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1

Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

Williamson, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

2

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

3

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

4

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)|

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

5

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

6

Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in

Marcio C. S. de Mattos; David E. Nicodem

2002-01-01

7

Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

Gregor, Richard W.

2012-01-01

8

Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)|

Pickering, Miles

1980-01-01

9

Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

R. H. Logan, an chemistry instructor at North Lake College, created this introduction to organic chemistry. The introduction covers a eight types of organic compounds, including Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, and Acyl Compounds (forthcoming); Conformational Analysis and Stereoisomerism; and Instrumental Analysis of Organic Compounds, as well an extensive lesson in general chemistry.

10

Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

2006-01-01

11

Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

2006-01-01

12

The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

Castro, Albert J.; And Others

1983-01-01

13

On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.|

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

2007-01-01

14

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

15

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

16

Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group

Barbara A. Gaddis

2001-01-01

17

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

18

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

19

Examination of a Reaction Mechanism by Polarimetry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate Organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the use of polarimetry to determine a reaction mechanism is described. The experiment has been shown to be successful with chiral mandelic acid and POCl3 and with chiral lactic acid and HBr. The substitution mechanisms of these reactions proceed with 1% and 38% SN2 character respectively.

Michael D. Mosher; Chad O. Kelly; Melvyn W. Mosher

1996-01-01

20

Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

Ewing, Sheila

1982-01-01

21

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

22

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.|

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

23

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

24

Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group performed all hands-on experiments. Students in the treatment group performed hands-on experiments for the first and last part of the semester but performed computer simulations for a five-week period in the middle of the semester. Prior to treatment, groups were equivalent with respect to academic orientation, motivation, formal reasoning ability, and spatial visualization ability. Fifteen common misconceptions held by beginning organic chemistry students were identified from the Covalent Bonding and Structures Test. At the end of the semester, thirteen of these misconceptions persisted. Molecular geometry was the only category of misconceptions that significantly improved as a result of computer simulations, F(1,58) = 6.309, p = .015. No significant differential change was observed in misconceptions about bond polarity, molecular polarity, intermolecular forces, lattice structures, or the octet rule. Computer simulations were found to result in significantly greater conceptual understanding of organic chemistry reactions on two of the experiments, Stereochemistry, F(1,55) = 6.174, p = .016, and Nucleophilic Substitution, F(1,57) = 6.093, p = .017. The other three experiments, Infrared Spectroscopy, Elimination, and Oxymercuration, did not show a significant differential effect between types of laboratory experiences. No significant differences were observed on long-term retention of concepts. Overall conclusions from the study are that neither computer simulations nor hands-on laboratory experiments are effective in alleviating misconceptions, but that computer simulations can significantly improve conceptual understanding of organic reaction mechanisms.

Gaddis, Barbara A.

2001-12-01

25

Teaching Catalytic Antibodies to Undergraduate Students: An Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only 13 years ago, few believed that antibodies could be catalytic or that any protein could be made to order to perform a catalytic task. The field has quickly matured from initial proof of concept and demonstration of fundamental enzyme-like characteristics to one in which antibodies have catalyzed an extremely broad range of organic transformations. Now that the first catalytic antibody is commercially available, it is possible to bring these novel biocatalysts into the classroom so every student can gain hands-on experience and carry out experiments on the cutting edge of scientific discovery. This lab project deals with antibody-catalyzed aldol condensations. It includes the (i) synthesis of substrate and product; (ii) HPLC characterization of the antibody-catalyzed reaction; (iii) titration of the antibody active-site; and (iv) analysis of the kinetics of the antibody-catalyzed reaction. The lab project provides training not only in biocatalysis but in a number of related aspects of chemical and biochemical research, including organic synthesis, mechanistic organic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Students will learn the use of various experimental techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC, to monitor chemical reactions and determine kinetic parameters. They will be exposed to concepts and terminology of bioorganic chemistry, such as protein structure and function, inhibition and active-site titration, and basic principles of biocatalysis.

Shulman, Avidor; Keinan, Ehud; Shabat, Doron; Barbas, Carlos F., III

1999-07-01

26

Insights Into Atmospheric Aqueous Organic Chemistry Through Controlled Experiments with Cloud Water Surrogates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable laboratory and field-based evidence that chemical processing in clouds and wet aerosols alters organic composition and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Single-compound laboratory experiments have played an important role in developing aqueous-phase chemical mechanisms that aid prediction of SOA formation through multiphase chemistry. In this work we conduct similar experiments with cloud/fog water surrogates, to 1) evaluate to what extent the previously studied chemistry is observed in these more realistic atmospheric waters, and 2) to identify additional atmospherically-relevant precursors and products that require further study. We used filtered Camden and Pinelands, NJ rainwater as a surrogate for cloud water. OH radical (~10-12 M) was formed by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and samples were analyzed in real-time by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Discrete samples were also analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and ESI-MS after IC separation. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Standards of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde and their major aqueous oxidation products were also analyzed, and control experiments performed. Decreases in the ion abundance of many positive mode compounds and increases in the ion abundance of many negative mode compounds (e.g., organic acids) suggest that precursors are predominantly aldehydes, organic peroxides and/or alcohols. Real-time ESI mass spectra were consistent with the expected loss of methylglyoxal and subsequent formation of pyruvate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. New insights regarding other potential precursors and products will be provided.

Turpin, B. J.; Ramos, A.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Seitzinger, S.

2011-12-01

27

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

2008-01-01

28

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

2008-01-01

29

The Problem with Organic Chemistry Labs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem with organic chemistry labs is that the educational objectives of lab instructions are often vague and seldom stated. The great majority of organic chemistry labs in American colleges and universities are based on verification experiments.|

Mohrig, Jerry R.

2004-01-01

30

Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation---a new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic students---to isolate

Caleb A. Arrington; Jameica B. Hill; Ramin Radfar; David M. Whisnant; Charles G. Bass

2008-01-01

31

Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

1999-01-01

32

Organic Chemistry Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemWeb's Organic Chemistry Forum bills itself as a "free online club for the organic chemistry community." Users will need to complete a simple online form to obtain membership and access the site. One highlight of this site is free full-text access to Tetrahedron Letters. This rapid publication journal appears weekly. Along with free access to Beilstein Abstracts, the site includes jobs, a conference diary, news, discussion groups, and more.

2005-01-01

33

Interstellar Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex organic molecules that are stable against radiation may pervade interstellar space, with their degradation products a source of those molecules observed. The connexion between biological and interstellar organic chemistry is, however, analogical rather than substantive, and the prospect for interstellar biology is dim. This article is based on Professor Sagan's contribution to a symposium at the National Radio Astronomy

Carl Sagan

1972-01-01

34

UCLA: Organic Chemistry Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Steven Hardinger at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA created these tutorials to assist students with the difficult concepts presented in introductory organic chemistry. Students can find tutorials dealing with acids and bases, carbocations, Lewis dot structures, and more. Within each tutorial, users can find links to a dictionary that adequately explain the unfamiliar terminology. The tutorials include example problems and exercises to challenge users.

Hardinger, Steven

35

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

Blauch, David N.

36

Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry  

PubMed Central

The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role.

Streitwieser, Andrew

2009-01-01

37

Perspectives on computational organic chemistry.  

PubMed

The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

Streitwieser, Andrew

2009-06-19

38

Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new…

Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

2008-01-01

39

Online Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

Janowicz, Philip A.

2010-01-01

40

Online Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

Janowicz, Philip A.

2010-01-01

41

Online organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

Janowicz, Philip A.

42

Organic Chemistry Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

43

The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-06-01

44

Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the Organic Chemistry textbook, Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition, by William H. Brown, Christopher S. Foote, Brent L. Iverson, Eric Anslyn published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

45

Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…

Mullins, Joseph J.

2008-01-01

46

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.|

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

47

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

48

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.|

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

49

Improving the Effectiveness of Organic Chemistry Experiments through Multimedia Teaching Materials for Junior High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study aimed to explore the effects of three different forms of the multimedia teaching materials on the achievements and attitudes of junior high school students in a chemistry laboratory context. The three forms of the multimedia teaching materials, static pictures, video, and animation, were employed to teach chemistry

Lou, Shi-Jer; Lin, Hui-Chen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

2012-01-01

50

Organic chemistry of the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews the information currently available regarding the chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere. Topics discussed include methods for collecting organic compounds from the atmosphere, the influence of organic compounds on indoor and outdoor air quality, the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, environmental tobacco smoke, organic compounds in rainwater, organic oxysulfur compounds, and the effect of organic compounds on visibility. Many of these topics presented have never been reviewed or have never appeared together in a single volume.

Hansen, L.D. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1991-01-01

51

Organic Composition of Size-Segregated Aerosols Sampled During the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol samples were collected for the analysis of organic source markers using non-rotating Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI) as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Tampa, FL, USA. Daily samples were collected 12 m above ground at a flow rate of 30 lpm throughout the month of May 2002. Aluminum foil discs were used to sample aerosol size fractions with aerodynamic cut diameter of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.17 and 0.093 um. Samples were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone/hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low detection limits were achieved using a HP Programmable Temperature Vaporizing inlet (PTV) and large volume injections (80ul). Excellent chromatographic resolution was obtained using a 60 m long RTX-5MS, 0.25 mm I.D. column. A quantification method was built for over 90 organic compounds chosen as source markers including straight/iso/anteiso alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The investigation of potential aerosol sources for different particle sizes using known organic markers and source profiles will be presented. Size distributions of carbon preference indices (CPI), percent wax n-alkanes (%WNA) and concentration of selected compounds will be discussed. Also, results will be compared with samples acquired in different environments including the 1999 Atlanta SuperSite Experiment, GA, USA.

Tremblay, R. T.; Zika, R. G.

2003-04-01

52

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

53

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.|

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

54

Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation—a new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic students—to isolate an unknown compound. Then, using spectroscopy (IR and NMR), the students collaborate to determine the structure of the product of the reaction. This application of a standard experiment allows general chemistry students to gain exposure to modern spectroscopic instrumentation and to enhance their problem-solving skills. Organic chemistry students improve their understandings of laboratory techniques and spectroscopic interpretation by acting as the resident experts for the team.

Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

2008-02-01

55

Organic Chemistry for the Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to a serious shortage of chemists in South Africa, gifted secondary school students are enrolled in an enrichment program in organic chemistry and encouraged to consider chemistry or one of its related fields as a career. The introductory portion of the program involves approximately 90 hours over a 3-year period while the advanced…

deBeer, W. H. J.

56

Adventures in Organic Sulfur Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

On several occasions, SULFUR REPORTS has invited persons who have done outstanding work in sulfur chemistry to summarize highlights of their research career in a semiautobiographical review. The present account is from a distinguished chemist who has contributed importantly for nearly 50 years to medicinal and organic aspects of sulfur chemistry. Ernest E. Campaigne (who prefers simply E. Campaigne) was

E. Campaigne

1990-01-01

57

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

58

Submicron Organic Aerosol Function Groups during the International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol organic mass (OM) components are expected to have significant direct and indirect impacts on Arctic climate, especially during springtime Arctic haze. The chemical and physical properties of OM in Arctic aerosol remain largely unconstrained. The R/V Knorr traveled between Iceland and the Barents Sea during the ice-free months of March and April of 2008 and collected submicron particles on teflon filters for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify organic functional groups. Time series and composition are presented along with air mass back trajectories to indicate source regions. Early findings identify alcohols, alkanes, and carboxylic acids, with smaller amounts of amines, aromatics, alkenes and carbonyls. These data show the important contributions of organic oxygen and nitrogen in the Arctic region. Single particle analysis by Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) Scanning Transmission X- ray Microscopy (STXM) provides additional information about the distribution and morphology of the types of organic particles. Comparison to collocated simultaneous measurements by other techniques showed good agreement for OM and oxygenated organic fractions.

Russell, L. M.; Shaw, P. M.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

2008-12-01

59

Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

1980-01-01

60

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.|

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

61

Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

2012-01-01

62

Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

2008-01-01

63

Development of Organic Chemistry in the Ussr.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study covers the chemistry of organic phosphorus compounds, macromolecular compounds, research in the field of telomerization, the physical chemistry of polymers, research on electron and nuclear magnetic resonance in organic chemistry, heterocyclic c...

V. V. Korshak

1968-01-01

64

Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)|

Ferguson, Lloyd N.

1980-01-01

65

Organic chemistry on solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed.

Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco

2006-07-01

66

Soil Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)|

Anderson, G.

1979-01-01

67

Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)|

Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

1981-01-01

68

Organic composition of PM 2.5 and size-segregated aerosols and their sources during the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 and size-segregated aerosols were collected in May 2002 as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA. Aerosol organic composition was used to estimate sources of a series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using chemical indices, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and a chemical mass balance receptor model (CMB). Aerosols were collected on quartz fiber

Raphaël T. Tremblay; Daniel D. Riemer; Rod G. Zika

2007-01-01

69

Chem51A: Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OpenCourseWare Initiative has brought hundreds of course materials to people from Indonesia to Indiana. The University of California, Irvine has a number of excellent materials, one of which is this particular course offering. This course in organic chemistry was created by Professor James Nowick. On the site, visitors can view 27 different lectures from the fall 2009 iteration of the course. In addition, they can work through the assigned chapters in the textbook (not available on the website) to deepen their problem-solving skills. The topics covered here include resonance structures, organic compounds, and the properties of chiral compounds. The course materials will be quite useful to persons studying organic chemistry, or for those people who may need a refresher as part of their professional development.

Nowick, James

2012-02-20

70

Chem51A: Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OpenCourseWare Initiative has brought hundreds of course materials to people from Indonesia to Indiana. The University of California, Irvine has a number of excellent materials, one of which is this particular course offering. This course in organic chemistry was created by Professor James Nowick. On the site, visitors can view 27 different lectures from the fall 2009 iteration of the course. In addition, they can work through the assigned chapters in the textbook (not available on the website) to deepen their problem-solving skills. The topics covered here include resonance structures, organic compounds, and the properties of chiral compounds. The course materials will be quite useful to persons studying organic chemistry, or for those people who may need a refresher as part of their professional development.

Nowick, James

2012-02-17

71

Experiments in Electroanalytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers educators a set of eight classical electroanalytical experiments suitable for use in a quantitative analysis, instrumental analysis, or electrochemistry course. The materials should be useful for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Experiments include coulometric, conductometric, and potentiometric titrations, stripping analysis, flow injection analysis, and polarography. It is important to note that several of the experiments use mercury or mercury coated electrodes which present safety concerns.

2011-05-30

72

Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry.  

PubMed

When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan. PMID:11537156

Sagan, C; Thompson, W R; Khare, B N

1992-01-01

73

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

74

Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.|

Murov, Steven

2007-01-01

75

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

76

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

77

A perspective on organic chemistry: physical organic chemistry.  

PubMed

A physical organic chemist wants to understand the detailed sequence of bond makings and bond breakings by which new or well-known reactions take place, i.e., the reaction mechanism, and to identify any metastable intermediates involved. The ultimate goal of such studies is to predict, and hope to control, chemical reactivity by determining how molecular structure and the immediate local environment affect a reaction of probative interest. Physical organic chemistry, in turn, provides structural insight, upon which others significantly depend for making new materials and for predicting and understanding new chemical and biochemical processes. I was fortunate in my own research to be able to study photocatalysis and photoinduced electron transfer as unifying themes that underlined our most significant work. PMID:19908909

Fox, Marye Anne

2009-11-20

78

Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

79

Organic pseudohalides in coordination chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The data on the interaction of organic pseudohalides (cyanates, thiocyanantes and their iso analogs) with Lewis acids, viz., halides, alkyl halides, and complexes of transition metals, have been generalized and systematized for the first time. The spatial and electronic structure of the pseudohalides, their complexation with Lewis acids, their conversions into isonitriles, urea, amides, amidines, carbodiimides, and dithiocarbamates in the coordination sphere, the formation of metallacyclic structures, and the synthesis of metal chelates with MN/sub 2/S/sub 2/ and MN/sub 2/Se/sub 2/ cores on the basis of organic thio- and organo-selenocyanates have been discussed. It has been shown that the use of organic and hetero-organic derivatives in coordination chemistry opens up new ways to synthesize difficultly accessible complex compounds. The data presented are of interest for the development of the problems of competitive coordination, template synthesis and outer-sphere complexation, as well as for the investigation of catalytic reactions with the participation of heteroallenes.

Garnovski, A.D.

1988-04-01

80

Organic Chemistry on Titan Versus Terrestrial Prebiotic Chemistry: Exobiological Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current thinking on the origins of life on Earth are reviewed and the plausible impact of the study of Titan chemistry on this field is discussed. On the primitive Earth, in the presence of liquid water, prebiotic organic chemistry starting from simple re...

F. Raulin C. Frere L. Do M. Khlifi P. Paillous

1992-01-01

81

Caring for the Environment while Teaching Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive program in the field of green chemistry, which concentrates on processing and managing of wastes produced during laboratory experiments, is presented. The primary aim of the program is to instill a sense of responsibility and a concern for the environment through organic chemistry education.

Santos, Elvira Santos; Gavilan Garcia, Irma Cruz; Lejarazo Gomez, Eva Florencia

2004-01-01

82

Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

Forbes, David C.

2004-01-01

83

Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.|

Forbes, David C.

2004-01-01

84

A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a…

Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

2006-01-01

85

A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a…

Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

2006-01-01

86

Understanding Academic Performance in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful completion of organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, yet the failure rate for this sequence of courses is notoriously high. To date, few studies have examined why some students succeed while others have difficulty in organic chemistry. This…

Szu, Evan; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lopez, Enrique J.; Penn, John H.; Scharberg, Maureen; Hill, Geannine W.

2011-01-01

87

Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.

Olmsted, John A., III

1998-10-01

88

Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is…

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

2008-01-01

89

Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is…

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

2008-01-01

90

Chemistry Experiments: Chemistry Challenge for Kids Ages 5 Through 12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These chemistry experiments for younger students, from the Sciencenter of Ithaca, New York, can be performed as demonstrations by the teacher, at home, or by the students themselves. These experiments, which investigate the properties of chemicals to solve puzzles or challenges, focus on creating electrical current, color-changing solutions, reactions that involve heat loss or gain, identifying unknowns, and other matters. Each is available in downloadable, printable format (PDF) and includes objectives, materials lists, instructions, safety tips, and other information. Other documents include lists of all the experiments, instructions for a take-home chemistry kit, and downloadable, printable signs to be used with the experiments.

Sciencenter Of Ithaca, New Y.

91

Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical chemistry experiment illustrating photochemistry, cyclic voltammetry, the properties of semiconductors, and surface chemistry is described. The experiment consists of constructing a liquid-junction photochemical cell, determining the cell parameters, then modifying the surface of the electrode to enhance the conversion efficiency of the cell. The students will learn some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity

Qinbai Fan; Debra Munro; L. M. Ng

1995-01-01

92

Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

2011-01-01

93

Assessing the impact of integrating POGIL in Elementary Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic chemistry is a difficult subject to teach especially to non-chemistry majors. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, is an introductory course in organic chemistry given to non-chemistry majors. It is usually taught the traditional way using lectures as the main method of presentation. In the fall of 2006, POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) activities were introduced in this course.

Ahmad Shatila

2007-01-01

94

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

95

Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

2011-01-01

96

CHEMISTRY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term 'soil organic matter' (SOM), according to Stevenson (1994), refers to 'the whole of the organic matter in soils, including the litter, the light fraction, the microbial biomass, the water-soluble organics, and the stabilized organic matter (humus).' The term natural organic matter (NOM) is ...

97

Organic Functional Groups in Submicron Particles during the International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic particles may have unique direct and indirect impacts on the climate of the North Pole, especially during springtime Arctic haze. The composition and physical properties of this aerosol fraction are largely unconstrained. The ICEALOT research cruise traveled from Woodshole to Tromso, north of Svalbard, and to Iceland during the ice-free months of March and April of 2008. Analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify organic functional groups has shown two unique features of the aerosol: (1) a larger fraction of alcohol groups than measured previously in North America and (2) a frequent signal of substantial organosulfate groups in the Eastern North Atlantic. Time series and composition proportions are presented to indicate source regions.

Russell, L. M.; Shaw, P. M.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.

2009-04-01

98

The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

2004-01-01

99

The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

2004-01-01

100

Cooperative Chemistry: Concept Mapping in the Organic Chemistry Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrates concept mapping into the chemistry laboratory and requires students to construct a concept map for each experiment. Reports a decrease in student questions concerning set up and procedure. Recommends using computer software such as Chem Sketch 5.0 which is free and available from the Internet. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)|

Gahr, Allan A.

2003-01-01

101

Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

2008-01-01

102

The 'wired' universe of organic chemistry.  

PubMed

The millions of reactions performed and compounds synthesized by organic chemists over the past two centuries connect to form a network larger than the metabolic networks of higher organisms and rivalling the complexity of the World Wide Web. Despite its apparent randomness, the network of chemistry has a well-defined, modular architecture. The network evolves in time according to trends that have not changed since the inception of the discipline, and thus project into chemistry's future. Analysis of organic chemistry using the tools of network theory enables the identification of most 'central' organic molecules, and for the prediction of which and how many molecules will be made in the future. Statistical analyses based on network connectivity are useful in optimizing parallel syntheses, in estimating chemical reactivity, and more. PMID:21378798

Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Bishop, Kyle J M; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Wilmer, Christopher E

2009-04-01

103

Geometric and Topological Thinking in Organic Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The beginning student of organic chemistry is often bewildered by what appears to be an enormous maze of random structural variations and reactions that can be mastered only by tedious memorization. To the organic chemist the same subject is often a beaut...

N. J. Turro

1986-01-01

104

Epoxide Chemistry: Guided Inquiry Experiment Emphasizing Structure Determination and Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an operationally simple three-step synthesis of an a-hydroxy acid based on epoxide chemistry. The focus of the experiment is on the preparation of the chalcone epoxide and its reaction with hot alcoholic alkali. The experiment leads to an unpredicted reaction product. Its structure is established as 2-benzyl-2-phenylglycollic acid by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. The hydroxyacid is a good example to bring home an important NMR principle: the nonequivalence of hydrogens adjacent to a stereogenic center. The formation of the alpha-hydroxy acid is a mechanistic puzzle. A stepwise mechanism can be developed applying lecture-based organic chemistry concepts. On the other hand, acid-catalyzed (H2SO4, BF3) reaction of the chalcone epoxide gives benzoylphenylacetaldehyde. The exercise can be used as a multistep organic chemistry experiment. It also gives students a research-type experience.

Krishnamurty, H. G.; Jain, Niveta; Samby, Kiran

2000-04-01

105

Organic Composition of PM2.5 and Size-Segregated Aerosols During the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol samples were collected for the analysis of organic source markers using a Tisch Environmental PM2.5 high volume sampler and two Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDIs) as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Tampa, Florida. PM2.5 samples were collected at ground level on quartz fiber filters (QFF) while size-segregated samples were collected 12 meter above ground level on aluminum foil discs. MOUDIs with aerodynamic cut diameters of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32 and 0.17 um were used. Samples were collected on a 24 hour schedule. The collected samples were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone/hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) operated in single ion mode. PM2.5 extracts were analyzed using conventional splitless low volume injections (1 ul). Size-segregated aerosol extracts were analyzed using a Hewlett-Packard Programmable Temperature Vaporizing inlet (PTV) combined with large volume injections (80ul). Excellent chromatographic resolutions were obtained with either a 30 or 60 meter long RTX-5MS, 0.25 mm I.D. column. Target compounds were chosen to cover the range of potential sources and included alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Investigation of potential aerosol sources for different particle sizes using known organic markers and source profiles will be presented. Relationship between the collected PM2.5 and size-segregated samples will be studied. Size distributions of carbon preference indices (CPI), percent wax n-alkanes (%WNA) and concentration of selected compounds will be discussed.

