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1

Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

Rayner-Canham, Geoff

1985-01-01

2

Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

1992-01-01

3

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

2008-01-01

4

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

5

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

6

Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

Gregor, Richard W.

2012-01-01

7

Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

See Letter re: this article.

de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

2002-01-01

8

Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

R. H. Logan, an chemistry instructor at North Lake College, created this introduction to organic chemistry. The introduction covers a eight types of organic compounds, including Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, and Acyl Compounds (forthcoming); Conformational Analysis and Stereoisomerism; and Instrumental Analysis of Organic Compounds, as well an extensive lesson in general chemistry.

9

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Ace: Organic Molecules from Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are responsible for air pollution. In recent years it has become possible to detect tropospheric VOCs using satellite instruments such as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The ACE-FTS is a high resolution (0.02 cm^{-1}) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm^{-1} spectral range in solar occultation mode. ACE was launched by NASA in August 2003 and the FTS continues to operate without any degradation in performance. The primary ACE mission goal is the study of ozone chemistry in the stratosphere although it is making a wide range of other measurements. The partial list of VOCs retrieved from ACE-FTS spectra include methane, methanol, formaldehyde, ethane, ethene and ethyne (see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca for a complete list of species and reprints of published papers). In this talk, new global retrievals for formic acid will be presented. The ACE-FTS records spectra in the 3 micron region, which is particularly suitable for the retrieval of hydrocarbons. Methane and ethane are very strong in the 3 micron region, however the existing line parameters are not satisfactory. New high resolution laboratory spectra of ethane have therefore been recorded for the range of temperatures and pressures needed for atmospheric retrievals. Preliminary ethane retrievals will be presented using the laboratory spectra in the form of cross sections, rather than the existing HITRAN line parameters used previously.

Harrison, J. J.; Abad, G. Gonzalez; Allen, N.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.

2009-06-01

10

On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

2007-01-01

11

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

12

Chemistry Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

1999-01-01

13

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

14

Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

Szafran, Zvi

1985-01-01

15

Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

Ewing, Sheila

1982-01-01

16

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

17

Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

18

Using appropriate strategies to improve teaching and learning in organic chemistry and organic chemical experiment courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, higher education needs to be reformed profoundly. This kind of reform must focus on making learning more efficient and improving educational practice. This is a challenge for us. Like other courses, the practice of teaching organic chemistry requires change in order to improve teaching and learning. This may require a rethink of our approach to education. In this

Yingjie Lin; Zaiqun Liu

2003-01-01

19

Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group performed all hands-on experiments. Students in the treatment group performed hands-on experiments for the first and last part of the semester but performed computer simulations for a five-week period in the middle of the semester. Prior to treatment, groups were equivalent with respect to academic orientation, motivation, formal reasoning ability, and spatial visualization ability. Fifteen common misconceptions held by beginning organic chemistry students were identified from the Covalent Bonding and Structures Test. At the end of the semester, thirteen of these misconceptions persisted. Molecular geometry was the only category of misconceptions that significantly improved as a result of computer simulations, F(1,58) = 6.309, p = .015. No significant differential change was observed in misconceptions about bond polarity, molecular polarity, intermolecular forces, lattice structures, or the octet rule. Computer simulations were found to result in significantly greater conceptual understanding of organic chemistry reactions on two of the experiments, Stereochemistry, F(1,55) = 6.174, p = .016, and Nucleophilic Substitution, F(1,57) = 6.093, p = .017. The other three experiments, Infrared Spectroscopy, Elimination, and Oxymercuration, did not show a significant differential effect between types of laboratory experiences. No significant differences were observed on long-term retention of concepts. Overall conclusions from the study are that neither computer simulations nor hands-on laboratory experiments are effective in alleviating misconceptions, but that computer simulations can significantly improve conceptual understanding of organic reaction mechanisms.

Gaddis, Barbara A.

2001-12-01

20

Organic iodine chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shared-cost action on Organic Iodine Chemistry has been completed as part of the CEC 4th Framework programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. Organisations from four EC countries are involved in an integrated programme of experiments and analysis to help clarify the phenomenology, and to increase confidence in the modelling of iodine behaviour in containment. The project is focused on identifying

S Dickinson; H. E Sims; E Belval-Haltier; D Jacquemain; C Poletiko; F Funke; S Hellmann; T Karjunen; R Zilliacus

2001-01-01

21

On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inquiry-driven approach to laboratory teaching allows students to participate effectively in the process of science. This article provides examples of guided-inquiry and design-based experiments and explores strategies for implementing them to enliven the modern organic chemistry teaching laboratory in a variety of educational environments. We discuss factors important to the success of inquiry-driven experiments and projects in four categories of institutions, as well as the potential difficulties in implementing them, including faculty participation, TA training, post-laboratory discussions, instrumentation, and necessary background materials.

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Noring Hammond, Christina; Colby, David A.

2007-06-01

22

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

2008-01-01

23

Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.

Van Aken, Koen

1996-01-01

24

The Problem with Organic Chemistry Labs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem with organic chemistry labs is that the educational objectives of lab instructions are often vague and seldom stated. The great majority of organic chemistry labs in American colleges and universities are based on verification experiments.

Mohrig, Jerry R.

2004-01-01

25

Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

26

Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation---a new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic students---to isolate

Caleb A. Arrington; Jameica B. Hill; Ramin Radfar; David M. Whisnant; Charles G. Bass

2008-01-01

27

Elementary Organic Chemistry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAY I be permitted to direct attention to a question asked in a recent examination in organic chemistry for medical students, the syllabus for which states that ``the whole subject is to be treated in an elementary manner''?

J. F. Thorpe

1908-01-01

28

Organic Chemistry Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemWeb's Organic Chemistry Forum bills itself as a "free online club for the organic chemistry community." Users will need to complete a simple online form to obtain membership and access the site. One highlight of this site is free full-text access to Tetrahedron Letters. This rapid publication journal appears weekly. Along with free access to Beilstein Abstracts, the site includes jobs, a conference diary, news, discussion groups, and more.

