time bimodality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musner, T.; Bottacin-Busolin, A.; Zaramella, M.; Marion, A.

    2014-07-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in controlling the fate of contaminants in natural and constructed wetlands. Estimating the efficiency of contaminant removal of a wetland requires separate knowledge of the residence time statistics in the main flow channels, where the flow velocity is relatively higher, and in the more densely vegetated zones, where the velocity is smaller and most of the biochemical transformations occur. A conceptual wetland characterized by a main flow channel (MFC) and lateral vegetated zones (LVZs) is modeled here using a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic and advection-dispersion model. The effect of vegetation is described as a flow resistance represented in the hydrodynamic model as a function of the stem density. Simulations are performed for a given flow discharge and for increasing values of the ratio between the vegetation density in the LVZs and in the MFC. Residence time distributions (RTDs) of a nonreactive tracer are derived from numerical simulations of the solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) resulting from a continuous concentration input. Results show that increasing vegetation densities produce an increasingly pronounced bimodality of the RTDs. At longer times, the RTDs decrease exponentially, with different timescales depending on the stem density ratio and other system parameters. The overall residence time distribution can be decomposed into a first component associated with the relatively fast transport in the MFC, and a second component associated with the slower transport in the LVZs. The weight of each temporal component is related to the exchange flux at the MFC-LVZ interface. A one-dimensional transport model is proposed that is capable to reproduce the RTDs predicted by the depth-averaged model, and the relationship between model and system parameters is investigated using a combination of direct and inverse modeling approaches.

  9. Geometrical effects on the electron residence time in semiconductor nano-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Koochi, Hakimeh; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-07

    We have used random walk (RW) numerical simulations to investigate the influence of the geometry on the statistics of the electron residence time τ{sub r} in a trap-limited diffusion process through semiconductor nano-particles. This is an important parameter in coarse-grained modeling of charge carrier transport in nano-structured semiconductor films. The traps have been distributed randomly on the surface (r{sup 2} model) or through the whole particle (r{sup 3} model) with a specified density. The trap energies have been taken from an exponential distribution and the traps release time is assumed to be a stochastic variable. We have carried out (RW) simulations to study the effect of coordination number, the spatial arrangement of the neighbors and the size of nano-particles on the statistics of τ{sub r}. It has been observed that by increasing the coordination number n, the average value of electron residence time, τ{sup ¯}{sub r} rapidly decreases to an asymptotic value. For a fixed coordination number n, the electron's mean residence time does not depend on the neighbors' spatial arrangement. In other words, τ{sup ¯}{sub r} is a porosity-dependence, local parameter which generally varies remarkably from site to site, unless we are dealing with highly ordered structures. We have also examined the effect of nano-particle size d on the statistical behavior of τ{sup ¯}{sub r}. Our simulations indicate that for volume distribution of traps, τ{sup ¯}{sub r} scales as d{sup 2}. For a surface distribution of traps τ{sup ¯}{sub r} increases almost linearly with d. This leads to the prediction of a linear dependence of the diffusion coefficient D on the particle size d in ordered structures or random structures above the critical concentration which is in accordance with experimental observations.

  10. Noble gas residence times of saline waters within crystalline bedrock, Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niedermann, Samuel; Wiersberg, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Noble gas residence times of saline groundwaters from the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, located within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield in Finland, are presented. The accumulation of radiogenic (4He, 40Ar) and nucleogenic (21Ne) noble gas isotopes in situ together with the effects of diffusion are considered. Fluid samples were collected from depths between 180 and 2480 m below surface, allowing us to compare the modelled values with the measured concentrations along a vertical depth profile. The results show that while the concentrations in the upper part are likely affected by diffusion, there is no indication of diffusive loss at or below 500 m depth. Furthermore, no mantle derived gases were found unequivocally. Previous studies have shown that distinct vertical variation occurs both in geochemistry and microbial community structuring along the drill hole, indicating stagnant waters with no significant exchange of fluids between different fracture systems or with surface waters. Therefore in situ accumulation is the most plausible model for the determination of noble gas residence times. The results show that the saline groundwaters in Outokumpu are remarkably old, with most of the samples indicating residence times between ∼20 and 50 Ma. Although being first order approximations, the ages of the fluids clearly indicate that their formation must predate more recent events, such as Quaternary glaciations. Isolation within the crust since the Eocene-Miocene epochs has also direct implications to the deep biosphere found at Outokumpu. These ecosystems must have been isolated for a long time and thus very likely rely on energy and carbon sources such as H2 and CO2 from groundwater and adjacent bedrock rather than from the ground surface.

  11. Microbes residing in young organic rich Alaskan soils contain older carbon than those residing in old mineral high Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Slater, G. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Whyte, L.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils range from very organic rich to low carbon and mineral-dominated soils. At present, we do not yet fully understand if all carbon in the Arctic is equally vulnerable to mineralization in a warmer climate. Many studies have demonstrated that ancient carbon is respired when permafrost has thawed, yet our understanding of the active layer and permafrost carbon dynamics is still emerging. In an effort to remedy this disconnect between our knowledge of surface fluxes and below ground processes, we used radiocarbon to examine the microbial carbon dynamics in soil cores from organic rich soils near Barrow, Alaska and mineral soils from the Canadian high Arctic. Specifically, we compared the microbial community using lipid biomarkers, the inputs of carbon using n-alkanes and measured the 14C of both the bulk organic carbon and of the microbial lipids. In theory, the microbial lipids (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) represent the viable microbial community, as these lipids are hydrolyzed quickly after cell death. Variations in the PLFA distributions suggested that different microbial communities inhabit organic rich Alaskan soils and those of the Canadian high Arctic. When the PLFA concentrations were converted to cellular concentration, they were within the same order of magnitude (1 to 5 x 108 cells/g dry soil) with slightly higher cell concentrations in the organic rich Alaskan soils. When these cellular concentrations were normalized to the organic carbon content, the Canadian high Arctic soils contained a greater proportion of microbes. Although bulk organic carbon 14C of Alaskan soils indicated more recent carbon inputs into the soil than the Canadian high Arctic soils, the 14C of the PLFA revealed the opposite. For corresponding depth horizons, microbes in Alaskan soils were consuming carbon 1000 to 1500 years older than those in the Canadian high Arctic. Differences between the 14C content of bulk organic carbon and the microbial lipids were much smaller

  12. Treatment of zinc-rich acid mine water in low residence time bioreactors incorporating waste shells and methanol dosing.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Davis, J; Silva, V; Jarvis, A P

    2011-10-15

    Bioreactors utilising bacterially mediated sulphate reduction (BSR) have been widely tested for treating metal-rich waters, but sustained treatment of mobile metals (e.g. Zn) can be difficult to achieve in short residence time systems. Data are presented providing an assessment of alkalinity generating media (shells or limestone) and modes of metal removal in bioreactors receiving a synthetic acidic metal mine discharge (pH 2.7, Zn 15 mg/L, SO(4)(2-) 200mg/L, net acidity 103 mg/L as CaCO(3)) subject to methanol dosing. In addition to alkalinity generating media (50%, v.v.), the columns comprised an organic matrix of softwood chippings (30%), manure (10%) and anaerobic digested sludge (10%). The column tests showed sustained alkalinity generation, which was significantly better in shell treatments. The first column in each treatment was effective throughout the 422 days in removing >99% of the dissolved Pb and Cu, and effective for four months in removing 99% of the dissolved Zn (residence time: 12-14 h). Methanol was added to the feedstock after Zn breakthrough and prompted almost complete removal of dissolved Zn alongside improved alkalinity generation and sulphate attenuation. While there was geochemical evidence for BSR, sequential extraction of substrates suggests that the bulk (67-80%) of removed Zn was associated with Fe-Mn oxide fractions. PMID:21864976

  13. Residence time and movements of postbreeding shorebirds on the northern coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Audrey R.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, A.N.; Kendall, S.J.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little is known about shorebird movements across the coast of northern Alaska, yet postbreeding shorebirds use this coastline extensively prior to fall migration. We deployed 346 radio transmitters on 153 breeding and 193 postbreeding shorebirds of five species from 2005 to 2007.We examined two hypotheses regarding postbreeding shorebirds' movements: (1) whether such movements reflect ultimate routes of southbound migration and (2) whether migration strategy (length of flights) or timing of molt in relation to migration (molt occurring in breeding or winter range) are more influential in determining postbreeding shorebirds' behavior. Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) moved east, consistent with the direction of their ultimate migration, but patterns of other species' movements did not reflect ultimate migration direction. Timing of postnuptial molt appeared to have more influence over residence time and movements than did migration strategy. Postcapture residence time for the Semipalmated Sandpiper was less than for the Western Sandpiper (C. mauri) and significantly less than for Dunlin (C. alpina), and the Semipalmated Sandpiper's movements between were quicker and more frequent than those of the Dunlin. We expected to see the opposite patterns if migration strategy were more influential. Our data shed light on how different shorebird species use the northern Alaska coast after breeding: most species are likely to be stopping over at postbreeding areas, whereas the Dunlin and some Western Sandpipers may be staging. We suggest the coast of northern Alaska be viewed as an interconnected network of postbreeding sites that serve multiple populations of breeding shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  14. Predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in resident aquatic organisms using passive samplers and partial least-squares calibration.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Norman D; Smith, Brian W; Sower, Greg J; Anderson, Kim A

    2014-06-01

    The current work sought to develop predictive models between time-weighted average polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the freely dissolved phase and those present in resident aquatic organisms. We deployed semipermeable membrane passive sampling devices (SPMDs) and collected resident crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) at nine locations within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Mega-site in Portland, OR. Study results show that crayfish and aqueous phase samples collected within the Mega-site had PAH profiles enriched in high molecular weight PAHs and that freely dissolved PAH profiles tended to be more populated by low molecular weight PAHs compared to crayfish tissues. Results also show that of several modeling approaches, a two-factor partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model using detection limit substitution provided the best predictive power for estimating PAH concentrations in crayfish, where the model explained ≥72% of the variation in the data set and provided predictions within ∼3× of measured values. Importantly, PLS calibration provided a means to estimate PAH concentrations in tissues when concentrations were below detection in the freely dissolved phase. The impact of measurements below detection limits is discussed. PMID:24800862

  15. Predicting Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Resident Aquatic Organisms Using Passive Samplers and Partial Least-Squares Calibration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current work sought to develop predictive models between time-weighted average polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the freely dissolved phase and those present in resident aquatic organisms. We deployed semipermeable membrane passive sampling devices (SPMDs) and collected resident crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) at nine locations within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Mega-site in Portland, OR. Study results show that crayfish and aqueous phase samples collected within the Mega-site had PAH profiles enriched in high molecular weight PAHs and that freely dissolved PAH profiles tended to be more populated by low molecular weight PAHs compared to crayfish tissues. Results also show that of several modeling approaches, a two-factor partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model using detection limit substitution provided the best predictive power for estimating PAH concentrations in crayfish, where the model explained ≥72% of the variation in the data set and provided predictions within ∼3× of measured values. Importantly, PLS calibration provided a means to estimate PAH concentrations in tissues when concentrations were below detection in the freely dissolved phase. The impact of measurements below detection limits is discussed. PMID:24800862

  16. Geomorphic Control on Mineral and Fluid Residence Times and Implications for the Hydrochemistry of Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how hydrologic and geochemical processes are coupled, and how this coupling is linked to geomorphic boundary conditions, remains a fundamental problem in the Geosciences, with implications from hydrology and ecosystem science to the geologic carbon cycle. In this study, we present paired measurements of water chemistry and river runoff in four nested catchments spanning the transition from the Andes Mountains to the foreland floodplain in Peru. These data provide insight into the linkages between catchment hydrology and weathering across a dramatic geomorphic gradient. Along the studied gradient, bedrock-derived solute concentrations range from being nearly constant in the Andes to showing significant dilution in response to increasing runoff in the foreland floodplain. Mean catchment slope appears to be a robust predictor of the power law exponent relating solute concentrations and runoff, which implies that erosional processes are an underlying control on concentration-runoff relationships. A number of factors may explain the observed slope-dependency of concentration-runoff relationships, including both mineral and fluid residence times. Seasonal variation in the δD of the Andean rivers is significantly damped relative to variation in the δD of precipitation. Along with consideration of the annual water budget, these data suggest that water is transiently stored within fractured bedrock in the Andean catchments. Across the entire study area, the seasonal variation in the δD of tributaries (i.e. streams that drain only a narrow range of elevations) increases with decreasing mean catchment elevation, which suggests that fluid residence times are shorter in the foreland floodplain relative to the Andes. Together, we interpret these factors to suggest that erosional processes, by modulating both the residence time of water and minerals in the critical zone, control the hydrologic sensitivity of weathering processes along the Andes-to-Amazon gradient.

  17. Mixing controls on nitrogen and oxygen concentrations and the relationship to mean residence time in a hyporheic zone of a riffle-pool sequence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Davis, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Flow paths and residence times in the hyporheic zone are known to control biogeochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification. The exchange across the sediment-water interface involves mixing of surface water and groundwater through complex hyporheic flow paths that contribute highly variable biogeochemical active zones. The objectives of this study were to determine the fate of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) during temporally varying flow conditions and compare concentrations to residence times simulated along a longitudinal cross-section accounting for mixing behavior of vertical and horizontal flow paths. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of nutrients was monitored in the hyporheic zone beneath a riffle-pool sequence on the Truckee River, NV using in-stream piezometers and riparian monitoring wells. Time-varying river discharge, spatially-varying hyporheic flow, and the distribution and mixing of flow paths appear to control the nitrification and denitrification process, and result in biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments. Results indicate that dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations in the hyporheic zone are generally greater than surface water concentrations, especially in down-welling zones. Concentrations of NO3 and DO were greater beneath the riffle areas as compared to pool areas, as a result of mineralization and nitrification of down-welling surface water. Replenishment of DO appears to support nitrification over long flow paths (101 of meters) and residence times (days). Denitrification along longer horizontal flow paths is limited by the influx of DO into the riverbed and the reductions in mean residence times. It is important to consider the occurrence of rapid inflows of surface water into the hyporheic zones resulting from variability in stage and riverbed topography, that replenishes DO and controls reaction rates and solute residence times. Flow-tube conceptual models for simulating residence times

  18. Stable isotope fractionation in response to variable fluid residence time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhan, J. L.; Maher, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogeochemical processes governing groundwater quantity and quality are often inferred from fluid samples that are the flux-weighted average of a heterogeneous system. This connection has been demonstrated for solutes subject to transport and equilibrium constraints, in which the steady state concentration - discharge relationship is cast in terms of the choice of expression for residence time distribution (Maher, 2011). Here, we examine the extent to which the spatial correlation of the permeability field, which governs the fluid residence time distribution, exerts a principle control on the partitioning of stable isotopes between reactant and product species during heterogeneous reactions in groundwater systems. We demonstrate this relationship using numerical simulations of δ53Cr fractionation due to abiotic CrO42- reduction by Fe2+, implemented in the reactive transport code CrunchFlow. The chemically homogeneous redox reaction generates Cr3+ with an isotope ratio distinct from the reactant pool, and in turn this product species precipitates as a mineral phase Cr(OH)3(s) through a non-fractionating reaction. The corresponding chromate δ53Cr enrichment across a homogeneous domain varies from a maximum value set by the kinetic fractionation factor (αk) at high mean fluid residence times, to a value <αk as fluid velocity increases, demonstrating a transition from reaction-limited to transport-limited regimes. For physically heterogeneous flow fields, the transition in isotopic fractionation from a reaction-limited to a transport-limited regime becomes variable, and falls between the upper and lower bounds set by the homogeneous simulations at slow and fast precipitation rates, respectively. Our results show that while minimal variation occurs in the steady-state isotopic profile of the reactant species (δ53Cr of CrO42-), the combined effects of the precipitation rate and the heterogeneous structure of the porous media lead to a wide range in the steady