Tremblay, R. T.; Zika, R. G.

2003-12-01

106

Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An ozonolysis experiment, suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry lab, is presented. Ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil), followed by reductive workup furnishes an aldehyde that is easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra. Ozone (3-5% in oxygen) is produced using an easily built generator. (Contains 2 figures and 1 scheme.)|

Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R.

2007-01-01

107

A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A lab practical exam for second-year organic chemistry is presented that tests multiple lab skills and theory that the students have acquired directly from laboratory experiences. This exam motivates students to learn lab skills and is an effective end-of-term test for many of those skills. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Neeland, Edward G.

2007-01-01

108

Ultrasound in synthetic organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-power ultrasound can generate cavitation within a liquid and through cavitation provide a source of energy which can be used to enhance a wide range of chemical processes. Such uses of ultrasound have been grouped under the general name sonochemistry. This review will concen- trate on applications in organic synthesis where ultrasound seems to provide a distinct alternative to other,

Timothy J. Mason

1997-01-01

109

Shock-Induced Organic Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of chemical ractions are known to occur in organic compounds subjected to shock loading. An overview is presented of the evidence that (a) shock loading can cause non-thermal reactions, i.e., reactions which do not take place under equivale...

B. W. Dodson R. A. Graham

1981-01-01

110

Organic Chemistry Studies on Amazonian Dark Earths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic chemistry of soil organic matter (SOM) in ADEs can be looked at at different scales, depending on the type of\\u000a interest. At an ecological level, operationally defined SOM fractions with different turnover times and \\/ or stability can\\u000a be separated and characterized. SOM associated with different particle-size fractions vary in composition and turnover time,\\u000a the sand fraction containing

Bruno Glaser; Georg Guggenberger; Wolfgang Zech

111

Analytical Chemistry Role Playing Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a number of laboratory experiments (available for download in PDF format) which allow students the opportunity to role play in groups to solve problems. Experiments involve titrations, gravimetry, atomic absorption, chromatography.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-14

112

Experiments in the Chemistry of Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents 18 experiments in the chemistry of food, suitable for elementary and secondary school science classes. Experiments deal with an analysis of milk, determinations of the amounts of sulfur dioxide, iron, and fat in foods, and the concentration of vitamin C in fruit juice and iodine in salt. Tests are provided for fats,…

Weaver, Elbert C.

113

Purdue University: Division of Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purdue University created this website to promote its organic chemistry department's diverse research initiatives. This expansive website provides links to materials on twelve of the faculty's chemistry research groups. Research includes NMR imaging of micellar solutions, hydride fuel cell examinations, dimerization inhibitors of transcription factors, and gas phase synthesis. Users can find lists of the many publications and view images and photos of the division's work and facilities. Visitors can learn about the many instruments used by the division such as mass spectrometry, continuously rotated cellular reactor, and an ozone generator.

114

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Experiments Integrating Evaluation of Chemical Hazards into the Chemistry Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes use of two experiments to sample and analyze contaminents in the laboratory. Experiments focus on estimating hydrogen sulfide levels in the general chemistry laboratory during qualitative analysis and determining the concentration of organic vapors associated with organic chemistry laboratories. (JN)|

Pierce, J. T.; And Others

1984-01-01

115

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Experiments Integrating Evaluation of Chemical Hazards into the Chemistry Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes use of two experiments to sample and analyze contaminents in the laboratory. Experiments focus on estimating hydrogen sulfide levels in the general chemistry laboratory during qualitative analysis and determining the concentration of organic vapors associated with organic chemistry laboratories. (JN)

Pierce, J. T.; And Others

1984-01-01

116

Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the Organic Chemistry textbook, Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, by John C. Gilbert published by Brooks/Cole, 2011.

117

Incorporation of a Cooperative Learning Technique in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a student team learning method used in an organic chemistry class at Armstrong Atlantic State University. The Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) method was used in this study. Discusses cooperative learning methods in organic chemistry classes. (KHR)|

Carpenter, Suzanne R.; McMillan, Tim

2003-01-01

118

Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a headspace gas chromatography experiment that enables discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid. Illustrates liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of pure liquids. Contains 22 references. (JRH)|

Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.

1995-01-01

119

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate students often experience fear and trepidation when studying introductory organic chemistry: the majority of these students use a memorization approach to the material, sacrificing understanding. This paper describes one way the problem can be resolved. The cognitive working level we emphasize in our teaching practice involves making the necessary connections between the general chemistry principles that students have learned (or at least have been exposed to in their senior high school years and have revisited again in their university freshman year) and the many reactions and mechanisms they will encounter in organic chemistry. Educating students early in the course about the various levels of the cognitive process and the necessary working level of cognition for success in organic chemistry teaches connections between the general chemistry principles and reaction mechanisms. This empowers students to approach the subject from a perspective of understanding rather than memorization, and replaces fear and trepidation with confidence. In addition, this can help narrow the gap between what instructors expect from their students and what their students think is sufficient to master the course content.

Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A.

2003-07-01

120

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 6: Stereochemistry 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

121

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 11: Stereochemistry 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

122

A Pre-Vacation Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a chemistry experiment appropriate for the day before Christmas vacation. Students prepare candy canes by following a recipe written in chemical terms. This illustrates that food is composed of chemicals and that the processes involved in cooking are chemical and physical changes. (JR)|

Gabel, Dorothy; McSweeny, Jean

1973-01-01

123

An Experiment in Forensic Chemistry: The Breathalyzer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a simple experiment done in a quantitative analysis course that illustrates the chemistry of the breath alcohol test. Discusses the development and use of the Breathalyzer. Outlines the experimental procedure, along with the appropriate calculations and discussion of the results. (TW)|

Timmer, William C.

1986-01-01

124

An Experiment in Forensic Chemistry: The Breathalyzer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple experiment done in a quantitative analysis course that illustrates the chemistry of the breath alcohol test. Discusses the development and use of the Breathalyzer. Outlines the experimental procedure, along with the appropriate calculations and discussion of the results. (TW)

Timmer, William C.

1986-01-01

125

Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Polymers  

PubMed Central

Unlike the case of traditional covalent polymers, the entanglements that determine properties of supramolecular polymers are defined by very specific, intermolecular interactions. Recent work using modular molecular platforms to probe the mechanisms underlying mechanical response of supramolecular polymers is reviewed. The contributions of supramolecular kinetics, thermodynamics, and conformational flexibility to supramolecular polymer properties in solutions of discrete polymers, in networks, and at interfaces, are described. Molecule-to-material relationships are established through methods reminiscent of classic physical organic chemistry.

Serpe, Michael J.; Craig, Stephen L.

2008-01-01

126

Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

2008-01-01

127

Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

2008-01-01

128

Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching organic chemistry. In this book, the diverse field of organic chemistry modules is introduced. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified…

Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul; Hearle, Robert

129

Piaget and Organic Chemistry: Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry through Learning Cycles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the application of the Piaget-based learning cycle technique for teaching an introductory organic chemistry course. Explains the step-by-step process used to convert a lecture course into a discussion-based active learning course. A learning cycle provides students with concrete material and aids them in understanding abstract concepts…

Libby, R. Daniel

1995-01-01

130

Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials  

SciTech Connect

The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

2011-01-20

131

Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N {sigma}-bond addition of amides and S-N {sigma}-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions. The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF. Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.

Zhijian Liu

2006-12-12

132

Benchmarking Problems Used in Second Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigations of the problem types used in college-level general chemistry examinations have been reported in this Journal and were first reported in the "Journal of Chemical Education" in 1924. This study extends the findings from general chemistry to the problems of four college-level organic chemistry courses. Three problem typologies were…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2010-01-01

133

QM/MM Investigations Of Organic Chemistry Oriented Questions.  

PubMed

About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar strategy. PMID:22392477

Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

2012-03-01

134

Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes  

PubMed Central

Earth’s atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of prebiotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer – if formed – would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

Trainer, Melissa G.

2013-01-01

135

Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

136

Chem TV: Organic Chemistry; Chem TV: Organic Chemistry II Version 2.0 for Windows (by Betty A. Luceigh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jones and Bartlett: Sudbury, MA. Organic Chem I workbook, 15; Organic Chem II workbook, 19.95; IBM I, v. 2.0, Organic Chem, 495; IBM II, v. 2.0, 595. The Chem TV: Organic Chemistry series is a two-CD-ROM set, with the material divided loosely along the lines of material typically covered in the two semesters of introductory organic chemistry. Each CD-ROM contains sections on Structure, Reactions, and Special Topics; Organic Chemistry II also has treatment of Biochemical Structures and a selection of Self-Tests.

Holden, Michael S.

1997-05-01

137

Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

2012-01-01

138

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that most students approach organic chemistry classes with a certain amount of apprehension and try to just manage or memorize the material rather than understand it. Recommends the use of Bloom's taxonomy as a way to increase comprehension and gives an example of how to use it in an organic chemistry classroom. (SOE)

Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A.

2003-01-01

139

Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…

Farmer, Steven C.

2011-01-01

140

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that most students approach organic chemistry classes with a certain amount of apprehension and try to just manage or memorize the material rather than understand it. Recommends the use of Bloom's taxonomy as a way to increase comprehension and gives an example of how to use it in an organic chemistry classroom. (SOE)|

Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A.

2003-01-01

141

Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

2012-01-01

142

Synthesis of a Partially Protected Azidodeoxy Sugar. A Project Suitable for the Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthetic chemistry of carbohydrates provides a wealth of possible experiments for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. However, few appropriate examples have been developed to date. With this simple two-step synthesis of a partially protected azidodeoxy sugar, we demonstrate several important concepts introduced in undergraduate chemistry (alcohol activation, steric hindrance, nucleophilic substitution) while offering products that are readily amenable to

Peter Norris; Scott Freeze; Christopher J. Gabriel

2001-01-01

143

Visual Experiments Supporting Four Basic Concepts in Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual experiments based on color mixing are proposed to illustrate four basic concepts in chemistry. These visual experiments involve connecting liquid puddles of different colors placed on a flat glass surface and observing and describing the phenomena that occur. Employing as nonspecialized a vocabulary as possible, these experiments can be used as part of a general introduction to chemistry.

François Saint-Antonin

2003-01-01

144

Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory manual introduces the idea of Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Instructional samples are included to help teachers integrate green chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. Each laboratory includes: (1) a…

Kirchhoff, Mary, Ed.; Ryan, Mary Ann, Ed.

145

Assessing the impact of integrating POGIL in Elementary Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic chemistry is a difficult subject to teach especially to non-chemistry majors. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, is an introductory course in organic chemistry given to non-chemistry majors. It is usually taught the traditional way using lectures as the main method of presentation. In the fall of 2006, POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) activities were introduced in this course. POGIL is a program that integrates guided inquiry and cooperative learning in chemistry education. The purpose of this research study was to determine the effect of using POGIL activities in elementary organic chemistry. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, was taught using a mixture of traditional teaching, lecturing, and POGIL activities. This was assessed by looking at the effect of using POGIL activities on student achievement. Furthermore, the study investigated possible effects of POGIL activities on students' attitudes toward chemistry. Archival data on 28 students enrolled in the fall 2004 semester were used in this study. In addition, 27 students enrolled in the 2006 semester participated in the study by completing an attitudinal survey that was developed by the researcher. Finally, 9 students enrolled in the 2006 semester were interviewed to give additional insight to the study. The quantitative data concerning achievement revealed no significant difference between groups, students who used POGIL did not differ from students who did not. Further, the quantitative data concerning confidence levels of students in understanding and applying organic chemistry before and after going through the POGIL activities revealed no significant difference. This study showed that students in general (88.8% of surveyed students) liked POGIL activities and preferred them over lecturing. Students thought that POGIL activities helped them better understand and learn chemistry. Furthermore, students acknowledged the benefits of guided inquiry and cooperative learning, the two major ingredients of a POGIL workshop.

Shatila, Ahmad

146

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

Bernath, Peter

2010-05-01

147

United Arab Emirates Freshmen Chemistry Attitude toward Chemistry, Self-Efficacy, and Learning Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the attitudes, self-efficacy, and learning experiences of the UAE freshmen chemistry toward chemistry were investigated. The study focused exclusively on investigating the relationship between attitude, self-efficacy, and learning experiences and their relationship to other variables such as gender, nationally, GPA, secondary school achievement, and matriculation. In this study a total of 429 students from different colleges participated

Ali Khalfan Alnaqbi

2007-01-01

148

Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential…

Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

2006-01-01

149

Photolysis of 4-Phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one: An Undergraduate Experiment in Free Radical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a photochemistry experiment designed to introduce photochemical techniques and experience free radical chemistry. Selects Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy for the analysis. This activity is suggested for use in an upper level undergraduate organic course. (MVL)

White, Rick C.; Ma, Sha

1988-01-01

150

Photolysis of 4-Phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one: An Undergraduate Experiment in Free Radical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a photochemistry experiment designed to introduce photochemical techniques and experience free radical chemistry. Selects Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy for the analysis. This activity is suggested for use in an upper level undergraduate organic course. (MVL)|

White, Rick C.; Ma, Sha

1988-01-01

151

Integrating Pharmacology into the Organic Chemistry Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many nonchemistry majors are unaware of the unity between chemistry and biology and tend to separate the two disciplines conceptually. In a course designed to emphasize health-related issues using a pharmacological approach, students gained a much better

Kelley, Colleen; Gaither, Katy K.

2001-05-01

152

Development and Formative Evaluation of Computer Simulated College Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the design, preparation, and initial evaluation of a set of computer-simulated chemistry experiments. The experiments entailed the use of an atomic emission spectroscope and a single-beam visible absorption spectrophometer. (Author/IRT)

Cavin, Claudia S.; Cavin, E. D.

1978-01-01

153

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.|

Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

2005-01-01

154

Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

Bucholtz, Kevin M.

2011-01-01

155

An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Facile Hydrogenation of Methyl Trans-Cinnamate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hydrogenation of alkenes is an important reaction in the synthesis of organic molecules. In this experiment, students conduct a high-yield microscale hydrogenation reaction of methyl "trans"-cinnamate using a readily available, safe, and convenient hydrogen source. The conditions are similar to those seen in an organic chemistry textbook for an…

O'Connor, Kenneth J.; Zuspan, Kimberly; Berry, Lonnie

2011-01-01

156

A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Robinson annulation is a topic of importance in the second-year organic curriculum. A one-pot, enantioselective Robinson annulation is described. The experiment is completed in two lab periods and is geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a one-pot enantioselective Robinson…

Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

2008-01-01

157

A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Robinson annulation is a topic of importance in the second-year organic curriculum. A one-pot, enantioselective Robinson annulation is described. The experiment is completed in two lab periods and is geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a one-pot enantioselective Robinson…

Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

2008-01-01

158

Convenient Laboratory Storage of Glassware for Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An apparatus is described for storing laboratory glassware in freshman organic chemistry laboratories. The glassware is mounted on pegboard using hardware gripper clips, and the pegboard is fitted in a slot down one side of the storage cupboard. (BB)|

Beatty, James W.; And Others

1979-01-01

159

Dodecaamide cages: organic 12-arm building blocks for supramolecular chemistry.  

PubMed

A simple, one-step amidation reaction is used to produce a range of 12-arm organic building blocks for supramolecular chemistry via the derivatization of porous imine cages. As an example, microporous dendrimers are prepared. PMID:23786167

Culshaw, Jamie L; Cheng, Ge; Schmidtmann, Marc; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

2013-06-24

160

Convenient Laboratory Storage of Glassware for Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An apparatus is described for storing laboratory glassware in freshman organic chemistry laboratories. The glassware is mounted on pegboard using hardware gripper clips, and the pegboard is fitted in a slot down one side of the storage cupboard. (BB)

Beatty, James W.; And Others

1979-01-01

161

The Application of Physical Organic Chemistry to Biochemical Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the synthesis of the science of enzymology from application of the concepts of physical organic chemistry from a historical perspective. Summarizes enzyme and coenzyme mechanisms elucidated prior to 1963. (JM)

Westheimer, Frank

1986-01-01

162

Automated Combinatorial Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multidisciplinary experiment has been developed in which students each synthesize a combinatorial library of 48 hydrazones with the aid of a liquid-handling robot. Each product is then subjected to a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay to assess its antibacterial activity. Students gain experience working with automation and at the…

Nichols, Christopher J.; Hanne, Larry F.

2010-01-01

163

Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the carbohydrates continue to gain attention for their central role in numerous areas of chemistry and biology, there is a growing need for experiments at the undergraduate level that highlight these fascinating compounds. In this article we describe a simple two-step laboratory experiment that may be used to highlight several important concepts introduced in sophomore organic chemistry, as applied

Peter Norris; Andrew Fluxe

2001-01-01

164

Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess-Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation is an experiment that provides an avenue to the introduction of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in organic chemistry curriculum as a diagnostic tool for examination of the results of a familiar reaction, and absolute configuration. From the experiment, students increased their understanding of CD theory and…

Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G.

2005-01-01

165

A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory that involves a template-controlled solid-state reaction is described. The experiment utilizes a template to direct the assembly of an olefin in the solid state that undergoes a [2 + 2] photodimerization.|

Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R.

2005-01-01

166

Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess-Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation is an experiment that provides an avenue to the introduction of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in organic chemistry curriculum as a diagnostic tool for examination of the results of a familiar reaction, and absolute configuration. From the experiment, students increased their understanding of CD theory and…

Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G.

2005-01-01

167

Positive Impacts Using POGIL in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A student-centered learning technique, process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), has been developed as a pedagogical technique that facilitates collaborative and cooperative learning in the chemistry classroom. With the use of this technique, students enhance their higher-order thinking skills and process skills synergistically. In…

Hein, Sara M.

2012-01-01

168

Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

2012-01-01

169

Biosurface Organic Chemistry: Interfacial Chemical Reactions for Applications to Nanobiotechnology and Biomedical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the field of biosurface organic chemistry is defined and some examples are presented. The aim of biosurface organic chemistry, composed of surface organic chemistry, bioconjugation, and micro- and nanofabrication, is to control the interfaces between biological and non-biological systems at the molecular level. Biosurface organic chemistry has evolved into the stage, where the lateral and vertical control

Young Shik Chi; Jungkyu K. Lee; Kyung-Bok Lee; Dong Jin Kim; Insung S. Choi

2005-01-01

170

Generation, Isolation, and Characterization of a Stable Enol from Grignard Addition to a Bis-Ester: A Microscale Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment is described that introduces students to the concept of temperature-dependent stability of the tetrahedral intermediate in an acyl-transfer reaction. The process involves the determination of the structure of an alpha-ketoester and its corresponding remarkably stable enol ester to suggest a mechanism for the formation of the…

Nicaise, Olivier J. C.; Ostrom, Kyle F.; Dalke, Brent J.

2005-01-01

171

Undergraduate Oral Examinations in a University Organic Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the successful implementation of an oral examination format in the organic chemistry curriculum at the University of Toronto. Oral examinations are used to replace traditional written midterm examinations in several courses. In an introductory organic class, each student is allotted 15 min to individually discuss one…

Dicks, Andrew P.; Lautens, Mark; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Skonieczny, Stanislaw

2012-01-01

172

Using Popular Nonfiction in Organic Chemistry: Teaching More than Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigning a popular nonfiction book as a supplemental text in organic chemistry can help students learn valuable skills. An analysis of student feedback on assignments related to a nonfiction book in two different organic courses revealed that students applied the information from the book, improved their communication skills, and were more…

Amaral, Katie E.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.

2010-01-01

173

Undergraduate Oral Examinations in a University Organic Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the successful implementation of an oral examination format in the organic chemistry curriculum at the University of Toronto. Oral examinations are used to replace traditional written midterm examinations in several courses. In an introductory organic class, each student is allotted 15 min to individually discuss one…

Dicks, Andrew P.; Lautens, Mark; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Skonieczny, Stanislaw

2012-01-01

174

Using Popular Nonfiction in Organic Chemistry: Teaching More than Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assigning a popular nonfiction book as a supplemental text in organic chemistry can help students learn valuable skills. An analysis of student feedback on assignments related to a nonfiction book in two different organic courses revealed that students applied the information from the book, improved their communication skills, and were more…

Amaral, Katie E.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.

2010-01-01

175

Experiments in Chemistry: A Model Science Software Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Experiments in Chemistry," in which experiments are performed using software and hardware interfaced to the Apple microcomputer's game paddle port. Experiments include temperature, pH electrode, and EMF (cell potential determinations, oxidation-reduction titrations, and precipitation titrations) investigations. (JN)

Malone, Diana; Tinker, Robert

1984-01-01

176

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

177

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

178

Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry

Duis, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

179

Predicted versus Actual Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry and Implications for Student Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance as measured by grades in the first and second semesters of organic chemistry was predicted using pre-college measures (SAT scores, high school rank, validation exams) and college measures (general chemistry GPA, overall college GPA prior to beginning organic chemistry, first-semester organic chemistry GPA). Data indicate that overall…

Pursell, David P.

2007-01-01

180

Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and

W. Reid Thompson; Carl Sagan

1992-01-01

181

The Big Picture; A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the article "The Big Picture: A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry", Thomas Poon makes interesting use of the device exploited by Istvan Banyai in his Zoom books to help students of organic chemistry make connections between the molecular world and ways in which those molecules are important in daily life. The paper should have appeal at all levels of science education from the time the idea of molecules is first introduced through college-level courses. Along the way, students will encounter important biological molecules (such as chlorophyll), inks (such as pen ink), CFCs, hydrocarbon fuels, plastics (such as Lexan polycarbonate), and molecules with medical applications (such as aspirin and novocaine).

182

A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We developed an alternative electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory. The experiment is an electrophilic iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesic, using environmentally friendly reagents--sodium iodide and household bleach. Further, we designed the lab as a guided-inquiry…

Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd

2008-01-01

183

Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

2012-01-01

184

Borohydride Reduction of Estrone: Demonstration of Diastereoselectivity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Chiral hindered ketones such as estrone, undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly diastereoselective manner. The diastereomeric estradiols produced in the reaction can be analyzed and…

Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc

2008-01-01

185

Another Piece of the Puzzle: The Relationship between Beliefs and Practice in Higher Education Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An original study about beliefs, conceptions and discourse analyses of organic chemistry teachers is presented. We used Likert questionnaires and discourse analysis to examine conceptions of the nature of science, learning and teaching at university level. A case study of four female teachers with varying experience and teacher training was…

Farre, Andrea Soledad; Lorenzo, Maria Gabriela

2009-01-01

186

Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

2008-01-01

187

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)|

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

188

Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

2012-01-01

189

Borohydride Reduction of Estrone: Demonstration of Diastereoselectivity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Chiral hindered ketones such as estrone, undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly diastereoselective manner. The diastereomeric estradiols produced in the reaction can be analyzed…

Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc

2008-01-01

190

Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

2012-01-01

191

Atmospheric chemistry's enhanced effect on organic aerosols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Results of this study indicate that chemical processes in the atmosphere may remove nearly as much organic carbon from the troposphere as rain, which was previously considered the major mechanism for eliminating the pollutant particles. Details are discussed in article.