2005-12-01

29

Organic Chemistry Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemWeb's Organic Chemistry Forum bills itself as a "free online club for the organic chemistry community." Users will need to complete a simple online form to obtain membership and access the site. One highlight of this site is free full-text access to Tetrahedron Letters. This rapid publication journal appears weekly. Along with free access to Beilstein Abstracts, the site includes jobs, a conference diary, news, discussion groups, and more.

2005-01-01

30

UCLA: Organic Chemistry Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Steven Hardinger at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA created these tutorials to assist students with the difficult concepts presented in introductory organic chemistry. Students can find tutorials dealing with acids and bases, carbocations, Lewis dot structures, and more. Within each tutorial, users can find links to a dictionary that adequately explain the unfamiliar terminology. The tutorials include example problems and exercises to challenge users.

Hardinger, Steven

31

Organic Chemistry in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

Charnley, Steven

2009-01-01

32

Online organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective,

Philip A. Janowicz

2010-01-01

33

Online Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

Janowicz, Philip A.

2010-01-01

34

Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

2008-01-01

35

Online organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

Janowicz, Philip A.

36

Organic Chemistry Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

37

The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

38

Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the Organic Chemistry textbook, Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition, by William H. Brown, Christopher S. Foote, Brent L. Iverson, Eric Anslyn published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

39

The Birthday of Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)

Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.

1979-01-01

40

Organic Chemistry of the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews the information currently available regarding the chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere. Topics discussed include methods for collecting organic compounds from the atmosphere, the influence of organic compounds on indoor and outdoor air quality, the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, environmental tobacco smoke, organic compounds in rainwater, organic oxysulfur compounds, and the effect of organic compounds

Lee D. Hansen; Delbert J. Eatough

1991-01-01

41

Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…

Mullins, Joseph J.

2008-01-01

42

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

43

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

44

Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

45

Organic chemistry on Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

1979-01-01

46

Improving the Effectiveness of Organic Chemistry Experiments through Multimedia Teaching Materials for Junior High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study aimed to explore the effects of three different forms of the multimedia teaching materials on the achievements and attitudes of junior high school students in a chemistry laboratory context. The three forms of the multimedia teaching materials, static pictures, video, and animation, were employed to teach chemistry…

Lou, Shi-Jer; Lin, Hui-Chen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

2012-01-01

47

Organic chemistry of the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews the information currently available regarding the chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere. Topics discussed include methods for collecting organic compounds from the atmosphere, the influence of organic compounds on indoor and outdoor air quality, the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, environmental tobacco smoke, organic compounds in rainwater, organic oxysulfur compounds, and the effect of organic compounds on visibility. Many of these topics presented have never been reviewed or have never appeared together in a single volume.

Hansen, L.D. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1991-01-01

48

Organic Chemistry and Your Cellphone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science releases new and helpful teaching materials on a regular basis. This recent addition to the Center's great resources deals with organic chemistry and cellphones. Crafted by Courtney Meyet and Richard Hooley of the University of California, Riverside, this case study guides students "through a systematic exploration of the synthesis and properties of polyphenylene vinylene." The whole experience starts with a classic article from Nature magazine and includes a PowerPoint presentation, a series of group questions, and other activities. The resources here are intended for an undergraduate audience and persons with an interest in organic reactions, organic materials, and polymers will find that this resource is most efficacious.

Hooley, Richard J.; Meyet, Courtney E.

2013-09-16

49

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

50

Adventures in Organic Sulfur Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

On several occasions, SULFUR REPORTS has invited persons who have done outstanding work in sulfur chemistry to summarize highlights of their research career in a semiautobiographical review. The present account is from a distinguished chemist who has contributed importantly for nearly 50 years to medicinal and organic aspects of sulfur chemistry. Ernest E. Campaigne (who prefers simply E. Campaigne) was

E. Campaigne

1990-01-01

51

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

52

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

53

Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

1980-01-01

54

Student-Directed Learning in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperative, student-directed experience was designed and implemented for the organic chemistry laboratory. Ten traditional organic chemistry experiments were performed by students working in groups of three or four to complete the experiment and related exercises, including worksheets and laboratory notebooks. One student in each group assumed the role of experiment coordinator and was responsible for instructing the group on

Martha A. Hass

2000-01-01

55

The Problem with Organic Chemistry Labs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the educational limitations of cookbook verification experiments, the majority of undergraduate organic chemistry laboratores are still based on them. What is so often missing in these labs is the opportunity for students to interpret their experimental results in the context of a real problem. We need to recast our projects and experiments so that questions serve as the basis

Jerry R. Mohrig

2004-01-01

56

Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

2012-01-01

57

Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

2007-01-01

58

Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

2008-01-01

59

The Problem with Organic Chemistry Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the educational limitations of cookbook verification experiments, the majority of undergraduate organic chemistry laboratores are still based on them. What is so often missing in these labs is the opportunity for students to interpret their experimental results in the context of a real problem. We need to recast our projects and experiments so that questions serve as the basis for lab investigations. This question-driven, guided-inquiry approach to laboratory teaching will allow students to participate effectively in the process of experimental organic chemistry.

Mohrig, Jerry R.

2004-08-01

60

Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

1978-01-01

61

Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)

Ferguson, Lloyd N.

1980-01-01

62

Organic chemistry in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

Johnson, R. D.

1977-01-01

63

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 1: Review of General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland. It provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire…

Zdravkovich, V.

64

Titan's organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

1985-01-01

65

Chemistry Education: Experiments Worth Running  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education system has decided to introduce various new experiments and a digital system for imparting chemistry education to children in schools. The new programs are expected to prepare graduate students completely for their professional lives beyond the graduate school.

Kirchhoff, Mary M.

2007-01-01

66

Soil Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

Anderson, G.

1979-01-01

67

Interstellar organic chemistry.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

Sagan, C.