  19. On solute residence time in the storage zones of small streams - experimental study and scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Transient storage has a major influence on solute transport in streams, on biogeochemical cycling, water quality and on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The first part of the research reported here focuses on surface transient storage (STS) zones between groins along small streams. Such groins are used to protect banks, but also to increase habitat diversity and are, thus, not restricted to large rivers. Repeated tracer dilution experiments on the Mödlingbach, a small stream in Austria some 30 km south of Vienna, have been analyzed to determine the solute residence time between groins and to characterize the exchange processes between dead zones and main stream. Pairs of related breakthrough curves were measured in main stream and storage zones, resp., and used subsequently to estimate the solute residence time in the surface dead zones under study. Following previous work (Weitbrecht et al., 2008; Jackson et al., 2012) these residence times were, in turn, expressed as T = -W-.hD- k ?u hE (1) with W denoting groin length, u main stream flow velocity, hD mean water depth between the groins and hE depth at the interface dead zone - main stream. Coefficient k, finally, is thought to depend on a type of hydraulic radius, RD = W.L/(W+L), with L denoting the distance between the groins, measured in main flow direction. Using both the Mödlingbach STS zone data and the results of the aforementioned study (Weitbrecht et al., 2008) the following regression equation was derived (hS denotes main stream water depth): k = 0.00282? RD + 0.00802 hS (2) The second part of this research focuses on the dependency of solute residence time on flow rate, which is important for an improved understanding of longitudinal solute transport in streams and for the application of mathematical models. The scaling law proposed here is based on a physics-related theory combined with extensive data sets available form a decade of stream tracer experiments on the Mödlingbach stream

  20. Dispersed fluid flow in fractured reservoirs: An analysis of tracer-determined residence time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    1984-11-01

    A methodology for analyzing the internal flow characteristics of a fractured geothermal reservoir using tracer-determined residence time distribution curves is outlined. Emphasis is placed on comparison of the statistical quantities obtained from the tracer curves of different reservoirs or of the same reservoir under different conditions. In this way, model-independent information may be used unambiguously to construct empirical reservoir performance correlations. Downhole measurements of the tracer response exiting from discrete fracture zones permit further characterization of reservoir fluid flow behavior. Tracer experiments conducted in prototype hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs in fractured rock are examined using these statistically based data analysis methods.

  1. Bistable sensors based on broken symmetry phenomena: The residence time difference vs. the second harmonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A.; Stocks, N. G.; Bulsara, A. R.

    2013-10-01

    A periodically driven noisy bistable system can be used as a sensor of a dc target signal. In the presence of the dc signal the symmetry of the potential energy function that underpins the sensor dynamics can be broken, leading to even harmonics of the driving frequency in the power spectrum. Both the power of the second harmonic and the mean residence time difference can be used for an estimation of the dc signal. In this paper we introduce a method for the power spectrum estimation from the experimental time series. This method can be considered to be an alternative to methods based on the Fourier transform. The presented method is faster for computation than the Fast Fourier Transform, and it allow us to estimate the power contained in peaks (or features) without their mixture with the power spectrum background. Using this method we compute the power of the second harmonic in the response power spectrum and compare the accuracy of the second harmonic method and the mean residence time difference (RTD) via the Shannon mutual information. We find that the RTD, generally, yields better performance in bistable noisy sensors.

  2. A residence-time-based transport approach for the groundwater pathway in performance assessment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Chu, Shaoping

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development and numerical implementation of a new modeling approach for representing the groundwater pathway in risk assessment or performance assessment model of a contaminant transport system. The model developed in the present study, called the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Mixing Model (RTDMM), allows for an arbitrary distribution of fluid travel times to be represented, to capture the effects on the breakthrough curve of flow processes such as channelized flow and fast pathways and complex three-dimensional dispersion. Mathematical methods for constructing the model for a given RTD are derived directly from the theory of residence time distributions in flowing systems. A simple mixing model is presented, along with the basic equations required to enable an arbitrary RTD to be reproduced using the model. The practical advantages of the RTDMM include easy incorporation into a multi-realization probabilistic simulation; computational burden no more onerous than a one-dimensional model with the same number of grid cells; and straightforward implementation into available flow and transport modeling codes, enabling one to then utilize advanced transport features of that code. For example, in this study we incorporated diffusion into the stagnant fluid in the rock matrix away from the flowing fractures, using a generalized dual porosity model formulation. A suite of example calculations presented herein showed the utility of the RTDMM for the case of a radioactive decay chain, dual porosity transport and sorption.

  3. Sediment residence time and connectivity in non-equilibrium and transient geomorphic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Hillebrand, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    Growing empirical evidence shows that sediment delivery in many geomorphic systems is in transient state or out of equilibrium with respect to the external driving forces. The transient state is often related to the (dis)connectivity of the many constituent parts of geomorphic systems as a result of sediment storage along the sediment flow path from its source to the final sink. The response time of geomorphic systems to external changes is thus dependent on the residence time of sediment in various storage compartments. Here, a mathematical concept based on reservoir theory to model residence time of sediment in various depositional environments is presented. The concept allows to reinterpret millennial scale sediment budges, but can be also applied to decal sediment storage in reservoirs and aids sediment management practices in river systems. The framework sheds light on the limitation of the sediment delivery ratio, which is often used as a measure of sediment connectivity in geomorphic systems, and provides analytical information on process type, pace of sediment flux and connectivity of storage compartments along the sediment cascade. Examples will be given using Postglacial sediment budgets from the Canadian Rocky mountains on the one hand and short-term (~15 yrs.) sediment dynamics in the Iffezheim barrage in the Upper Rhine (Germany).

  4. Analysis Of Residence Time Distribution Of Fluid Flow By Axial Dispersion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiharto; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Abidin, Zainal

    2010-12-23

    Radioactive tracer {sup 82}Br in the form of KBr-82 with activity {+-} 1 mCi has been injected into steel pipeline to qualify the extent dispersion of water flowing inside it. Internal diameter of the pipe is 3 in. The water source was originated from water tank through which the water flow gravitically into the pipeline. Two collimated sodium iodide detectors were used in this experiment each of which was placed on the top of the pipeline at the distance of 8 and 11 m from injection point respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves obtained from injection of tracer are elaborated numerically to find information of the fluid flow properties. The transit time of tracer calculated from the mean residence time (MRT) of each RTD curves is 14.9 s, therefore the flow velocity of the water is 0.2 m/s. The dispersion number, D/uL, for each RTD curve estimated by using axial dispersion model are 0.055 and 0.06 respectively. These calculations are performed after fitting the simulated axial dispersion model on the experiment curves. These results indicated that the extent of dispersion of water flowing in the pipeline is in the category of intermediate.

  5. Analysis Of Residence Time Distribution Of Fluid Flow By Axial Dispersion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiharto, Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Abidin, Zainal

    2010-12-01

    Radioactive tracer 82Br in the form of KBr-82 with activity ± 1 mCi has been injected into steel pipeline to qualify the extent dispersion of water flowing inside it. Internal diameter of the pipe is 3 in. The water source was originated from water tank through which the water flow gravitically into the pipeline. Two collimated sodium iodide detectors were used in this experiment each of which was placed on the top of the pipeline at the distance of 8 and 11 m from injection point respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves obtained from injection of tracer are elaborated numerically to find information of the fluid flow properties. The transit time of tracer calculated from the mean residence time (MRT) of each RTD curves is 14.9 s, therefore the flow velocity of the water is 0.2 m/s. The dispersion number, D/uL, for each RTD curve estimated by using axial dispersion model are 0.055 and 0.06 respectively. These calculations are performed after fitting the simulated axial dispersion model on the experiment curves. These results indicated that the extent of dispersion of water flowing in the pipeline is in the category of intermediate.

  6. Residence times of stream-groundwater exchanges due to transient stream stage fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, James L.; Shanafield, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    The biogeochemical functioning of stream ecosystems is heavily dependent on water and water-borne nutrient fluxes between the stream itself and the streambed and banks (i.e., the hyporheic zone). The travel time of water exchanges through the hyporheic zone has been investigated previously; however, these studies have primarily modeled exchanges under steady state conditions assuming spatial pressure variations. This assumes that the hydraulic gradients that drive the exchanges are maintained the whole time the stream water remains in the bed or banks, which is unrealistic. Therefore, in this study we use a transient approach to investigate residence time distributions (RTDs) of bank inflow and bank outflow during both regular, diurnal stream stage variations and storm flow events. We demonstrate that RTDs reflect the timing and magnitude bank inflows, rather than smooth RTDs. We also show that small percentages of water from a given bank inflow event may be present in bank outflows for long periods of time, due to dispersion and diffusion within the bank, and lower rates of bank outflow, relative to bank inflow. This is apparent in the synthetic model of a single storm flow event, where 10% remained in the bank after 50 days. Additionally, residence times for a given bank inflow event are longer when repeated events occur, because the bank outflows from one event are "interrupted" by an increase in stream stage during a successive event. For example, field data capturing events of variable timing and magnitude showed that 70 days after each of three storm flow events occurred, 40, 12 and 30% of the bank inflow event remained in the banks. These cases indicate that bank exchanges are temporally dynamic and the RTDs of return flows can have significant tailing, which will dictate rates of nutrient exchange within the near-stream environment.

  7. Investigation of liquid phase axial dispersion in Taylor bubble flow by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chughtai, I. R.; Iqbal, W.; Din, G. U.; Mehdi, S.; Khan, I. H.; Inayat, M. H.; Jin, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    A gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow occurs in small diameter channels in which gas bubbles are separated by slugs of pure liquid. This type of flow regime is well suited for solid catalyzed gas-liquid reactors in which the reaction efficiency is a strong function of axial dispersion in the regions of pure liquid. This paper presents an experimental study of liquid phase axial dispersion in a Taylor bubble flow developed in a horizontal tube using high speed photography and radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. A parametric dependence of axial dispersion on average volume fraction of gas phase was also investigated by varying the relative volumetric flow rates of the two phases. 137mBa produced from a 137Cs/137mBa radionuclide generator was used as radiotracer and measurements were made using the NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Validation of 137mBa in the form of barium chloride as aqueous phase radiotracer was also carried out. Axial Dispersion Model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system and the results of the experiment are presented. It was observed that the system is characterized by very high values of Peclet Number (Pe˜102) which reveals an approaching plug type flow. The experimental and model estimated values of mean residence times were observed in agreement with each other.

  8. Fluid flow pattern and water residence time in waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Badrot-Nico, F; Guinot, V; Brissaud, F

    2009-01-01

    As treatment processes are kinetic-dependent, a consistent description of water residence times is essential to the prediction of waste stabilization ponds performance. A physically-based 3D transient CFD model simulating the water velocity, temperature and concentration fields as a function of all influent meteorological factors--wind speed and direction, solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity--was used to identify the relationships between the meteorological conditions and the hydrodynamic patterns and water residence times distributions in a polishing pond. The required meteorological data were recorded on site and water temperatures recorded at 10 sampling sites for 141 days. Stratification events appear on very calm days for wind speeds lower than 3 m s(-1) and on sunny days for wind speeds lower than 5 m s(-1). De-stratification is related to two mixing processes: nightly convection cells and global mixing patterns. Numerical tracer experiments show that the results of the flow patterns can be evaluated using the dispersed flow regime approximation and, for wind speeds exceeding 6 m s(-1), the completely stirred tank reactor assumption. PMID:19342800

  9. A non-discrete method for computation of residence time in fluid mechanics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular simulations provide a promising means to predict risk of thrombosis in grafts, devices, and surgical anatomies in adult and pediatric patients. Although the pathways for platelet activation and clot formation are not yet fully understood, recent findings suggest that thrombosis risk is increased in regions of flow recirculation and high residence time (RT). Current approaches for calculating RT are typically based on releasing a finite number of Lagrangian particles into the flow field and calculating RT by tracking their positions. However, special care must be taken to achieve temporal and spatial convergence, often requiring repeated simulations. In this work, we introduce a non-discrete method in which RT is calculated in an Eulerian framework using the advection-diffusion equation. We first present the formulation for calculating residence time in a given region of interest using two alternate definitions. The physical significance and sensitivity of the two measures of RT are discussed and their mathematical relation is established. An extension to a point-wise value is also presented. The methods presented here are then applied in a 2D cavity and two representative clinical scenarios, involving shunt placement for single ventricle heart defects and Kawasaki disease. In the second case study, we explored the relationship between RT and wall shear stress, a parameter of particular importance in cardiovascular disease.

  10. Chemotaxis Increases the Residence Time of Bacteria in Granular Media Containing Distributed Contaminant Sources.

    PubMed

    Adadevoh, Joanna S T; Triolo, Sarah; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Ford, Roseanne M

    2016-01-01

    The use of chemotactic bacteria in bioremediation has the potential to increase access to, and the biotransformation of, contaminant mass within the subsurface. This laboratory-scale study aimed to understand and quantify the influence of chemotaxis on the residence times of pollutant-degrading bacteria within homogeneous treatment zones. Focus was placed on a continuous-flow sand-packed column in which a uniform distribution of naphthalene crystals created distributed sources of dissolved-phase contaminant. A 10 mL pulse of Pseudomonas putida G7, which is chemotactic to naphthalene, and Pseudomonas putida G7 Y1, a nonchemotactic mutant strain, were simultaneously introduced into the sand-packed column at equal concentrations. Breakthrough curves obtained from experiments conducted with and without naphthalene were used to quantify the effect of chemotaxis on transport parameters. In the presence of the chemoattractant, longitudinal dispersion of PpG7 increased by a factor of 3, and percent recovery decreased by 43%. In contrast, PpG7 Y1 transport was not influenced by the presence of naphthalene. The results imply that pore-scale chemotaxis responses are evident at an interstitial velocity of 1.8 m/day, which is within the range of typical groundwater flow. Within the context of bioremediation, chemotaxis may work to enhance bacterial residence times in zones of contamination, thereby improving treatment. PMID:26605857

  11. Thiolated α-Cyclodextrin: The Invisible Choice to Prolong Ocular Drug Residence Time.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mahmood; Akhtar, Naveed; Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    It was the aim of this study to develop cysteamine-conjugated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) enabled to form disulfide bonds with cysteine-rich substructures of the ocular mucus layer to provide a prolonged residence time of incorporated drugs at the site of action. Cysteamine was covalently attached to oxidized α-CD via reductive amination. The resulting α-CD-cysteamine conjugates (α-CD-Cys) were characterized regarding the amount of free thiol groups attached to the oligomer backbone via Ellman's reagent; resazurin assay was conducted for cytotoxicity, and mucoadhesive properties were evaluated on porcine intestinal and ocular mucosal tissues. Furthermore, albino rabbits were used for assessing the irritation-masking effects of α-CD-Cys. Free thiol groups attached to the backbone were in the range of 558 ± 24-1143 ± 92 μmol/g. None of these α-CD-Cys unduly affected the viability of Caco-2 cells in a concentration of 0.5%. Mucoadhesive properties of α-CD-Cys were up to 32-fold improved compared to unmodified α-CD. Encapsulation of cetirizine into α-CD-Cys resulted in significantly reduced local ocular mucosal irritation of this model drug. According to these results, α-CD-Cys is a promising new tool to prolong drug residence time on the ocular mucosal surface. PMID:27233687

  12. A non-discrete method for computation of residence time in fluid mechanics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular simulations provide a promising means to predict risk of thrombosis in grafts, devices, and surgical anatomies in adult and pediatric patients. Although the pathways for platelet activation and clot formation are not yet fully understood, recent findings suggest that thrombosis risk is increased in regions of flow recirculation and high residence time (RT). Current approaches for calculating RT are typically based on releasing a finite number of Lagrangian particles into the flow field and calculating RT by tracking their positions. However, special care must be taken to achieve temporal and spatial convergence, often requiring repeated simulations. In this work, we introduce a non-discrete method in which RT is calculated in an Eulerian framework using the advection-diffusion equation. We first present the formulation for calculating residence time in a given region of interest using two alternate definitions. The physical significance and sensitivity of the two measures of RT are discussed and their mathematical relation is established. An extension to a point-wise value is also presented. The methods presented here are then applied in a 2D cavity and two representative clinical scenarios, involving shunt placement for single ventricle heart defects and Kawasaki disease. In the second case study, we explored the relationship between RT and wall shear stress, a parameter of particular importance in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24046509

  13. Chemotaxis Increases the Residence Time Distribution of Bacteria in Granular Media Containing Distributed Contaminant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adadevoh, J.; Triolo, S.; Ramsburg, C. A.; Ford, R.