Al., Molina E.; Agu

192

Blackboard Experience of a Chemistry Teacher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the twenty years that I have been teaching, I have always made my class notes, practice problems, review sheets, and homemade audiotapes available for my students at the reserve desk in the library. I also placed a variety of commercial chemistry tutorials in the computer lab. I feel that this is the bare minimum in the way of help for the nontraditional students at the community college. Each time we get a new text or even a new edition of a text, I revise the materials for the library.

Cartwright, Ann

2000-06-01

193

Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic…

Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

2011-01-01

194

Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis…

Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

2011-01-01

195

Alternative Conceptions of Organic Chemistry Topics among Fourth Year Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the conceptual understanding for a series of fundamental organic concepts by fourth year chemistry students from a midsize, southeastern, state university. Student volunteers (n = 19) participated in semi-structured interviews using a think aloud protocol. The interview questions were eleven multiple choice questions selected…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Hardy, Rebecca C.; Gwaltney, Kevin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

2008-01-01

196

Alternative Conceptions of Organic Chemistry Topics among Fourth Year Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the conceptual understanding for a series of fundamental organic concepts by fourth year chemistry students from a midsize, southeastern, state university. Student volunteers (n = 19) participated in semi-structured interviews using a think aloud protocol. The interview questions were eleven multiple choice questions selected…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Hardy, Rebecca C.; Gwaltney, Kevin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

2008-01-01

197

TECHNETIUM CHEMISTRY IN HLW: ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPLEXANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Technetium complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remo...

198

Learning Organic Chemistry through a Study of Semiochemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topics of nature, for example semiochemicals, are motivating topics, which can be used to teach organic chemistry at high school level. The history, classifications, a few important applications of semiochemicals, and an semiochemical that can be synthesized in the laboratory are presented. The laboratory synthesis is carried out through the…

Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija

2011-01-01

199

Integrating Symmetry in Stereochemical Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of students--two that…

Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.

2011-01-01

200

Telling It like It Is: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article I support and extend the ideas presented by J. Brent Friesen in his article "Saying What You Mean; Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry" ("JCE" November, 2008). I emphasize "telling the truth" about proton transfers. The truth is that in aqueous acid most reactions are subject to "specific" acid catalysis: the only kinetically…

Ault, Addison

2010-01-01

201

Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sudoku puzzle was designed to teach about amino acids and functional groups to the students of undergraduate organic chemistry students. The puzzles focus on helping the student learn the name, 3-letter code and 1-letter code of common amino acids and functional groups.|

Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G.

2007-01-01

202

A Simple Mnemonic for Tautomerization Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The familiar word OREO (as in the cookie) is presented as a simple mnemonic for remembering the basic steps of the classical tautomerization mechanisms in organic chemistry. For acid-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton on, resonance, proton off. For base-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton off, resonance, proton on.…

Stephens, Chad E.

2010-01-01

203

Omar Yaghi on Chemistry and Metal Organic Frameworks  

ScienceCinema

In this edited version of the hour long talk, Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, sat down in conversation with Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, on July 11th, 2012 to discuss his fascination with the hidden world of chemistry and his work on Metal Organic Frameworks.

204

Fulminic Acid in the History of Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of the discovery, investigation, and eventual correct formulation of fulminic acid, HCNO, extends over a period of 200 years and reflects uniquely, in its many stages, the evolution of organic chemistry from post-alchemistic times to the age of wave mechanics. Fulminic acid was discovered in 1800 when E. Howard serendipitously prepared its highly explosive mercury and silver salts.

Frederick Kurzer

2000-01-01

205

Telling It like It Is: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I support and extend the ideas presented by J. Brent Friesen in his article "Saying What You Mean; Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry" ("JCE" November, 2008). I emphasize "telling the truth" about proton transfers. The truth is that in aqueous acid most reactions are subject to "specific" acid catalysis: the only kinetically…

Ault, Addison

2010-01-01

206

Patterns in Organometallic Chemistry with Application in Organic Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of interest in this discussion of organometallic complexes are stoichiometric or catalytic reagents for organic synthesis in the complex transformations observed during synthesis for transition metal organometallic complexes. Detailed are general reaction types from which the chemistry or many transition metal organometallic complexes can be…

Schwartz, Jeffrey; Labinger, Jay A.

1980-01-01

207

Does Mechanistic Thinking Improve Student Success in Organic Chemistry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of the curved-arrow notation to depict electron flow during mechanistic processes is one of the most important representational conventions in the organic chemistry curriculum. Our previous research documented a disturbing trend: when asked to predict the products of a series of reactions, many students do not spontaneously engage in…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

208

Laboratory studies of the cosmic origins of organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are constructing a novel merged-beams apparatus to study the cosmic origins of organic chemistry. With this, we plan to measure reaction rate coefficients of atomic C with molecular ions. Such chemical data is important for astrochemical models and observations of cosmic objects.

O'Connor, A. P.; Garrido, M.; Miller, K. A.; Urbain, X.; Savin, D. W.

2012-11-01

209

Learning Organic Chemistry through a Study of Semiochemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The topics of nature, for example semiochemicals, are motivating topics, which can be used to teach organic chemistry at high school level. The history, classifications, a few important applications of semiochemicals, and an semiochemical that can be synthesized in the laboratory are presented. The laboratory synthesis is carried out through the…

Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija

2011-01-01

210

Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",…

Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.

2011-01-01

211

The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key components controlling the chemical composition and climatology of Titan's atmosphere is the removal of reactive atomic hydrogen from the atmosphere. A proposed process of the removal of atomic hydrogen is the heterogeneous reaction with organic aerosol. In this study, we investigate the effect of heterogeneous reactions in Titan's atmospheric chemistry using new measurements of the heterogeneous

Yasuhito Sekine; Sébastien Lebonnois; Hiroshi Imanaka; Takafumi Matsui; Emma L. O. Bakes; Christopher P. McKay; Bishun N. Khare; Seiji Sugita

2008-01-01

212

How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)|

Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

2001-01-01

213

Lesson Planner for Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry Videodisc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesson Planner is a Microsoft Excel (1) macro that generates barcodes for video included on the Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry videodisc (2). It allows instructors who do not have computer control capability for their videodisc player, but do have a barcode reader, to prepare customized lessons for use in the classroom or laboratory. There is no need to flip through

Todd A. Surovell

1995-01-01

214

Evolution of Organic Analytical Methods in Environmental Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades the development of environmental regulations, advances in analytical chemistry and other scientific disciplines, and increased rigor in quality control procedures have created a new discipline, environmental forensics. The need for analytical methods that determine qualitatively and quantitatively organic compounds in the environment, especially in drinking waters, was recognized in the early 1950s. These methods were

A. Dallas Wait

2000-01-01

215

Advanced Undergraduate Experiments in Thermoanalytical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several experiments using the techniques of thermal analysis and thermometric titrimetry. Defines thermal analysis and several recent branches of the technique. Notes most of the experiments use simple equipment and standard laboratory techniques. (MVL)

Hill, J. O.; Magee, R. J.

1988-01-01

216

Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

Deal, Walter J.

1975-01-01

217

Organic chemistry in the oceans of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Titan, most of the organics present in the atmosphere must condense in the lower stratosphere and be solid near the surface, except methane, ethane, propane, propene and 1-butene which must be liquid and could form oceans containing large fractions of dissolved N2. Chemical evolution on Titan must have followed a way very different from the terrestrial one, involving physical

F. Raulin

1987-01-01

218

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what…

Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

219

Decatungstate as an efficient photocatalyst in organic chemistry.  

PubMed

In view of its unique photocatalytic properties, decatungstate (W(10)O(32)(4-)) is rapidly emerging as a promising tool in organic chemistry. This tutorial review surveys recent developments in the chemistry of decatungstate, including mostly synthetic, and to a lesser extent mechanistic aspects. We have chosen to present several representative examples that illustrate the diverse uses of decatungstate in organic synthesis. Thus, the decatungstate-mediated radical functionalization of several classes of organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes and sulfides, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, represents reactions of fundamental and practical interest in academia and industry. Several new discoveries concerning the heterogenization of decatungstate for the development of sustainable methods with broad applications in catalysis, such as the photooxidation or photodegradation of various organic substrates, are also presented. PMID:19690741

Tzirakis, Manolis D; Lykakis, Ioannis N; Orfanopoulos, Michael

2009-07-10

220

Volatile organic compound ratios as probes of halogen atom chemistry in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound concentration ratios can be used as indicators of halogen chemistry that occurs during ozone depletion events in the Arctic during spring. Here we use a combination of modeling and measurements of [acetone]/[propanal] as an indicator of bromine chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-butane] are used to study the extent of chlorine chemistry during four ozone depletion events during the Polar Sunrise Experiment of 1995. Using a 0-D photochemistry model in which the input of halogen atoms is controlled and varied, the approximate ratio of [Br]/[Cl] can be estimated for each ozone depletion event. It is concluded that there must be an additional source of propanal (likely from the snowpack) to correctly simulate the VOC chemistry of the Arctic, and that the ratio of Br atoms to Cl atoms can vary greatly during ozone depletion events.

Cavender, A. E.; Biesenthal, T. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Shepson, P. B.

2007-08-01

221

Volatile organic compound ratios as probes of halogen atom chemistry in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound concentration ratios can be used as indicators of halogen chemistry that occurs during ozone depletion events in the Arctic during spring. Here we use a combination of modeling and measurements of [acetone]/[propanal] as an indicator of bromine chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-butane] are used to study the extent of chlorine chemistry during four ozone depletion events during the Polar Sunrise Experiment of 1995. Using a 0-D photochemistry model in which the input of halogen atoms is controlled and varied, the approximate ratio of [Br]/[Cl] can be estimated for each ozone depletion event. It is concluded that there must be an additional source of propanal (likely from the snowpack) to correctly simulate the VOC chemistry of the Arctic, and further evidence that the ratio of Br atoms to Cl atoms can vary greatly during ozone depletion events is presented.

Cavender, A. E.; Biesenthal, T. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Shepson, P. B.

2008-03-01

222

Contributions of organic electrosynthesis to green chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In organic electrosynthesis C–C bond formation and functional group interconversion proceed via reactive intermediates that are generated by electron transfer at the anode and cathode. Electron transfer combined with a chemical reaction provides conversions that are not available in non-electrochemical reactions. These are potential selectivity, redox-umpolung, and the substitution of a hydrogen atom for a nucleophile or the addition of

Hans J. Schäfer

2011-01-01

223

Solvated Electrons in Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A novel experiment is described in which solvated electrons in liquid ammonia reduce a benzyl alcohol carbon without affecting the aromatic ring. The reductive activity of solvated electrons can be partially or completely quenched through the addition of electron scavengers to the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of these scavengers was found…

Ilich, Predrag-Peter; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Atkins, Adam D.; Mell, Geoffrey J.; Flaherty, Timothy J.; Bruck, Martin J.; Goodrich, Heather A.; Hefel, Aaron L.; Juranic, Nenad; Seleem, Suzanne

2010-01-01

224

Planetary organic chemistry and the origins of biomolecules.  

PubMed

Organic chemistry on a planetary scale is likely to have transformed carbon dioxide and reduced carbon species delivered to an accreting Earth. According to various models for the origin of life on Earth, biological molecules that jump-started Darwinian evolution arose via this planetary chemistry. The grandest of these models assumes that ribonucleic acid (RNA) arose prebiotically, together with components for compartments that held it and a primitive metabolism that nourished it. Unfortunately, it has been challenging to identify possible prebiotic chemistry that might have created RNA. Organic molecules, given energy, have a well-known propensity to form multiple products, sometimes referred to collectively as "tar" or "tholin." These mixtures appear to be unsuited to support Darwinian processes, and certainly have never been observed to spontaneously yield a homochiral genetic polymer. To date, proposed solutions to this challenge either involve too much direct human intervention to satisfy many in the community, or generate molecules that are unreactive "dead ends" under standard conditions of temperature and pressure. Carbohydrates, organic species having carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a ratio of 1:2:1 and an aldehyde or ketone group, conspicuously embody this challenge. They are components of RNA and their reactivity can support both interesting spontaneous chemistry as part of a "carbohydrate world," but they also easily form mixtures, polymers and tars. We describe here the latest thoughts on how on this challenge, focusing on how it might be resolved using minerals containing borate, silicate, and molybdate, inter alia. PMID:20504964

Benner, Steven A; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myung-Jung; Ricardo, Alonso

2010-05-26

225

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)|

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

226

Organic N-chloramines: chemistry and toxicology.  

PubMed Central

The stability of aqueous solutions of organic N-chloramines, suspected of contaminating chlorinated water, has been studied. Two factors influence the decomposition of solutions of N-chloropiperidine and N-chlorodiethylamine: a spontaneous decomposition and photodecomposition. Since solutions of these compounds are relatively long-lived, a need for an analytical method for their identification is discussed. A new method is described which involves reaction of organic N-chloramines with arenesulfinic acid salts. The method gives high yields of stable arenesulfonamides. Several toxicological studies of N-chloropiperidine are described. The compound is mutagenic by Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 100 and does not require metabolic activation as indicated in a total body fluids analysis using C57BL/J6 mice. N-Chloropiperidine was subjected to a modified in vitro cell transformation assay using diploid fibroblast cells from Syrian hamster fetuses. A maximum number of foci of 4 per dish was observed at a seeding of 5 X 10(3) cells/60 mm dish. Under similar conditions, MNNG-induced foci ranged from 4 to 7 per dish.

Scully, F E; Bempong, M A

1982-01-01

227

The nucleophilicity N index in organic chemistry.  

PubMed

The nucleophilicity N index (J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 4615), the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/?, and the recently proposed inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/??, (J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4957) have been checked toward (i) a series of single 5-substituted indoles for which rate constants are available, (ii) a series of para-substituted phenols, and for (iii) a series of 2,5-disubstituted bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes which display concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. While all considered indices account well for the nucleophilic behavior of organic molecules having a single substitution, the nucleophilicity N index works better for more complex molecules. Unlike, the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/?, (R(2) = 0.71), and the inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/?? (R(2) = 0.83), a very good correlation of the nucleophilicity N index of twelve 2-substituted-6-methoxy-bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes versus the activation energy associated with the nucleophilic attack on 1,1-dicyanoethylene is found (R(2) = 0.99). This comparative study allows to assert that the nucleophilicity N index is a measure of the nucleophilicity of complex organic molecules displaying concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. PMID:21842104

Domingo, Luis R; Pérez, Patricia

2011-08-15

228

Nuclear Experiments in the Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes nuclear teaching experiments and their distribution within the undergraduate curriculum. In addition, sources of information on published nuclear teaching experiments and on the supplier's of nuclear instruments, radiochemical and miscellaneous special materials are identified. Approximate costs for selected nuclear instrument systems…

Clark, Herbert M.

1970-01-01

229

Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

Davis, Clyde E.

1983-01-01

230

Statistical Analysis Experiment for Freshman Chemistry Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory experiment dissolving zinc from galvanized nails in which data can be gathered very quickly for statistical analysis. The data have sufficient significant figures and the experiment yields a nice distribution of random errors. Freshman students can gain an appreciation of the relationships between random error, number of…

Salzsieder, John C.

1995-01-01

231

Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)|

Fan, Qinbai; And Others

1995-01-01

232

A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin. A single sophisticated instrument can be incorporated into the laboratory given sufficient attention to the use of sampling accessories and software macros. Synthetic experiments coupled with modern instrumental techniques can be used in the general chemistry laboratory to illustrate the concepts of synthesis, structure, bonding, and spectroscopy.

van Ryswyk, Hal

1997-07-01

233

Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business…

Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

2004-01-01

234

Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business…

Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

2004-01-01

235

Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry: A Laboratory Course, 1st Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the Organic Chemistry textbook, Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry: A Laboratory Course, 1st Edition, by Pedersen; Myers published by Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2011.

236

Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in the classroom. Eight undergraduate students from four different organic chemistry courses were interviewed and asked to solve three of the problems converted at the end of phase two. Data from these interviews were used to understand the types, methods, and knowledge uses by undergraduate students in the problem-solving process. Data from all three phases were used to assert seven ideas for the development of problems for undergraduate students.

Raker, Jeffrey R.

237

A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic chemistry notation was proposed that accounts for the movement of the eyes across the chemical equation (get next); the search of a chemical structure for key features (search); the encoding of features to create an internal representation (encoding and access lexicon); the assignments of relationships among features in the same molecule (intramolecular relationship) and between molecules (intermolecular relationship); and a check of the internal representation for inconsistencies (reaction wrap-up). Two studies were conducted in this investigation. The first study assessed the validity and ability of the Complexity Rubric for Organic Chemistry Notation to quantify visual complexity of structural formulas. A three-part investigation examined the content of the rubric, its capacity to measure visual complexity, and its ability to predict visual complexity as perceived by novices. The results suggest that the rubric differentiates structural formulas with high visual complexity from those with medium-low visual complexity. A follow-up study examined the effect of prior knowledge on the encoding of organic formulas and suggests that knowledge from domains outside chemistry plays a role in the perceived complexity of structural formulas. In the second study, eye tracking methodology was used to validate the proposed process model for the comprehension of organic chemistry notation and examine factors that affect these processes. Eight instructors and 19 students were eye tracked while reading five high/low complexity pairs of organic chemistry equations for comprehension. The frequency, duration, and sequence of participants' eye fixations were examined. The results provide evidence for each stage of the proposed process model and suggest that visual complexity of the equation, as measured by the rubric, significantly affects the viewing patterns of participants. Expertise of the participant was also shown to play a significant role in viewing patterns. The effects of working memory capacity and spatial ability were shown to be less consistent and may be topic dependent.

Havanki, Katherine L.

238

Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)|

Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

1988-01-01

239

Chemistry and Flatulence: An Introductory Enzyme Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive introductory-level enzyme experiment was developed using raffinose family sugars extracted from green split peas as a substrate and the enzymes alpha-galactosidase and sucrase found in Beano. The reaction studied was the hydrolysis of raffinose family sugars to galactose, glucose, and fructose, and the reaction rate was determined using a retail glucometer to measure the concentration of glucose. Results

John R. Hardee; Tina M. Montgomery; Wray H. Jones

2000-01-01

240

UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

Dhabanandana, Salag

241

A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

242

Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

2010-01-01

243

Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

2010-01-01

244

Chemistry and Flatulence: An Introductory Enzyme Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inexpensive introductory-level enzyme experiment was developed using raffinose family sugars extracted from green split peas as a substrate and the enzymes alpha-galactosidase and sucrase found in Beano. The reaction studied was the hydrolysis of raffinose family sugars to galactose, glucose, and fructose, and the reaction rate was determined using a retail glucometer to measure the concentration of glucose. Results are given on the effect of substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, temperature, and heavy metals on enzyme activity.

Hardee, John R.; Montgomery, Tina M.; Jones, Wray H.

2000-04-01

245

Model organismsChemistry-to-gene screens in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism linked to an impressive portfolio of fundamental discoveries in biology. This free-living nematode, which can be easily and inexpensively grown in the laboratory, is also a natural vehicle for screening for drugs that are active against nematode parasites. Here, we show that chemistry-to-gene screens using this animal model can define

Andrew K. Jones; Steven D. Buckingham; David B. Sattelle

2005-01-01

246

MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.  

PubMed

Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date. PMID:23548024

González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

2013-01-01

247

An Introductory Experience for Physical Chemistry: Victor Meyer Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An introductory experience for experimental physical chemistry is presented on JCE Online. The experiment incorporates a class determination of random error along with the determination of the molecular weight of a volatile liquid using a modified Victor Meyer procedure. Rapid data collection allows the class to amass a sizable data set for analysis. The experimental presentation contains a detailed write-up on the handling of random error and its propagation in subsequent calculations. A slight simplification of the Guedens et al. (J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776-779 and 838-841) treatment of statistical experimental error is presented at a student level. It can also be used as a trial experiment for report writing. Since it is based on the ideal gas law, it is consistent, in most cases, with the lecture material in a physical chemistry lecture-laboratory sequence.

Kundell, Frederick A.

1999-04-01

248

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect

Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

2012-08-03

249

Molecular Images in Organic Chemistry: Assessment of Understanding in Aromaticity, Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Shielding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students take General Chemistry there are substantially fewer molecular images than they will encounter in Organic Chemistry. The molecular images Organic Chemistry students see in their textbooks are ones that use dashes and wedges to represent 2D and semi 3D views, ball and spoke, ball and wire, and structural formulas, to name just a few.…

Ealy, Julie B.; Hermanson, Jim

2006-01-01

250

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and a number of cognitive and noncognitive variables, and explores whether gender differences existed for any of these relationships. Concludes that general chemistry grade, ACT-math score, and motivation are significant predictors of organic chemistry achievement. Indicates gender…

Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

2003-01-01

251

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and a number of cognitive and noncognitive variables, and explores whether gender differences existed for any of these relationships. Concludes that general chemistry grade, ACT-math score, and motivation are significant predictors of organic chemistry achievement. Indicates gender…

Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

2003-01-01

252

New insights into Titan's organic chemistry in the gas and aerosol phases.  

PubMed

Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, with a dense atmosphere very rich in organics, and many couplings in the various parts of its "geofluid", is a reference for studying prebiotic chemistry on a planetary scale. New data have been obtained from experiments simulating this organic chemistry (gas and aerosol phases), within the right ranges of temperature and a careful avoiding of any chemical contamination. They show a very good agreement with the observational data, demonstrating for the first time the formation of all the organic species already detected in Titan atmosphere including, at last, C4N2, together with many other species not yet detected in Titan. This strongly suggests the presence of more complex organics in Titan's atmosphere and surface, including high molecular weight polyynes and cyanopolyynes. The NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission has been successfully launched in October 1997. The Cassini spacecraft will reach the Saturn system in 2004 and become an orbiter around Saturn, while the Huygens probe will penetrate into Titan's atmosphere. In situ measurements, in particular from Huygens GC-MS and ACP instruments, will provide a detailed analysis of the organics present in the air, aerosols, and surface. This very ambitious mission should yield much information of crucial importance for our knowledge of the complexity of Titan's chemistry, and, more generally for the field of exobiology. PMID:11543331

Raulin, F; Coll, P; Smith, N; Benilan, Y; Bruston, P; Gazeau, M C

1999-01-01

253

An EPR Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment that illustrates the principles of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described. Students measure the value of g for DPPH and use it to determine the value of g for two inorganic complexes, Cu(acac)2 and VO(acac)2. The students use two instruments: an instructional device that illustrates the principles of EPR and a commercial

R. A. Butera; D. H. Waldeck

2000-01-01

254

Carbon dioxide retrievals from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment solar occultation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite (SCISAT-1) was launched into an inclined orbit on 12 August 2003 and is now recording high signal-to-noise 0.02 cm?1 resolution solar absorption spectra covering 750–4400 cm?1 (2.3–13 ?m). A procedure has been developed for retrieving average dry air CO2 mole fractions (XCO2) in the altitude range 7–10 km from the SCISAT-1 spectra. Using the

Curtis P. Rinsland; Linda S. Chiou; Chris Boone; Peter Bernath

2010-01-01

255

Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents extensive validation analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. The ACE satellite instruments operate in the mid-infrared and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral regions using the solar occultation technique. In order to continue

E. Dupuy; K. A. Walker; J. Kar; C. D. Boone; C. T. McElroy; P. F. Bernath; J. R. Drummond; R. Skelton; S. D. McLeod; R. C. Hughes; C. R. Nowlan; D. G. Dufour; J. Zou; F. Nichitiu; K. Strong; P. Baron; R. M. Bevilacqua; T. Blumenstock; G. E. Bodeker; T. Borsdorff; A. E. Bourassa; H. Bovensmann; I. S. Boyd; A. Bracher; C. Brogniez; J. P. Burrows; V. Catoire; S. Ceccherini; S. Chabrillat; T. Christensen; M. T. Coffey; U. Cortesi; J. Davies; C. de Clercq; D. A. Degenstein; M. de Mazière; P. Demoulin; J. Dodion; B. Firanski; H. Fischer; G. Forbes; L. Froidevaux; D. Fussen; P. Gerard; S. Godin-Beekman; F. Goutail; J. Granville; D. Griffith; C. S. Haley; J. W. Hannigan; M. Höpfner; J. J. Jin; A. Jones; N. B. Jones; K. Jucks; A. Kagawa; Y. Kasai; T. E. Kerzenmacher; A. Kleinböhl; A. R. Klekociuk; I. Kramer; H. Küllmann; J. Kuttippurath; E. Kyrölä; J.-C. Lambert; N. J. Livesey; E. J. Llewellyn; N. D. Lloyd; E. Mahieu; G. L. Manney; B. T. Marshall; J. C. McConnell; M. P. McCormick; I. S. McDermid; M. McHugh; C. A. McLinden; J. Mellqvist; K. Mizutani; Y. Murayama; D. P. Murtagh; H. Oelhaf; A. Parrish; S. V. Petelina; C. Piccolo; J.-P. Pommereau; C. E. Randall; C. Robert; C. Roth; M. Schneider; C. Senten; T. Steck; A. Strandberg; K. B. Strawbridge; R. Sussmann; D. P. J. Swart; D. W. Tarasick; J. R. Taylor; C. Tétard; L. W. Thomason; A. M. Thompson; M. B. Tully; J. Urban; F. Vanhellemont; T. von Clarmann; P. von der Gathen; C. von Savigny; J. W. Waters; J. C. Witte; M. Wolff; J. M. Zawodny

2008-01-01

256

Aqueous-Phase Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling. A Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An upper-level inorganic/organic experiment presents important concepts in modern green chemistry. A water-soluble modified triphenylphosphine ligand is prepared and used to prepare a water-soluble palladium catalyst. The palladium catalyst is formed in situ and used for the aqueous, homogenous, palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of iodobenzene and diethyl phosphite. The product is diethyl phenylphosphonate.