1972-01-01

68

Understanding Oxidation - Reduction in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several years of teaching organic chemistry at the introductory level have made it obvious that understanding oxidation - reduction can be a difficult and sometimes traumatic experience for students. Mastery of the concepts and definitions of oxidation as the loss, and reduction as the gain of electrons is relatively simple (and comforting). However, the realization that the application of this

Jean-Pierre Anselme

1997-01-01

69

Organic Chemistry of Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

70

Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

1981-01-01

71

Organic Chemistry in Drug Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role played by organic chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry continues to be one of the main drivers in the drug discovery process. However, the precise nature of that role is undergoing a visible change, not only because of the new synthetic methods and technologies now available to the synthetic and medicinal chemist, but also in several key areas, particularly

Malcolm MacCoss; Thomas A. Baillie

2004-01-01

72

Molecular Modelling for Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Chemistry at Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine provides the Molecular Modelling for Organic Chemistry Website. Molecular modelling is defined as a "technique for deriving, representing and manipulating the structures and reactions of molecules, and those properties that are dependent on these three dimensional structures." This site aims to help users learn which molecular modelling tool is appropriate for a typical problem depending on structure, activity or reactivity, and the limitations and strengths of each method. Sections included at the site are Introduction, Overview, the various Case Studies (1-12), Transition State WS, Course Problems, and Available Modelling Programs. A list of related links rounds out the site.

73

Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan.

Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

1992-01-01

74

Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

Harrison, Aline M.

1989-01-01

75

Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

Murov, Steven

2007-01-01

76

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

77

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

78

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

79

The Neglected Element in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many aspects of organic chemistry that would benefit from the inclusion of organofluorine chemistry. The properties of fluorine help in the clarification of many topics such as bond strength, leaving groups, substitution reactions, radical reactions, polymers, pharmaceuticals, and enzymes. This article focuses on the importance of fluorine in organic chemistry.

Kelly L. Bieda; Suzzane T. Purrington

1996-01-01

80

Organic Chemistry on Titan Versus Terrestrial Prebiotic Chemistry: Exobiological Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current thinking on the origins of life on Earth are reviewed and the plausible impact of the study of Titan chemistry on this field is discussed. On the primitive Earth, in the presence of liquid water, prebiotic organic chemistry starting from simple re...

F. Raulin C. Frere L. Do M. Khlifi P. Paillous

1992-01-01

81

Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which

Zhijian Liu

2006-01-01

82

The Performance of Taiwan's Undergraduates in Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the students' learning outcomes in Organic Chemistry Laboratory, a performance-based assessment was developed and implemented to a group of 222 chemistry-majored sophomores from a research university in Taiwan. A multi-step organic synthesis experiment was chosen, and the basic organic manipulative skills, such as reflux, distillation, extraction, filtration, and recrystallization were incorporated in the laboratory activities. According

Jui-Lin She; Yeun-Min Tsai; Mei-Hung Chiu; Hui-Jung Chen

83

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate students often experience fear and trepidation when studying introductory organic chemistry: the majority of these students use a memorization approach to the material, sacrificing understanding. This paper describes one way the problem can be resolved. The cognitive working level we emphasize in our teaching practice involves making the necessary connections between the general chemistry principles that students have learned

Michael D. Pungente; Rodney A. Badger

2003-01-01

84

Caring for the Environment while Teaching Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive program in the field of green chemistry, which concentrates on processing and managing of wastes produced during laboratory experiments, is presented. The primary aim of the program is to instill a sense of responsibility and a concern for the environment through organic chemistry education.

Santos, Elvira Santos; Gavilan Garcia, Irma Cruz; Lejarazo Gomez, Eva Florencia

2004-01-01

85

Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

Forbes, David C.

2004-01-01

86

American Chemical Society: Division of Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1908, the American Chemical Society (ACS) Organic Chemistry Division created this website to illustrate its work to cultivate and promote the advancement of the field of organic chemistry. Researchers can learn about upcoming meetings and conferences. Chemistry students and educators can learn about fellowship, awards, and employment opportunities. The website provides an extensive list of links to scientific journals. Visitors can also learn about membership benefits and how to join the group.

2006-01-24

87

Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before his retirement in 1999, Professor William Reusch began working on a virtual organic chemistry textbook that could be used by anyone with an interest in the subject. On this site, visitors can take advantage of his labors, and the introduction to this important subject offered on the homepage is a great place to start. After entering the main area of the site, visitors will find two columns of links that serve as the main table of contents. There are over twenty five topics covered here, and they include aromaticity, alkyl halides, alcohols, and amines. Each area contains lucid text accompanied by well-organized diagrams. Additionally, the site contains practice problems, incorporated into the text, along with links to external institutions such as the University of Wisconsin that offer additional problems. One area that shouldn't be missed is the "Chemicals and Society" area. Here visitors will find a narrative essay that addresses how the incorporation of different chemicals into air, water, and soil may affect human society over time.

Reusch, William

2012-03-30

88

A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a…

Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

2006-01-01

89

Understanding Academic Performance in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful completion of organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, yet the failure rate for this sequence of courses is notoriously high. To date, few studies have examined why some students succeed while others have difficulty in organic chemistry. This…

Szu, Evan; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lopez, Enrique J.; Penn, John H.; Scharberg, Maureen; Hill, Geannine W.

2011-01-01

90

Green chemistry oriented organic synthesis in water.  

PubMed

The use of water as solvent features many benefits such as improving reactivities and selectivities, simplifying the workup procedures, enabling the recycling of the catalyst and allowing mild reaction conditions and protecting-group free synthesis in addition to being benign itself. In addition, exploring organic chemistry in water can lead to uncommon reactivities and selectivities complementing the organic chemists' synthetic toolbox in organic solvents. Studying chemistry in water also allows insight to be gained into Nature's way of chemical synthesis. However, using water as solvent is not always green. This tutorial review briefly discusses organic synthesis in water with a Green Chemistry perspective. PMID:22048162

Simon, Marc-Olivier; Li, Chao-Jun

2012-02-21

91

Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is…

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

2008-01-01

92

Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

2010-01-01

93

Incorporating Guided-Inquiry Learning into the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Informed science educators who are responsible for undergraduate laboratory programs strive to improve the effectiveness of learning in the laboratory. Guided-inquiry learning in the laboratory is one reasonable alternative (among others described here) to the verification approach to learning. Guided-inquiry learning offers students the opportunity to learn for themselves in a controlled laboratory environment where the instructor can handle the outcome and help guide students who are experiencing difficulty. Guided-inquiry experiments in organic chemistry have merit because they may help to improve understanding while increasing student interest. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of guided-inquiry experiments in organic chemistry. Several different types of guided-inquiry experiments in organic chemistry are summarized, together with the rationale for converting verification laboratory procedures to guided-inquiry experiments. Examples are given for enhancing guided-inquiry experiments to make the outcomes less predictable.