    2015-12-01

    The use of chemotactic bacteria in bioremediation has the potential to increase access to, and biotransformation of, contaminant mass within the subsurface environment. This laboratory-scale study aimed to understand and quantify the influence of chemotaxis on residence times of pollutant-degrading bacteria within homogeneous treatment zones. Focus was placed on a continuous flow sand-packed column system in which a uniform distribution of naphthalene crystals created distributed sources of dissolved phase contaminant. A 10 mL pulse of Pseudomonas putida G7, which is chemotactic to naphthalene, and Pseudomonas putida G7 Y1, a non-chemotactic mutant strain, were simultaneously introduced into the sand-packed column at equal concentrations. Breakthrough curves obtained for the bacteria from column experiments conducted with and without naphthalene were used to quantify the effect of chemotaxis on transport parameters. In the presence of the chemoattractant, longitudinal dispersivity of PpG7 increased by a factor of 3 and percent recovery decreased from 21% to 12%. The results imply that pore-scale chemotaxis responses are evident at an interstitial fluid velocity of 1.7 m/d, which is within the range of typical groundwater flow. Within the context of bioremediation, chemotaxis may work to enhance bacterial residence times in zones of contamination thereby improving treatment.

  14. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Tritium ((3)H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The (3)H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l(-1)) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l(-1)), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The (3)H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether (3)H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the (3)H concentrations observed in this study. PMID:25944959

  15. Prevalence and Cost of Full-Time Research Fellowships During General Surgery Residency – A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Charles M.; Klingensmith, Mary E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. Summary Background Data General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1-3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Methods Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Results Response rate was 200/239 (84%). A total of 381 out of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and post-residency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (p<0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of ACGME work hour regulations for clinical residents, while a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Conclusions Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. While performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after post-graduate training. PMID:19106692

  16. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  17. Numerical model of circulation and residence times in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donncha, Fearghal; Ragnoli, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    parameters. The resultant time-series comprised tidal harmonic constituents and residuals composed of primarily density-driven and wind-driven (near surface) currents. To further decompose the residual currents time series are further filtered based on the differing scaling times of both wind-driven (days) and density-driven (weeks) flows. The resulting datasets enable a comprehensive classification of the relative influence of tides, wind and density effects across the domain. As a summary measure of circulation within the region, the model was used to compute the residence time for a water parcel in the gulf. Several transport time scales were calculated, including the average residence time and variations across the region. Residence statistics provide several insights into circulation in the gulf, in particular, knowledge of circulation patterns through the Straits of Hormuz, regional variation of residence times from North-South, and the impacts of wind and density-driven circulation on particle renewal within the domain.

  18. Effective denitrification at the groundwater surface-water interface: exposure rather than residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Stefan; Frei, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Effective processing of material in aquatic systems, e. g. removal of nitrate upon denitrification, requires sufficient reaction time. This statement sounds trivial albeit its implication for biogeochemistry seems to be not fully recognized. The time teff required for effective processing of nitrate is controlled by the underlying biogeochemical rate law. In the simplest case of a 1st order reaction, teff is often calculated as the time when 63% of the initial concentration is consumed setting teff as 1/kreaction. It may, however, be more appropriate to derive teff,90%or teff,99% from the respective rate law. Hence a minimum time t > teff is required that exposes a specific biogeochemical process to conditions favourable for this process, which is anoxia in case of denitrification. This exposure time τexp is not necessarily identical to the residence time τ of water in the particular system or flow path. Rather, the exposure time can be much shorter and may even fluctuate with time. As a consequence, Damköhler numbers (Da = τexp/teff) for denitrification < 1 may be the consequence even though the age of water may be comparatively high. We therefore argue that the key for understanding denitrification efficiency at the groundwater surface-water interface (or in groundwater systems in general) is the quantification of the exposure time. This contribution therefore aims i) to estimate exposure times required for effective denitrification based on an analysis of rate constants for denitrification, ii) to relate these time scales to typical residence time distributions found at the groundwater surface-water interface and iii) to discuss implications for denitrification efficiencies. References: Oldham, C; Farrow, DE; Peiffer, S (2013): A generalized Damköhler number for classifying material processing in hydrological systems, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 1133-1148 Frei, S; Knorr, KH; Peiffer, S; Fleckenstein, J (2012): Surface micro-topography causes

  19. Coupling groundwater residence time and 234U/238U isotopic ratios in a granitic catchment (Vosges, Eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viville, Daniel; Aquilina, Luc; Ackerer, Julien; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Granet, Mathieu; Perrone, Thierry; Chabaux, François

    2016-04-01

    Weathering processes are active in surface waters but groundwater also represents no neglectable chemical fluxes. As residence-time in groundwater are high, silicate weathering might take place and control Si, Ca and C fluxes. Weathering processes can be deduced from U isotopic ratios but the kinetics of these processes remain relatively poorly constrained. In order to better characterize these processes, we have coupled residence-times deduced from anthropogenic gases (CFC and SF6) analysis and 234U/238U isotopic ratios determination. Samples were collected in the Strengbach catchment (Hydro-geochemical Observatory OHGE, Vosges, eastern France). Two campaigns were carried out in May and August 2015 during two highly contrasted hydro-climatic periods. Both springs and boreholes down to 80 m depth have been sampled. A very clear geochemical distinction is observed between groundwater from surface springs and deeper groundwater from boreholes. Springs show much lower residence-time (few years) and specific chemical composition. Deeper groundwater have residence-time of several decades and different geochemical composition. A clear SF6 production is observed with increasing SF6 concentrations with residence-time. The campaign of May is characterized by highly groundwater levels and spring fluxes. All groundwater show very low residence time, except in the boreholes at depth greater than 40 m. Conversely, during low groundwater-level period in August, the residence times are much higher and CFC concentrations indicate a large mixing process between surface groundwater and deeper levels. The 234U/238U isotopic ratios confirm this vertical zonation in the boreholes, with much higher activity ratios in the deep ground-waters from borehole than in the surface and spring waters; Such high U activity ratios are indicative of long water-rock interactions, which is consistent with the long residence times deducted from the CFC and SF6 data.

  20. Signal detection via residence-time asymmetry in noisy bistable devices.

    PubMed

    Bulsara, A R; Seberino, C; Gammaitoni, L; Karlsson, M F; Lundqvist, B; Robinson, J W C

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a dynamical readout description for a wide class of nonlinear dynamic sensors operating in a noisy environment. The presence of weak unknown signals is assessed via the monitoring of the residence time in the metastable attractors of the system, in the presence of a known, usually time-periodic, bias signal. This operational scenario can mitigate the effects of sensor noise, providing a greatly simplified readout scheme, as well as significantly reduced processing procedures. Such devices can also show a wide variety of interesting dynamical features. This scheme for quantifying the response of a nonlinear dynamic device has been implemented in experiments involving a simple laboratory version of a fluxgate magnetometer. We present the results of the experiments and demonstrate that they match the theoretical predictions reasonably well. PMID:12636577

  1. Estimating renewal timescales with residence time and connectivity in an urban man-made lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Residence times and connectivity are computed for 12 subregions in an urban man-made lake in China using a high-resolution tracer-transport model. The renewal timescales are explicitly defined and computed for two groups of four freshwater inflow scenarios related to water diversion projects. First, the timescale values are computed and compared using different computational criteria for the upper limit of integration in the residence time equation. The sensitivity analysis suggests that a calculation time of 300 days is necessary to satisfy the relative error (0.001) and 5 % cutoff value criteria. Secondly, the residence times can range from 1.5 to 102 and 1.0 to 66 days under low and high flow conditions, respectively. Water in the inner lake would reside in the lake for less than 66 days prior to exiting the region of interest. The timescale values can be applied to impact studies that investigate the extent of sudden water pollution events that initially affect a subdomain of a lake. Finally, the lacustrine residence times are decomposed into the different subregion residence times, resulting in a connectivity matrix. This matrix can illustrate preferential connections among the individual subregions and reveal hidden patterns relating to local hydrodynamics in the lake. PMID:27040544

  2. Sources of groundwater nitrate revealed using residence time and isotope methods

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K B; Ekwurzel, B; Esser, B K; Hudson, G B; Moran, J E

    2004-10-07

    Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, CA, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low-nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations up to 53 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos increases the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer. In addition to these anthropogenic sources, natural nitrate background levels between 15 and 20 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1} are found in deep wells with residence times greater than 50 years.

  3. The Effects of Solute Breakthrough Curve Tail Truncation on Residence Time Estimates and Mass Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, J. D.; Covino, T. P.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Patil, S.; Leong, D. N.; Ran, L.; Packman, A. I.; Schumer, R.

    2010-12-01

    Solute transport and hydrologic retention strongly affect biogeochemical processes that are critical to stream ecosystems. Tracer injections are used to characterize solute transport and storage in stream reaches, but the range of processes accurately resolved using this approach is not clear. The solute residence time distribution (RTD) depends on both in-stream mixing and exchange with the hyporheic zone. For shorter residence times, in-stream breakthrough curves (BTCs) can be modeled well with the classical advection-dispersion equation, whereas longer RTDs produce highly skewed in-stream BTCs for which traditional solute models are inappropriate. Observed BTCs have most commonly been modeled with in-stream advection-dispersion plus an exponential RTD, but process-based models suggest that hyporheic retention extends to much longer times and a power-law RTD is more appropriate. We synthesized results from a variety of tracer-injection studies to investigate how experimental design and tracer sensitivity influence the interpretation of tailing behavior and RTDs. We found that BTC tails are often not well observed in stream tracer experiments. The two main reasons for this are: 1) experimental truncation, which occurs when sampling ends before all tracer mass reaches the sampling location, and 2) sensitivity truncation, when tracer concentrations in the tail are too low to be detected reliably above background levels. Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) theory was used to determine the effects of tail truncation on tracer mass recovery and tailing behavior. Tail truncation due to both experimental and sensitivity truncation decreased mass recovery and obscured assessment of BTC tailing. Failure to consider tail truncation leads to underestimation of the retention of solutes in the streambed and subsurface (i.e., transient storage). Based on these findings, we propose criteria for stream tracer experiments to minimize tail truncation and improve inverse modeling of

  4. Estimates of residence time and related variations in quality of ground water beneath Submarine Base Bangor and vicinity, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    screened in the deeper aquifer may be the result of preferential ground-water pathways or induced downward flow caused by pumping stress. Spatial variations in water quality were used to develop a conceptual model of chemical evolution of ground water. Stable isotope ratios of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the 33 ground-water samples were similar, indicating similar climatic conditions and source of precipitation recharge for all of the sampled ground water. Oxidation of organic matter and mineral dissolution increased the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and common ions in downgradient ground waters. However, the largest concentrations were not found near areas of ground-water discharge, but at intermediate locations where organic carbon concentrations were greatest. Dissolved methane, derived from microbial methanogenesis, was present in some ground waters. Methanogenesis resulted in substantial alteration of the carbon isotopic composition of ground water. The NETPATH geochemical model code was used to model mass-transfers of carbon affecting the 14C estimate of ground-water residence time. Carbon sources in ground water include dispersed particulate organic matter present in the confining unit separating the two aquifers and methane present in some ground water. Carbonate minerals were not observed in the lithologic material of the ground-water system but may be present, because they have been found in the bedrock of stream drainages that contribute sediment to the study area.

  5. First-Passage and Residence Times in a Periodically Driven Integrate-and-Fire Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talkner, Peter; Schindler, Michael; Hänggi, Peter

    2004-03-01

    The stochastic integrate-and-fire model presents a simple description of the spiking behavior of neurons.In this model a neuron ``fires'' if an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process crosses a prescribed threshold. After the firing the process is assumed to be in a refractory state, and from there it is put back into its initial, active state.This process can be characterized by the distribution of the first passage times of the threshold and by the residence times in the active states.We determined the distributions of these times for the integrate-and-fire model for short refractory times in the presence of a periodic signal.This is done by numerical solutions both of the respective Langevin equation and the equivalent Fokker-Planck equation. The results are compared with an approximate analytic theory. If the period of the signal is large compared to the relaxation time of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and if the threshold is higher than a few times the noise strength we find theory and numerics to be in excellent agreement.

  6. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. PMID:26057343

  7. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-04-01

    The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species' native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion

  8. Migration of volatile organic compounds from attached garages to residences: a major exposure source.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Jia, Chunrong; Hatzivasilis, Gina

    2007-06-01

    Vehicle garages often contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may migrate into adjoining residences. This study characterizes VOC concentrations, exposures, airflows, and source apportionments in 15 single-family houses with attached garages in southeast Michigan. Fieldwork included inspections to determine possible VOC sources, deployment of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) sources in garages and occupied spaces, and measurements of PFT, VOC, and CO(2) concentrations over a 4-day period. Air exchange rates (AERs) averaged 0.43+/-0.37 h(-1) in the houses and 0.77+/-0.51 h(-1) in the garages, and air flows from garages to houses averaged 6.5+/-5.3% of the houses' overall air exchange. A total of 39 VOC species were detected indoors, 36 in the garage, and 20 in ambient air. Garages showed high levels of gasoline-related VOCs, e.g., benzene averaged 37+/-39 microg m(-3). Garage/indoor ratios and multizone IAQ models show that nearly all of the benzene and most of the fuel-related aromatics in the houses resulted from garage sources, confirming earlier reports that suggested the importance of attached garages. Moreover, doses of VOCs such as benzene experienced by non-smoking individuals living in houses with attached garages are dominated by emissions in garages, a result of exposures occurring in both garage and house microenvironments. All of this strongly suggests the need to better control VOC emissions in garages and contaminant migration through the garage-house interface. PMID:17350611

  9. Organizing a Nursing Home Library for Residents. A Do-It-Yourself Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Ruth V.