Featured on the Cover

Harper, Brandy A.; Chance Rainwater, J.; Birdwhistell, Kurt; Knight, D. Andrew

2002-06-01

257

Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agronomy students generally lack interest in chemistry. The objective of this work was to modify the analytical chemistry curriculum to increase student interest. Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses. Evaluation of several chemical and physicochemical parameters of samples demonstrated in a clear way the application of the theoretical and practical concepts of chemistry.

Gimenez, Sônia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mouriño, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R.

2000-02-01

258

Organic matter chemistry and dynamics in clear-cut and unmanaged hardwood forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest harvesting alters the organic matter cycle by changing litter inputs and the decomposition regime. We hypothesized that these changes would result in differences in organic matter chemistry between clear-cut and uncut watershed ecosystems. We studied the chemistry of soil organic matter (SOM), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil solutions and stream samples in clear-cut and uncut sites at

K'OH. Dai; Chris E. Johnson; Charles T. Driscoll

2001-01-01

259

Directed evolution of aldolases for exploitation in synthetic organic chemistry.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the directed evolution of aldolases with synthetically useful properties. Directed evolution has been used to address a number of limitations associated with the use of wild-type aldolases as catalysts in synthetic organic chemistry. The generation of aldolase enzymes with a modified or expanded substrate repertoire is described. Particular emphasis is placed on the directed evolution of aldolases with modified stereochemical properties: such enzymes can be useful catalysts in the stereoselective synthesis of biologically active small molecules. The review also describes some of the fundamental insights into mechanistic enzymology that directed evolution can provide. PMID:18230325

Bolt, Amanda; Berry, Alan; Nelson, Adam

2008-01-19

260

Structure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an experiment that introduces freshman chemistry students to NMR. Students are trained to work on the instrument, analyze 1H and 13C spectra, and identify simple organic molecules. They are also introduced to the idea of functional groups and they use concepts learned in class about Lewis structures to distinguish among spectra of isomers of C3H8O. As part of this exercise students submit written reports and complete a survey evaluating the experiment. The lab experiment, survey results, and findings are presented.

Dávila, Rosa M.; Widener, R. K.

2002-08-01

261

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

2003-05-01

262

Quantum chemistry simulation on quantum computers: theories and experiments.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that quantum computers can mimic quantum systems efficiently in the polynomial scale. Traditionally, those simulations are carried out numerically on classical computers, which are inevitably confronted with the exponential growth of required resources, with the increasing size of quantum systems. Quantum computers avoid this problem, and thus provide a possible solution for large quantum systems. In this paper, we first discuss the ideas of quantum simulation, the background of quantum simulators, their categories, and the development in both theories and experiments. We then present a brief introduction to quantum chemistry evaluated via classical computers followed by typical procedures of quantum simulation towards quantum chemistry. Reviewed are not only theoretical proposals but also proof-of-principle experimental implementations, via a small quantum computer, which include the evaluation of the static molecular eigenenergy and the simulation of chemical reaction dynamics. Although the experimental development is still behind the theory, we give prospects and suggestions for future experiments. We anticipate that in the near future quantum simulation will become a powerful tool for quantum chemistry over classical computations. PMID:22652702

Lu, Dawei; Xu, Boruo; Xu, Nanyang; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng

2012-05-31

263

Theoretical Chemistry Comes Alive: Full Partner with Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, advances in computational techniques and in the extraction of chemically useful concepts from electronic wave functions have put theorists into the mainstream of chemistry. Some recent examples of the prediction of spectroscopic quantities and the elucidation of catalytic processes for homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions from theoretical calculations are used to illustrate how theory and experiment are now full partners in chemical research. It is expected that during the next decade the thrust of theoretical chemistry will be to combine the knowledge of fundamental chemical steps and fundamental interactions with advances in chemical dynamics and irreversible statistical mechanics and in computer technology to produce simulations of chemical systems with competing reactions taking place simultaneously at various reaction sites. The promise of such simulation is illustrated by a study of the enzyme thermolysin.

Goddard, William A.

1985-02-01

264

CHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN TWO STREAMS DRAINING FORESTED WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration, major fractions, and contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) to stream chemistry were examined in two paired streams draining upland catchments in eastern Maine. oncentrations of DOC in East and West Bear Brooks were 183 +/- 73 and 169 +/- 70 umol CL-1 (...

265

Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

266

Building a bridge between peptide chemistry and organic chemistry: intramolecular macrocyclization reactions and supramolecular chemistry with helical peptide substrates.  

PubMed

In our ongoing efforts to build a bridge between peptide chemistry and organic chemistry, we are currently investigating: (1) two types of intramolecular macrocyclization reactions in 3(10)-helical peptides, and (2) a peptido[2]rotaxane molecular machine as a supramolecular tool using a 3(10)-helical peptide as the axle. More specifically, we studied the following two reactions: (a) the intramolecular ring-closing olefin metathesis between two amino acid residues with side chains bearing an allyl group, and (b) the intramolecular Paternò-Yang photoreaction, using a benzophenone-based amino acid as a photoaffinity reagent for a Met residue. Both reactions involve formation of a new C--C bond. As for the supramolecular system examined, we were able to identify the two stations of a new peptido[2]rotaxane characterized by an -(Aib)(6)- axle and to reversibly switch the aromatic tetramide macrocyclic wheel from one station to the next. This article summarizes the information available in the literature from other groups and the published/unpublished data originated from our laboratory on these research areas. PMID:20564031

Moretto, Alessandro; Crisma, Marco; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio

2010-01-01

267

Analysis of a Distance-Education Program in Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distance education has become a very popular mode for providing education to students who would not otherwise be able to take classes. Although it has been used for lecture courses in chemistry, little is known about its relative effectiveness compared to on-site courses with regard to student performance. This study compared sections of organic chemistry in which distance education was the learning mode with sections that were taught on site. All sections were instructed in a team-teaching format. A local instructor taught the lab sections at all locations and lab reports were forwarded to the on-campus faculty via email. Surveys were prepared and administered to all sections of students for qualitative assessment. The surveys provided information on student attitudes toward distance learning as well as the corresponding lab section, team-teaching techniques, and course Web page. Exam and spatial ability scores were statistically analyzed to determine quantitative differences. The data revealed no statistically significant differences between the performance of the students learning by distance education and those in regular sections.

Kurtz, Martha J.; Holden, Brandt E.

2001-08-01

268

Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

2011-01-01

269

Orthogonality in organic, polymer, and supramolecular chemistry: from Merrifield to click chemistry.  

PubMed

The concept of orthogonality has been applied to many areas of chemistry, ranging from wave functions to chromatography. But it was Barany and Merrifield's orthogonal protecting group strategy that paved the way for solid phase peptide syntheses, other important classes of biomaterials such as oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, and ultimately to a term in widespread usage that is focused on chemical reactivity and binding selectivity. The orthogonal protection strategy has been extended to the development of orthogonal activation, and recently the click reaction, for streamlining organic synthesis. The click reaction and its variants are considered orthogonal as the components react together in high yield and in the presence of many other functional groups. Likewise, supramolecular building blocks can also be orthogonal, thereby enabling programmed self-assembly, a superb strategy to create complex architectures. Overall, orthogonal reactions and supramolecular interactions have dramatically improved the syntheses, the preparation of functional materials, and the self-assembly of nanoscale structures. PMID:23282586

Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C

2013-02-28

270

The convergence of synthetic organic and polymer chemistries.  

PubMed

Several recent conceptual advances, which take advantage of the design criteria and practical techniques of molecular-level control in organic chemistry, allow preparation of well-defined polymers and nanostructured materials. Two trends are clear: the realization that synthesis of complex macromolecules poses major challenges and opportunities and the expectation that such materials will exhibit distinctive properties and functions. Polymer synthesis methods now being developed will yield well-defined synthetic macromolecules that are capable of mimicking many of the features of proteins (for example, three-dimensional folded structure) and other natural materials. These macromolecules have far-reaching potential for the study of molecular-level behavior at interfaces, in thin films, and in solution, while also enabling the development of encapsulation, drug-delivery, and nanoscale-patterning technologies. PMID:16109874

Hawker, Craig J; Wooley, Karen L

2005-08-19

271

Lesson Planner for Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry Videodisc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lesson Planner is a Microsoft Excel (1) macro that generates barcodes for video included on the Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry videodisc (2). It allows instructors who do not have computer control capability for their videodisc player, but do have a barcode reader, to prepare customized lessons for use in the classroom or laboratory. There is no need to flip through pages in the documentation manual or photocopy pages of barcodes and physically cut and paste them to follow your lecture notes. Lesson Planner includes a complete list of the demonstrations and all sections and subsections included on the videodisc. You simply select the entire demos, sections, or subsections of demos you want to include in your presentation and add them to a lesson list with a mouse click. Lesson Planner generates a list of your selections with barcodes to access the correct video frames. Simply print a copy of the lesson on a laser printer and you are ready to go.

Surovell, Todd A.

1995-09-01

272

Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the carbohydrates continue to gain attention for their central role in numerous areas of chemistry and biology, there is a growing need for experiments at the undergraduate level that highlight these fascinating compounds. In this article we describe a simple two-step laboratory experiment that may be used to highlight several important concepts introduced in sophomore organic chemistry, as applied to compounds of potential biological interest. The sequence begins with commercially available "diacetone glucose," which is converted to the highly crystalline tosylate derivative. Upon treatment of compound 2 with potassium tert-butoxide in THF solution, the alkene (3-deoxy-1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene- a- l">D -erythro-hex-3-enofuranose) is formed via an E2 reaction. The synthetic sequence allows for discussion of various concepts within organic chemistry, as well as for the application of analytical techniques such as polarimetry and one- and two-dimensional NMR.

Norris, Peter; Fluxe, Andrew

2001-12-01

273

Irradiated benzene ice provides clues to meteoritic organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Martin, Mildred G.; Peeters, Zan; Hudson, Reggie L.

2013-11-01

274

Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ease the transition from organic chemistry at the beginning of a biochemistry course or at the beginning of the metabolism section of the organic course, an early presentation of the oxidation of ethanol is proposed. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions can smooth the introduction to biochemistry, since they involve three of the simplest compounds: ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Using these reactions as a model encourages the study of metabolic pathways by a systematic approach rather than by rote memorization. Reactions that can be presented as variations on a theme include methanol poisoning, the polyol reaction, and, most important, the sequence glycerol-3-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. This last sequence integrates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and, by comparison with the model reaction, brings out the principles of substrate-level phosphorylation. The method has evoked favorable verbal feedback from students and, in addition to medical and graduate courses, has been successfully used in the biochemical section of an undergraduate organic course.

Feinman, Richard D.

2001-09-01

275

Organic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

2007-12-07

276

Organic Chemistry of the Cell: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Learning with a Focus on Reading, Analyzing, and Critiquing Primary Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sophomore-level learning community entitled Organic Chemistry of the Cell has been designed that is comprised of two linked courses, Organic Chemistry I and Cell Biology, and an Integrative Seminar. The Integrative Seminar is grounded in the reading, critical analysis, and discussion of primary literature that ties together organic chemistry and cell biology. Each student takes on the roles of learner, facilitator, and research proposal writer throughout the semester. Students take an active role in their learning; student teams lead the class through an in-depth analysis of selected articles. This leadership role requires the students to understand and be familiar with the relevant background knowledge, the experiments conducted, the interpretation of data, and conclusions drawn from that data. The discussion leaders must also be able to organize and prioritize the information and their thoughts, and be able to clearly communicate to their classmates in an engaging manner. The seminar culminates with student teams developing research proposals that outline experiments addressing a specific area of interest on the boundary between organic chemistry and cell biology. The proposals are communicated in both written and oral forms allowing fellow students to evaluate and expand upon the proposed ideas.

Almeida, Craig A.; Liotta, Louis J.

2005-12-01

277

The Chemical World of Paul Walden: Organic Chemistry from 1880 to 1935  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Paul Walden's history of organic chemistry as a continuation of Carl Graebe's work, covering the period from 1880 to 1935. Indicates that a general intellectual outlook, controlling ideas, and mental furnishings characteristic of his time are revealed besides factual information about the classical age of organic chemistry. (CC)|

Tarbell, D. Stanley

1974-01-01

278

Mapping Students' Thinking Patterns in Learning Organic Chemistry by the Use of Knowledge Space Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' thinking patterns in learning organic chemistry were tracked through the one-year course taught to a total of approximately 1300 students, mostly biology majors, for a period of 2 years. As expected, the students' knowledge base increases, but the cognitive organization of the knowledge is surprisingly weak and misconceptions persist even after two years of college chemistry. Both a simple

Mare Taagepera; S. Noori

2000-01-01

279

Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral\\/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and

T. W. Scattergood

1987-01-01

280

Fun with photons, reactive intermediates, and friends. Skating on the edge of the paradigms of physical organic chemistry, organic supramolecular photochemistry, and spin chemistry.  

PubMed

This Perspective presents a review and survey of the science and philosophy of my research career over the past five decades at Columbia as a physical organic chemist and photochemist. I explore the role of paradigms, structure, and geometric thinking in my own cognitive and intellectual development. The Perspective describes my investigations of high energy content molecules in electronically excited states and the development of electronic spin and supramolecular photochemistry chemistry. Current research dealing with the nuclear spin chemistry of H(2) incarcerated in buckyballs is illustrated. In the second part of this Perspective, I recount a personal role of the philosophy and history of science and the scientific communities' use of paradigms in their every day research and intellectual activities. Examples are given of the crucial role of geometry and structure in the rapid development of organic chemistry and physical organic chemistry over the past century. PMID:22074596

Turro, Nicholas J

2011-11-22

281

Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

Frey, John E.

1990-01-01

282

Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment that can be used in an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. It allows the student analyst to measure the moisture content of various hand and body lotions using the coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) technique, providing a modern alternative to the traditional electrochemical experiments usually explored in introductory analytical chemistry courses. The experiment introduces students to

Patricia Ann Mabrouk; Kristine Castriotta

2001-01-01

283

Global phosgene observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first study of the global distribution of atmospheric phosgene (COCl2) has been performed using solar occultation measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission. A total of 5614 measured profiles spanning the period February 2004 through May 2006 were used in the study. The phosgene concentrations display a zonally symmetric pattern with the maximum concentration located approximately over the equator at about 25 km in altitude and the concentration decreases towards the poles. A layer of enhanced concentration of phosgene spans the lower stratosphere over all latitudes, with volume mixing ratios of 20-60 pptv. The ACE observations show lower phosgene concentrations in the stratosphere than were obtained from previous observations in the 1980s and 1990s. This has been attributed to a significant decrease in its source species, particularly two major sources CH3CCl3 and CCl4, since the introduction of restrictions required by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments.

Fu, Dejian; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Walker, Kaley A.; Nassar, Ray; Manney, Gloria L.; McLeod, Sean D.

2007-09-01

284

Tropospheric Measurements From the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750 - 4400 cm-1) and high resolution (maximum path difference ± 25 cm, corresponding to a resolution of 0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument measures down to 5 km altitude using solar occultation. Examples will be shown of retrievals from ACE for tropospheric species such as methanol, formic acid, acetone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Water, a chronic interfering species in the troposphere, exhibits deviations from the Voigt line shape, which deteriorates the retrieval accuracy for some weakly-absorbing tropospheric species. An approach will be described for calculating a speed-dependent Voigt line shape for water.

Boone, C. D.; Walker, K. A.; Dufour, G.; Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.

2006-12-01

285

A context based approach using Green Chemistry/Bio-remediation principles to enhance interest and learning of organic chemistry in a high school AP chemistry classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of our planet to sustain life and heal itself is not as predictable as it used to be. Our need for educated future scientists who know what our planet needs, and can passionately apply that knowledge to find solutions should be at the heart of science education today. This study of learning organic chemistry through the lens of the environmental problem "What should be done with our food scraps?" explores student interest, and mastery of certain concepts in organic chemistry. This Green Chemistry/ Bio-remediation context-based teaching approach utilizes the Nature MillRTM, which is an indoor food waste composting machine, to learn about organic chemistry, and how this relates to landfill reduction possibilities, and resource production. During this unit students collected food waste from their cafeteria, and used the Nature MillRTM to convert food waste into compost. The use of these hands on activities, and group discussions in a context-based environment enhanced their interest in organic chemistry, and paper chromatography. According to a one-tailed paired T-test, the result show that this context-based approach is a significant way to increase both student interest and mastery of the content.

Miller, Tricia

286

General Chemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology: An Experiment in Curricular Symbiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1998-99 academic year, with the support of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we co-taught integrated courses in general chemistry and cell biology to 23 first-year students. The double course was organized around six units: I. Energetics: Harvesting (Bio)Chemical Energy; II. The Regulation of Biological Processes: Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium; III. Membranes and Electrochemical Gradients; IV. Acids and Bases and the Regulation of pH; V. Intracellular Compartments and Transport; and VI. Cellular Communication. The chemistry and biology were both taught in a manner meant to enhance understanding of these major themes and to emphasize the relationships between the two disciplines. Both of us were present for all class sessions and shared teaching responsibilities. The examinations, which corresponded to the units, also stressed the interdependence of biology and chemistry. The laboratory components were not integrated; rather the students were dispersed among laboratory sections shared with students from more traditional lecture sections. The paper reports on this experiment in curricular symbiosis, which proved to be a challenging and rewarding learning experience for both the students and us.

Truman Schwartz, A.; Serie, Jan

2001-11-01

287

History of early Organizer Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the research and publication of the paper entitled: ÃÂVersuche zur Analyse der Induktionsmittel in der EmbryonalentwicklungÃÂ [Attempts to analyse the Organizer of the Embryo] and links to other articles about these associates and their historic work.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)

2011-09-20

288

The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

2009-01-01

289

The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

2009-01-01

290

A Collaborative, Wiki-Based Organic Chemistry Project Incorporating Free Chemistry Software on the Web  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, postsecondary instructors have recognized the potential of wikis to transform the way students learn in a collaborative environment. However, few instructors have embraced in-depth student use of chemistry software for the creation of interactive chemistry content on the Web. Using currently available software, students are able…

Evans, Michael J.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

291

Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

2011-01-01

292

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 1. Nitration of Unknown Organic Compounds. An Exercise in 1H NMR and 13C NMR Spectrosopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitration is one of the most fundamental reactions in organic chemistry. However, the majority of the nitration experiments found in the standard lab textbooks are of the "cookbook" variety and convey none of the excitement associated with discovery in experimental chemistry. We have developed two simple nitration experiments that present the student with a puzzle and are a good exercise in 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. 13 C NMR spectroscopy is a powerful structure elucidation tool and yet not many examples of the use of 13C NMR spectroscopy in organic lab experiments can be found. The experiment involves nitration of unknown organic compounds and product analysis by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, which enables the student to determine the identity of the unknown. In spite of the simplicity of the experiment, the element of discovery ensures that student interest and enthusiasm are retained.

McElveen, Sonia R.; Gavardinas, Kostas; Stamberger, Jean A.; Mohan, Ram S.

1999-04-01

293

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Chemistry, by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, M. Larry Peck, George G. Stanley published by Brooks/Cole, 2010.

294

Recent results from the MIT in-core experiments on coolant chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from an ongoing series of in-core experiments that have been conducted at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II) for optimizing coolant chemistries in light water reactors. Four experiments are in progress, including a pressurized coolant chemistry loop (PCCL), a boiling coolant chemistry loop (BCCL), a facility for the study of irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking, and one for

O. K. Harling; G. E. Kohse; E. C. Cabello; J. A. Bernard

1993-01-01

295

Processes governing the carbon chemistry during the SAGE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of pCO 2, pH and alkalinity in the surface waters of an iron fertilised patch of sub-Antarctic water were made during SAGE (SOLAS SAGE: Surface-Ocean Lower Atmosphere Studies Air-Sea Gas Experiment). The iron addition induced a minor phytoplankton bloom, however the patch dynamics were dominated by physical processes which suppressed and masked the biological effects. The Lagrangian nature of the experiment allowed the carbonate chemistry in the patch to be followed for 15.5 days, and the relative importance of the biological and physical factors influencing the surface water pCO 2 was estimated. The pCO 2 of the surface waters of the patch increased from 327 ?atm prior to iron addition to 338 ?atm on Day 14, effects of vertical and horizontal mixing offset the 15 ?atm drawdown that would have occurred had the induced biological uptake been the sole factor to influence the pCO 2. The air-sea carbon flux calculated using the measured skin temperature and a piston velocity parameterisation determined during SAGE ( Ho et al., 2006) was 98.5% of the flux determined using conventional bulk temperature measurement and the Wanninkhof (1992) piston velocity parameterisation. The skin temperature alone contributed to an 8% increase in the flux compared with that determined using bulk temperature.

Currie, K. I.; Macaskill, B.; Reid, M. R.; Law, C. S.

2011-03-01

296

Directed evolution of enantioselective enzymes: an unconventional approach to asymmetric catalysis in organic chemistry.  