Gaddis, Barbara A.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

2007-05-01

94

Abiotic Organic Chemistry in Hydrothermal Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abiotic organic chemistry in hydrothermal systems is of interest to biologists, geochemists and oceanographers. This chemistry consists of thermal alteration of organic matter and minor prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds. Thermal alteration has been extensively documented to yield petroleum and heavy bitumen products from contemporary organic detritus. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and sulfur species have been used as precursors in prebiotic synthesis experiments to organic compounds. These inorganic species are common components of hot spring gases and marine hydrothermal systems. It is of interest to further test their reactivities in reductive aqueous thermolysis. We have synthesized organic compounds (lipids) in aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, and with carbon disulfide or ammonium bicarbonate at temperatures from 175-400° C. The synthetic lipids from oxalic acid solutions consisted of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkyl formates, n-alkanones, n-alkenes and n-alkanes, typically to C30 with no carbon number preferences. The products from CS2 in acidic aqueous solutions yielded cyclic thioalkanes, alkyl polysulfides, and thioesters with other numerous minor compounds. The synthesis products from oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate solutions were homologous series of n-alkyl amides, n-alkyl amines, n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, also to C30 with no carbon number predominance. Condensation (dehydration) reactions also occur under elevated temperatures in aqueous medium as tested by model reactions to form amide, ester and nitrile bonds. It is concluded that the abiotic formation of aliphatic lipids, condensation products (amides, esters, nitriles, and CS2 derivatives (alkyl polysulfides, cyclic polysulfides) is possible under hydrothermal conditions and warrants further studies.

Simoneit, B. R.; Rushdi, A. I.

2004-12-01

95

Implementing Temporary Facilities for Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our classroom and laboratory facilities were recently remodeled, which required that we vacate our chemistry building temporarily. Construction was completed within 17 months with minimal interruption of class schedules, although some rather creative laboratory arrangements were necessary. My primary objective was to maintain our organic chemistry curriculum. Keys to success included support from the administration and other science faculty, and

Judith C. Amburgey-Peters

2002-01-01

96

Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

2011-01-01

97

Chemistry Experiments: Chemistry Challenge for Kids Ages 5 Through 12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These chemistry experiments for younger students, from the Sciencenter of Ithaca, New York, can be performed as demonstrations by the teacher, at home, or by the students themselves. These experiments, which investigate the properties of chemicals to solve puzzles or challenges, focus on creating electrical current, color-changing solutions, reactions that involve heat loss or gain, identifying unknowns, and other matters. Each is available in downloadable, printable format (PDF) and includes objectives, materials lists, instructions, safety tips, and other information. Other documents include lists of all the experiments, instructions for a take-home chemistry kit, and downloadable, printable signs to be used with the experiments.

Sciencenter Of Ithaca, New Y.

98

Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of an aqueous-based chemical analyzer for Martian surface materials has been demonstrated to be feasible. During the processes of analysis, design, breadboarding, and most importantly, testing, it has become quite apparent that there are many challenges in implementing such a system. Nonetheless, excellent progress has been made and a number of problems which arose have been solved. The ability to conduct this work under a development environment which is separate and which precedes the project-level development has allowed us to find solutions to these implementation realities at low cost. If the instrument had been selected for a mission without this laboratory pre-project work, the costs of implementation would be much higher. In the four areas covered in Sections D, E, F, and G of this Final Report, outstanding progress has been made. There still remains the task of flight-qualifying certain of the components. This is traditionally done under the aegis of a Flight Project, but just as the concept development can be done at much lower cost when kept small and focused, so could the qualification program of critical parts benefit. We recommend, therefore, that NASA consider means of such qualifications and brass-boarding, in advance of final flight development. This is a generic recommendation, but hardware such as the Mars aqueous chemistry experiment (MACE) and other similarly-new concepts are particularly applicable. MACE now has wide versatility, in being able to reliably dispense both liquids and solids as chemical reagents to an entire suite of samples. The hardware and the experiment is much simpler than was developed for the Viking Biology instrument, yet can accomplish all the inorganic chemical measurements that the Viking desing was capable of. In addition, it is much more flexible and versatile to new experiment protocols (and reagents) than the Viking design ever could have been. MACE opens up the opportunity for many different scientific disciplines to design sub- experiments and to benefit from the investigations that can be conducted. In this sense, it will have the value of a facility, although our recommendation would be that it be under the stewardship of a single lead investigator to insure that conflicting requirements not compromise the straight-forward design that have been achieved. MACE is an excellent candidate for upcoming Mars missions, including the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) lander missions in 2001 and 2003. In addition, it could be used for any mission to the surface of any other planet or planetary body (including small bodies). An important next step is to encourage various investigators to propose specific uses for this experiment that specifically address their major scientific objectives for upcoming missions.