    These guidelines for developing and maintaining a library in a resident nursing home, for use by either staff members or volunteers, recommend an individual survey of each resident as a way of determining reading preferences and deciding what materials should be ordered. Other areas examined are the location of the library, including space and…

  10. Local dominance of exotic plants declines with residence time: a role for plant–soil feedback?

    PubMed Central

    Speek, Tanja A.A.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Stam, Jeltje M.; Lotz, Lambertus A.P.; Ozinga, Wim A.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that introduced exotic plant species may be released from their native soil-borne pathogens, but that they become exposed to increased soil pathogen activity in the new range when time since introduction increases. Other studies have shown that introduced exotic plant species become less dominant when time since introduction increases, and that plant abundance may be controlled by soil-borne pathogens; however, no study yet has tested whether these soil effects might explain the decline in dominance of exotic plant species following their initial invasiveness. Here we determine plant–soil feedback of 20 plant species that have been introduced into The Netherlands. We tested the hypotheses that (i) exotic plant species with a longer residence time have a more negative soil feedback and (ii) greater local dominance of the introduced exotic plant species correlates with less negative, or more positive, plant–soil feedback. Although the local dominance of exotic plant species decreased with time since introduction, there was no relationship of local dominance with plant–soil feedback. Plant–soil feedback also did not become more negative with increasing time since introduction. We discuss why our results may deviate from some earlier published studies and why plant–soil feedback may not in all cases, or not in all comparisons, explain patterns of local dominance of introduced exotic plant species. PMID:25770013

  11. Analysis of catchment behavior using residence time distributions with application to the Thuringian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prykhodko, Vladyslav; Heße, Falk; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Attinger, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    Residence time distribution (RTD), as presented e.g. by Botter et al., are a novel mathematical framework for a quantitative characterization of hydrological systems. These distributions contain information about water storage, flow pathways and water sources and therefore improve the classical hydrograph methods by allowing both nonlinear as well as time-dependent dynamics. In our study we extend this previous works by applying this theoretical framework on real-world heterogeneous catchments. To that end we use a catchment-scale hydrological model (mHM) and apply the approach of Botter et al. to each spatial grid cell of mHM. To facilitate the coupling we amended Botter's approach by introducing additional fluxes (like runoff from unsaturated zone) and specifying the structure of the groundwater zone. By virtue of this coupling we could then make use of the realistic hydrological fluxes and state variables as provided by mHM. This allowed us to use both observed (precipitation, temperature, soil type etc.) and modeled data sets and asses their impact on the behavior of the resulting RTD's. We extended the aforementioned framework to analyze large catchments by including geomorphic effect due to the actual arrangement of subcatchments around the channel network using the flood routing algorithm of mHM. Additionally we study dependencies of the stochastic characteristics of RTD's on the meteorological and hydrological processes as well as on the morphological structure of the catchment. As a result we gained mean residence times (MRT) of base flow and groundwater flow on the mesoscale (4km x 4km). We compare the spatial distribution of MRT's with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and temperature. Results showed that land cover is a major predictor for MRT's whereas its impact on the mean evapotranspiration time was much lower. Additionally we determined the temporal evolution of mean travel times by using time series of

  12. Optimal beam pattern to maximize inclusion residence time in an electron beam melting hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, A.; Pal, U.; Avyle, J. van den

    1997-02-01

    Approximate probabilities of inclusion survival through an electron beam melting hearth are computed from nitride dissolution rates, flotation velocities, and residence times. Dissolution rates were determined by measuring shrinkage rates of pure TiN and nitrided sponge in small pools of molten titanium in an electron beam melting hearth. Flotation velocities were calculated using correlations for fluid flow around spheres, and show that particles sink or float unless their densities are extremely close to that of molten titanium. Flow field characteristics which lead to effective inclusion removal are discussed in terms of heat flux pattern required to produce them, based on the electron beam`s unique ability to impart a nearly arbitrary heat flux pattern to the melt surface.

  13. A new approach to the analysis of vessel residence time distribution curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Sergio P.; Principe, R. Javier; Goldschmit, Marcela B.

    2001-12-01

    Mathematical models for the evaluation of residence time distribution (RTD) curves on a large variety of vessels are presented. These models have been constructed by combination of different tanks or volumes. In order to obtain a good representation of RTD curves, a new volume (called convection diffusion volume) is introduced. The convection-diffusion volume allows the approximation of different experimental or numerical RTD curves with very simple models. An algorithm has been developed to calculate the parameters of the models for any given set of RTD curve experimental points. Validation of the models is carried out by comparison with experimental RTD curves taken from the literature and with a numerical RTD curve obtained by three-dimensional simulation of the flow inside a tundish.

  14. Target engagement and drug residence time can be observed in living cells with BRET.

    PubMed

    Robers, Matthew B; Dart, Melanie L; Woodroofe, Carolyn C; Zimprich, Chad A; Kirkland, Thomas A; Machleidt, Thomas; Kupcho, Kevin R; Levin, Sergiy; Hartnett, James R; Zimmerman, Kristopher; Niles, Andrew L; Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Daniels, Danette L; Slater, Michael; Wood, Monika G; Cong, Mei; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Wood, Keith V

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic action of drugs is predicated on their physical engagement with cellular targets. Here we describe a broadly applicable method using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to reveal the binding characteristics of a drug with selected targets within intact cells. Cell-permeable fluorescent tracers are used in a competitive binding format to quantify drug engagement with the target proteins fused to Nanoluc luciferase. The approach enabled us to profile isozyme-specific engagement and binding kinetics for a panel of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Our analysis was directed particularly to the clinically approved prodrug FK228 (Istodax/Romidepsin) because of its unique and largely unexplained mechanism of sustained intracellular action. Analysis of the binding kinetics by BRET revealed remarkably long intracellular residence times for FK228 at HDAC1, explaining the protracted intracellular behaviour of this prodrug. Our results demonstrate a novel application of BRET for assessing target engagement within the complex milieu of the intracellular environment. PMID:26631872

  15. Target engagement and drug residence time can be observed in living cells with BRET

    PubMed Central

    Robers, Matthew B.; Dart, Melanie L.; Woodroofe, Carolyn C.; Zimprich, Chad A.; Kirkland, Thomas A.; Machleidt, Thomas; Kupcho, Kevin R.; Levin, Sergiy; Hartnett, James R.; Zimmerman, Kristopher; Niles, Andrew L.; Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Daniels, Danette L.; Slater, Michael; Wood, Monika G.; Cong, Mei; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Wood, Keith V.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic action of drugs is predicated on their physical engagement with cellular targets. Here we describe a broadly applicable method using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to reveal the binding characteristics of a drug with selected targets within intact cells. Cell-permeable fluorescent tracers are used in a competitive binding format to quantify drug engagement with the target proteins fused to Nanoluc luciferase. The approach enabled us to profile isozyme-specific engagement and binding kinetics for a panel of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Our analysis was directed particularly to the clinically approved prodrug FK228 (Istodax/Romidepsin) because of its unique and largely unexplained mechanism of sustained intracellular action. Analysis of the binding kinetics by BRET revealed remarkably long intracellular residence times for FK228 at HDAC1, explaining the protracted intracellular behaviour of this prodrug. Our results demonstrate a novel application of BRET for assessing target engagement within the complex milieu of the intracellular environment. PMID:26631872

  16. CISOCUR - Residence time modelling in the Curonian Lagoon and validation through stable isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Zemlys, Petras; Ertürk, Ali; Mėžinė, Jovita

    2015-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Here we show how the SI analysis was used to validate the hydrodynamic model on the basis of residence time. The average residence time of the Nemunas waters is estimated through SI data and is then compared with the model data computed through standard algorithms. Seasonal changes of carbon content are taken care of through a preliminary application of a carbon kinetic model. The results are compared to literature data.

  17. Residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens of Zion Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; Christensen, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanging Gardens are a unique feature of Zion National Park. Knowledge of the source and residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens is necessary to help preserve these features. Ground-water chemical and isotopic data distinguish the discharge from seeps and springs into two groups, one of low and one of high conductivity. Water with low conductivity likely originates as recharge near the steps and springs, and it only interacts with the Navajo Sandstone. High conductivity water, on the other hand, originates as recharge on the tops of plateaus to the east, where it interacts with marine rocks of the Carmel Formation. Carbon dating of these ground waters indicates that the low conductivity water is essentially modern recharge, while the high conductivity water was recharged 1,000 to 4,000 years ago.The Hanging Gardens are a unique feature of Zion National Park. Knowledge of the source and residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens is necessary to help preserve these features. Ground-water chemical and isotopic data distinguish the discharge from seeps and springs into two groups, one of low and one of high conductivity. Water with low conductivity likely originates as recharge near the seeps and springs, and it only interacts with the Navajo Sandstone. High conductivity water, on the other hand, originates as recharge on the tops of plateaus to the cast, where it interacts with marine rocks of the Carmel Formation. Carbon dating of these ground waters indicates that the low conductivity water is essentially modern recharge, while the high conductivity water was recharged 1,000 to 4,000 years ago.

  18. A nanoparticle formulation of disulfiram prolongs corneal residence time of the drug and reduces intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Mano, Yu; Tnabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    The goal in the search for successful therapies for glaucoma is the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), and the search for effective eye drops that reduce IOP is a high priority. We previously reported the potential of a 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) solution containing 0.5% DSF (DSF solution) to provide effective anti-glaucoma treatment in eye drop form. In this study, we designed new ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% DSF nanoparticles prepared by a bead mill method (DSFnano dispersion; particle size 183 ± 92 nm, mean ± S.D.), and compared the IOP-reducing effects of a DSFnano dispersion with those of a DSF solution. The high stability of the DSFnano dispersion was observed until 7 days after preparation, and the DSFnano dispersion showed high antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). In transcorneal penetration experiments using rabbit corneas, only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the aqueous humor, while no DSF was detected. The DDC penetration level (area under the curve, AUC) and corneal residence time (mean residence time, MRT) of the DSFnano dispersion were approximately 1.45- and 1.44-fold higher than those of the DSF, respectively. Moreover, the IOP-reducing effects of the DSFnano dispersion were significantly greater than those of the DSF solution in rabbits (the IOP was enhanced by placing the rabbits in a dark room for 5 h). In addition, DSFnano dispersion are tolerated better by a corneal epithelial cell than DSF solution and commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. It is possible that dispersions containing DSF nanoparticles will provide new possibilities for the effective treatment of glaucoma, and that an ocular drug delivery system using drug nanoparticles may expand their usage as therapy in the ophthalmologic field. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing anti-glaucoma drugs. PMID:25633346

  19. Flowpaths, source water contributions and water residence times in a Mexican tropical dry forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2015-10-01

    Runoff in forested tropical catchments has been frequently described in the literature as dominated by the rapid translation of rainfall to runoff through surface and shallow subsurface pathways. However, studies examining runoff generation in tropical catchments with highly permeable soils have received little attention, particularly in tropical dry forests. We present a study focused on identifying the dominant flowpaths, water sources and stream water residence times in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During the wet season, pre-event water contributions to stormflow ranged from 72% to 97%, with the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium closely coupling the geochemistry of baseflow and groundwater from the narrow riparian/near-stream zone. Baseflow from the intermittent stream showed a strongly damped isotopic signature and a mean baseflow residence time of 52-110 days was estimated. These findings all suggest that instead of the surface and near-surface subsurface lateral pathways observed over many tropical catchments, runoff is generated through vertical flow processes and the displacement and discharge of stored water from the saturated zone. As the wet season progressed, contributions from the saturated zone persisted; however, the stormflow and baseflow geochemistry suggests that the contributing area of the catchment increased. Our results show that during the early part of the wet season, runoff originated primarily from the headwater portion of the catchment. As the wet season progressed and catchment wetness increased, connectivity among sub-basin was improved, resulting in runoff contributions from across the entire catchment.

  20. Prolonged Residence Time of a Noncovalent Molecular Adapter, β-Cyclodextrin, within the Lumen of Mutant α-Hemolysin Pores

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li-Qun; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan

    2001-01-01

    Noncovalent molecular adapters, such as cyclodextrins, act as binding sites for channel blockers when lodged in the lumen of the α-hemolysin (αHL) pore, thereby offering a basis for the detection of a variety of organic molecules with αHL as a sensor element. β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) resides in the wild-type αHL pore for several hundred microseconds. The residence time can be extended to several milliseconds by the manipulation of pH and transmembrane potential. Here, we describe mutant homoheptameric αHL pores that are capable of accommodating βCD for tens of seconds. The mutants were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis at position 113, which is a residue that lies near a constriction in the lumen of the transmembrane β barrel, and fall into two classes. Members of the tight-binding class, M113D, M113N, M113V, M113H, M113F and M113Y, bind βCD ∼104-fold more avidly than the remaining αHL pores, including WT-αHL. The lower Kd values of these mutants are dominated by reduced values of koff. The major effect of the mutations is most likely a remodeling of the binding site for βCD in the vicinity of position 113. In addition, there is a smaller voltage-sensitive component of the binding, which is also affected by the residue at 113 and may result from transport of the neutral βCD molecule by electroosmotic flow. The mutant pores for which the dwell time of βCD is prolonged can serve as improved components for stochastic sensors. PMID:11696607

  1. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times.

    PubMed

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-02-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle and its processes is, therefore, necessary to better understand its current state and predict its future state. We combine a diagnostic ecosystem carbon model with satellite observations of leaf area and biomass (where and when available) and soil carbon data to retrieve the first global estimates, to our knowledge, of carbon cycle state and process variables at a 1° × 1° resolution; retrieved variables are independent from the plant functional type and steady-state paradigms. Our results reveal global emergent relationships in the spatial distribution of key carbon cycle states and processes. Live biomass and dead organic carbon residence times exhibit contrasting spatial features (r = 0.3). Allocation to structural carbon is highest in the wet tropics (85-88%) in contrast to higher latitudes (73-82%), where allocation shifts toward photosynthetic carbon. Carbon use efficiency is lowest (0.42-0.44) in the wet tropics. We find an emergent global correlation between retrievals of leaf mass per leaf area and leaf lifespan (r = 0.64-0.80) that matches independent trait studies. We show that conventional land cover types cannot adequately describe the spatial variability of key carbon states and processes (multiple correlation median = 0.41). This mismatch has strong implications for the prediction of terrestrial carbon dynamics, which are currently based on globally applied parameters linked to land cover or plant functional types. PMID:26787856

  2. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, A. Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R.; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle and its processes is, therefore, necessary to better understand its current state and predict its future state. We combine a diagnostic ecosystem carbon model with satellite observations of leaf area and biomass (where and when available) and soil carbon data to retrieve the first global estimates, to our knowledge, of carbon cycle state and process variables at a 1° × 1° resolution; retrieved variables are independent from the plant functional type and steady-state paradigms. Our results reveal global emergent relationships in the spatial distribution of key carbon cycle states and processes. Live biomass and dead organic carbon residence times exhibit contrasting spatial features (r = 0.3). Allocation to structural carbon is highest in the wet tropics (85–88%) in contrast to higher latitudes (73–82%), where allocation shifts toward photosynthetic carbon. Carbon use efficiency is lowest (0.42–0.44) in the wet tropics. We find an emergent global correlation between retrievals of leaf mass per leaf area and leaf lifespan (r = 0.64–0.80) that matches independent trait studies. We show that conventional land cover types cannot adequately describe the spatial variability of key carbon states and processes (multiple correlation median = 0.41). This mismatch has strong implications for the prediction of terrestrial carbon dynamics, which are currently based on globally applied parameters linked to land cover or plant functional types. PMID:26787856

  3. Residence times of neutrally-buoyant matter such as larvae, sewage or nutrients on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Kerry P.; Gay, Stephen L.; Andrews, John C.

    1990-12-01

    Coral reef flushing times at an individual reef scale are specified and a general formula to determine these times is developed. The formula is confirmed by comparison with residence times predicted by numerical small-scale reef models, including those from a 4 month unsteady current simulation of John Brewer Reef on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The method proves to be a satisfactory alternative to the numerical modelling. When neutrally-buoyant material around a reef is removed by the currents, the concentrations decay exponentially. The decay rate depends primarily on free stream current and reef dimensions. Secondary factors are the tidal excursion, shelf depth, lagoon size and residual current in the lee of the reef. These factors, when combined into a decay coefficient, specify the rate of loss of neutrally-buoyant material (e.g. some larvae, pollutants and sewage) from a coral reef and its surrounds. The analytical formula can be used to predict the flushing rates or the percentage of material still remaining on a reef after a selected time interval. We demonstrate that material can remain on or near typical reefs in common weather conditions for several weeks.