PubMed

In the mid-1990s, I initiated in my group an unusual kind of project which is perhaps strange for a synthetic organic chemist who was otherwise focusing on the development of chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective organometallic reagents and catalysts. The basic idea was to imitate evolution in Nature in the quest to create enantioselective enzymes for application in synthetic organic chemistry. Rather than relying on design based on the assessment of steric and electronic effects (and on experience and serendipity), which was and still is the usual procedure in research regarding stereoselective transition-metal-based catalysis, the underlying idea was to harness in the laboratory the powerful driving force inherent in Darwinian principles comprising iterative cycles of mutation and selection. In this Perspective, composed on the occasion of the 2009 Arthur C. Cope Award address, I focus on the principles, successes, and future challenges of this unconventional approach to asymmetric catalysis. PMID:20560561

Reetz, Manfred T

2009-08-21

297

Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

2011-01-01

298

An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ligation States of Myoglobin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there are numerous inorganic model systems that are readily presented as undergraduate laboratory experiments in bioinorganic chemistry, there are few examples that explore the inorganic chemistry of actual biological molecules. We present a laboratory experiment using the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin that can be easily incorporated…

Bailey, James A.

2011-01-01

299

Survey of domestic and foreign PWR experience with morpholine in chemistry control by all-volatile treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Most pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in the US use ammonia for pH control and hydrazine for oxygen scavenging in secondary cycle all-volatile treatment (AVT) chemistry programs. Selected high-molecular-weight amines have more favorable liquid-vapor distributions and thus offer possible advantages for liquid-phase pH control over ammonia, which is very volatile and poorly ionized in the steam generator environment. Several PWRs in the US and Europe, plus many CANDU-type plants, use morpholine in AVT chemistry control for that purpose. Domestic and foreign experience with morpholine is discussed in this study, which specifically excluded French PWR experience with morpholine. Morpholine was reported to be an effective pH control agent in AVT chemistry control. The only negative feature reported associated with its use is a slightly elevated cation conductivity level, presumably from organic acids formed from decomposition of morpholine. 16 tabs.

Riddle, J.M.; Lechnick, W.; Nolan, R.

1986-07-01

300

Separating the effects of organic matter–mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though it is well established that soil C content is the primary determinant of the sorption affinity of soils for non-ionic compounds, it is also clear that organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (KOC) vary considerably between soils. Two factors that may contribute to KOC variability are variations in organic matter chemistry between soils and interactions between organic matter and soil

Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar; Ronald J. Smernik; Rai S. Kookana; David J. Chittleborough

2008-01-01

301

A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

2008-01-01

302

An Asymptotic Approach to the Development of a Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products. Some of the philosophical questions and practical decisions that have guided the greening of the organic chemistry laboratory at Hendrix College in…

Goodwin, Thomas E.

2004-01-01

303

An Asymptotic Approach to the Development of a Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products. Some of the philosophical questions and practical decisions that have guided the greening of the organic chemistry laboratory at Hendrix College in…

Goodwin, Thomas E.

2004-01-01

304

A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

2008-01-01

305

The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)|

Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

1980-01-01

306

Foundations of Organic Chemistry: Worked Examples (Oxford Chemistry Primer No. 87) (Michael Hornby and Josephine Peach)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finally, to extend from this particular Oxford Chemistry Primer to the series as a whole, this reviewer strongly recommends that faculty at undergraduate and graduate institutions make available these fine teaching tools to the young scholars in our departments.

Holman, Robert W.

2003-02-01

307

ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

2008-01-01

308

The application of calcium phosphate precipitation chemistry to phosphorus recovery: the influence of organic ligands.  

PubMed

This paper describes current knowledge of phosphate precipitation chemistry in the context of phosphorus recovery from wastewaters, and presents experimental results on the effect of organic species, as key potential inhibitors, to the precipitation of calcium phosphate. The supersaturation required for precipitation at 25 degrees C, pH 7, 0.1 M ionic strength and near-stoichiometric (for hydroxylapatite) calcium to phosphate molar ratio was determined under spontaneous precipitation conditions. The experiments were carried out in air. The phase precipitating at the critical concentration was allowed to grow under constant supersaturation. The influence of organic ligands on the precipitation was investigated using two small molecular weight organic ligands, acetate and citrate, present at a concentration of 10(-3) M. The precipitate was studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Good reproducibility of the experiments, which were carried out in triplicate, was observed. The study assessed the supersaturation necessary for spontaneous precipitation of hydroxylapatite to be 10.93, calculated using a solubility constant of log K= -57.74. The required supersaturation was not affected by the presence of acetate. However, citrate was found to increase the supersaturation required for precipitation to 11.73. It is likely that this increase is due to binding of citrate on the active growth sites of newly formed nuclei, thereby inhibiting precipitation. All experiments showed formation of a single phase: micro-crystalline hydroxylapatite. PMID:11804354

van der Houwen, J A; Vaisami-Jones, E

2001-11-01

309

Influence of ozone and radical chemistry on limonene organic aerosol production and thermal characteristics.  

PubMed

Limonene has a strong tendency to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere and in indoor environments. Initial oxidation occurs mainly via ozone or OH radical chemistry. We studied the effect of O(3) concentrations with or without a OH radical scavenger (2-butanol) on the SOA mass and thermal characteristics using the Gothenburg Flow Reactor for Oxidation Studies at Low Temperatures and a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer. The SOA mass using 15 ppb limonene was strongly dependent on O(3) concentrations and the presence of a scavenger. The SOA volatility in the presence of a scavenger decreased with increasing levels of O(3), whereas without a scavenger, there was no significant change. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the observations using vapor pressure estimates for compounds that potentially contributed to SOA. The model showed that the product distribution was affected by changes in both OH and ozone concentrations, which partly explained the observed changes in volatility, but was strongly dependent on accurate vapor pressure estimation methods. The model-experiment comparison indicated a need to consider organic peroxides as important SOA constituents. The experimental findings could be explained by secondary condensed-phase ozone chemistry, which competes with OH radicals for the oxidation of primary unsaturated products. PMID:22985264

Pathak, Ravi K; Salo, Kent; Emanuelsson, Eva U; Cai, Cilan; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Asa M; Hallquist, Mattias

2012-10-10

310

Rotational Barriers in Push-Pull Ethylenes: An Advanced Physical-Organic Project Including 2D EXSY and Computational Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated upper-division physical-organic experiment for chemistry majors has been developed. It involves the determination and mechanistic interpretation of the C=C and CN rotational barriers in a push-pull ethylene. In the course of the experiment students will synthesize an organic compound, acquire variable temperature 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and use computational quantum chemistry to gain a deeper understanding of the unique electronic features of the molecule. Low temperature 2D EXchange SpectroscopY (EXSY) is used to quantitate the rotational barriers in a series of solvents. The quantum mechanical calculations provide a means to compare the properties of the push-pull ethylene with a similar non-push-pull system. Analysis of the experimental and theoretical results leads to a nearly complete picture of how substituent effects can influence bond lengths, rotational barriers, and the electronic distribution in these ethylenes.

Dwyer, Tammy J.; Norman, Julia E.; Jasien, Paul G.

1998-12-01

311

Teaching a Modified Hendrickson, Cram, and Hammond Curriculum in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modified Hendrickson, Cram and Hammond (HCH) curriculum was recently introduced in the study of organic chemistry. The approach focuses on the fundamentals and is found to have a lot of positive impact on the students.

Karty, Joel M.; Gooch, Gene; Bowman, B. Gray

2007-01-01

312

Teaching a Modified Hendrickson, Cram, and Hammond Curriculum in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modified Hendrickson, Cram and Hammond (HCH) curriculum was recently introduced in the study of organic chemistry. The approach focuses on the fundamentals and is found to have a lot of positive impact on the students.|

Karty, Joel M.; Gooch, Gene; Bowman, B. Gray

2007-01-01

313

Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: A Rapid and Sustainable Route to Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of emerging MW-assisted chemistry techniques in conjunction with benign reaction media is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. This review summarizes recent developments in MW-assisted synthesis...

314

Exploring organic chemistry in planet-forming zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Over the last few years, the chemistry of molecules other than CO in the planet-forming zones of disks is starting to be explored with Spitzer and high-resolution ground-based data. However, these studies have focused only on a few simple molecules. Aims: The aim of this study is to put observational constraints on the presence of more complex organic and sulfur-bearing molecules predicted to be abundant in chemical models of disks and to simulate high resolution spectra in view of future missions. Methods: High signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) Spitzer spectra of the near edge-on disks IRS 46 and GV Tau are used to search for mid-infrared absorption bands of various molecules. These disks are good laboratories because absorption studies do not suffer from low line/continuum ratios that plague emission data. Simple local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) slab models are used to infer column densities (or upper limits) and excitation temperatures. Results: Mid-infrared bands of HCN, C2H2 and CO2 are clearly detected toward both sources. The HCN and C2H2 absorption arises in warm gas with excitation temperatures of 400-700 K, whereas the CO2 absorption originates in cooler gas of ~250 K. Column densities and their ratios are comparable for the two sources. No other absorption features are detected at the 3? level. Column density limits of the majority of molecules predicted to be abundant in the inner disk - C2H4, C2H6, C6H6, C3H4, C4H2, CH3, HNC, HC3N, CH3CN, NH3 and SO2 - are determined and compared with disk models. Conclusions: The inferred abundance ratios and limits with respect to C2H2 and HCN are roughly consistent with models of the chemistry in high temperature gas. Models of UV irradiated disk surfaces generally agree better with the data than pure X-ray models. The limit on NH3/HCN implies that evaporation of NH3-containing ices is only a minor contributor. The inferred abundances and their limits also compare well with those found in comets, suggesting that part of the cometary material may derive from warm inner disk gas. The high resolution simulations show that future instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) can probe up to an order of magnitude lower abundance ratios and put important new constraints on the models, especially if pushed to high S/Ns. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Bast, J. E.; Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

2013-03-01

315

Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epoxide chemistry is widely used in organic synthesis and regularly discussed in organic chemistry textbooks. An experiment to generate dimethyldioxirane in situ from acetone using Oxone is explained.

Broshears, Williams C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M.

2004-01-01

316

Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Epoxide chemistry is widely used in organic synthesis and regularly discussed in organic chemistry textbooks. An experiment to generate dimethyldioxirane in situ from acetone using Oxone is explained.|

Broshears, Williams C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M.

2004-01-01

317

Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and the composition of model Titan aerosols. A list of work that still needs to be done is provided.

Scattergood, T. W.

318

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 4. Epoxidation of p-Methoxy-trans-b-methylstyrene: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epoxidation of alkenes using peroxyacids is one of the most fundamental reactions in organic chemistry, yet there are very few examples of laboratory experiments that illustrate this important reaction. We have developed a discovery-oriented lab experiment that illustrates epoxidation of alkenes as well as the reactivity of epoxides toward acids. The experiment involves reaction of p-methoxy-trans-b-methylstyrene (trans-anethole) with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA), in both the absence and presence of a buffer, followed by product identification using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopy. The added element of discovery ensures that students' interest and enthusiasm are retained.

Centko, Rebecca S.; Mohan, Ram S.

2001-01-01

319

Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45-60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6%) between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes ( 35-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30%) in the 45-55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

Dupuy, E.; Walker, K. A.; Kar, J.; Boone, C. D.; McElroy, C. T.; Bernath, P. F.; Drummond, J. R.; Skelton, R.; McLeod, S. D.; Hughes, R. C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Dufour, D. G.; Zou, J.; Nichitiu, F.; Strong, K.; Baron, P.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Blumenstock, T.; Bodeker, G. E.; Borsdorff, T.; Bourassa, A. E.; Bovensmann, H.; Boyd, I. S.; Bracher, A.; Brogniez, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Catoire, V.; Ceccherini, S.; Chabrillat, S.; Christensen, T.; Coffey, M. T.; Cortesi, U.; Davies, J.; de Clercq, C.; Degenstein, D. A.; de Mazière, M.; Demoulin, P.; Dodion, J.; Firanski, B.; Fischer, H.; Forbes, G.; Froidevaux, L.; Fussen, D.; Gerard, P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Goutail, F.; Granville, J.; Griffith, D.; Haley, C. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Höpfner, M.; Jin, J. J.; Jones, A.; Jones, N. B.; Jucks, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kerzenmacher, T. E.; Kleinböhl, A.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Kramer, I.; Küllmann, H.; Kuttippurath, J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Livesey, N. J.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Lloyd, N. D.; Mahieu, E.; Manney, G. L.; Marshall, B. T.; McConnell, J. C.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McHugh, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Mellqvist, J.; Mizutani, K.; Murayama, Y.; Murtagh, D. P.; Oelhaf, H.; Parrish, A.; Petelina, S. V.; Piccolo, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Randall, C. E.; Robert, C.; Roth, C.; Schneider, M.; Senten, C.; Steck, T.; Strandberg, A.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Sussmann, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Taylor, J. R.; Tétard, C.; Thomason, L. W.; Thompson, A. M.; Tully, M. B.; Urban, J.; Vanhellemont, F.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von der Gathen, P.; von Savigny, C.; Waters, J. W.; Witte, J. C.; Wolff, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

2009-01-01

320

The Titan Haze Simulation experiment: laboratory simulation of Titan's atmospheric chemistry at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Titan’s atmosphere, a complex organic chemistry between its two main constituents, N2 and CH4, leads to the production of heavy molecules and subsequently to solid organic aerosols. Several instruments onboard Cassini have detected neutral, positively and negatively charged particles and heavy molecules in the ionosphere of Titan[1,2]. In particular, the presence of benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3)[3], which are critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan’s aerosols. The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment has been developed at NASA Ames’ Cosmic Simulation facility (COSmIC) to study the chemical pathways that link the simple precursor molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN…) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (or PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titan’s atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic jet expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature (~150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Different gas mixtures containing the first products of Titan’s N2-CH4 chemistry but also much heavier molecules like PAHs or PANHs can be injected to study specific chemical reactions. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using two complementary techniques: Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy[4] and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry[5]. Thin tholin deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We will present the results of ongoing mass spectrometry studies on the THS experiment using different gas mixtures: N2-CH4, N2-C2H2, N2-C2H4, N2-C2H6, N2-C6H6, and similar mixtures with an N2-CH4 (90:10) mixture instead of pure N2, to study specific pathways associated with the presence of these trace elements in Titan’s atmosphere. We will also present preliminary results of the tholin ex situ analysis and discuss the implications of these results in our understanding of Titan’s haze formation. References: [1]Coates, A.J., Crary, F.J., Lewis, G.R., Young, D.T., Waite Jr., J.H., Sittler Jr., E.C., Geophys. Res. Letters, 34, LL22103, 2007. [2]Waite Jr., J.H., Young, D.T., Cravens, T.E., Coates, A.J., Crary, F.J., Magee, B., Westlake, J., Science, 316, 870-875, 2007. [3]Vuitton, V., Yelle, R.V., Cui, J., J. Geophys. Res., 113, E05007, 2008. [4]Biennier L., Salama F., Allamandola L.J., Scherer J.J., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7863-7872, 2003. [5]Ricketts, C.L., Contreras, C.S., Walker, R.L., Salama, F., Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 300, 26-30, 2011.

Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

2012-04-01

321

Indoor chemistry. Ozone, volatile organic compounds, and carpets  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured in a freshly carpeted 20-m[sup 3] stainless-steel room in both the absence and presence of ozone (ozone concentrations ranging from 30 to 50 ppb, with one experiment conducted at 400 ppb). Four different types of carpeting were exposed, and in each set of experiments, the room was ventilated at 1 air exchange/h. The gas-phase concentrations of selected carpet emissions (e.g., 4-phenylcyclohexene, 4-vinylcyclohexene, and styrene) significantly decreased in the presence of ozone. Conversely, the concentrations of other compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aldehydes with between 5 and 10 carbons) significantly increased. Furthermore, the total concentration of VOCs increased markedly in the presence of ozone. The additional VOCs appear to have been generated by reactions between ozone and relatively nonvolatile compounds associated with the carpets. These studies suggest that VOCs measured within a building at elevated ozone levels (>30 ppb) may differ from those measured at lower ozone levels (<10 ppb). 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Weschler, C.J. (Bell Communications Research, Red Bank, NJ (United States)); Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-12-01

322

Motivational Beliefs and Learning Strategies in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students enter college chemistry courses with different sources of motivation, appropriate or inappropriate assumptions about their probability of success and how to study. This study is theoretically aligned with self-regulated learning research. Clearly, academic performance is closely related to student motivational beliefs and learning…

Lynch, Douglas Jay; Trujillo, Hernando

2011-01-01

323

Phospha-organic chemistry: from molecules to polymers.  

PubMed

Many parallels have been drawn between the chemistry of low-valent phosphorus and carbon. This Perspective is intended to highlight some emerging reactivity of phosphaalkenes, that is phospha-analogues of alkenes, in the areas of asymmetric catalysis and polymer science. PMID:20449439

Bates, Joshua I; Dugal-Tessier, Julien; Gates, Derek P

2009-12-24

324

Implementation of online prelab activities in introductory organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, the role of laboratory centraremos en las tareas pre-laboratorio o prelabs (en Ia work in chemistry learning has shown a significant change. It literatura dida'ctica anglosajona). En un anallisis mgs is giving up its function as theoretical knowledge testing or detallado, podemos distinguir los siguientes objetivos para simple experimental skills acquisition, to be integrated in este

Juan Antonio Liorens-Molina; Isidora Sanz Berzosa

2011-01-01

325

Students Doing Chemistry: A Hand-On Experience for K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A hands-on, minds-on inquiry chemistry experiment was developed for use in K-12 schools that enables students to combine the chemicals of their choice and observe the results. The chemistry involved is water based and builds upon acid-base, double displacement, and iodometric detection of starch reactions. Chemicals readily available in the…

Selco, Jodye I.; Bruno, Mary; Chan, Sue

2012-01-01

326

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and its interaction with other matter and with energy. It is the branch of natural science that deals with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions.

K-12 Outreach,

327

Incorporating Guided-Inquiry Learning into the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided-inquiry experiments also known as discovery-based experiments, which combine the pedagogical advantages of open-inquiry methods with the practical advantages of expository experiments, are described. Unlike open-inquiry or problem-based experiments, guided-inquiry experiments could be readily adapted to large laboratory sections and induces…

Gaddis, Barbara A.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

2007-01-01

328

Photochemical Reactions of Tris (Oxalato) Iron (III): A First-Year Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a first-year chemistry experiment that illustrates the fundamental concepts of a photoinduced reaction. Qualitative and quantitative parts of the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate are detailed. (CS)

Baker, A. D.; And Others

1980-01-01

329

Determination of Rate Constants for Ouabain Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase: An Undergraduate Biological Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an undergraduate biological chemistry laboratory experiment which provides students with an example of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the cardiac glycoside inhibition of mammalism sodium and potassium transport. (SL)|

Sall, Eri; And Others

1978-01-01

330

Photochemical Reactions of Tris (Oxalato) Iron (III): A First-Year Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a first-year chemistry experiment that illustrates the fundamental concepts of a photoinduced reaction. Qualitative and quantitative parts of the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate are detailed. (CS)|

Baker, A. D.; And Others

1980-01-01

331

Cross-Disciplinary Thermoregulation and Sweat Analysis Laboratory Experiences for Undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a qualitative evaluation of Cross-Disciplinary health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines (chemistry and exercise physiology) combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis.

2011-06-01

332

Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.|

Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

2007-01-01

333

Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

2006-01-01

334

Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents extensive validation analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. The ACE satellite instruments operate in the mid-infrared and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral regions using the solar occultation technique. In order to continue the long-standing record of solar occultation measurements from space, a detailed quality assessment is required to evaluate the ACE data and validate their use for scientific purposes. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the mean differences range generally between 0 and +10% with a slight but systematic positive bias (typically +5%). At higher altitudes (45-60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments by up to ~40% (typically +20%). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, agreement within ±10% (generally better than ±5%) is found between 18 and 40 km for the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (45-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (by as much as -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS and indicate a large positive bias (+10 to +30%) in this altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements. These systematic effects in the ozone profiles retrieved from the measurements of ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO are being investigated. This work shows that the ACE instruments provide reliable, high quality measurements from the tropopause to the upper stratosphere and can be used with confidence in this vertical domain.

Dupuy, E.; Walker, K. A.; Kar, J.; Boone, C. D.; McElroy, C. T.; Bernath, P. F.; Drummond, J. R.; Skelton, R.; McLeod, S. D.; Hughes, R. C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Dufour, D. G.; Zou, J.; Nichitiu, F.; Strong, K.; Baron, P.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Blumenstock, T.; Bodeker, G. E.; Borsdorff, T.; Bourassa, A. E.; Bovensmann, H.; Boyd, I. S.; Bracher, A.; Brogniez, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Catoire, V.; Ceccherini, S.; Chabrillat, S.; Christensen, T.; Coffey, M. T.; Cortesi, U.; Davies, J.; de Clercq, C.; Degenstein, D. A.; de Mazière, M.; Demoulin, P.; Dodion, J.; Firanski, B.; Fischer, H.; Forbes, G.; Froidevaux, L.; Fussen, D.; Gerard, P.; Godin-Beekman, S.; Goutail, F.; Granville, J.; Griffith, D.; Haley, C. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Höpfner, M.; Jin, J. J.; Jones, A.; Jones, N. B.; Jucks, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kerzenmacher, T. E.; Kleinböhl, A.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Kramer, I.; Küllmann, H.; Kuttippurath, J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Livesey, N. J.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Lloyd, N. D.; Mahieu, E.; Manney, G. L.; Marshall, B. T.; McConnell, J. C.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McHugh, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Mellqvist, J.; Mizutani, K.; Murayama, Y.; Murtagh, D. P.; Oelhaf, H.; Parrish, A.; Petelina, S. V.; Piccolo, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Randall, C. E.; Robert, C.; Roth, C.; Schneider, M.; Senten, C.; Steck, T.; Strandberg, A.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Sussmann, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Taylor, J. R.; Tétard, C.; Thomason, L. W.; Thompson, A. M.; Tully, M. B.; Urban, J.; Vanhellemont, F.; von Clarmann, T.; von der Gathen, P.; von Savigny, C.; Waters, J. W.; Witte, J. C.; Wolff, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

2008-02-01

335

Developing Problem-Solving Skills through Retrosynthetic Analysis and Clickers in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique approach to teaching and learning problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in the context of retrosynthetic analysis is described. In this approach, introductory organic chemistry students, who typically see only simple organic structures, undertook partial retrosynthetic analyses of real and complex synthetic targets. Multiple…

Flynn, Alison B.

2011-01-01

336

Selective Bifunctional Modification of a Non-catenated Metal-Organic Framework Material via 'Click' Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

A noncatenated, Zn-based metal-organic framework (MOF) material bearing silyl-protected acetylenes was constructed and postsynthetically modified using 'click' chemistry. Using a solvent-based, selective deprotection strategy, two different organic azides were 'clicked' onto the MOF crystals, resulting in a porous material whose internal and external surfaces are differently functionalized.

Gadzikwa, Tendai; Farha, Omar K.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; NWU

2009-12-01

337

A Mass Spectral Chlorine Rule for Use in Structure Determinations in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The low-resolution mass spectrum of integral masses is used to determine the number of bromine and chlorine atoms in an organic compound. The chlorine rule is a tool suitable for use in structural determinations in first year organic chemistry and it is supported by the ability of sophomore-level students to successfully determine n and m from…

Gross, Ray A., Jr.