Benton, Clark C. (Editor)

1995-01-01

99

Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of an aqueous-based chemical analyzer for Martian surface materials has been demonstrated to be feasible. During the processes of analysis, design, breadboarding, and most importantly, testing, it has become quite apparent that there are many challenges in implementing such a system. Nonetheless, excellent progress has been made and a number of problems which arose have been solved. The ability to conduct this work under a development environment which is separate and which precedes the project-level development has allowed us to find solutions to these implementation realities at low cost. If the instrument had been selected for a mission without this laboratory pre-project work, the costs of implementation would be much higher. In the four areas covered in Sections D, E, F, and G of this Final Report, outstanding progress has been made. There still remains the task of flight-qualifying certain of the components. This is traditionally done under the aegis of a Flight Project, but just as the concept development can be done at much lower cost when kept small and focused, so could the qualification program of critical parts benefit. We recommend, therefore, that NASA consider means of such qualifications and brass-boarding, in advance of final flight development. This is a generic recommendation, but hardware such as the Mars aqueous chemistry experiment (MACE) and other similarly-new concepts are particularly applicable. MACE now has wide versatility, in being able to reliably dispense both liquids and solids as chemical reagents to an entire suite of samples. The hardware and the experiment is much simpler than was developed for the Viking Biology instrument, yet can accomplish all the inorganic chemical measurements that the Viking design was capable of. In addition, it is much more flexible and versatile to new experiment protocols (and reagents) than the Viking design ever could have been. MACE opens up the opportunity for many different scientific disciplines to design sub- experiments and to benefit from the investigations that can be conducted. In this sense, it will have the value of a facility, although our recommendation would be that it be under the stewardship of a single lead investigator to insure that conflicting requirements not compromise the straight-forward design that have been achieved. MACE is an excellent candidate for upcoming Mars missions, including the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) lander missions in 2001 and 2003. In addition, it could be used for any mission to the surface of any other planet or planetary body (including small bodies). An important next step is to encourage various investigators to propose specific uses for this experiment that specifically address their major scientific objectives for upcoming missions.

Benton, Clark C.

1995-12-01

100

Beginning Organic Chemistry 1 and Beginning Organic Chemistry 2 (by Graham L. Patrick)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning Organic Chemistry 1 (paperback, 176 pp; ISBN 0-19-855935-6; 25) Beginning Organic Chemistry 2 (paperback, 312 pp; ISBN 0-19-855936-4; 32) Graham L. Patrick. Oxford University: New York, 1997. Graham Patrick has written two workbooks whose purpose is to help beginning students master the fundamental concepts, principles, and reactions of organic chemistry through self-study and problem solving. With such mastery the

Richard Pagni

1997-01-01

101

Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

2011-01-01

102

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

103

Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

Tezuka, M.

1980-01-01

104

Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

Scattergood, T.

1982-01-01

105

The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoselective reductions are valuable in organic synthesis and are routinely discussed in a sophomore organic chemistry course. Yet, there are few examples of laboratory experiments that illustrate such chemoselectivity. A reaction that is routinely discussed in sophomore organic chemistry is the selective reduction of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride. Esters are typically not affected by NaBH4. However, none of

Ram S. Mohan; Ashvin R. Baru

2005-01-01

106

The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

2004-01-01

107

Love Story: Oxygen in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant discoveries and developments regarding oxygen and organic compounds are recounted to show that research in this specific area is worthwhile and relevant and to point out that research in other areas of organic chemistry deserves continued encouragement as well. (DT)

Roberts, John D.

1974-01-01

108

The role of organic complexation on ambient iron chemistry in the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the response of a mesoscale iron addition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We participated on the Iron-Ex II study in the equatorial Pacific to investigate ambient iron chemistry and its response to a mesoscale iron addition experiment. As expected, dissolved iron values in the high-nutrient, low- chlorophyll surface waters of the South Equatorial Current (4-6\\

Eden L. Rue

1997-01-01

109

Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

Greco, George E.

2007-01-01

110

Introduction to the Use of Primary Organic Chemistry Literature in an Honors Sophomore-Level Organic Chemistry Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of primary organic chemistry literature in an honors sophomore-level organic chemistry course. The main goal is to expose students to the primary literature of organic chemistry, demonstrating how they can understand and benefit from using it. The assignment encouraged students to communicate about organic chemistry with colleagues and professors and addresses issues in chemical education

Gregory J. Gallagher; David L. Adams

2002-01-01

111

Medical Mycology and the Chemistry Classroom: Germinating Student Interest in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to provide active research context to introductory courses in basic sciences are likely to better engage learners and provide a framework for relevant concepts. A simple teaching and learning experiment was conducted to use concepts in organic chemistry to solve problems in the life sciences. Bryant University is a liberal arts university…

Bliss, Joseph M.; Reid, Christopher W.

2013-01-01

112

A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab practical exam for second-year organic chemistry is presented that tests multiple lab skills and theory that the students have acquired directly from laboratory experiences. This exam motivates students to learn lab skills and is an effective end-of-term test for many of those skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

Neeland, Edward G.

2007-01-01

113

Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ozonolysis experiment, suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry lab, is presented. Ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil), followed by reductive workup furnishes an aldehyde that is easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra. Ozone (3-5% in oxygen) is produced using an easily built generator. (Contains 2 figures and 1 scheme.)

Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R.

2007-01-01

114

Organic chemistry of C sub 60 (Buckminsterfullerene): Chromatography and osmylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient macroscopic preparation of Cââ by the contact-arc vaporization of graphite rods has recently brought this enchanting molecule from the realm of molecular beam experiments into that of synthetic organic chemistry. The authors are interested in selectively adding functional groups to Cââ in a way that leaves the carbon skeleton intact and allows for further transformation. They report here

J. M. Hawkins; T. A. Lewis; S. D. Loren; A. Meyer; J. R. Heath; Yoko Shibato; R. J. Saykally

1990-01-01

115

Ultrasound in synthetic organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-power ultrasound can generate cavitation within a liquid and through cavitation provide a source of energy which can be used to enhance a wide range of chemical processes. Such uses of ultrasound have been grouped under the general name sonochemistry. This review will concen- trate on applications in organic synthesis where ultrasound seems to provide a distinct alternative to other,

Timothy J. Mason

1997-01-01

116

Ethical Issues in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a literature survey can alert students to real-life ethical problems surrounding many organic compounds. Topic areas students could explore include: hazards in the workplace, toxic chemicals, and nerve gas structures. Background information and an extensive bibliography are given. (DH)