  4. Effects of age, sex and reproductive status on persistent organic pollutant concentrations in "Southern Resident" killer whales.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Margaret M; Hanson, M Bradley; Schorr, Gregory S; Emmons, Candice K; Burrows, Douglas G; Bolton, Jennie L; Baird, Robin W; Ylitalo, Gina M

    2009-10-01

    "Southern Resident" killer whales (Orcinus orca) that comprise three fish-eating "pods" (J, K and L) were listed as "endangered" in the US and Canada following a 20% population decline between 1996 and 2001. Blubber biopsy samples from Southern Resident juveniles had statistically higher concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants than were found for adults. Most Southern Resident killer whales, including the four juveniles, exceeded the health-effects threshold for total PCBs in marine mammal blubber. Maternal transfer of contaminants to the juveniles during rapid development of their biological systems may put these young whales at greater risk than adults for adverse health effects (e.g., immune and endocrine system dysfunction). Pollutant ratios and field observations established that two of the pods (K- and L-pod) travel to California to forage. Nitrogen stable isotope values, supported by field observations, indicated possible changes in the diet of L-pod over the last decade. PMID:19541329

  5. PEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève; Tyteca, Donatienne; Goldansaz, Hadi; Todoroff, Julie; Barilly, Céline; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Van Snick, Jacques; Cataldo, Didier; Vanbever, Rita

    2014-08-10

    Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4h post-delivery, whereas the clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' contents in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14% of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40% for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. PMID:24845126

  6. Activity size distribution and residence time of 7Be aerosols in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Paatero, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    The activity size distributions of the natural radionuclide tracer 7Be in different size range fractions (<0.39 μm, 0.39-0.69 μm, 0.69-1.3 μm, 1.3-2.1 μm, 2.1-4.2 μm, 4.2-10.2 μm and >10.2 μm) were determined in the boreal atmosphere in the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) at Sodankylä, Finland (67°22‧ N, 26°38‧ E, 180 m asl). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.54 μm to 1.05 μm (average 0.83 μm). A residence time of about 8 days applies to aerosols of 0.83 μm diameter, representing the residence of aerosol particles in arctic environment. The observed positive correlation between AMAD values and RH% can be explained by the fact that condensation during high relative humidity conditions becomes more intense, resulting in increased particle sizes of atmospheric aerosols. However, greater aerosol particle sizes means higher wet scavenging rate of aerosols and as a result lower activity concentration of 7Be in the atmosphere, explaining the anti-correlation between the AMAD values and activity concentrations of 7Be. But this associated with possibly higher scavenging rates of aerosols does not necessarily alone explain the anti-correlation between the AMAD and the 7Be activities. The air mass origin associated with synoptic scale weather phenomena may contribute to that too. The Flextra model was used to assess the transport pattern and to explain the deviation in radionuclide activity concentrations and AMAD values observed in the site of investigation.

  7. The Role of Noble Gases in Defining the Mean Residence Times of Fluids within Precambrian Crustal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, O.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Fellowes, J.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; McDermott, J. M.; Holland, G.; Mabry, J.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Brines rich in N2, H2, CH4 and He hosted within Precambrian crustal rocks are known to sustain microbial life [1]. The geological systems containing these brines have the potential to isolate organisms over planetary timescales and so can provide unique insight into the diversity and evolution of terrestrial life [1-3]. Long considered geological outliers, the prevalence of systems containing these ancient, deep fracture waters is only now being revealed. Recent studies demonstrate the Precambrian crust which accounts for ~70% of total crustal surface area has a global hydrogen production comparable to marine systems [2]. In addition to H2-producing reactions (e.g. radiolysis and serpentinization), a diversity of CH4-producing reactions also occur in these systems through both microbial and water-rock interactions [1, 2]. However, the role these Precambrian systems have in global hydrogen and carbon cycles is poorly understood. For this we need good constraints on the origins, residence times and degree of microbial activity of the fluids within these systems as well as the degree of interaction with external systems. Fortunately, noble gases are ideal for this role [1,3]. Previous noble gas analysis of N2, H2, CH4 and He-rich fluid samples collected at 2.4 km depth from a Cu-Zn mine in Timmins, Ontario, identified isolated fracture fluids with the oldest residence times ever observed (>1.1 Ga) [3]. This study has been significantly expanded now to fluids from an even greater depth (3 km) at Timmins, and from two new mines in the Sudbury Basin. Preliminary data from the deeper Timmins level indicate a new closed system with 136Xe/130Xe ratios 93% above modern air values (20% at 2.4 km) and an early atmosphere 124Xe/130Xe signal approaching the age of the host rock (~2.7 Ga) [4]. In comparison, the Sudbury system indicates exchange with an external source, being highly enriched in helium (30% gas volume) but with a low fissiogenic 136Xe/130Xe excess (10-38% above

  8. Determination of the Residence Time of Food Particles During Aseptic Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, J. R.; Arndt, G. D.; Nguyen, T. X.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a non-invasive method to measure the time an individual particle takes to move through a length of stainless steel pipe. The food product is in two phase flow (liquids and solids) and passes through a pipe with pressures of approximately 60 psig and temperatures of 270-285 F. The proposed problem solution is based on the detection of transitory amplitude and/or phase changes in a microwave transmission path caused by the passage of the particles of interest. The particles are enhanced in some way, as will be discussed later, such that they will provide transitory changes that are distinctive enough not to be mistaken for normal variations in the received signal (caused by the non-homogeneous nature of the medium). Two detectors (transmission paths across the pipe) will be required and place at a known separation. A minimum transit time calculation is made from which the maximum velocity can be determined. This provides the minimum residence time. Also average velocity and statistical variations can be computed so that the amount of 'over-cooking' can be determined.

  9. Ross ice shelf cavity circulation, residence time, and melting: Results from a model of oceanic chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Tasha E.; Holland, David M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2010-04-01

    Despite their harmful effects in the upper atmosphere, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons dissolved in seawater are extremely useful for studying ocean circulation and ventilation, particularly in remote locations. Because they behave as a passive tracer in seawater, and their atmospheric concentrations are well-mixed, well-known, and have changed over time, they are ideal for gaining insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the isolated cavities found under Antarctic ice shelves, where direct observations are difficult to obtain. Here we present results from a modeling study of air-sea chlorofluorocarbon exchange and ocean circulation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. We compare our model estimates of oceanic CFC-12 concentrations along an ice shelf edge transect to field data collected during three cruises spanning 16 yr. Our model produces chlorofluorocarbon concentrations that are quite similar to those measured in the field, both in magnitude and distribution, showing high values near the surface, decreasing with depth, and increasing over time. After validating modeled circulation and air-sea gas exchange through comparison of modeled temperature, salinity, and chlorofluorocarbons with field data, we estimate that the residence time of water in the Ross Ice Shelf cavity is approximately 2.2 yr and that basal melt rates for the ice shelf average 10 cm yr -1. The model predicts a seasonal signature to basal melting, with highest melt rates in the spring and also the fall.

  10. Evaluation of hydraulic efficiency of disinfection systems based on residence time distribution curves.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jordan M; Venayagamoorthy, Subhas K

    2010-12-15

    Hydraulic efficiency is a vital component in evaluating the disinfection capability of a contact system. Current practice evaluates these systems based upon the theoretical detention time (TDT) and the rising limb of the residence time distribution (RTD) curve. This evaluation methodology is expected because most systems are built based on TDT under a "black-box" approach to disinfection system design. Within recent years, the proliferation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has allowed a more insightful approach to disinfection system design and analysis. Research presented in this study using CFD models and physical tracer studies shows that evaluation methods based upon TDT tend to overestimate, severely in some instances, the actual hydraulic efficiency as obtained from the system's flow and scalar transport dynamics and subsequent RTD curve. The main objective of this study was to analyze an alternative measure of hydraulic efficiency, the ratio t(10)/t(90), where t(10) and t(90) are the time taken for 10 and 90% of the input concentration to be observed at the outlet of a system, respectively, for various disinfection systems, primarily a pipe loop system, pressurized tank system, and baffled tank system, from their respective RTD curves and compare the results to the current evaluation method. PMID:21090605

  11. U Isotope Systematics on Groundwaters from Southwestern France : Mixing Processes and Residence Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocent, C.; Malcuit, E.; Négrel, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Eocene Sands Aquifer of the Aquitanian Basin (Southwestern France) has been extensively studied for its hydrology, hydrogeochemistry and also for stable isotopes (André, 2002; André et al., 2005). 14C dates were also obtained in the southern part of the aquifer (André, 2002). Recently, in the framework of the CARISMEAU research project (Négrel et al., 2007), groundwaters have been analyzed for their U activity ratio in order to put some constraints on their residence time in the aquifer. A excellent correlation has been found between 234U/238U ratios (which can be as high as 13.5) and 14C dates, which allowed to propose residence times for the analyzed groundwaters at the scale of the whole aquifer (including the city of Bordeaux and its suburb) (Innocent and Négrel, 2008; submitted). The second step of the CARISMEAU research project (CARISMEAU 2) now focusses on the restricted "Entre-Deux-Mers" area. New groundwaters have been recovered and analyzed for their U isotopic composition. As for previous data, U activity ratios are typically very high, ranging from 2.9 to 8.6. Owing to additional 14C ages from the northern part of the aquifer, it is shown that most of the measured uranium activity ratios correlate with these 14C dates and fall on or close to the straight line defined previously (see above). As a consequence, residence times derived from U isotopic compositions fairly agree with 14C data, with only one exception from a groundwater which plots apart from the correlation line. Pumping tests have been done at a selected site (EMZM 7), involving pumping times of 1 hour, 8 hours and 16 hours. For each pumping time, waters have been recovered at different, increasing pumping rates of 80 m3 per hour, 120 m3 per hour, 160 m3 per hour, and 120 m3 per hour. The chemical composition of these twelve waters has not been found to vary significantly. Uranium activities are constant for ten of the twelve groundwaters (around 6.5, with a U concentration around

  12. Organizational and Individual Conditions Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Nursing Home Residents over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…

  13. Effect of storm events and sustained winds on residence time in a shallow, back-barrier estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defne, Z.; Ganju, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary is a back-barrier lagoon that stretches 70 km along New Jersey's Atlantic coast. With an average depth of 1.5 meters and three restricted inlets, it is relatively shallow and poorly flushed. Ongoing urbanization in the watershed and other stressors have been implicated in deteriorating water quality; the relatively long residence time (i.e. the time it takes for a sample water parcel to leave the estuary) may be a hindrance to improvements. Prior studies based on a depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical circulation model indicate an average residence time of 7 weeks (up to 10 weeks in a less dynamic period during summer season) for Barnegat Bay. We developed and calibrated a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor system to investigate scenarios of residence time. Preliminary results show that the historical change of the bathymetry and morphology of Barnegat Inlet has a substantial impact on the hydrodynamics within the bay. Therefore, the model was run with updated bathymetry from recent multibeam surveys to estimate residence times under several forcing scenarios. The model was forced with tides, atmospheric forcing, and riverine inflow and was calibrated with the observed water levels over a two-month period. Particles were seeded randomly throughout the estuary (horizontally and vertically) and released after the model spin-up time. The relative influences of the forcing mechanisms were investigated by selectively eliminating them from the model. Storm events can be identified with the relative increase in flushing due to remote forcing and wind setup, whereas sustained winds may reduce or increase the residence time depending on their direction. Future changes in storm strength and frequency may alter residence times in a nonlinear fashion.

  14. Determining the residence time distribution of various screw elements in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder by means of fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepschi, Alexander; Gerstorfer, Gregor; Miethlinger, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The Residence Time Distribution (RTD) is key to optimizing the mixing ability of an extruder. For both sensitive and reactive materials, it is important to know how long particles remain in the barrel and how long the polymer remains, for instance, in a kneading element. To assess the influence of different screw configurations on the RTD, a low-concentration tracer particle was injected into the feeding section and measured inline by fluorescence spectroscopy1 both inside the barrel and at the extruder exit. The measurements were conducted using polypropylene with different amounts of organic peroxide. Measuring the residence time at various positions along the screw allows the RTD to be determined for just one screw element. Furthermore, we show the influence of different screw configurations on the polydispersity of polypropylene.

  15. Computerized evaluation of mean residence times in multicompartmental linear system and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J M; Barbero, A J; Diaz-Sierra, R; Arribas, E; Garcia-Meseguer, M J; Garcia-Sevilla, F; Garcia-Moreno, M; De Labra, J A Vidal; Varon, R

    2011-04-15

    Deriving mean residence times (MRTs) is an important task both in pharmacokinetics and in multicompartmental linear systems. Taking as starting point the analysis of MRTs in open or closed (Garcia-Meseguer et al., Bull Math Biol 2003, 65, 279) multicompartmental linear systems, we implement a versatile software, using the Visual Basic 6.0 language for MS-Windows, that is easy to use and with a user-friendly format for the input of data and the output of results. For any multicompartmental linear system of up to 512 compartments, whether closed or open, with traps or without traps and with zero input in one or more of the compartments, this software allows the user to obtain the symbolic expressions, in the most simplified form, and/or the numerical values of the MRTs in any of its compartments, in the entire system or in a part of the system. As far as we known from the literature, such a software has not been implemented before. The advantage of the present software is that it reduces on the work time needed and minimizes the human errors that are frequent in compartmental systems even those that are relatively staightforward. The software bioCelTer, along with instructions, can be downloaded from http://oretano.iele-ab.uclm.es/~fgarcia/bioCelTer/. PMID:20960438

  16. Determining the True Residence Time Distribution Curve of Phase I System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce A.

    1982-08-24

    Previous engineering analysis of the Br82 tracer experiments failed to account for the fact that the fluid was being recirculated during these tests. Thus, the concentration vs. volume curves shown in the Run Segments 4 and 5 reports and elsewhere are not really the response of the system to a pulse of tracer. These data are complicated by the fact that at later times most of the tracer being measured was not the original pulse, but the tracer on its second or third pass through the reservoir. When this recirculation effect is subtracted out of the original concentration vs. volume curves, the true residence time distribution (RTD) for the Phase I system indicates that the "long tail" on these curves is not caused by dispersion but results almost entirely from recirculation. The RTD curve for this system cannot be modeled precisely using a one parameter model, but can probably be described by a combination of hydrodynamic and turbulent dispersion in a single fracture. Alternatively, flow through multiple fractures could easily result in the RTD curves determined during Run Segments 4 and 5.