2004-01-01

338

The Role of Spatial Ability and Strategy Preference for Spatial Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In organic chemistry, spatial reasoning is critical for reasoning about spatial relationships in three dimensions and representing spatial information in diagrams. Despite its importance, little is known about the underlying cognitive components of spatial reasoning and the strategies that students employ to solve spatial problems in organic

Stieff, Mike; Ryu, Minjung; Dixon, Bonnie; Hegarty, Mary

2012-01-01

339

Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A writing assignment to increase student understanding of and interest in practical applications of organic chemistry is described. Students were required to study a pharmaceutical or other organic compound and perform a qualitative risk assessment on the chemical. Student perceptions of the benefits of the paper were generally positive.…

Ablin, Lois

2008-01-01

340

Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A writing assignment to increase student understanding of and interest in practical applications of organic chemistry is described. Students were required to study a pharmaceutical or other organic compound and perform a qualitative risk assessment on the chemical. Student perceptions of the benefits of the paper were generally positive. (Contains…

Ablin, Lois

2008-01-01

341

The influence of microbial communities, management, and soil texture on soil organic matter chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter dynamics following land-use change remain difficult to predict because of the complex biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms that control C turnover. We examined twelve sites, representing four broad land-use types (cultivated agriculture, pine forest, hardwood forest, and pasture), in the South Carolina Piedmont to determine whether variation in organic matter chemistry was linked to management, soil edaphic

A. Stuart Grandy; Michael S. Strickland; Christian L. Lauber; Mark A. Bradford; Noah Fierer

2009-01-01

342

Interactions between carbon and nitrogen mineralization and soil organic matter chemistry in Arctic tundra soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used long term long-term lab incubations and chemical fractionation to characterize the mineralization dynamics of organic soils from tussock, shrub, and wet meadow tundra communities, to determine the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and chemistry, and to quantify the relative proportions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in tundra SOM that are biologically available for decomposition. Despite

M. Weintraub; J. P. Schimel

2002-01-01

343

Recent results from the MIT in-core experiments on coolant chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports results from an ongoing series of in-core experiments that have been conducted at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II) for optimizing coolant chemistries in light water reactors. Four experiments are in progress, including a pressurized coolant chemistry loop (PCCL), a boiling coolant chemistry loop (BCCL), a facility for the study of irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking, and one for the evaluation of in situ sensors for the monitoring of crack propagation in metal (SENSOR). The first two have now been fully operational for several years. The latter two are scheduled to begin regular operation later this year.

Harling, O.K.; Kohse, G.E.; Cabello, E.C.; Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Institute of Energy, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

344

Stereoisomerism in Coordination Chemistry: A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experimental procedure to acquaint inorganic chemistry students with stereochemical concepts using tris-(2,3-butanediamine)cobalt(III). Notes two isomeric forms exist and both form metal chelates. Separation is accomplished by chromatography and analysis is by NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Provides spectra of isomers. (MVL)|

Gargallo, Maria Fe; And Others

1988-01-01

345

Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

2012-01-01

346

IFluorescent Labels for In Situ Wet Chemistry Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet chemistry suites for in situ analysis of soil samples on Mars and other planets have been designed to detect chemical hazards and simple geological processes. However, simple additions to these suites could transform them into instruments for detection of living and perhaps extinct microbial life. Commercially available fluorescent dyes are able to label a variety of biological processes, although

Jeremiah A. Kloepfer; Jay L. Nadeau

347

Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

2012-01-01

348

Structure & Reactivity in Organic, Biological and Inorganic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of web-pages designed to support an integrated treatment of related topics from organic, inorganic and biochemistry. The topics are organized around common principles of structure or reactivity.

Schaller, Chris P.

349

Minimal impact of organic chemistry prerequisite on student performance in introductory biochemistry.  

PubMed

Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without the organic chemistry prerequisite. However, students who had not completed the organic chemistry prerequisite before biochemistry were more likely to withdraw from the course than those who had completed the prerequisite. In contrast to the lack of correlation between performance in biochemistry and completion of organic chemistry, we observed a strong, highly significant positive relationship between cumulative GPA and the biochemistry grade. Our data suggest that excluding students without organic chemistry would have less positive impact on student success in biochemistry than would providing additional support for all students who enroll in biochemistry with a cumulative GPA below 2.5. PMID:19255135

Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

2009-01-01

350

An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)|

Palmer, Richard E.

1985-01-01

351

ORGANIC MODERATED REACTOR CRITICAL EXPERIMENT HAZARDS SUMMARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was planned utilizing a critical assembly mock-; up with slightiy enriched fuel in a heterogeneous, organic-moderated lattice. ; The fuel elements are uranium metal fabricated into flat plate, box-type fuel ; elements and other elements of special design. The moderator and reflector are ; Santowax-R. The critical assembly vessel is designed of mild steel, about 6

Zwetzig

1958-01-01

352

Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.  

PubMed

During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system. PMID:11603399

Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

2001-01-01

353

A teaching intervention for reading laboratory experiments in college-level introductory chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that a pre-laboratory guide, conceptualized as a "scientific story grammar," has on college chemistry students' learning when they read an introductory chemistry laboratory manual and perform the experiments in the chemistry laboratory. The participants (N = 56) were students enrolled in four existing general chemistry laboratory sections taught by two instructors at a women's liberal arts college. The pre-laboratory guide consisted of eight questions about the experiment, including the purpose, chemical species, variables, chemical method, procedure, and hypothesis. The effects of the intervention were compared with those of the traditional pre-laboratory assignment for the eight chemistry experiments. Measures included quizzes, tests, chemistry achievement test, science process skills test, laboratory reports, laboratory average, and semester grade. The covariates were mathematical aptitude and prior knowledge of chemistry and science processes, on which the groups differed significantly. The study captured students' perceptions of their experience in general chemistry through a survey and interviews with eight students. The only significant differences in the treatment group's performance were in some subscores on lecture items and laboratory items on the quizzes. An apparent induction period was noted, in that significant measures occurred in mid-semester. Voluntary study with the pre-laboratory guide by control students precluded significant differences on measures given later in the semester. The groups' responses to the survey were similar. Significant instructor effects on three survey items were corroborated by the interviews. The researcher's students were more positive about their pre-laboratory tasks, enjoyed the laboratory sessions more, and were more confident about doing chemistry experiments than the laboratory instructor's groups due to differences in scaffolding by the instructors.

Kirk, Maria Kristine

354

Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

2011-01-01

355

Effects of additional nonmethane volatile organic compounds, organic nitrates, and direct emissions of oxygenated organic species on global tropospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work evaluates the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone and its precursors to the representation of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and organic nitrates. A global 3-D tropospheric chemistry/transport model (IMPACT) has been exercised initially using the GEOS-Chem chemical reaction mechanism. The model was then extended by adding emissions and photochemical reactions for aromatic and terpenoid hydrocarbons, and by adding explicit representation of hydroxy alkyl nitrates produced from isoprene. Emissions of methanol, phenol, acetic acid and formic acid associated with biomass burning were also added. Results show that O3 increases by 20% in most of the troposphere, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) increases by 30% over much of the troposphere and OH increases by 10%. NOx (NO + NO2) decreases near source regions and increases in remote locations, reflecting increased transport of NOx away from source regions by organic nitrates. The increase in O3 was driven largely by the increased role of PAN as a transporter of NOx and by the rerelease of NOx from isoprene nitrates. The increased PAN production was associated with increases in methyl glyoxal and hydroxyacetone. Comparison with measured values show reasonable agreement for O3 and PAN, but model measurement agreement does not either improve or degrade in the extended model. The extended model shows improved agreement with measurements for methanol, acetic acid and peroxypropional nitrate (PPN). Results from the extended model were consistent with measured alkyl nitrates and glycolaldehyde, but hydroxyacetone and methyl glyoxal were overestimated. The latter suggests that the effect of the isoprene nitrates is somewhat smaller than estimated here. Although the model measurement comparison does not show specific improvements with the extended model, it provides a more complete description of tropospheric chemistry that we believe is important to include.

Ito, Akinori; Sillman, Sanford; Penner, Joyce E.

2007-03-01

356

Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments.  

PubMed

An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical progression of research-inspired laboratory modules serves to "tour" the macroscopic characteristics of the fruit and the submicroscopic properties of its constituent cuticular biopolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods at increasingly detailed molecular levels. The modular curriculum can be tailored for specialty undergraduate courses or summer high school workshops. By applying analytical tools to investigate biopolymers, making connections between molecular and microscale structure, and linking both structural regimes to the functional properties of natural polymers, groundwork is established for further student investigations at the interface of chemistry with biology or chemical engineering. PMID:23526490

Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E

2012-12-14

357

Filtrates and Residues: Saturated and Unsaturated Fats: An Organic Chemistry Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for an experiment in which an oxidation reaction is used to distinguish saturated from unsaturated fats. Results of the experiment lead to discussions and investigations of such areas as digestion chemistry, enzymes, hydrogenation, and the relationship between heart disease and fat consumption.…

Broniec, Rick

1985-01-01

358

Filtrates and Residues: Saturated and Unsaturated Fats: An Organic Chemistry Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background information and procedures are provided for an experiment in which an oxidation reaction is used to distinguish saturated from unsaturated fats. Results of the experiment lead to discussions and investigations of such areas as digestion chemistry, enzymes, hydrogenation, and the relationship between heart disease and fat consumption.…

Broniec, Rick

1985-01-01

359

Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

Field, Christopher Ryan

2009-01-01

360

Insights into aerosol formation chemistry from comprehensive gas-phase precursor measurement in the TRAPOZ chamber experiments; an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols have a profound affect on the environment on local, regional and even global levels, with impacts including adverse health effects, (Alfarra, Paulsen et al. 2006) visibility reduction, cloud formation, direct radiative forcing (Charlson, Schwartz et al. 1992) and an important role in influencing the climate due to their contribution to important atmospheric processes (Baltensperger, Kalberer et al. 2005; Alfarra, Paulsen et al. 2006). The Total Radical Production from the OZonolysis of alkenes (TRAPOZ) project was used to study the gas phase and radical chemistry along with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation for a number of different alkenes and terpenes. In order to better the scientific knowledge regarding the oxidation mechanisms of terpene and alkene species along with radical and SOA formation, the experiments were conducted under varying conditions controlled and monitored by the EUropean PHOto REactor (EUPHORE) simulation chamber in Valencia, Spain. A vast number of instruments enabled a detailed examination of the chemistry within oxidation of each precursor. However the work here will focus on the results obtained from the University of Leicester Chemical Ionisation Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS). With regard to the gas phase chemistry an analysis of the degradation of the precursor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and evolution of certain gas phase species in each experiment has been presented and discussed.

Carr, Timo; Wyche, Kevin; Monks, Paul S.; Camredon, Marie; Alam, Mohammed S.; Bloss, William J.; Rickard, Andrew R.

2010-05-01

361

Recent advances in the organic chemistry of astatine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation on the chemical behaviour of astatine in the last decade are surveyed. The survey covers the physical and chemical properties of astatine, synthesis and identification of organic astatine compounds, their physicochemical properties. A specia...

K. Berei L. Vasaros

1994-01-01

362

Using biocatalysis to integrate organic chemistry into a molecular biology laboratory course.  

PubMed

Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We have developed an inquiry-based module that uses the mutagenesis of the yeast reductase, YDL124w, to study the bioorganic synthesis of the taxol side-chain, a pharmacologically important molecule. Using related structures, students identify regions they think will affect enzyme stereoselective, design and generate site-specific mutants, and then characterize the effect of these changes on enzyme activity. This laboratory activity gives our students experience, working in a scientific discipline outside of biology and exposes them to techniques and equipment they do not normally work with in a molecular biology course. These inter-disciplinary experiences not only show the relevance of other sciences to biology, but also give our students the ability to communicate more effectively with scientists outside their discipline. PMID:22419594

Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D; Mateer, Scott C

2012-02-14

363

Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular chemistry has developed a wide range of very powerful procedures for constructing ever more sophisticated molecules from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Beyond molecular chemistry lies supramolecular chemistry, which aims at developing highly complex chemical systems from components interacting via non-covalent intermolecular forces. By the appropriate manipulation of these interactions, supramolecular chemistry became progressively the chemistry of molecular information, involving the storage of information at the molecular level, in the structural features, and its retrieval, transfer, and processing at the supramolecular level, through molecular recognition processes operating via specific interactional algorithms. This has paved the way towards apprehending chemistry also as an information science. Numerous receptors capable of recognizing, i.e. selectively binding, specific substrates have been developed, based on the molecular information stored in the interacting species. Suitably functionalized receptors may perform supramolecular catalysis and selective transport processes. In combination with polymolecular organization, recognition opens ways towards the design of molecular and supramolecular devices based on functional (photoactive, electroactive, ionoactive, etc) components. A step beyond preorganization consists in the design of systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components. Self-organization processes, directed by the molecular information stored in the components and read out at the supramolecular level through specific interactions, represent the operation of programmed chemical systems. They have been implemented for the generation of a variety of discrete functional architectures of either organic or inorganic nature. Self-organization processes also give access to advanced supramolecular materials, such as supramolecular polymers and liquid crystals, and provide an original approach to nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, the spontaneous but controlled generation of well-defined, functional supramolecular architectures of nanometric size through self-organization represents a means of performing programmed engineering and processing of nanomaterials. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry, in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when a molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibly, so as to make possible a continuous change in constitution and structure by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. This behaviour defines a constitutional dynamic chemistry that allows self-organization by selection as well as by design at both the molecular and supramolecular levels. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization by selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation in a Darwinistic fashion. The merging of the features, information and programmability, dynamics and reversibility, constitution and structural diversity, points towards the emergence of adaptative and evolutionary chemistry. Together with the corresponding fields of physics and biology, it constitutes a science of informed matter, of organized, adaptative complex matter. This article was originally published in 2003 by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in the framework of its Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures series. Reprinted by permission of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Lehn, Jean-Marie

2004-03-01

364

General Chemistry Laboratory--Scientific Inquiry: 157 New Experiments in One Semester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

700 General Chemistry students were allowed to choose and run their own experiment. They went to the library to select an experiment from the literature, then they modified the experiment and performed it in the laboratory. Given the appropriate guidelines, the students were able to experience chemical research and thus get an idea of what science is really all about. The success of this laboratory is discussed from both the students' and staff's perspectives.

Black, Suzanne L.

1996-08-01

365

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: XCVIII. Experiments Involving Thermal Methods of Analysis for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains some experiments involving thermal methods of analysis for undergraduate chemistry laboratories. Some experiments are: (1) the determination of the density and degree of crystallinity of a polymer; and (2) the determination of the specific heat of a nonvolatile compound. (HM)|

Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

1978-01-01

366

GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

2007-01-01

367

Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

2008-01-01

368

Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

2008-01-01

369

Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

2010-01-01

370

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: XCVIII. Experiments Involving Thermal Methods of Analysis for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains some experiments involving thermal methods of analysis for undergraduate chemistry laboratories. Some experiments are: (1) the determination of the density and degree of crystallinity of a polymer; and (2) the determination of the specific heat of a nonvolatile compound. (HM)

Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

1978-01-01

371

Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

1983-01-01

372

Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)|

Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

1983-01-01

373

An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

Duxbury, Mark

2004-01-01

374

Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure…

Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

2008-01-01

375

Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple multiday laboratory exercise suitable for use in a high school or community college chemistry course or a biotechnology advanced placement biology course is described. In this experiment students gain experience in the use of column chromatography as a tool for the separation and characterization of biomolecules, thus expanding their…

Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K.

2008-01-01

376

Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

2010-01-01

377

Correlation of Preadmission Organic Chemistry Courses and Academic Performance in Biochemistry at a Midwest Chiropractic Doctoral Program*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Organic chemistry has been shown to correlate with academic success in the preclinical years of medicine, dentistry, and graduate physiology. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between undergraduate organic chemistry grades and first-semester biochemistry grades at a Midwest chiropractic doctoral program. Methods: Students enrolled in a first-semester biochemistry course who had completed the prerequisite courses in organic chemistry offered at this same institution were entered into the study. The total grade for each of the three courses was calculated using the midterm and final exam raw scores with a weighting of 50% each. Analysis consisted of obtaining correlation coefficients between the total grades of organic 1 with biochemistry and organic 2 with biochemistry. Using the biochemistry total grade, the students were divided into quartiles and course grades for both organic chemistry 1 and 2 were calculated. Results: For the 109 students in the study, the correlation coefficient between the biochemistry and organic chemistry 1 and biochemistry and organic chemistry 2 courses was r = 0.744 and r = 0.725, respectively. The difference in organic chemistry grades between those in the first and fourth quartiles was 63.2% and 86.9% for organic chemistry 1 (p < .001) and 60.9% and 79.4% for organic chemistry 2 (p < .001). Conclusion: This study shows that organic chemistry can be used as an indicator of future academic success in a chiropractic biochemistry course. Knowledge of such a relationship could prove useful to identify students who may potentially run into academic difficulty with first-year biochemistry

McRae, Marc P.

2010-01-01

378

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques…

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

379

Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory…

Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

2009-01-01

380

Reasonable Reasoning: Multi-Variate Problem-Solving in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to understand how students approach multi-variate problems, we report a study on the cues organic chemistry graduate students perceive from mechanism tasks, and the reasoning processes induced by those cues. We used the think-aloud protocol in interviews with sixteen graduate students as they worked on two types of tasks: one, in which…

Kraft, Adam; Strickland, Amanda M.; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

2010-01-01

381

Decorating with Arrows: Toward the Development of Representational Competence in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much effort has been expended in developing improved methods for presenting mechanistic thinking and the curved-arrow notation to organic chemistry students; however, most of these techniques are not research-based. The little research that has been conducted has mainly focused on understanding the meaning that students associate with the…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Rush, Kelli M.

2012-01-01

382

2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

Casey, Charles P.

2006-01-01

383

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation provides a major source of reactive carbon entering the atmosphere. These compounds play an important role in (1) shaping global tropospheric chemistry, (2) regional photochemical oxidant formation, (3) balancing the global carbon cycle, and (4) production of organic acids which contribute to acidic deposition in rural areas. Present estimates place the total annual global emission of these compounds between

Fred Fehsenfeld; Jack Calvert; Ray Fall; Paul Goldan; A. B. Guenther; C. N. Hewitt; Brian Lamb; Shaw Liu; Michael Trainer; Hal Westberg; Pat Zimmerman

1992-01-01

384

EPOCH: An Organic Chemistry Homework Program that Offers Response-Specific Feedback to Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Web-based organic chemistry home work program, EPOCH is developed, whose two most important features are that students draw structures as responses to posed questions, and then students receive feedback tailored specifically to their responses. EPOCH is a tool that can have a real effect on student learning and provides one-to-one interaction…

Chamala, Raghu Ram; Ciochina, Roxana; Grossman, Robert B.; Finkel, Raphael A.; Kannan, Saravana; Ramachandran, Prasanth

2006-01-01

385

Results Sections in Sociology and Organic Chemistry Articles: A Genre Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a genre study of the Results sections of two samples of 20 research-reporting articles from two disciplines: sociology and organic chemistry. Following the proposal of Bhatia (2004) that genre knowledge needs to be investigated from two perspectives, an "ethnographic perspective" and a "textual perspective," the Results sections…

Bruce, Ian

2009-01-01

386

Accidental Drowning or Foul Play?: A Case Study in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case was developed for a sophomore organic chemistry lab to illustrate how a combination of techniques is usually required in the identification of chemical compounds. It involves a murder mystery with a forensic twist: Two bodies have been recovered from two different lakes, but because of a mix-up at the morgue, the coroner is unable to…

Konaklieva, Monika

2004-01-01

387

EPOCH: An Organic Chemistry Homework Program that Offers Response-Specific Feedback to Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Web-based organic chemistry home work program, EPOCH is developed, whose two most important features are that students draw structures as responses to posed questions, and then students receive feedback tailored specifically to their responses. EPOCH is a tool that can have a real effect on student learning and provides one-to-one interaction…

Chamala, Raghu Ram; Ciochina, Roxana; Grossman, Robert B.; Finkel, Raphael A.; Kannan, Saravana; Ramachandran, Prasanth

2006-01-01

388

A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

2011-01-01

389

Using the Cambridge Structural Database to Teach Molecular Geometry Concepts in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a set of two homework assignments that can be used in a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry class. These assignments were designed to help reinforce concepts of molecular geometry and to give students the opportunity to use a technological database and data mining to analyze experimentally determined chemical…

Wackerly, Jay Wm.; Janowicz, Philip A.; Ritchey, Joshua A.; Caruso, Mary M.; Elliott, Erin L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

390

Teaching Biochemistry to Medical Students in Singapore - From Organic Chemistry to Problem-based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical faculty in the National University of Singapore started in 1905 but the Chair in Biochemistry was only established in 1927. For many years the biochemistry course consisted of the teaching of the organic chemistry of substances of physiological importance, nutrition, metabolism and hormones. In 1961, clinical biochemistry was introduced and in the 1980s, genetics and molecular biology were

Khoo Hoon Eng

391

Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

2012-01-01

392

Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory…

Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

2009-01-01

393

Sustaining Change in Upper Level Courses: Peer-Led Workshops in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our peer-led collaborative learning groups, called Workshops, have now had extended success in two upper-level courses in chemistry and biochemistry. These Workshops are in turn supported by a third upper-level course for training peer-leaders. Our data confirm that the initial positive results from the introduction of Workshops in organic

Platt, Terry; Roth, Vicki; Kampmeier, Jack A.

2008-01-01

394

Kinetics of bone cell organization and mineralization on materials with patterned surface chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials with spatially resolved chemistries (i.e. patterned surfaces) have been used to guide and organize the position of mammalian cells in vitro. A common theme in guiding the spatial distribution of cells has been the use of patterned alkylsiloxanes, where one region contains an aminosilane and the other an alkylsilane. The regions of the aminosilane served as preferential sites for

Kevin E. Healy; Carson H. Thomas; Alireza Rezania; Jung E. Kim; Patrick J. McKeown; Barbara Lom; Philip E. Hockberger

1996-01-01

395

Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Engaging Students with Cell Phone Technology in Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students of organic chemistry traditionally make 3 x 5 in. flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flash cards to be viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use…

Pursell, David P.

2009-01-01

396

Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

1983-01-01

397

The Titan Haze Simulation experiment: a laboratory study to explore the role of PAHs and PANHs in Titan's atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex organic chemistry between Titan's two main constituents, N2 and CH4, leads to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid organic aerosols. These aerosol particles form the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. In situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard Cassini have revealed the presence of large amounts of neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules in the ionosphere of Titan[1,2]. In particular, benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3)[3], which are critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, have been detected, suggesting that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan's aerosols. Moreover, results from numerical models[4,5] as well as laboratory simulations[6,7] of Titan's atmospheric chemistry are also suggesting chemical pathways that link the simple precursor molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN...) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (or PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. The aim of the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment is to study the chemical formation pathways, going from simple gas phase molecules to the more complex gas phase precursors of aerosols; and more specifically, to investigate the role of PAHs and PANHs in the nitrogen-methane enriched Titan atmosphere. In the THS experiment, Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated by a plasma jet expansion at pressure and temperature conditions close to those of Titan's atmosphere in the regions where aerosols are formed. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using two complementary techniques: Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy[8] and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry[9]. We will present the results of ongoing studies on different aspects of Titan's chemistry using various gas mixtures: from N2-CH4 gas mixtures at different CH4 concentrations to more targeted gas mixtures including trace elements present in Titan's atmosphere such as, for example, N2-C2H2, N2-C6H6 and N2-C2H2-C6H6 to study specific pathways to the production of PAHs and PANHs and large organic aerosols.