Coad, Peter; Coad, Raylene

1985-01-01

117

Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

1973-01-01

118

Organic composition of PM 2.5 and size-segregated aerosols and their sources during the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM 2.5 and size-segregated aerosols were collected in May 2002 as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA. Aerosol organic composition was used to estimate sources of a series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using chemical indices, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and a chemical mass balance receptor model (CMB). Aerosols were collected on quartz fiber filters (QFF) using a PM 2.5 high volume sampler and on aluminum foil discs using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI, 50% aerodynamic cut diameters were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.315 and 0.171 ?m). Target compounds included alkanes and PAHs and were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane, acetone and hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The target compounds in PM 2.5 were dominated by six sources during the study period: mobile sources (39±5%), coal burning (33±5%), biogenic primary emission (20±2%), oil combustion (5±2%), biomass burning (1.0±0.3%) and an unidentified source (3±2%). Results obtained from the chemical indices, HCA and CMB were in very good agreement with each other. PAH size distributions are presented for days dominated by a same source. Seventy-five percent and 50% of the PAH were found below 1.8 and 0.56 ?m, respectively (monthly PAH geometric diameters averaged 0.43 ?m). Coarse size PAHs were observed on 1 day (15 May) and were correlated with nitrate and sodium size distribution. It is hypothesized that the PAHs, sodium and nitrate were internally mixed and that the PAHs deposited onto a pre-existing marine aerosol. This transfer process has significant implications for PAH deposition and lifetime and warrants further study.

Tremblay, Raphaël T.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Zika, Rod G.

119

Analytical Chemistry Role Playing Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a number of laboratory experiments (available for download in PDF format) which allow students the opportunity to role play in groups to solve problems. Experiments involve titrations, gravimetry, atomic absorption, chromatography.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-14

120

School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

2001-01-01

121

Organic chemistry of the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the earth atmosphere and its evolution are discussed. Consideration is given to natural and antropogenic sources of the organic components, and to the chemical and photochemical reactions taking place in the atmosphere, with special emphasis on the formation of photochemical smog and the transformations of halogenated compounds and their effects on the ozone layer. Modern methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, as well as the preparatory procedures, used in determinations of trace concentrations of natural atmospheric components and pollutants are described. A table of the maximal permissible concentrations of urban air pollutants is included.

Isidorov, V. A.

122

Experiments in the Chemistry of Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents 18 experiments in the chemistry of food, suitable for elementary and secondary school science classes. Experiments deal with an analysis of milk, determinations of the amounts of sulfur dioxide, iron, and fat in foods, and the concentration of vitamin C in fruit juice and iodine in salt. Tests are provided for fats,…

Weaver, Elbert C.

123

Organic chemistry by irradiation in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation of grains and/or ices by particles from solar or stellar winds, as well as cosmic rays, induces the synthesis of molecular species. The authors have shown by in-situ infrared spectroscopy of irradiated samples that this chemistry may be responsible for the presence of organic compounds in a large variety of astrophysical sites such as: lunar and asteroidal regoliths, cometary nuclei, rings and satellites of outer planets, circumstellar shells, interstellar clouds. The authors present their experimental results concerning the nature and efficiency of C and N irradiation chemistry, and give plausible astrophysical implications.

Bibring, J.-P.; Rocard, F.

124

Purdue University: Division of Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purdue University created this website to promote its organic chemistry department's diverse research initiatives. This expansive website provides links to materials on twelve of the faculty's chemistry research groups. Research includes NMR imaging of micellar solutions, hydride fuel cell examinations, dimerization inhibitors of transcription factors, and gas phase synthesis. Users can find lists of the many publications and view images and photos of the division's work and facilities. Visitors can learn about the many instruments used by the division such as mass spectrometry, continuously rotated cellular reactor, and an ozone generator.

125

Incorporation of a Cooperative Learning Technique in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of a cooperative learning technique (Student Team Achievement Divisions or STAD) into a sophomore-level organic chemistry course is described. Students were assigned to Learning Teams according to their performance in the two terms of general chemistry and on a General Chemistry Review Sheet written by the author and administered on the first day of the organic chemistry class.

Suzanne Carpenter; Tim McMillan

2003-01-01

126

Provocative Opinion. Provocative Replies: Two Organic Chemists Look at Organic Chemistry Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a point of view that the organic lab is a good place for the student to use and learn problem solving skills while performing the cookbook experiments. Notes that an equilibrium between the theoretical and practical aspects of organic chemistry should be established. (MVL)

Kandel, Marjorie; Ikan, Raphael

1989-01-01

127

Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the Organic Chemistry textbook, Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, by John C. Gilbert published by Brooks/Cole, 2011.

128

Incorporation of a Cooperative Learning Technique in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student team learning method used in an organic chemistry class at Armstrong Atlantic State University. The Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) method was used in this study. Discusses cooperative learning methods in organic chemistry classes. (KHR)

Carpenter, Suzanne R.; McMillan, Tim

2003-01-01

129

Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the redesign of the first semester general chemistry laboratory at the college level. An organic component is included in the redesign and it provides students with explicit examples of several types of operations in which chemists engage. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

Olmsted, John III

1998-01-01

130

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 10: Alkenes-Reactions 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

131

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 9: Alkenes-Reactions 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

132

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 8: Alkenes-Preparations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

133

Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Polymers  

PubMed Central

Unlike the case of traditional covalent polymers, the entanglements that determine properties of supramolecular polymers are defined by very specific, intermolecular interactions. Recent work using modular molecular platforms to probe the mechanisms underlying mechanical response of supramolecular polymers is reviewed. The contributions of supramolecular kinetics, thermodynamics, and conformational flexibility to supramolecular polymer properties in solutions of discrete polymers, in networks, and at interfaces, are described. Molecule-to-material relationships are established through methods reminiscent of classic physical organic chemistry.

Serpe, Michael J.; Craig, Stephen L.

2008-01-01

134

Student-Faculty Research in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timo Ovaska remarks that the clothes we wear, the colors we see, the foods we eat, the fuels that power our cars, the medicines that make us heal and feel better, even the biochemical reactions that happen in our bodies are all manifestations of the importance of organic chemistry in daily life.\\u000aHe also praises his students who chose to

Timo V Ovaska

2011-01-01

135

An Experiment in Forensic Chemistry: The Breathalyzer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple experiment done in a quantitative analysis course that illustrates the chemistry of the breath alcohol test. Discusses the development and use of the Breathalyzer. Outlines the experimental procedure, along with the appropriate calculations and discussion of the results. (TW)

Timmer, William C.