  17. TSPO ligand residence time: a new parameter to predict compound neurosteroidogenic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Barbara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Giacomelli, Chiara; Barresi, Elisabetta; Taliani, Sabrina; Da Settimo, Federico; Martini, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological activation of the cholesterol-binding Translocator Protein (TSPO) leads to an increase of endogenous steroids and neurosteroids determining benefic pleiotropic effects in several pathological conditions, including anxiety disorders. The relatively poor relationship between TSPO ligand binding affinities and steroidogenic efficacies prompted us to investigate the time (Residence Time, RT) that a number of compounds with phenylindolylglyoxylamide structure (PIGAs) spends in contact with the target. Here, given the poor availability of TSPO ligand kinetic parameters, a kinetic radioligand binding assay was set up and validated for RT determination using a theoretical mathematical model successfully applied to other ligand-target systems. TSPO ligand RT was quantified and the obtained results showed a positive correlation between the period for which a drug interacts with TSPO and the compound ability to stimulate steroidogenesis. Specifically, the TSPO ligand RT significantly fitted both with steroidogenic efficacy (Emax) and with area under the dose-response curve, a parameter combining drug potency and efficacy. A positive relation between RT and anxiolytic activity of three compounds was evidenced. In conclusion, RT could be a relevant parameter to predict the steroidogenic efficacy and the in vivo anxiolytic action of new TSPO ligands. PMID:26750656

  18. Seasonal variation of residence time in spring and groundwater evaluated by CFCs and numerical simulation in mountainous headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Watanabe, Yasuto; Ikeda, Koichi; Yano, Shinjiro; Abe, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Headwater catchments in mountainous region are the most important recharge area for surface and subsurface waters, additionally time information of the water is principal to understand hydrological processes in the catchments. However, there have been few researches to evaluate variation of residence time of subsurface water in time and space at the mountainous headwaters especially with steep slope. We investigated the temporal variation of the residence time of the spring and groundwater with tracing of hydrological flow processes in mountainous catchments underlain by granite, Yamanashi Prefecture, central Japan. We conducted intensive hydrological monitoring and water sampling of spring, stream and ground waters in high-flow and low-flow seasons from 2008 through 2013 in River Jingu Watershed underlain by granite, with an area of approximately 15 km2 and elevation ranging from 950 m to 2000 m. The CFCs, stable isotopic ratios of oxygen-18 and deuterium, inorganic solute constituent concentrations were determined on all water samples. Also, a numerical simulation was conducted to reproduce of the average residence times of the spring and groundwater. The residence time of the spring water estimated by the CFCs concentration ranged from 10 years to 60 years in space within the watershed, and it was higher (older) during the low flow season and lower (younger) during the high flow season. We tried to reproduce the seasonal change of the residence time in the spring water by numerical simulation, and the calculated residence time of the spring water and discharge of the stream agreed well with the observed values. The groundwater level was higher during the high flow season and the groundwater dominantly flowed through the weathered granite with higher permeability, whereas that was lower during the low flow season and that flowed dominantly through the fresh granite with lower permeability. This caused the seasonal variation of the residence time of the spring

  19. Watershed Influences on Residence Time and Oxygen Reduction Rates in an Agricultural Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Tesoriero, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural use of synthetic fertilizers and animal manure has led to increased crop production, but also elevated nitrogen concentrations in groundwater, resulting in impaired water quality. Groundwater oxygen concentrations are a key indicator of potential biogeochemical processes, which control water/aquifer interactions and contaminant transport. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program has a long-history of studying nutrient transport and processing across the United States and the Glacial Aquifer system in particular. A series of groundwater well networks in Eastern Wisconsin is being used to evaluate the distribution of redox reaction rates over a range of scales with a focus on dissolved O2 reduction rates. An analysis of these multi-scale networks elucidates the influence of explanatory variables (i.e.: soil type, land use classification) on reduction rates and redox reactions throughout the Fox-Wolf-Peshtigo watersheds. Multiple tracers including dissolved gasses, tritium, helium, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and carbon-14 were used to estimate groundwater ages (0.8 to 61.2 yr) at over 300 locations. Our results indicate O2 reduction rates along a flowpath study area (1.2 km2) of 0.15 mg O2 L-1 yr-1 (0.12 to 0.18 mg O2 L-1 yr-1) up to 0.41 mg O2 L-1 yr-1 (0.23 to 0.89 mg O2 L-1 yr-1) for a larger scale land use study area (3,300 km2). Preliminary explanatory variables that can be used to describe the variability in reduction rates include soil type (hydrologic group, bulk density) and chemical concentrations (nitrite plus nitrate, silica). The median residence time expected to reach suboxic conditions (≤ 0.4 mg O2 L-1) for the flowpath and the land use study areas was 66 and 25 yr, respectively. These results can be used to elucidate and differentiate the impact of residence time on groundwater quality vulnerability and sustainability in agricultural regions without complex flow models.

  20. Residence time, mineralization processes and groundwater origin within a carbonate coastal aquifer with a thick unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Vergnaud-Ayraud, V.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.; Jaunat, J.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2016-09-01

    This study aims at establishing groundwater residence times, identifying mineralization processes and determining groundwater origins within a carbonate coastal aquifer with thick unsaturated zone and lying on a granitic depression. A multi-tracer approach (major ions, SiO2, Br-, Ba+, Sr2+, 18O, 2H, 13C, 3H, Ne, Ar) combined with a groundwater residence time determination using CFCs and SF6 allows defining the global setting of the study site. A typical mineralization conditioned by the sea sprays and the carbonate matrix helped to validate the groundwater weighted residence times from using a binary mixing model. Terrigenic SF6 excesses have been detected and quantified, which permits to identify a groundwater flow from the surrounding fractured granites towards the lower aquifer principally. The use of CFCs and SF6 as a first hydrogeological investigation tool is possible and very relevant despite the thick unsaturated zone and the hydraulic connexion with a granitic environment.

  1. Evaluation of Volatilization by Organic Chemicals Residing Below the Soil Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, William A.; Russo, David; Streile, Gary; El Abd, Hesham

    1990-01-01

    Although volatile organic compounds located in buried waste repositories or distributed through the unsaturated soil zone have the potential to migrate to the atmosphere by vapor diffusion, little attention has been paid in the past to estimating the importance of volatilization losses. In this paper a screening model is introduced which evaluates the relative volatilization losses of a number of organic compounds under standard soil conditions. The model is an analytic solution to the problem wherein the organic chemical is located at time zero at uniform concentration in a finite layer of soil covered by a layer of soil devoid of chemical. The compound is assumed to move by vapor or liquid diffusion and by mass flow under the influence of steady upward or zero water flow while undergoing first-order degradation and linear equilibrium adsorption. Loss to the atmosphere is governed by vapor diffusion through a stagnant air boundary layer. Calculations are performed on 35 organic compounds in two model soils with properties characteristic of sandy and clayey soil. The model identifies those compounds with high potential for loss during 1 year after incorporation under 100 cm of soil cover and also is used to calculate the minimum soil cover thickness required to reduce volatilization losses to insignificant levels during the lifetime of the compound in the soil. From the latter calculation it was determined that certain compounds may volatilize from deep subsurface locations or even groundwater unless the soil surface is sealed to prevent gas migration.

  2. Variability of Residence Time tracer Concentrations at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory during the California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Stacy, E.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Bibby, R. K.; Deinhart, A.; Schorzman, K.; Egnatuk, C. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Esser, B.

    2015-12-01

    California water supply from high elevation snow melt is vulnerable to climate change and prolonged drought conditions. Reduced snow pack and earlier snow melt will result in a greater reliance on man-made reservoirs and subsurface catchment storage. To gain insight into the subsurface storage volume of high elevation catchments, we studied the residence time distribution of surface water leaving the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. Since October 2014, we have collected monthly samples of two residence time tracers with contrasting half-lives: sulfur-35 (87.5 days) and tritium (12.32 years). Upstream catchment area at the three nested sampling locations is 1 km2 (P301 sub-catchment), 4 km2 (Providence Creek) and ~50 km2 (Big Creek). Samples were analyzed at LLNL by low level liquid scintillation counting and noble gas mass spectrometry after helium accumulation. Variations in tracer concentrations in precipitation, both for tritium (11-24 pCi/L) and sulfur-35 (24-100 mBq/L), complicate straightforward interpretation of residence times. Sulfur-35 concentrations show that last year precipitation contributes 1% - 10% of total stream flow, even during peak snowmelt. Tritium concentrations in stream flow vary between 40% and 60% of the initial concentration in precipitation (15.5 pCi/L), indicating that water leaving the catchment has a residence time on the order of years to decades. Additional analyses of sodium-22 (2.6 year half-life) will aid in deconvoluting the residence time distribution. These low tracer concentrations can be attributed to current severe drought conditions, resulting in low discharge rates and longer residence times. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675107

  3. Effects of temperature, moisture and residence time in the properties of full fat soybean flour produced in a twin extruder.

    PubMed

    Serna-Saldivar, S O; Cabral, L C

    1997-03-01

    Soybeans were dehulled, roll-milled into grits, conditioned to 18 or 21% moisture and continuously cooked in a twin extruder at three temperature programs and two residence times. The resulting extrudates were further dried and roll-milled into flour and characterized for their physical, chemical and functional properties. The urease activity and nitrogen solubility index (NSI) decreased with increased extrusion temperature, residence time and soybean grits moisture content. The best pre-cooked full fat flours had a urease activity lower than 0.2 and a NSI higher than 15%. PMID:9429645

  4. Estimation of sediment residence times in subtropical highland catchments of central Mexico combining river gauging and fallout radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Némery, Julien; Gratiot, Nicolas; Duvert, Clément; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Esteves, Michel; Bonté, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Subtropical regions of the world are affected by intense soil erosion associated with deforestation, overgrazing and cropping intensification. This land degradation leads to important on-site (e.g. decrease in soil fertility) and off-site impacts (e.g. reservoir sedimentation, water pollution). This study determined the mean sediment residence times in soils and rivers of three catchments (3 - 12 km²) with contrasted land uses (i.e. cropland, forests, rangelands, extended gully networks) located in highlands of the transvolcanic belt of central Mexico. Calculations were based on rainfall and river gauging as well as on fallout radionuclide measurements (Be-7, Cs-137, Pb-210). Atmospheric deposition of Be-7 and Pb-210 was estimated based on the analysis of rainfall precipitated samples. Rainfall samples were collected all throughout the rainy season in order to take account of the temporal variations of the radionuclide fluxes. Furthermore, sampling of suspended sediment was conducted at the outlet of each catchment during most of the storms that occurred throughout the 2009 rainy season. Be-7, Cs-137 and Pb-210 concentrations of this sediment were determined by gamma-spectrometry. A two-box balance model was then used to estimate the sediment residence time and the inventory of radionuclides in the three selected catchments. This model subdivided each catchment into two boxes: (i) a "soil-box" characterised by low transport velocities and hence long radionuclide residence times and (ii) a "river-box" covering the river surface and its surroundings characterised by quicker exchanges and shorter radionuclide residence times. Input and output fluxes of sediment and radionuclides were taken into account in each box. Radioactive decay during the residence time of sediment was also considered. The mean residence time of sediment in soils ranged between 13,300 - 28,500 years. In contrast, sediment residence time in rivers was much shorter, fluctuating between 28 and 393

  5. Greenland meltwater impacts on the 234U/238U composition of seawater, the role of subglacial residence time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, C. A.; Aciego, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Stevenson, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of seawater depends on the sources and sinks of the constituent elements, including those derived from continental weathering and transported by rivers. Glacial melt rivers compose a significant percentage of contributing water in the high latitudes, and potentially impact the overall composition of seawater. The magnitude of the chemical changes glacial melt can have on adjacent seawater depends on the composition of glacial melt, which is directly influenced by the subglacial residence time of meltwater. Long residence times correlate to subglacial water with both high cation concentrations and 234U/238U isotopic compositions. Thus, the residence time of subglacial water and corresponding subglacial geochemistry impacts the 234U/238U composition of proximal seawater and potentially global seawater. To test the influence of subglacial water residence times on seawater chemistry we examined the U-series composition of four outlet glaciers directly connected to the Southern Greenland Ice Sheet located near Narsarsuaq, Ilulissat, Nuuk and Kulusuk, and adjacent seawater at each site. All outlet glaciers in this study are located within three of the five primary drainage basins beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet, each in varying stages of subglacial hydrologic evolution, resulting in unique chemical compositions of meltwater draining from each location. At these four locations we found subglacial water residence time values of 10-1000 years. In regions where the U concentration, 234U/238U isotopic composition and residence times were high (1.01 ppb, 1.263 and ~1,000 years in Narsarsuaq) the adjacent seawater 234U/238U composition was elevated (1.152) compared to regions where the U concentration, 234U/238U isotopic composition and residence times were low (0.05 ppb, 1.008 and ~10 years in Illulisat) the adjacent seawater 234U/238U composition remained around the assumed seawater average (1.145). Through this study we observed a direct impact of

  6. Groundwater residence time : tell me who you are and I will tell which information you may provide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Kolbe, Tamara; Marçais, Jean; Leray, Sarah; Abbott, Ben; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater residence-time or ages have been widely used in hydrogeology during the last decades. Following tritium measurements, anthropogenic gases (CFC, SF6, 35Kr) have been developed. They provide information at the aquifer scale on long residence times. They complement the more localized data obtained from sparse boreholes with hydraulic and geophysical methods. Anthropogenic tracer concentrations are most generally considered as "Groundwater ages" using a piston flow model providing an order of magnitude for the residence time. More advanced information can however be derived from the combined analysis of the tracer concentrations. For example, the residence time distribution over the last 50 years can be well approached by the concentration of two sufficient different anthropogenic tracers in the group (CFC, SF6, 35Kr), i.e. tracers whose anthropogenic chronicles are sufficiently different. And, with additional constrains on geological and hydraulic properties, groundwater ages contribute to characterize the aquifer structures and the groundwater resources. Complex geological environments also include old groundwater bodies in extremely confined aquifer sections. In such cases, various tracers are related to highly different processes. CFCs can be taken as a marker of modern contamination to track exchanges between shallower and deeper aquifers, leakage processes, and modification of circulations linked to recent anthropogenic changes. 14C or 36Cl can be used to evidence much older processes but have to be related to the history of the chemical element itself. Numerous field studies in fact demonstrate the broad-range extent of the residence time distribution spanning in some cases several orders of magnitude. Flow and transport models in heterogeneous structures confirm such wide residence times and help to characterize their distribution. Residence times also serve as a privileged interface to the fate of some contaminants in aquifers or to trace

  7. Continuous, high-resolution spatial mapping of water isotopes: improving tools for quantifying local evaporation and residence times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Kate J.; Carter, Jeffrey A.; Winkler, Renato; Downing, Brian; Kendall, Carol; Bergamaschi, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotopes of water (d2H, d18O) are unique tracers of many hydrological processes including evaporation, precipitation, reservoir mixing and residence time. Historically, discrete water samples have been collected and analyzed via either Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, or more recently laser-based spectroscopic methods, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). However, the analysis of discrete samples precludes the ability to construct high resolution water isotope data sets through time and space. By coupling a recently developed front-end peripheral device (Continuous Water Sampler or CWS) to a CRDS analyzer (Picarro L2130-i), we continuously measured and spatially mapped water isotopes on a transect of the Sacramento River Delta following an extended period of drought. More than two-thousand five-second average d18O and d2H measurements were made aboard the R/V King (USGS) over a six-hour period. In addition to water isotopes, nitrate, chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence, and other water quality parameters were also measured continuously. As you travel northeast up the delta, surface waters become progressively more enriched in 18O and 2H, while nitrate decreased in concentration and chlorophyll and DOM increased. We utilize the spatially-mapped isotope data within a single transect to understand local evaporation and residence time by (i) utilizing the secondary parameter, d-excess, and (ii) using a simple mass balance model of water moving through the system (inflow, outflow and evaporation). Additional transects, to be conducted during the rainy season, should highlight how the Delta system evolves seasonally. In concert with other data previously collected from the Sacramento River Delta, we suggest the lower region represents a mixture of river waters derived from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the more marine waters from the mouth of the San Francisco Bay. Moving NE up the Delta into shallow sloughs through flooded wetlands