Sciamma-o'brien, E. M.; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

2011-12-01

398

Shock-induced chemistry in simple organic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrogating chemical reactions behind a shock front is immensely difficult, and as a result, the details of shock-induced chemistry remain poorly understood. Shock compression creates transient distorted structures from which molecular reactions initiate. Previous works have reported that dimerizations, polymerizations, ring-opening and decomposition reactions occur under shock compression, depending on molecular structure. Certainly for explosives, exothermic decomposition reactions ultimately drive self-supported detonation. Questions regarding the thresholds for incipient reaction for different chemical functional groups, the nature of first and subsequent reaction steps, and the influence of shock input conditions on reaction kinetics remain to be answered. Evidence of reaction can be discerned from discontinuities in the mechanical variables for reactions with a change in density along the reaction coordinate, similar to first-order phase transformations. Here, we have applied in-situ electromagnetic gauging at multiple Lagrangian positions to elucidate the evolution of multiple-wave structures associated with shock-induced reactions. We have applied in-situ gauging, in concert with reactive molecular dynamic simulations, to investigate shock-reactivity of several simple functional groups: carbon-carbon double (-C=C-) and triple bonds, and nitriles (e.g. phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile), and aromatic ring structures (benzene), all building blocks for explosives. From measurements of the reactive flow, we have obtained detailed information about the temporal evolution of the waves, and global kinetics associated with transformation(s) between partially- and fully-reacted states. Near the reactive threshold, evolution in particle velocities point to reaction timescales on the order of several hundred nanoseconds. We have defined the reactive cusp Hugoniot states, and established the relative order of group reactivity under single shock conditions. These observations will be compared with reactions from the solid phase under static high pressure/temperature conditions, with a description of crystalline phase, and identification of polymerized products by in-situ x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2011-06-01

399

Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques--which utilize commercially available products--facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor. (Contains 1 figure, 2 tables and 1…

Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit

2008-01-01

400

Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques--which utilize commercially available products--facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor. (Contains 1 figure, 2 tables and 1…

Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit

2008-01-01

401

Organic chemistry of fluids from sediment-buried young basement: discrete sampling from ODP borehole 1301A & 1025C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal systems profoundly influence seawater chemistry. However, the extent to which hydrothermal systems impact the quantity and the quality of the deep ocean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool remains unclear. To study the organic chemistry within sedimented ridge flank basement aquifers, discrete low temperature (~65°C & ~40°C) basement fluids were collected from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes via Circulation Obviation

H. Lin; J. P. Cowen; J. P. Amend; D. B. Albert; B. T. Glazer; M. Rappe; S. Jungbluth; M. Matzinger

2010-01-01

402

Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

403

Microgravity experiments in the field of physical chemistry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan has been operating 'KIBO' (`hope' in Japanese) as Japanese experimental module on ISS (International Space Station) to perform researches on physical, life, medical, space sciences in space. Several research racks and facilities have already been accommodated in the pressurized module of 'KIBO' and some researches have already been carried out. Japan currently has 17 ISS flight projects (including 4 candidates) in the field of physical sciences and also incubates new projects through are search support program named as 'research WG (Working Group)', where 25 research WGs are active in the field of physical sciences. Those include 1 flight candidate and 2 research WGs in the field of physical chemistry. The article introduces those to promote international collaborations.

Natsuisaka, M.; Tsujii, K.; Shimomura, M.; Yabu, H.; Hirai, Y.; Mashiko, T.; Deguchi, S.; Mukai, S.; Inoue, Y.; Nishiyama, Y.; Sawada, M.; Okumura, K.; Sakamoto, K.

2011-12-01

404

Discovering Factors that Influence the Decision to Pursue a Chemistry-Related Career: A Comparative Analysis of the Experiences of Non Scientist Adults and Chemistry Teachers in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims at identifying factors that influence students' choice not to pursue a chemistry-related career by analyzing the experiences of secondary education chemistry teachers in Greece and of Greek adults who have not pursued studies related to science. Data collection was done with the method of individual structured interviews. The…

Salta, Katerina; Gekos, Michael; Petsimeri, Irene; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

2012-01-01

405

Interactions between Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Soil Organic Matter Chemistry in Arctic Tundra Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used long-term laboratory incubations and chemical fractionation to characterize the mineralization dynamics of organic\\u000a soils from tussock, shrub, and wet meadow tundra communities, to determine the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a decomposition and chemistry, and to quantify the relative proportions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in tundra SOM that are\\u000a biologically available for decomposition. In all soils

Michael N. Weintraub; Joshua P. Schimel

2003-01-01

406

``Hands on'' Experiments in Integrated Approach in Teaching Physics and Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerated technological development, which represents a natural frame of growing up of young generations, in parallel with the decline of their interest in physics, chemistry and natural sciences in general, imposes an enhanced in teaching process. In integrated approach in teaching of physics and chemistry, ``Hands on'' experiments are of multiple significance. They enable active participation of the learners in the teaching process, enable them to realize that science is all around us, and that it plays an essential role in the contemporary world. On the other hand, one of the possibilities of science popularization is through the implementation of ``Hands on'' experiments into the educational process. In this work the authors propose how to realize some subjects in teaching about heat in integrated approach of physics and chemistry and how to implement some simple experiments into the teaching process.

Obadovi?, D. Ž.; Segedinac, M. D.; Stojanovi?, M. M.

2007-04-01

407

Tholins - Organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses tholins, defined as complex organic solids formed by the interaction of energy - for example, UV light or spark discharge - with various mixtures of cosmically abundant gases - CH4, C2H6, NH3, H2O, HCHO, and H2S. It is suggested that tholins occur in the interstellar medium and are responsible for some of the properties of the interstellar

Carl Sagan; B. N. Khare

1979-01-01

408

Computer Programs for Chemistry Experiments I and II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit of instruction includes nine laboratory experiments. All of the experiments are from the D.C. Health Revision of the Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) with one exception. Program six is the lab from the original version of the CHEMS program. Each program consists of three parts (1) the lab and computer hints, (2) the…

Reynard, Dale C.

409

Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

2010-01-01

410

Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

2010-01-01

411

Eliciting Metacognitive Experiences and Reflection in a Year 11 Chemistry Classroom: An Activity Theory Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.

Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

2013-06-01

412

The Reaction Rolodex; A Web-Based System for Learning Reactions in Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web-based system of note cards has been developed to aid students in learning the vast number of reactions encountered in organic chemistry. A thorough knowledge of these reactions is essential for success in first- and second-semester organic chemistry courses. The reactions are organized by functional group and can be chosen from a menu at the left side of the Web page. Once a particular reaction has been selected, the main frame displays the reactant(s) and reagent(s) along with a question mark in place of the product. After considering the reaction as long as needed, the user can click the question mark to reveal the reaction product. Clicking the product will again hide the answer and regenerate the question mark so that the reaction can be practiced again. Selecting other reactions from the menu on the left allows them to be practiced in the same manner.

413

50-Minute Experiment: Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists equipment and materials needed and procedures for analyzing soil, in which secondary school students experience practical applications to acid-base reactions, pH, oxidation-reduction, precipitation and solubility. (CS)

Baruch, Gerard, Ed.; And Others

1980-01-01

414

50-Minute Experiment: Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lists equipment and materials needed and procedures for analyzing soil, in which secondary school students experience practical applications to acid-base reactions, pH, oxidation-reduction, precipitation and solubility. (CS)|

Baruch, Gerard, Ed.; And Others

1980-01-01

415

Lasers in the Undergraduate Curriculum II: Coursework Experiments and Research Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are 14 experiments that use lasers. Topic areas include physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry. Instrumentation and the use of the laser in undergraduate research are discussed. (CW)

Steehler, Jack K.

1990-01-01

416

Lasers in the Undergraduate Curriculum II: Coursework Experiments and Research Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are 14 experiments that use lasers. Topic areas include physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry. Instrumentation and the use of the laser in undergraduate research are discussed. (CW)|

Steehler, Jack K.

1990-01-01

417

Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis.  

PubMed

Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid. PMID:20300506

Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

2009-11-30

418

Electrochemistry in a Nutshell: A General Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment uses a nine-chambered plexiglas unit to facilitate rapid construction of galvanic cells and measurement of cell voltage. Using this procedure, a pair of students can construct and obtain the cell voltages of two precipitation cells, three concentration cells, and six redox cells in 30-40 minutes. (BB)

Baca, Glenn; Lewis, Dennis A.

1978-01-01

419

Coulometric Analysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An undergraduate experiment on coulometric analysis of four commercial household products is presented. A special type of coulometry cell made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer is utilized. The PDMS cell consists of multiple analyte compartments and an internal network of salt bridges. Experimental procedure for the analysis of the acid in a…

Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Thor, Ryan

2011-01-01

420

Foam Fractionation of Lycopene: An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by foam fractionation is described. Foam fractionation is a process for separating and concentrating chemicals by utilizing differences in their surface activities. Extraction of lycopene by foam fractionation is a new method that has not been previously reported in the…

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mingjie; Hu, Yongliang

2010-01-01

421

Sampling Error in a Particulate Mixture: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an undergraduate experiment demonstrating sampling error. Selected as the sampling system is a mixture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and sucrose; using a self-zeroing, automatically refillable buret to minimize titration time of multiple samples and employing a dilute back-titrant to obtain high end-point precision. (CS)|

Kratochvil, Byron

1980-01-01

422

Foam Fractionation of Lycopene: An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by foam fractionation is described. Foam fractionation is a process for separating and concentrating chemicals by utilizing differences in their surface activities. Extraction of lycopene by foam fractionation is a new method that has not been previously reported in the…

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mingjie; Hu, Yongliang

2010-01-01

423

Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)|

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1988-01-01

424

Laser-Induced Molecular Fluorescence: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a companion experiment to the experimental study of the di-iodide visible absorption spectrum. Experimental details, interpretation, and data analysis are provided for an analysis of the di-iodide fluorescence excited by a visible laser, using a Raman instrument. (CS)|

Tellinghuisen, Joel

1981-01-01

425

Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.|

Ellison, Herbert R.

2005-01-01

426

Chemical insights, explicit chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol from methylglyoxal and glyoxal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospherically abundant, volatile water soluble organic compounds formed through gas phase chemistry (e.g., glyoxal (C2), methylglyoxal (C3) and acetic acid) have great potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via aqueous chemistry in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols. This paper (1) provides chemical insights into aqueous-phase OH radical-initiated reactions leading to SOA formation from methylglyoxal and (2) uses this and a previously published glyoxal mechanism (Lim et al., 2010) to provide SOA yields for use in chemical transport models. Detailed reaction mechanisms including peroxy radical chemistry and a full kinetic model for aqueous photochemistry of acetic acid and methylglyoxal are developed and validated by comparing simulations with the experimental results from previous studies (Tan et al., 2010, 2012). This new methylglyoxal model is then combined with the previous glyoxal model (Lim et al., 2010), and is used to simulate the profiles of products and to estimate SOA yields. At cloud relevant concentrations (∼ 10-6-∼ 10-3 M; Munger et al., 1995) of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the major photooxidation products are oxalic acid and pyruvic acid, and simulated SOA yields (by mass) are ∼ 120% for glyoxal and ∼ 80% for methylglyoxal. Oligomerization of unreacted aldehydes during droplet evaporation could enhance yields. In wet aerosols, where total dissolved organics are present at much higher concentrations (∼ 10 M), the major products are oligomers formed via organic radical-radical reactions, and simulated SOA yields (by mass) are ∼ 90% for both glyoxal and methylglyoxal.

Lim, Y. B.; Tan, Y.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-02-01

427

Booknote: Core Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Marye Anne Fox and James K. Whitesell)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jones and Bartlett: Sudbury, MA, 1997. 928 pp. ISBN 0763703672. 71.25. "This version...answers your request for an organic chemistry text that you can cover completely in a two-semester course." Such is Jones and Bartlett's rationale for omitting the special-topics chapters 17-23 from the second edition of Fox and Whitesell's more ambitious Organic Chemistry text. The 16 chapters that remain as this Core Organic Chemistry text are identical to those in the parent text. The strengths and advantages of the authors' approach to presenting organic chemistry remain, of course (J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1045-1046). To select a text on the basis of whether most pages can be covered seems a tenuous choice. A more important question is what value to the student is gained or lost by the choice made. Is it of greater value to provide a less voluminous (by 320 pages), less weighty (by about 1.2 pounds), and less expensive (88.75 vs $71.25) book, or to provide the students with the opportunity to read, perhaps on their own initiative, chapters on polymeric materials, naturally occurring oxygen and nitrogen compounds, noncovalent interactions and molecular recognition, molecular recognition of chiral molecules, catalyzed reactions, cofactors for biological reactions, energy storage in organic molecules, and molecular basis for drug action? I would argue that the potential for benefit to the student is better served by having those topics available for perusal, even if not formally presented in the class. It should be noted that arrangements can be made to purchase any of these special topics separately, and integrate them into a course as desired.

Stradling, Samuel S.

1998-11-01

428

Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.|

Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

2007-01-01

429

Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)|

Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

2012-01-01

430

Coloring a Superabsorbent Polymer with Metal Ions: An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A novel undergraduate chemistry experiment involving superabsorbent polymers commonly used in diapers and other personal care products is described. Students observe the removal of divalent transition-metal ions from aqueous solutions by the polymers. With the procedures provided, students are able to color the superabsorbent polymers with metal…

Yaung, Jing-Fun; Chen, Yueh-Huey

2009-01-01

431

Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

2009-01-01

432

An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.|

Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

2007-01-01

433

A Practical and Convenient Diffusion Apparatus: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a diffusion apparatus to be used in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment to determine the diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions of sucrose and potassium dichromate. Included is the principle of the method, apparatus design and description, and experimental procedure. (Author/DS)|

Clifford, Ben; Ochiai, E. I.

1980-01-01

434

EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

Eastman, Michael P.

1982-01-01

435

A Practical and Convenient Diffusion Apparatus: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a diffusion apparatus to be used in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment to determine the diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions of sucrose and potassium dichromate. Included is the principle of the method, apparatus design and description, and experimental procedure. (Author/DS)

Clifford, Ben; Ochiai, E. I.

1980-01-01

436

Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

2011-01-01

437

A Multi-Technique Forensic Experiment for a Nonscience-Major Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This multi-technique experiment with a forensic theme was developed for a nonscience-major chemistry course. The students are provided with solid samples and informed that the samples are either cocaine or a combination of drugs designed to mimic the stimulant and anesthetic qualities of cocaine such as caffeine and lidocaine. The students carry…

Szalay, Paul S.; Zook-Gerdau, Lois Anne; Schurter, Eric J.

2011-01-01

438

Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

2011-01-01

439

Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

2012-01-01

440

Reform and innovation of the curriculum the environmental chemistry experiment of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have some reform in the environmental chemistry experiment of water from grade 2003 to grade 2007 in aquaculture, they include three ways: the reform of teaching content, the reform of experimental teaching methods and the reform of the examination method.

Xuehong Wang; Wenyan Lin

2010-01-01

441

An Attenuated Total Reflectance Sensor for Copper: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sensor experiment which can be applied to advanced undergraduate laboratory course in physical or analytical chemistry is described along with certain concepts like the demonstration of chemical sensing, preparation of thin films on a substrate, microtitration, optical determination of complex ion stoichiometry and isosbestic point. It is seen…

Shtoyko, Tanya; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Richardson, John N.

2004-01-01

442

Suitable Class Experiments in Biochemistry for High-school Chemistry and Biology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates the scope of experimental investigations for biochemistry education in high school biology and chemistry courses. Gives a brief overview of biochemistry experiments with proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins, metabolism, electron transport, and photosynthesis including materials, procedures, and outcomes.…

Myers, A.

1987-01-01

443

Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

2011-01-01

444

EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

Eastman, Michael P.

1982-01-01

445

Wet Chemistry on SAM: How it Helps to Detect Organics on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars with wet chemistry. This analytical technique modifies organic components in such a way that improves their detection, either by releasing the compounds from sample matrices, or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter effect is particularly important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, onboards two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization [1-2] and thermochemolysis [3-4]. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment in SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in the first SAM analyzes, and the implications of this detection. Chemical derivatization of polar molecular compounds is achieved by the MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) / DMF (Dimethylformamide) silylation reaction in order to transform refractory polar compounds into a more volatile form that can be analyzed and detected by GCMS. The first samples of Martian soil (Rocknest, Gale crater) have been analyzed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) and via GC using thermal conductivity (TCD) and MS detection. The samples have been heated up to approximately 840°C with a heating rate of 35°C/min under He flow. The evolved gas was analyzed directly by the QMS in EGA mode. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax TA, Carbosieve G) over a specific temperature range. Trapped volatiles were then released by heating the trap to ~300 °C and sent to the GC under He flow. The first results obtained when running an analysis with an empty cup (no solid sample) showed the presence of MTBSTFA in the system. MTBSTFA was first detected in the EGA-QMS analysis blank then by GC-TCD-QMS analysis. This means that MTBSTFA is part of the background signal under its gaseous phase and is derived from at least one of the seven MTBSTFA/DMF derivatization cups in SAM. Since MTBSTFA is able to react in the gaseous phase, its detection implies the possibility to have some MTBSTFA reactions with all the labile compounds possibly present in the Martian soil, in the sampling system and/or inside the SAM instrument. In addition, we also have observed the presence of compounds resulting from the derivatization reaction between MTBSTFA and water. Indeed, water has been detected by two ways: the EGA experiment and the GC-TCD-MS run. Due to the presence of mono- and bi-silylated water derivatives, several characteristic ions can be detected in the EGA mode (e.g. m/z = 147, 73), and two characteristic peaks in the GC-TCD-MS analysis are also observed. In addition to water, a sylilated chloride compound has been detected after pyrolysis of the Rocknest soil. This compound is the simplest chloride derivative compound: chloro(1,1-dimethylethyl)dimethyl-silane, and it co-elutes with the mono-sylilated water derivative. [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Stalport, F. et al. (2012) Planet. Space Sci. 67: 1-13. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

Buch, Arnaud; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Danny; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Eigenbrode, Jen; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jen; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Dworkin, Jason; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

2013-04-01

446

Catalysis and Organometallic Chemistry of Rhodium and Iridium in the Oxidation of Organic Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to present a survey of the organometallic chemistry and catalysis\\u000a of rhodium and iridium related to the oxidation of organic substrates that has been developed over the last\\u000a 5 years, placing special emphasis on reactions or processes involving environmentally friendly oxidants.\\u000a Iridium-based catalysts appear to be promising candidates for the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes\\/ketones\\u000a as

Cristina Tejel; Miguel Ciriano

447

Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects.

Staley, Joanna T.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W.; Wright, Denis J.; Leather, Simon R.; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T.; van Emden, Helmut F.; Poppy, Guy M.

2010-01-01

448

[Investigation of biologically active compounds at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen between 1992-2009 II].  

PubMed

The author briefly reviews some important phases of flavonoid chemistry in Hungary with special regard to the results achieved at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen and summarizes the most important synthetic and pharmaceutical results obtained in this field between 1992-2009. PMID:20183951

Antus, Sándor

2009-01-01

449

[Investigation of biologically active compounds at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen 1992-2009. Part III].  

PubMed

The author briefly reviews the beginning of the carbohydrate chemistry in Hungary with special regard to the results achieved at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen and summarizes the most important synthetic and pharmaceutical results obtained in this field between 1992-2009, part III. PMID:20443363

Antus, Sándor

2010-01-01

450

3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry  

PubMed Central

Summary We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products.

Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J

2013-01-01

451

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

452

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

453

A Poster Session in Organic Chemistry That Markedly Enhanced Student Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry courses worldwide have experienced dwindling student numbers and decreasing success rates in recent years. This has led to many proposals on ways to get students actively involved in their courses. At the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, our ChemII course has suffered a similar fate and the introduction of cooperative small group tutorials to get students actively involved in the learning process has met with limited success. Further innovations were introduced into the Organic II module, but students' perception of the module remained negative and their commitment to it has dwindled over the years. In the first semester of 1998 the ChemII class at Wits performed particularly poorly and only 23% of the students passed. In an attempt to improve this situation in the second semester, a poster presentation session was introduced into the Organic II module. The choice of topic for the poster was found to be crucial to the success of the innovation, which resulted in students' increased enthusiasm for, commitment to, and understanding of organic chemistry. Relative to the previous year, the class average for the Organic II module increased by 10% and the pass rate by 30% while the class average and pass rates in the other three ChemII modules (inorganic, analytical and physical) dropped by comparable amounts. This improvement in performance in the Organic II module is credited to the poster presentations shifting most students from a "futile learning cycle" into a "productive" one.

Huddle, P. A.

2000-09-01

454

The impact of recirculation, ventilation and filters on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the impact of recirculation rates (7 and 14 h -1), ventilation rates (1 and 2 h -1), and filtration on secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated by ozone of outdoor origin reacting with limonene of indoor origin. Experiments were conducted within a recirculating air handling system that serviced an unoccupied, 236 m 3 environmental chamber configured to simulate an office; either no filter, a new filter or a used filter was located downstream of where outdoor air mixed with return air. For otherwise comparable conditions, the SOA number and mass concentrations at a recirculation rate of 14 h -1 were significantly smaller than at a recirculation rate of 7 h -1. This was due primarily to lower ozone concentrations, resulting from increased surface removal, at the higher recirculation rate. Increased ventilation increased outdoor-to-indoor transport of ozone, but this was more than offset by the increased dilution of SOA derived from ozone-initiated chemistry. The presence of a particle filter (new or used) strikingly lowered SOA number and mass concentrations compared with conditions when no filter was present. Even though the particle filter in this study had only 35% single-pass removal efficiency for 100 nm particles, filtration efficiency was greatly amplified by recirculation. SOA particle levels were reduced to an even greater extent when an activated carbon filter was in the system, due to ozone removal by the carbon filter. These findings improve our understanding of the influence of commonly employed energy saving procedures on occupant exposures to ozone and ozone-derived SOA.

Fadeyi, M. O.; Weschler, C. J.; Tham, K. W.

455

Research and Teaching: A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and

Grose-Fifer, Jilliam; Phillips, Karen E.

2011-01-01

456

Organic Chemistry: Radioactive Carbohydrates, Sugars in Solution, Aldol Condensations, Molecular Structure, Synthesis of Selected Compounds, Air Polution Studies, Reference Materials (Organic) July 1964 to June 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes work in progress in the Organic Chemistry Section at the National Bureau of Standards on the following subjects: Synthesis of carbon-14- and tritium-labeled carbohydrates, isotope dilution and double-lavel methods of analysis, determi...

H. S. Isbell

1965-01-01

457

Preparation of cyclodextrin chiral stationary phases by organic soluble catalytic 'click' chemistry.  