1986-01-01

136

Saturn's satellites: Potential for organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surfaces of the Saturnian satellites are subjected to irradiation from solar wind ions, photons, and magnetospheric ions and electrons. This bombardment will transform the chemical nature of the surfaces. At present, only water ice has been detected on their surfaces. Further studies by the Cassini spacecraft may reveal other molecules. If CO2 ice is found there, a whole panoply of new species may be detected. As nitrogen ions in the magnetosphere are thought to be an important species bombarding the satellites, Delitsky and Lane (2002) outlined the nitrogen oxides chemistry that may result from implantation of N+ into the water ice surfaces. Sittler et al (2002) showed that N+ ions originating from Titan will be enriched in the magnetospheric ion population as they move inwards towards Saturn, making the nitrogen oxides chemistry more likely. If CO2 is present, a complicated C-H-N-O chemistry may result from deposition of the N+ into a H2O/CO2 mixed ice, including nitriles, isocyanates, polymers, and amino acids. The combination of H2O/CO2 upon irradiation may also yield a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, organic acids and ketones. Possible chemical pathways and computations of their energetics will be presented. -Ref:- 1. Delitsky and Lane, Saturn's inner satellites: Ice chemistry and magnetosphere effects, JGR (Planets), Nov 2002, 3-1;; 2. Sittler et al., Energetic nitrogen ions within the inner magnetosphere of Saturn, Fall AGU meeting, Dec 2002, abstracts, pg F858, P21B-0379

Delitsky, M. L.; Lane, A. L.; Henry-Riyad, H.; Tidwell, T. T.

2003-05-01

137

Students' Perceptions and Learning Experiences of Tertiary Level Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence to suggest that first-year chemistry learning experiences may discourage students from studying further chemistry courses. This paper reports on an investigation on the influence of first year learning experiences in two first year chemistry courses on students' chemistry enrollment choices. Students enrolled in first year…

Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

138

Chemistry at the Organic-Mineral Interface Relevant to Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of rivers and lakes on Titan has generated considerable interest with regard to prebiotic chemistry, since these fluvial features provide a liquid medium for reactions and a transportation mechanism for catalytic mineral deposits left behind by meteorite impacts similar to the one that caused the Sinlap crater. Although numerous laboratory measurements and theoretical models have been used to study atmospheric chemistry applicable to Titan's potential astrobiology, few experiments have been performed to understand gas-/liquid-surface reactions. We are exploring heterogeneous chemistry relevant to Titan using low energy electrons (5-50 eV) as an analog of the incident cosmic rays and secondary electrons they generate. Amorphous alkane/acetylene ices have been deposited on mineral and carbon substrates to simulate lake environments. In some cases, small amounts of amorphous water ice have been deposited at the organic-mineral boundary to model the interface of the hydrocarbon "soil” and the underlying water-ice "bedrock” of Titan. Preliminary results suggest that protonation occurs readily even at the low temperatures observed on Titan's surface ( 100 K). These experiments are some of the first aimed at understanding chemistry at the organic-mineral interface under conditions relevant to Titan, in particular at the edges of hydrocarbon lakes. This work has been performed as part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute "Titan as a Prebiotic System” at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Abbott-Lyon, Heather; Dawley, M.; McLain, J.; Grieves, G.; Orlando, T.

2010-10-01

139

Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

2008-01-01

140

Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching organic chemistry. In this book, the diverse field of organic chemistry modules is introduced. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified…

Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul; Hearle, Robert

141

Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCISAT-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), is a Canadian satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched into low Earth circular orbit (altitude 650 km, inclination 74°) on 12 Aug. 2003. The primary ACE instrument is a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 mum (750-4400

P. F. Bernath; C. T. McElroy; M. C. Abrams; C. D. Boone; M. Butler; C. Camy-Peyret; M. Carleer; C. Clerbaux; P.-F. Coheur; R. Colin; P. DeCola; M. DeMazière; J. R. Drummond; D. Dufour; W. F. J. Evans; H. Fast; D. Fussen; K. Gilbert; D. E. Jennings; E. J. Llewellyn; R. P. Lowe; E. Mahieu; J. C. McConnell; M. McHugh; S. D. McLeod; R. Michaud; C. Midwinter; R. Nassar; F. Nichitiu; C. Nowlan; C. P. Rinsland; Y. J. Rochon; N. Rowlands; K. Semeniuk; P. Simon; R. Skelton; J. J. Sloan; M.-A. Soucy; K. Strong; P. Tremblay; D. Turnbull; K. A. Walker; I. Walkty; D. A. Wardle; V. Wehrle; R. Zander; J. Zou

2005-01-01

142

Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCISAT-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), is a Canadian satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched into low Earth circular orbit (altitude 650 km, inclination 74°) on 12 Aug. 2003. The primary ACE instrument is a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm?1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 ?m (750–4400

P. F. Bernath; C. T. McElroy; M. C. Abrams; C. D. Boone; M. Butler; C. Camy-Peyret; M. Carleer; C. Clerbaux; P.-F. Coheur; R. Colin; P. DeCola; M. DeMazière; J. R. Drummond; D. Dufour; W. F. J. Evans; H. Fast; D. Fussen; K. Gilbert; D. E. Jennings; E. J. Llewellyn; R. P. Lowe; E. Mahieu; J. C. McConnell; M. McHugh; S. D. McLeod; R. Michaud; C. Midwinter; R. Nassar; F. Nichitiu; C. Nowlan; C. P. Rinsland; Y. J. Rochon; N. Rowlands; K. Semeniuk; P. Simon; R. Skelton; J. J. Sloan; M.-A. Soucy; K. Strong; P. Tremblay; D. Turnbull; K. A. Walker; I. Walkty; D. A. Wardle; V. Wehrle; R. Zander; J. Zou

2005-01-01

143

Organic chemistry in the oceans of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Titan, most of the organics present in the atmosphere must condense in the lower stratosphere and be solid near the surface, except methane, ethane, propane, propene and 1-butene which must be liquid and could form oceans containing large fractions of dissolved N2. Chemical evolution on Titan must have followed a way very different from the terrestrial one, involving physical chemical processes in a cryogenic apolar solvent mainly composed of CH4-C2H6-N2, in place of organic chemistry in water. Systematic study of the volumic mass and solubility of organics in such a cryogenic mixture of various compositions, at 94K, is presented, using thermodynamic modelling. The results suggest that the oceans of Titan could be free of any "icebergs" of organic compounds. These oceans could be very rich in dissolved organics, with relatively high concentrations, in the range 1 - 10-6M. In addition, the concentration of several of the organic solutes should be constant, buffered by a bottom layer of the corresponding compound in the solid phase.