  8. Effects of residence time on summer nitrate uptake in Mississippi River flow-regulated backwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, W.F.; Richardson, W.B.; Soballe, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate uptake may be improved in regulated floodplain rivers by increasing hydrological connectivity to backwaters. We examined summer nitrate uptake in a series of morphologically similar backwaters on the Upper Mississippi River receiving flow-regulated nitrate loads via gated culverts. Flows into individual backwaters were held constant over a summer period but varied in the summers of 2003 and 2004 to provide a range of hydraulic loads and residence times (??). The objectives were to determine optimum loading and ?? for maximum summer uptake. Higher flow adjustment led to increased loading but lower ?? and contact time for uptake. For highest flows, ?? was less than 1 day resulting in lower uptake rates (Unet, 4000 m). For low flows, ?? was greater than 5 days and U% approached 100%, but Unet was 200 mg m-2 day-1. Snet was < half the length of the backwaters under these conditions indicating that most of the load was assimilated in the upper reaches, leading to limited delivery to lower portions. Unet was maximal (384-629 mg m-2 day-1) for intermediate flows and ?? ranging between 1 and 1.5 days. Longer Snet (2000-4000 m) and lower U% (20-40%) reflected limitation of uptake in upper reaches by contact time, leading to transport to lower reaches for additional uptake. Uptake by ???10 000 ha of reconnected backwaters along the Upper Mississippi River (13% of the total backwater surface area) at a Unet of ???630 mg m-2 day-1 would be the equivalent of ???40% of the summer nitrate load (155 mg day-1) discharged from Lock and Dam 4. These results indicate that backwater nitrate uptake can play an important role in reducing nitrate loading to the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mean residence time of leaf number, area, mass, and nitrogen in canopy photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tadaki; Oikawa, Shimpei

    2012-08-01

    Mean residence time (MRT) of plant nitrogen (N), which is an indicator of the expected length of time N newly taken up is retained before being lost, is an important component in plant nitrogen use. Here we extend the concept MRT to cover such variables as leaf number, leaf area, leaf dry mass, and nitrogen in the canopy. MRT was calculated from leaf duration (i.e., time integral of standing amount) divided by the total production of leaf variables. We determined MRT in a Xanthium canadense stand established with high or low N availability. The MRT of leaf number may imply longevity of leaves in the canopy. We found that the MRT of leaf area and dry mass were shorter than that of leaf number, while the MRT of leaf N was longer. The relatively longer MRT of leaf N was due to N resorption before leaf shedding. The MRT of all variables was longer at low N availability. Leaf productivity is the rate of canopy photosynthesis per unit amount of leaf variables, and multiplication of leaf productivity by MRT gives the leaf photosynthetic efficiency (canopy photosynthesis per unit production of leaf variables). The photosynthetic efficiency of leaf number implies the lifetime carbon gain of a leaf in the canopy. The analysis of plant-level N use efficiency by evaluating the N productivity and MRT is a well-established approach. Extension of these concepts to leaf number, area, mass, and N in the canopy will clarify the underlying logic in the study of leaf life span, leaf area development, and dry mass and N use in canopy photosynthesis. PMID:22349752

  10. Rn as a geochemical tool for estimating residence times in the hyporheic zone and its application to biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, Benjamin; Dörner, Sebastian; Ebertshäuser, Marlene Esther; Glaser, Barbara; Klug, Maria; Pittroff, Marco; Pieruschka, Ines; Waldemer, Carolin

    2014-05-01

    The hyporheic zone is at the interface between groundwater and surface water systems. It is also often a geochemical and redox boundary between typically reduced groundwater and oxic surface water. It experiences dynamic physical and chemical conditions as both groundwater fluxes and surface water levels vary in time and space. This can be particularly important for processes such as biogeochemical processing of nutrients and carbon. There has recently been an increasing focus on coupling residence times of surface water in the hyporheic zone with biogeochemical reactions. While geochemical profiles can be readily measured using established geochemical sampling techniques (e.g. peepers), quantifying surface water residence times and flow paths within the hyporheic zone is more elusive. The nobel gas radon offers a method for quantification of surface water residence times in the hyporheic zone. Radon activities are typically low in surface waters due to degassing to the atmosphere and decay. However once the surface water flows into the hyporheic zone radon accumulates along the flow path due to emanation from the sediments. Using simple analytical equations the water residence time can be calculated based on the difference between measured 222Rn activities and 222Rn activities at secular equilibrium, with a maximum limit of about 20 days (depending on measurement precision). Rn is particularly suited to residence time measurements in the hyporheic zone since it does not require addition of tracers to the stream nor does it require complex simulations and assumptions (such as 1D vertical flow) as for temperature measurements. As part of the biogeochemistry course at the University of Bayreuth, we have investigated the coupling of redox processes and water residence times in the hyporheic zone using 222Rn as a tracer for residence time. Of particular interest were nitrate and sulfate reduction and methane and CO2 production. Measurements were made in a sandy section

  11. Respiratory function impairment and cardiopulmonary consequences in long-time residents of the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, O; Eaton, R D; Timmermans, F J; Hildes, J A

    1980-01-01

    Spirometry, roentgenography and electrocardiography were performed during community health surveys in 1976-78 in 176 Inuit and other long-time residents of the northeastern (Arctic Bay) and western (Inuvik) Canadian Arctic, and the results were related to age, ethnic origin, occupation and history of climatic exposure, smoking and hospitalization for tuberculosis. In Arctic Bay the young men showed excellent respiratory function, normal-sized pulmonary arteries and normal electrocardiograms, but abnormalities of all three types were increasingly frequent and severe after age 25. The forced mid-expiratory flow (FMF) fell to less than 50% of the norm by age 40, and dilatation of the pulmonary artery, hypertrophy of the right ventricle, right bundle branch block and a pseudoinfarction pattern on the ECG were frequently associated. In contrast, the men in Inuvik, an urbanized centre, maintained above normal respiratory function until age 40, and the FMF and pulmonary artery diameter remained normal in the older men except for Inuit and white trappers over 60 years old who had run fox trap lines along the Arctic coast in the 1920s and 30s. These data suggest that inhalation of extremely cold air at maximum ventilation may be a prime factor in the chronic obstructive lung disease of Inuit hunters, whereas smoking has only a minor role and hospitalization for tuberculosis appears to protect from rather than contribute to this disorder. PMID:7448675

  12. Subunit stabilization and polyethylene glycolation of cocaine esterase improves in vivo residence time.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Collins, Gregory T; Nance, Mark R; Nichols, Joseph; Edwald, Elin; Chan, Jimmy; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Woods, James H; Tesmer, John J G; Sunahara, Roger K

    2011-12-01

    No small-molecule therapeutic is available to treat cocaine addiction, but enzyme-based therapy to accelerate cocaine hydrolysis in serum has gained momentum. Bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) is the fastest known native enzyme that hydrolyzes cocaine. However, its lability at 37°C has limited its therapeutic potential. Cross-linking subunits through disulfide bridging is commonly used to stabilize multimeric enzymes. Herein we use structural methods to guide the introduction of two cysteine residues within dimer interface of CocE to facilitate intermolecular disulfide bond formation. The disulfide-crosslinked enzyme displays improved thermostability, particularly when combined with previously described mutations that enhance stability (T172R-G173Q). The newly modified enzyme yielded an extremely stable form of CocE (CCRQ-CocE) that retained greater than 90% of its activity after 41 days at 37°C, representing an improvement of more than 4700-fold over the wild-type enzyme. CCRQ-CocE could also be modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, which improved its in vivo residence time from 24 to 72 h, as measured by a cocaine lethality assay, by self-administration in rodents, and by measurement of inhibition of cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects in rhesus monkeys. PEG-CCRQ elicited negligible immune response in rodents. Subunit stabilization and PEGylation has thus produced a potential protein therapeutic with markedly higher stability both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21890748

  13. Subunit Stabilization and Polyethylene Glycolation of Cocaine Esterase Improves In Vivo Residence Time

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Collins, Gregory T.; Nance, Mark R.; Nichols, Joseph; Edwald, Elin; Chan, Jimmy; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Woods, James H.; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.

    2012-03-15

    No small-molecule therapeutic is available to treat cocaine addiction, but enzyme-based therapy to accelerate cocaine hydrolysis in serum has gained momentum. Bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) is the fastest known native enzyme that hydrolyzes cocaine. However, its lability at 37 C has limited its therapeutic potential. Cross-linking subunits through disulfide bridging is commonly used to stabilize multimeric enzymes. Herein we use structural methods to guide the introduction of two cysteine residues within dimer interface of CocE to facilitate intermolecular disulfide bond formation. The disulfide-crosslinked enzyme displays improved thermostability, particularly when combined with previously described mutations that enhance stability (T172R-G173Q). The newly modified enzyme yielded an extremely stable form of CocE (CCRQ-CocE) that retained greater than 90% of its activity after 41 days at 37 C, representing an improvement of more than 4700-fold over the wild-type enzyme. CCRQ-CocE could also be modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, which improved its in vivo residence time from 24 to 72 h, as measured by a cocaine lethality assay, by self-administration in rodents, and by measurement of inhibition of cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects in rhesus monkeys. PEG-CCRQ elicited negligible immune response in rodents. Subunit stabilization and PEGylation has thus produced a potential protein therapeutic with markedly higher stability both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Structure-guided residence time optimization of a dabigatran reversal agent.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Felix; van Ryn, Joanne; Litzenburger, Tobias; Ritter, Michael; Seeliger, Daniel; Nar, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants are effective and safe alternatives to vitamin-K antagonists for anticoagulation therapy. However, anticoagulation therapy in general is associated with an elevated risk of bleeding. Idarucizumab is a reversal agent for the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®) and is currently in Phase 3 studies. Here, we report data on the antibody fragment aDabi-Fab2, a putative backup molecule for idarucizumab. Although aDabi-Fab2 completely reversed effects of dabigatran in a rat model in vivo, we observed significantly reduced duration of action compared to idarucizumab. Rational protein engineering, based on the X-ray structure of aDabi-Fab2, led to the identification of mutant Y103W. The mutant had optimized shape complementarity to dabigatran while maintaining an energetically favored hydrogen bond. It displayed increased affinity for dabigatran, mainly driven by a slower off-rate. Interestingly, the increased residence time translated into longer duration of action in vivo. It was thus possible to further enhance the efficacy of aDabi-Fab2 based on rational design, giving it the potential to serve as a back-up candidate for idarucizumab. PMID:26047352

  15. Structure-guided residence time optimization of a dabigatran reversal agent

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Felix; van Ryn, Joanne; Litzenburger, Tobias; Ritter, Michael; Seeliger, Daniel; Nar, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants are effective and safe alternatives to vitamin-K antagonists for anticoagulation therapy. However, anticoagulation therapy in general is associated with an elevated risk of bleeding. Idarucizumab is a reversal agent for the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®) and is currently in Phase 3 studies. Here, we report data on the antibody fragment aDabi-Fab2, a putative backup molecule for idarucizumab. Although aDabi-Fab2 completely reversed effects of dabigatran in a rat model in vivo, we observed significantly reduced duration of action compared to idarucizumab. Rational protein engineering, based on the X-ray structure of aDabi-Fab2, led to the identification of mutant Y103W. The mutant had optimized shape complementarity to dabigatran while maintaining an energetically favored hydrogen bond. It displayed increased affinity for dabigatran, mainly driven by a slower off-rate. Interestingly, the increased residence time translated into longer duration of action in vivo. It was thus possible to further enhance the efficacy of aDabi-Fab2 based on rational design, giving it the potential to serve as a back-up candidate for idarucizumab. PMID:26047352

  16. Treating Stormwater with Green Infrastructure: Plants, Residence Time Distributions, and the Removal of Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Winfrey, B.; Mehring, A.

    2015-12-01

    In many cities, green infrastructure is increasingly used to capture and treat stormwater runoff, due to the many opportunities these systems afford for protecting receiving water quality and ecology while mitigating water scarcity. Here, we focus on how plants affect the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in newly-constructed stormwater biofilters, a type of green infrastructure consisting of unconsolidated granular media containing one or more plant species. Input-response experiments were carried out using both non-reactive (salt) and reactive (sewage) tracers on six laboratory-scale (~1m long by 24 cm diameter) biofilters, half of which were planted with the sedge Carex appressa (treatment replicates) and half of which were unplanted (control replicates). C. appressa modifies the residence time distribution (RTD) in a biofilter by creating preferential flow paths along which water and mass can move quickly, but does not appear to alter the intrinsic rate at which FIB are removed. Thus, the "green" component of green infrastructure can alter pollutant removal by changing the RTD, with or without a concomitant change in pollutant reactivity.

  17. Subunit Stabilization and Polyethylene Glycolation of Cocaine Esterase Improves In Vivo Residence TimeS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Collins, Gregory T.; Nance, Mark R.; Nichols, Joseph; Edwald, Elin; Chan, Jimmy; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Woods, James H.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2011-01-01

    No small-molecule therapeutic is available to treat cocaine addiction, but enzyme-based therapy to accelerate cocaine hydrolysis in serum has gained momentum. Bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) is the fastest known native enzyme that hydrolyzes cocaine. However, its lability at 37°C has limited its therapeutic potential. Cross-linking subunits through disulfide bridging is commonly used to stabilize multimeric enzymes. Herein we use structural methods to guide the introduction of two cysteine residues within dimer interface of CocE to facilitate intermolecular disulfide bond formation. The disulfide-crosslinked enzyme displays improved thermostability, particularly when combined with previously described mutations that enhance stability (T172R-G173Q). The newly modified enzyme yielded an extremely stable form of CocE (CCRQ-CocE) that retained greater than 90% of its activity after 41 days at 37°C, representing an improvement of more than 4700-fold over the wild-type enzyme. CCRQ-CocE could also be modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, which improved its in vivo residence time from 24 to 72 h, as measured by a cocaine lethality assay, by self-administration in rodents, and by measurement of inhibition of cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects in rhesus monkeys. PEG-CCRQ elicited negligible immune response in rodents. Subunit stabilization and PEGylation has thus produced a potential protein therapeutic with markedly higher stability both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21890748

  18. Sand residence times of one million years in the Namib Sand Sea from cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.; Fenton, C. R.; Kober, F.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Bristow, C. S.; Xu, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Namib Sand Sea is one of the world's oldest and largest sand deserts, yet little is known about the source of the sand in this, or other large deserts. In particular, it is unclear whether the sand is derived from local sediment or comes from remote sources. The relatively uniform appearance of dune sands and low compositional variability within dune fields make it difficult to address this question. Here we combine cosmogenic-nuclide measurements and geochronological techniques to assess the provenance and migration history of sand grains in the Namib Sand Sea. We use U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons to show that the primary source of sand is the Orange River at the southern edge of the Namib desert. Our burial ages obtained from measurements of the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be, 26Al and 21Ne suggest that the residence time of sand within the sand sea is at least one million years. We therefore conclude that, despite large climatic changes in the Namib region associated with Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, the area currently occupied by the Namib Sand Sea has never been entirely devoid of sand during the past million years.