PubMed

We describe an effective and simple protocol that uses click chemistry to attach native ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) to silica particles, resulting in a chiral stationary phase (CCNCSP) that can be used for the enantioseparation of chiral drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Starting from ?-CD, the CCNCSP is prepared in several steps: (i) reaction of ?-CD with 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-imidazole to afford mono-6-toluenesulfonyl-?-CD; (ii) azidolysis of mono-6-toluenesulfonyl-?-CD in dimethylformamide to give mono-6-azido-?-CD (N(3)-CD); (iii) reaction of cuprous iodide with triphenylphosphine to form an organic soluble catalyst CuI(PPh(3)); (iv) preparation of alkynyl-modified silica particles; and (v) click chemistry immobilization of N(3)-CD onto alkynyl-modified silica to afford the desired chiral stationary phase. Synthesis of the stationary phase and column packing takes ?1 week. PMID:21720308

Wang, Yong; Chen, Hui; Xiao, Yin; Ng, Cheong Hengq; Oh, Ting Shan; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Ng, Siu Choon

2011-06-09

458

Teaching innovation in organic chemistry: An inquiry into what happens when the lecturer stops lecturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation the author presents findings from a study of an organic chemistry class in which the instructor changed his mode of content delivery. Instead of using a traditional lecture, the professor engaged students in discussions about chemical behavior, required students to complete cooperative learning activities in and out of class, and altered his examination format. The purpose of the research was to investigate the implementation of the changes made in content delivery, describe subsequent classroom interactions, and discuss participant responses to the innovations. Because of the research focus the author used a qualitative methodology to investigate this unique organic chemistry course. The study showed that the instructor's belief system and skills played an important role in overcoming barriers to implementation. Analysis of class transcripts revealed that the class was highly interactive with students freely offering responses to the instructor's questions and sometimes submitting insightful comments. The discussion format of the class also revealed some student misunderstanding that other teaching structures may not have identified. In general the instructor was able to pursue some concepts in more depth than allowed by a typical lecture mode of content delivery. Analysis of class transcripts also showed characteristics of organic chemistry teaching by Prof. Loudon that might be described as exemplary. He focused student attention on molecular structure and the chemical behavioral patterns that emerge from organic compounds that are structurally similar. Student response to Prof. Loudon's teaching style was quite favorable. A common remark from students was that his personal knowledge of them contributed to their class preparation and desire to learn. In general, students appreciated the opportunity to discuss exam questions in their groups before individual exam administration. On the final course evaluation, however, a couple students expressed disdain towards the exam format stating that sometimes fellow group members led them astray. Several also said that the discussion contributed to anxiety instead of making the examination period more relaxed as Prof. Loudon had hoped.

Bauer, Richard Charles

459

Fostering Pre-service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation Through Green Chemistry Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a green chemistry curriculum changes Malaysian pre-service teachers' environmental motivation. Two comparable groups of pre-service teachers participated in this study. The students in the experimental group ( N = 140) did green chemistry experiments whereas the control group ( N = 123) did equivalent experiments in a traditional manner. Posttest results indicate that there is significant difference between both the groups for intrinsic motivation, integration, identification, and introjections scales and no differences for external regulation and amotivation scales. The qualitative analysis of interview data suggests that the changes are predominantly due to the personal satisfaction that participants derived from engaging in pro-environmental behavior.

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2012-10-01

460

Projectile compositions and modal frequencies on the chemistry of micrometeoroids LDEF experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids Experiment (LDEF instrument A0187-1) exposed witness plates of high-purity gold (greater than 99.99 percent Au) and commercial aluminum (greater than 99 percent Al) with the objective of analyzing the residues of cosmic-dust and orbital-debris particles associated with hypervelocity impact craters. The gold substrates were located approximately 8 deg off LDEF's trailing edge (Bay A03), while the

Ronald P. Bernhard; Thomas H. See; Friedrich Hoerz

1993-01-01

461

Initial validation comparisons for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 8 January 2005; revised 27 February 2005; accepted 8 March 2005; published 22 June 2005. (1) The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) is the primary instrument for the ACE satellite mission. The initial validation of ozone profiles from ACE-FTS is based on comparisons with profiles from satellite-borne instruments and balloon-borne ozonesondes. The satellite instruments include the SAGE

Kaley A. Walker; Cora E. Randall; Charles R. Trepte; Christopher D. Boone; Peter F. Bernath

2005-01-01

462

Control of interfacial chemistry and reactivity using self-assembled organic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin organic films have been fabricated using both polymers and monomers on solid supports. Interfacial chemistry was controlled and characterized for these surfaces with the intention of applying well-controlled surface chemistry to study interfacial interactions in biological systems. Polysiloxanes grafted with either alkyl disulfide or trichlorosilane anchor groups and perfluoroalkyl side chains have been synthesized and characterized. These terpolymer systems assemble spontaneously on gold or silicon wafer surfaces, forming bound polymeric monolayers organized by intramolecular phase separation. A variety of surface analytical techniques has been used to show that immiscible perfluoroalkyl side chains of low interfacial energy enrich the ambient-exposed outer regions of these monolayers, yielding a novel bound polymer monolayer with an anisotropic, layered structure and perfluorinated surface properties. Polymer-modified ultrathin films have also been fabricated by covalent immobilization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers in sequential reactions to olefin-terminated alkylsilane monolayers on silicon oxide. Film surface chemistry and interfacial energy are modified significantly using this approach. Monomer omega-functionalized alkylthiol molecules have been synthesized as organic monolayer components. Surface analytical measurements show that these molecules form good quality monolayer structures on gold $ surfaces. These well-tailored self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces were used as model interfaces in biological milieu. Amino acid-substituted mutants of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme were used to study mutual influences of protein structure and monolayer surface chemistry. In-situ ellipsometry was applied to study the adsorption kinetics of these site-directed T4 lysozyme mutanes to the different self-assembled monolayer surfaces. Protein adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorbed amounts are influenced by surface properties, protein structure, and protein stability. T4 lysozyme adsorption behavior appears to depend on many aspects of surface chemistry, not simply surface hydrophobicity. Oligo(ethylene glycol) terminated surfaces show the lowest T4 lysozyme adsorption. Molecular modeling which includes protein-protein interactions shows reasonable fits for protein adsorption curves. Kinetic parameters indicated that the least structurally stable tryptophan T4 lysozyme mutant adsorbs to -CHsb3, -CFsb3$ and -COOH terminated self-assembled monolayers faster and tighter than the other T4 lysozyme mutants.

Mao, Guoqiang

463

S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

Hart, Kathy, Ed.

464

Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

2011-01-01

465

S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

Hart, Kathy, Ed.

466

Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of organic aerosols (OA) in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3-10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25) not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15-20 ug m-3, and SOA peaking at 10-15 ?g m-3 during mid-day. The majority (> 75%) of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by *- hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, B.; Baker, A.; Camredon, M.; Hodzic, Alma; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, Eric; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-12-21

467

Structural diversity of organic chemistry. A scaffold analysis of the CAS Registry.  

PubMed

By analyzing the scaffold content of the CAS Registry, we attempt to characterize in a comprehensive way the structural diversity of organic chemistry. The scaffold of a molecule is taken to be its framework, defined as all its ring systems and all the linkers that connect them. Framework data from more than 24 million organic compounds is analyzed. The distribution of frameworks among compounds is found to be top-heavy, i.e., a small percentage of frameworks occur in a large percentage of compounds. When frameworks are analyzed at the graph level, an even more top-heavy distribution is found: half of the compounds can be described by only 143 framework shapes. The most significant finding is that the framework distribution conforms almost exactly to a power law. This suggests that the more often a framework has been used as the basis for a compound, the more likely it is to be used in another compound. This may be explained by the cost of synthesis: making a new derivative of a framework is probably less costly if many other derivatives are known. We believe this power law is evidence that the minimization of synthetic cost has been a key factor in shaping the known universe of organic chemistry. PMID:18505297

Lipkus, Alan H; Yuan, Qiong; Lucas, Karen A; Funk, Susan A; Bartelt, William F; Schenck, Roger J; Trippe, Anthony J

2008-05-28

468

Explicit Modeling of Organic Chemistry and SOA Partitioning in Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) model to simulate the composition of organic aerosol in Mexico City's urban atmosphere and outflow plume during the MILAGRO campaign. The mechanism is extremely detailed, treating 5.9 million gas phase reactions among > 1 million species. Gas/aerosol partitioning is treated by Raoult's law-type condensation for > 275 000 non-radical species. We are able to speciate the simulated primary and secondary organic aerosol (POA and SOA) and find that it is distributed somewhat equally between species of different carbon number (with C>5), despite large disparities in emissions and gas-phase abundance. Over 90% of the total burden of C23+ carbon is present as POA. Close to the source region, the simulated SOA is composed predominantly of delta-hydroxy-ketones and hydroxy-nitrates. SOA functionality becomes more diverse with age downwind, reflecting a shift from high-NOx to low-NOx chemistry within the plume. In addition, the degree of substitution increases as SOA ages, resulting in greater relative contributions from lower carbon-number species. Compared to observations, the modeled O/C ratio of the aerosol is lower and the N/C ratio is higher, suggesting that additional important reaction pathways either in the gas or the particle phase remain to be elucidated.

Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Apel, E. C.; Hodzic, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Valorso, R.

2010-12-01

469

A New GC-MS Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Environmental Chemistry: Methyl-t-butyl Ether and Benzene in Gasoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent ACS approval of an option in environmental chemistry at the undergraduate level, there is a need for new experiments that illustrate fundamental principles of instrumental analysis in the context of environmental chemistry. We describe an experiment that utilizes combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene in gasoline. This is particularly appropriate, given the increased use of oxygenates in reformulated gasolines in the United States. In addition to illustrating the fundamentals of GC and MS, this experiment demonstrates (i) the use of internal standards to improve precision; (ii) the application of the method of standard additions; and (iii) the importance of techniques such as selected ion extraction/monitoring in the identification and measurement of specific highly volatile organic compounds in complex environmental mixtures.

Quach, Dinh T.; Ciszkowski, Nancy A.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

1998-12-01

470

Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes--A Discovery Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment in chemical kinetics as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum is described. Discovery Chemistry is a pedagogical philosophy that makes the laboratory the key center of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. Questions are posed in the pre-laboratory discussion and assessed using pooled…

Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P.

2008-01-01

471

Protein organic chemistry and applications for labeling and engineering in live-cell systems.  

PubMed

The modification of proteins with synthetic probes is a powerful means of elucidating and engineering the functions of proteins both in vitro and in live cells or in vivo. Herein we review recent progress in chemistry-based protein modification methods and their application in protein engineering, with particular emphasis on the following four strategies: 1) the bioconjugation reactions of amino acids on the surfaces of natural proteins, mainly applied in test-tube settings; 2) the bioorthogonal reactions of proteins with non-natural functional groups; 3) the coupling of recognition and reactive sites using an enzyme or short peptide tag-probe pair for labeling natural amino acids; and 4) ligand-directed labeling chemistries for the selective labeling of endogenous proteins in living systems. Overall, these techniques represent a useful set of tools for application in chemical biology, with the methods 2-4 in particular being applicable to crude (living) habitats. Although still in its infancy, the use of organic chemistry for the manipulation of endogenous proteins, with subsequent applications in living systems, represents a worthy challenge for many chemists. PMID:23426903

Takaoka, Yousuke; Ojida, Akio; Hamachi, Itaru

2013-02-20

472

Towards a more detailed description of tropospheric aqueous phase organic chemistry: CAPRAM 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAPRAM 3.0 is the latest development of the chemical aqueous phase\\u000a radical mechanism (CAPRAM) series which is incorporating CAPRAM 2.4\\u000a (Ervens et al., 2003a, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 108)\\u000a and a new extended reaction mechanism for atmospherically relevant\\u000a hydrocarbons containing more than two and up to six carbon atoms. The\\u000a chemistry of organics containing three and four carbon atoms is

H. Herrmann; A. Tilgner; P. Barzaghi; Z. Majdik; S. Gligorovski; L. Poulain; A. Monod

2005-01-01

473

Biocatalytic asymmetric amination of carbonyl functional groups - a synthetic biology approach to organic chemistry.  

PubMed

Transaminases catalyze amino transfer reactions from amino donors such as amino acids or amines to keto acids or ketones to give chiral amino acid or amines in optically pure form. alpha-Amino acid dehydrogenases catalyze the asymmetric reductive amination of alpha-keto acids using ammonia as amino donor to furnish L-amino acids. The distinct features and synthetic application of these two enzymes are reviewed in an effort to illustrate their promising and challenging aspects in serving as approaches to the direct asymmetric synthesis of optically pure amines from the corresponding keto compounds, a formidable problem in organic chemistry. PMID:19757497

Zhu, Dunming; Hua, Ling

2009-10-01

474

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: A Problem-Solving and Collaborative-Learning Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-centered approach to teaching introductory organic chemistry has been developed to accommodate large (250+ students) course sections. Through collaborative problem-solving, students are required to begin to develop the critical, creative, and complex thinking skills of chemical practitioners. These skills are emphasized in both classroom and lab components of courses. Course evaluations by students and teaching assistants attest to the success of this pedagogical approach. The teaching style required of teaching assistants is discussed and some of the pedagogical tools that have been developed are discussed.

Browne, Lois M.; Blackburn, Edward V.

1999-08-01

475

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

476

Detonation chemistry apparatus experiments with nonreactive liquids, reactive liquids, and a reactive solid  

SciTech Connect

The detonation chemistry apparatus was designed to analyze the results of detonating small quantities of explosives or the results of rapidly mixing reactants. The diagnostics are rapid Schlieren photography of the emitted plume (up to 10 photographs per microsecond) and rapid mass spectroscopy (12 {micro}s per scan). The authors report here the results of a series of experiments with two liquids that do not react exothermically and another series with liquids that do react exothermically. They also report some experiments with a solid reactant, Teflon.

Lyman, J.; Fry, H.; Breshears, D.; Romero, J.

1996-05-01

477

Stereochemical Control in Carbohydrate Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Carbohydrates, in the form of glycoconjugates, have recently been shown to control a wide range of cellular processes. Accordingly, students interested in the study of organic chemistry and biomedical sciences should be exposed to carbohydrate chemistry. To this end, we have developed a sequence of experiments that leads the student from the…

Batchelor, Rhys; Northcote, Peter T.; Harvey, Joanne E.; Dangerfield, Emma M.; Stocker, Bridget L.

2008-01-01

478

Integration of Computational Chemistry into the Chemistry Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational chemistry has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington by incorporating laboratory experiments into six existing undergraduate chemistry courses and adding one new course. This initiative was sponsored by an ILI grant from the National Science Foundation, which provided computers and software. The existing courses affected by the curricular change include Introduction to Computer Applications and Chemical Literature, Organic Chemistry I and II, Advanced Techniques of Organic Chemistry, Biochemical Techniques and Instrumentation, and Medicinal Chemistry. The new course that has been added is Structural Chemistry and Computational Methodology. Experiments are described which integrate the use of molecular modeling for prediction with verification by laboratory experiment. The unifying theme we utilized is to couple computational predictions with experimental results as much as possible. We have attempted to teach computational chemistry as one of a number of tools available to chemists, rather than a separate field of endeavor. Preliminary evaluation of this initiative indicates that students enjoy visualizing models of chemical structures and that the incorporation of computational chemistry into the curriculum has increased their interest in chemistry.

Martin, Ned H.

1998-02-01

479

Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)|

Chloupek-McGough, Marge

1989-01-01

480

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

481

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

482

Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

Weigand, Willis A.

2000-10-01

483

Oxidation of organic materials with perchlorates: relevance to the chemistry on the Martian surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No organic materials have been found on the Martian surface, based on the results from the Viking and Phoenix missions. The Phoenix mission detected the inorganic perchlorates in the Martian soil. Perchlorates are potent oxidizing substances. The high-temperature oxidative properties of perchlorates may promote combustion of organics in pyrolytic experiments. This may compromise the ability of Phoenix's TEGA (Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer) experiments to detect organics. The high temperature conditions of TEGA instrument are not representative of the environment on Mars. In this paper we pose a question if organic materials can survive oxidation with perchlorates at less drastic temperatures. We have surveyed the literature on oxidations of various groups of organic materials by perchlorates. Several amino acids, notably glycine and alanine, are quite resistant to this oxidation. The same is true for some heterocycles, purines and purimidines. These organic materials may have survived perchlorate oxidation in the natural environment on Mars.

Kolb, Vera M.

2009-08-01

484

Incorporation of the CrossFire Beilstein Database into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CrossFire Beilstein database has been incorporated into the organic chemistry curriculum at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy as a powerful pedagogic tool. During a laboratory course in organic synthesis the database enables the students to get comprehensive overviews of known synthetic methods for a given compound. During a laboratory course in identification and as a part of an

S. Brøgger Christensen; Henrik Franzyk; Bente Frølund; Jerzy W. Jaroszewski; Dan Stærk; Per Vedsø

2002-01-01

485

Neural Network Based on Quantum Chemistry for Predicting Melting Point of Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting points of organic compounds were estimated using a combined method that includes a backpropagation neural network and quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) parameters in quantum chemistry. Eleven descriptors that reflect the intermolecular forces and molecular symmetry were used as input variables. QSPR parameters were calculated using molecular modeling and PM3 semi-empirical molecular orbital theories. A total of 260 compounds were used to train the network, which was developed using MatLab. Then, the melting points of 73 other compounds were predicted and results were compared to experimental data from the literature. The study shows that the chosen artificial neural network and the quantitative structure property relationships method present an excellent alternative for the estimation of the melting point of an organic compound, with average absolute deviation of 5%.

Lazzús, Juan A.

2009-02-01

486

Ligand chemistry of titania precursor affects transient photovoltaic behavior in inverted organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the precursor from which charge transport layers are formed can significantly affect the device performance of organic solar cells. Here, we compare two common precursors that are used to generate titania electron transport layers and elucidate their effects on the transient characteristics of inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells comprising poly(3-hexyl hiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Substituting the isopropyl ligands of titanium isopropoxide with 2-methoxyethanol leads to electron transport layers that require a shorter illumination time to fill shallow electron traps. Furthermore, organic solar cells with titania electron transport layers prepared with such pre-modified titania precursor exhibit higher power-conversion efficiencies stemming from lower trap densities.

Bok Kim, Jong; Ahn, Seokhoon; Ju Kang, Seok; Nuckolls, Colin; Loo, Yueh-Lin

2013-03-01

487

Designing Undergraduate-Level Organic Chemistry Instructional Problems: Seven Ideas from a Problem-Solving Study of Practicing Synthetic Organic Chemists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of curricular problems based on the practice of synthetic organic chemistry has not been explored in the literature. Such problems have broadly been hypothesized to promote student persistence and interest in STEM fields. This study reports seven ideas about how practice-based problems can be developed for sophomore-level organic

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

488

Designing Undergraduate-Level Organic Chemistry Instructional Problems: Seven Ideas from a Problem-Solving Study of Practicing Synthetic Organic Chemists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of curricular problems based on the practice of synthetic organic chemistry has not been explored in the literature. Such problems have broadly been hypothesized to promote student persistence and interest in STEM fields. This study reports seven ideas about how practice-based problems can be developed for sophomore-level organic

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

489

Lean Production: Experience among Australian Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the findings of a study which investigated the adoption of lean production methods in Australian manufacturing industry. Data were gathered through a telephone survey from 51 companies representing a range of industry sectors. The study found that a large majority of the companies were practising lean production methods. Discusses the organizational changes which had occurred in the organizations as

Amrik S. Sohal; Adrian Egglestone

1994-01-01

490

Adopting SOA - Experiences from Nine Finnish Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-Oriented Architecture is expanding its footprint in an organizationpsilas IT landscape. The era of early adopters is over. However, the path to SOA is long, slow and sometimes even bumpy. Many organizations have taken the first steps, and also bumps, in SOA adoption already many years ago.Adoption has been started for various reasons; typically, motivation is derived from a problem

Timo Kokko; Jari Antikainen; Tarja Systä

2009-01-01

491

"Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

Field, Kurt W.; And Others

1979-01-01

492

Chemistry Gateways and Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemistry Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of chemistry-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources pertaining to many areas of the discipline - general chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and others - and intended for a wide range of audiences: educators and learners, the general public, and chemistry research communities.

2008-03-14

493

Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations. An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid. The redox titration endpoint is determined by the first iodine excess that is complexed with starch, giving a deep blue-violet color. The results of the titration of iodine solution using ascorbic acid as a calibration standard were compared with the results acquired by the classic method using a standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was accurate and precise, with the advantages of saving time and avoiding mistakes due to solution preparation. The colorless ascorbic acid solution gives a very clear and sharp titration end point with starch. It was shown by thermogravimetric analysis that ascorbic acid can be dried at 393 K for 2 h without decomposition. This experiment allows general chemistry students to perform an iodometric titration during a single laboratory period, determining with precision the content of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulations.

Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

1999-10-01

494

Molecular identification of organic compounds in atmospheric complex mixtures and relationship to atmospheric chemistry and sources.  

PubMed Central

This article describes a chemical characterization approach for complex organic compound mixtures associated with fine atmospheric particles of diameters less than 2.5 m (PM2.5). It relates molecular- and bulk-level chemical characteristics of the complex mixture to atmospheric chemistry and to emission sources. Overall, the analytical approach describes the organic complex mixtures in terms of a chemical mass balance (CMB). Here, the complex mixture is related to a bulk elemental measurement (total carbon) and is broken down systematically into functional groups and molecular compositions. The CMB and molecular-level information can be used to understand the sources of the atmospheric fine particles through conversion of chromatographic data and by incorporation into receptor-based CMB models. Once described and quantified within a mass balance framework, the chemical profiles for aerosol organic matter can be applied to existing air quality issues. Examples include understanding health effects of PM2.5 and defining and controlling key sources of anthropogenic fine particles. Overall, the organic aerosol compositional data provide chemical information needed for effective PM2.5 management.

Mazurek, Monica A

2002-01-01

495

Chemistry of decomposition of freshwater wetland sedimentary organic material during ramped pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ramped pyrolysis methodology, such as that used in the programmed-temperature pyrolysis/combustion system (PTP/CS), improves radiocarbon analysis of geologic materials devoid of authigenic carbonate compounds and with low concentrations of extractable authochthonous organic molecules. The approach has improved sediment chronology in organic-rich sediments proximal to Antarctic ice shelves (Rosenheim et al., 2008) and constrained the carbon sequestration potential of suspended sediments in the lower Mississippi River (Roe et al., in review). Although ramped pyrolysis allows for separation of sedimentary organic material based upon relative reactivity, chemical information (i.e. chemical composition of pyrolysis products) is lost during the in-line combustion of pyrolysis products. A first order approximation of ramped pyrolysis/combustion system CO2 evolution, employing a simple Gaussian decomposition routine, has been useful (Rosenheim et al., 2008), but improvements may be possible. First, without prior compound-specific extractions, the molecular composition of sedimentary organic matter is unknown and/or unidentifiable. Second, even if determined as constituents of sedimentary organic material, many organic compounds have unknown or variable decomposition temperatures. Third, mixtures of organic compounds may result in significant chemistry within the pyrolysis reactor, prior to introduction of oxygen along the flow path. Gaussian decomposition of the reaction rate may be too simple to fully explain the combination of these factors. To relate both the radiocarbon age over different temperature intervals and the pyrolysis reaction thermograph (temperature (°C) vs. CO2 evolved (?mol)) obtained from PTP/CS to chemical composition of sedimentary organic material, we present a modeling framework developed based upon the ramped pyrolysis decomposition of simple mixtures of organic compounds (i.e. cellulose, lignin, plant fatty acids, etc.) often found in sedimentary organic material to account for changes in thermograph shape. The decompositions will be compositionally verified by 13C NMR analysis of pyrolysis residues from interrupted reactions. This will allow for constraint of decomposition temperatures of individual compounds as well as chemical reactions between volatilized moieties in mixtures of these compounds. We will apply this framework with 13C NMR analysis of interrupted pyrolysis residues and radiocarbon data from PTP/CS analysis of sedimentary organic material from a freshwater marsh wetland in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. We expect to characterize the bulk chemical composition during pyrolysis and as well as diagenetic changes with depth. Most importantly, we expect to constrain the potential and the limitations of this modeling framework for application to other depositional environments.

Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

2011-12-01