  19. Impact of model geometry and recharge rates on catchment's residence time distributions - numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, M.; Musolff, A.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Residence time distributions (RTD) of water in catchments are promising tools to characterize and model solute transport on a larger scale. In the last decade, much research has been conducted on the estimation and the application of RTD's. However, there are still some major issues to be addressed to complex derivation, parameterization and transient behavior. Through improved remote sensing data, the surface elevation can mostly be resolved in detail, while subsurface volumes and boundaries remain highly undetermined. Our objectives are to systematically evaluate the impact of different depths and geometries of the domain bottom and groundwater recharge rates on RTD's. The study site is a small (1.6 km2) headwater catchment located within the Harz Mountains, Germany. For this catchment long time series of climate, discharge and hydrochemistry are available while groundwater flow field and subsurface structure are less known. The site is intensively influenced by agricultural land use and exhibits strong seasonal dynamics of water flow and hydrochemistry due to the snowmelt. The modeling was performed using HydroGeoSphere, a coupled surface and subsurface model, which solves the Richards Equation for variable saturated soils. The Open Source software Paraview and R was chosen as postprocessors to perform and analyze forward particle tracking algorithms under steady state conditions. Ten depth and geometry scenarios of the domain bottom were created (5 horizontal bottom geometries - constant base and 5 variable bottom geometries - parallel to surface topography; both minimum depths ranging from 2 m to 50 m). The model's internal structure was discretized by two homogenous layers (averaged catchment representation) parallel to the input digital elevation model (2x2 m). The geometry scenarios were combined with fifteen steady state simulations for different groundwater recharge rate scenarios (0.1 mm up to 15 mm per day). Model results indicate a strong influence of

  20. Flow residence time and regions of intraluminal thrombus deposition in intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rayz, V L; Boussel, L; Ge, L; Leach, J R; Martin, A J; Lawton, M T; McCulloch, C; Saloner, D

    2010-10-01

    Thrombus formation in intracranial aneurysms, while sometimes stabilizing lesion growth, can present additional risk of thrombo-embolism. The role of hemodynamics in the progression of aneurysmal disease can be elucidated by patient-specific computational modeling. In our previous work, patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were constructed from MRI data for three patients who had fusiform basilar aneurysms that were thrombus-free and then proceeded to develop intraluminal thrombus. In this study, we investigated the effect of increased flow residence time (RT) by modeling passive scalar advection in the same aneurysmal geometries. Non-Newtonian pulsatile flow simulations were carried out in base-line geometries and a new postprocessing technique, referred to as "virtual ink" and based on the passive scalar distribution maps, was used to visualize the flow and estimate the flow RT. The virtual ink technique clearly depicted regions of flow separation. The flow RT at different locations adjacent to aneurysmal walls was calculated as the time the virtual ink scalar remained above a threshold value. The RT values obtained in different areas were then correlated with the location of intra-aneurysmal thrombus observed at a follow-up MR study. For each patient, the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution was also obtained from CFD simulations and correlated with thrombus location. The correlation analysis determined a significant relationship between regions where CFD predicted either an increased RT or low WSS and the regions where thrombus deposition was observed to occur in vivo. A model including both low WSS and increased RT predicted thrombus-prone regions significantly better than the models with RT or WSS alone. PMID:20499185

  1. Phosphorus as indicator of magmatic olivine residence time, morphology and growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Alexander; Batanova, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is among of slowest elements by diffusion rate in silicate melts and crystals (e.g. Spandler et al, 2007). In the same time it is moderately incompatible to compatible with olivine (Brunet & Chazot, 2001; Grant & Kohn, 2013). This makes phosphorus valuable tracer of olivine crystallization in natural conditions. Indeed, it is shown that natural magmatic olivine crystals commonly posses strong and complicated zoning in phosphorus (Milman-Barris et al, 2008; Welsch et al, 2014). In this paper we intend to review phosphorus behavior in olivine in published experimental and natural olivine studies and present large set of new EPMA data on phosphorus zoning in olivine phenocrysts from MORBs, OIBs, komatiites and kimberlites. We will show that sharp olivine zones enriched in phosphorus by a factor of 10-20 over prediction by equilibrium partition may be due to formation of P-rich boundary layer on the interface of fast growing olivine. This is proved by finding of small-size (normally 10 mkm or less) exceptionally P-rich melt inclusions in olivine, which are otherwise similar in composition to typical melt. These observations could provide potential olivine growth speedometer. We will also demonstrate, that sharp zoning in phosphorus may provide valuable information on the residence time of olivine crystals in different environments: magma chambers and conduits as well as mantle sources. This study has been founded by Russian Science Foundation grant 14-17-00491. References: Spandler, et al, 2007, Nature, v. 447, p. 303-306; Brunet & Chazot, 2001, Chemical Geology, v. 176, p. 51-72; Grant & Kohn, 2013, American Mineralogist, v. 98, p. 1860-1869; Milman-Barris et al, 2008, Contr. Min. Petrol. v. 155, p.739-765; Welsch et al, 2014, Geology, v. 42, p.867-870.

  2. Reflections in a time of transition: orthopaedic faculty and resident understanding of accreditation schemes and opinions on surgical skills feedback

    PubMed Central

    Gundle, Kenneth R.; Mickelson, Dayne T.; Hanel, Doug P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Orthopaedic surgery is one of the first seven specialties that began collecting Milestone data as part of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System (NAS) rollout. This transition from process-based advancement to outcome-based education is an opportunity to assess resident and faculty understanding of changing paradigms, and opinions about technical skill evaluation. Methods In a large academic orthopaedic surgery residency program, residents and faculty were anonymously surveyed. A total of 31/32 (97%) residents and 29/53 (55%) faculty responded to Likert scale assessments and provided open-ended responses. An internal end-of-rotation audit was conducted to assess timeliness of evaluations. A mixed-method analysis was utilized, with nonparametric statistical testing and a constant-comparative qualitative method. Results There was greater familiarity with the six core competencies than with Milestones or the NAS (p<0.05). A majority of faculty and residents felt that end-of-rotation evaluations were not adequate for surgical skills feedback. Fifty-eight per cent of residents reported that end-of-rotation evaluations were rarely or never filled out in a timely fashion. An internal audit demonstrated that more than 30% of evaluations were completed over a month after rotation end. Qualitative analysis included themes of resident desire for more face-to-face feedback on technical skills after operative cases, and several barriers to more frequent feedback. Discussion The NAS and outcome-based education have arrived. Residents and faculty need to be educated on this changing paradigm. This transition period is also a window of opportunity to address methods of evaluation and feedback. In our orthopaedic residency, trainees were significantly less satisfied than faculty with the amount of technical and surgical skills feedback being provided to trainees. The quantitative and qualitative analyses converge on one

  3. MyD88 in lung resident cells governs airway inflammatory and pulmonary function responses to organic dust treatment.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jill A; Wyatt, Todd A; Romberger, Debra J; Staab, Elizabeth; Simet, Samantha; Reynolds, Stephen J; Sisson, Joseph H; Kielian, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of organic dusts within agriculture environments contributes to the development and/or severity of airway diseases, including asthma and chronic bronchitis. MyD88 KO (knockout) mice are nearly completely protected against the inflammatory and bronchoconstriction effects induced by acute organic dust extract (ODE) treatments. However, the contribution of MyD88 in lung epithelial cell responses remains unclear. In the present study, we first addressed whether ODE-induced changes in epithelial cell responses were MyD88-dependent by quantitating ciliary beat frequency and cell migration following wounding by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. We demonstrate that the normative ciliary beat slowing response to ODE is delayed in MyD88 KO tracheal epithelial cells as compared to wild type (WT) control. Similarly, the normative ODE-induced slowing of cell migration in response to wound repair was aberrant in MyD88 KO cells. Next, we created MyD88 bone marrow chimera mice to investigate the relative contribution of MyD88-dependent signaling in lung resident (predominately epithelial cells) versus hematopoietic cells. Importantly, we demonstrate that ODE-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is MyD88-dependent in lung resident cells, whereas MyD88 action in hematopoietic cells is mainly responsible for ODE-induced TNF-α release. MyD88 signaling in lung resident and hematopoietic cells are necessary for ODE-induced IL-6 and neutrophil chemoattractant (CXCL1 and CXCL2) release and neutrophil influx. Collectively, these findings underscore an important role for MyD88 in lung resident cells for regulating ciliary motility, wound repair and inflammatory responses to ODE, and moreover, show that airway hyperresponsiveness appears uncoupled from airway inflammatory consequences to organic dust challenge in terms of MyD88 involvement. PMID:26376975

  4. The Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Pilot Resident-Organized and -Led Knowledge Base Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautrot, Victor J.; Festin, Fe E.; Bauer, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires a sufficient medical knowledge base as one of the six core competencies in residency training. The authors judged that an annual "short-course" review of medical knowledge would be a useful adjunct to standard seminar and rotation teaching, and that a…

  5. Ligand Residence Time at G-protein-Coupled Receptors-Why We Should Take Our Time To Study It.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Castro, M; Rinken, A; Leurs, R; Hill, S J; Vischer, H F

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade the kinetics of ligand binding to a receptor have received increasing interest. The concept of drug-target residence time is becoming an invaluable parameter for drug optimization. It holds great promise for drug development, and its optimization is thought to reduce off-target effects. The success of long-acting drugs like tiotropium support this hypothesis. Nonetheless, we know surprisingly little about the dynamics and the molecular detail of the drug binding process. Because protein dynamics and adaptation during the binding event will change the conformation of the protein, ligand binding will not be the static process that is often described. This can cause problems because simple mathematical models often fail to adequately describe the dynamics of the binding process. In this minireview we will discuss the current situation with an emphasis on G-protein-coupled receptors. These are important membrane protein drug targets that undergo conformational changes upon agonist binding to communicate signaling information across the plasma membrane of cells. PMID:26152198

  6. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, L. Neil; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the residence times of the ground-water systems in Chesapeake Bay watershed helps resource managers anticipate potential delays between implementation of land-management practices and any improve-ments in river and estuary water quality. This report presents preliminary estimates of ground-water residence times and apparent ages of water in the shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A simple reservoir model, published data, and analyses of spring water were used to estimate residence times and apparent ages of ground-water discharge. Ranges of aquifer hydraulic characteristics throughout the Bay watershed were derived from published literature and were used to estimate ground-water residence times on the basis of a simple reservoir model. Simple combinations of rock type and physiographic province were used to delineate hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMR?s) for the study area. The HGMR?s are used to facilitate organization and display of the data and analyses. Illustrations depicting the relation of aquifer characteristics and associated residence times as a continuum for each HGMR were developed. In this way, the natural variation of aquifer characteristics can be seen graphically by use of data from selected representative studies. Water samples collected in September and November 1996, from 46 springs throughout the watershed were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFC?s) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. For comparison purposes, apparent ages of water from springs were calculated assuming piston flow. Additi-onal data are given to estimate apparent ages assuming an exponential distribution of ages in spring discharge. Additionally, results from previous studies of CFC-dating of ground water from other springs and wells in the watershed were compiled. The CFC data, and the data on major ions, nutrients, and nitrogen isotopes in the water collected from the 46 springs are included in this report. The apparent ages of water

  7. Atmospheric residence times from transpiration and evaporation to precipitation: An age-weighted regional evaporation tagging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianhui; Knoche, Hans Richard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-06-01

    The atmospheric water residence time is a fundamental descriptor that provides information on the timescales of evaporation and precipitation. In this study, a regional climate model-based evaporation tagging algorithm is extended with an age tracer approach to calculate moisture residence times, defined as time between the original evaporation and the returning of water masses to the land surface as precipitation. Our case study addresses how long this time is for the transpired and for the direct evaporated moisture. Our study region is the Poyang Lake region in Southeast China, the largest freshwater lake in the country. We perform simulations covering the period from October 2004 to December 2005. In 2005, 11% of direct evaporated water (10% of transpired water) precipitates locally. Direct evaporated water accounts for 64% and transpired water for 36% of the total tagged moisture with a mean age of around 36 h for both. Considering precipitation, a large proportion (69%) originates from direct evaporated water with a mean atmospheric residence time of 6.6 h and a smaller amount from transpired water with a longer residence time of 10.7 h. Modulated by the East Asian monsoon, the variation of the meteorological conditions, the magnitude of the partitioned moisture, and the corresponding residence time patterns change seasonally and spatially and reveal the different fate of transpired and direct evaporated water in the atmospheric hydrological cycle. We conclude that our methodological approach has the potential to be used for addressing how timescales of the hydrological cycle changes regionally under global warming.

  8. Performance linked to residence time distribution by a novel wool-based bioreactor for tertiary sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bibo; Wheatley, Andrew; Ishtchenko, Vera; Huddersman, Katherine

    2012-05-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out using up-flow 7 L Submerged Aerated Filter reactors packed with wool fibre or commercial plastic pall rings, Kaldnes, (70% by volume) support media for the tertiary treatment of sewage. The performance of the wool bioreactor was more consistent than that with Kaldnes medium, for both TOC removal (93%) and SS removal (90%). Both plastic and wool-packed bioreactors achieved complete nitrification at the load of about 0.4 kgCOD/m(3)/day. The sludge yield of the wool bioreactor was almost half that of the bioreactor with Kaldnes suggesting that wool could retain residual organics and particulates. The wool however was degraded and it was concluded that wool would have to be considered as additional sacrificial adsorption capacity rather than an alternative medium. The performance was linked to the residence time distribution studies and these changes in the wool structure. Biomass growth increased the retention of the tracer in the wool reactor by, it was suggested, exposing a greater surface area. Results from the plastic media on the other hand showed increased mixing possibly by increasing the mobility of the plastic. Aeration increased the mixing in both reactors, and patterns were in all cases predominantly well-mixed. PMID:22080341

  9. Slow-Onset Inhibition of the FabI Enoyl Reductase from Francisella tularensis: Residence Time and in Vivo Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; England, K; Ende, C; Truglio, J; Luckner, S; Reddy, B; Marlenee, N; Knudson, S; Knudson, D; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent and contagious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia in mammals. The high infectivity and the ability of the bacterium to survive for weeks in a cool, moist environment have raised the possibility that this organism could be exploited deliberately as a potential biological weapon. Fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) is essential for bacterial viability and has been validated as a target for the discovery of novel antibacterials. The FAS-II enoyl reductase ftuFabI has been cloned and expressed, and a series of diphenyl ethers have been identified that are subnanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme with MIC90 values as low as 0.00018 ?g mL-1. The existence of a linear correlation between the Ki and MIC values strongly suggests that the antibacterial activity of the diphenyl ethers results from direct inhibition of ftuFabI within the cell. The compounds are slow-onset inhibitors of ftuFabI, and the residence time of the inhibitors on the enzyme correlates with their in vivo activity in a mouse model of tularemia infection. Significantly, the rate of breakdown of the enzyme-inhibitor complex is a better predictor of in vivo activity than the overall thermodynamic stability of the complex, a concept that has important implications for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutics that normally rely on equilibrium measurements of potency.

  10. The Effect of Beaver Activity on the Ammonium Uptake and Water Residence Time Characteristics of a Third-Order Stream Reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Wollheim, W. M.; Peterson, B. J.; Morkeski, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing beaver populations within low gradient basins in the northeastern United States are fundamentally changing the way water and dissolved nutrients are exported through these stream networks to the coast. Beaver dams can increase water residence time and contact with organic material, promote anoxic conditions and enhance both surface and hyporheic transient storage; all of these may have an impact on biogeochemical reactivity and nutrient retention. To quantitatively assess some of these effects we co-injected NaCl and NH4+ into the same 3rd-order stream reach in Massachusetts, USA under pre- and post-dam conditions. These experiments were done at similar discharge rates to isolate the impacts of a large natural beaver dam (7 m X 1.3 m) on the low-gradient (0.002) system where variable discharge also imparts a strong control on residence time. During the post-dam experiment there was an estimated 2300 m3 of water impounded behind the structure, which influenced more than 300 m of the 650 m stream reach. Our results showed that median transport time through the reach increased by 160% after dam construction. Additionally the tracer tailing time normalized to the corresponding median transport time increased from 1.08 to 1.51, indicating a pronounced tailing of the tracer signal in the post-dam condition. Data collected within the beaver pond just upstream of the dam indicated poor mixing and the presence of preferential flow paths through the generally stagnant zone. The uptake length (Sw) for NH4+ was 1250 m under the pre-dam condition, and may have changed for the post-dam reach in part because of the observed changes in residence time. As beaver population growth continues within these basins the consequences may be a smoothing of the outlet hydrograph and increased nutrient and organic matter removal and storage along the stream network.