Raulin, F.

144

Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials  

SciTech Connect

The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

2011-01-20

145

Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N {sigma}-bond addition of amides and S-N {sigma}-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions. The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF. Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.

Zhijian Liu

2006-12-12

146

Nucleoside Chemistry and Flash Chromatography: An Integrated Approach to Teaching an Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the development of an integrated approach to teaching an organic chemistry laboratory. The laboratory exercise focused on the syntheses of two modified nucleosides and used the syntheses as a vehicle to teach organic chemistry from the point of view of how science is done in the real world. The project not only taught advanced organic bench techniques,

Peter deLannoy; Dennie Mann; Joseph Maycock; Christopher Davidson

1999-01-01

147

Benchmarking Problems Used in Second Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations of the problem types used in college-level general chemistry examinations have been reported in this Journal and were first reported in the "Journal of Chemical Education" in 1924. This study extends the findings from general chemistry to the problems of four college-level organic chemistry courses. Three problem typologies were…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2010-01-01

148

Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes  

PubMed Central

Earth’s atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of prebiotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer – if formed – would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

Trainer, Melissa G.

2013-01-01

149

Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The sub-strate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic region, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

150

Caring for the Environment While Teaching Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laboratory experiments it is common for students to acquire knowledge and develop the basic abilities needed to solve different types of problems related to synthesis and analysis. The students are so interested in this objective that they do not generally pay any attention to the wastes generated during their lab experiments. It is well known that experiments usually generate small quantities of a large variety of wastes. Nevertheless, the complexity of the wastes generated in the laboratories of educational institutions is large. Thus, detailed studies of their treatment should be undertaken. In North American and European universities the problem has been solved by sending these wastes to specialized companies that treat and dispose of them; however, in Mexico, such alternatives are not available owing to the high cost for waste disposal. Therefore, the Organic Chemistry Department of the Chemistry School at the National Autonomous University of Mexico has started a project concerned with the management and treatment of wastes generated during experimental lab sessions. In the United States and Europe, students do not generally treat their wastes. Therefore, it would be convenient to include this treatment as part of the educational aspects in organic experiments in all parts of the world to develop an environmentally conscience culture among them.

Santos Santos, Elvira; Cruz Gavilan Garcia, Irma; Florencia Lejarazo Gomez, Eva

2004-02-01

151

Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one in the series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul

152

Piaget and Organic Chemistry: Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry through Learning Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first application of the Piaget-based learning cycle technique (Atkin & Karplus, Sci. Teach. 1962, 29, 45-51) to an introductory organic chemistry course. It also presents the step-by-step process used to convert a lecture course into a discussion-based active learning course. The course is taught in a series of learning cycles. A learning cycle is a three

R. Daniel Libby

1995-01-01

153

Chem TV: Organic Chemistry; Chem TV: Organic Chemistry II Version 2.0 for Windows (by Betty A. Luceigh)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jones and Bartlett: Sudbury, MA. Organic Chem I workbook, 15; Organic Chem II workbook, 19.95; IBM I, v. 2.0, Organic Chem, 495; IBM II, v. 2.0, 595. The Chem TV: Organic Chemistry series is a two-CD-ROM set, with the material divided loosely along the lines of material typically covered in the two semesters of introductory organic chemistry. Each CD-ROM contains

Michael S. Holden

1997-01-01

154

Computational Chemistry in the First Organic Chemistry Course: Applications in an Active Learning Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a possible solution to the Feynman effect by combining the formative, summative, and supplemental features in first year organic chemistry. The maximum effect of this method occurs with the inclusion of meta tasks to aid interpreting the meaning of what organic chemistry should lead one to do when problem-solving. The effect of including computer exercises within a

Dana L. Delaware; K. R. Fountain

1996-01-01

155

Evaluation of Interactive Technologies for Chemistry Websites: Educational Materials for Organic Chemistry Web Site (EMOC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Educational Materials for Organic Chemistry Project (EMOC) developed Web-based learning materials, which were accessible by students enrolled in a variety of undergraduate organic chemistry courses at a major midwestern university. EMOC was developed and implemented by the third author and had three distinct goals: (a) to develop interactive learning materials, (b) to develop interactive tools for this learning, and

Abby L. Parrill; Mary B. Nakhleh; William J. Donovan

2000-01-01

156

Evaluation of Learning Processes in an Organic Chemistry Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is part of a series of evaluations done on student learning processes in organic chemistry. In a previous study, students' knowledge after completion of the introductory organic chemistry course was assessed using a multiple-choice exercise. The results of that study showed that 83% of the students tested were able to give a description of the problem presented,

Beatriz Maroto; C. Camusso; M. Cividini

1997-01-01

157

Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

2012-01-01

158

Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…

Farmer, Steven C.

2011-01-01

159

Mass spectrometry. [in organic ion and biorganic chemistry and medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the present status of mass spectrometry in the light of pertinent recent publications spanning the period from December 1971 to January 1974. Following an initial survey of techniques, instruments, and computer applications, a sharp distinction is made between the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions and analytical applications in biorganic chemistry and medicine. The emphasis is on the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions at the expense of inorganic, organometallic, and surface ion chemistry. Biochemistry and medicine are chosen because of their contemporary importance and because of the stupendous contributions of mass spectroscopy to these fields in the past two years. In the review of gas-phase organic ion chemistry, special attention is given to studies making significant contributions to the understanding of ion chemistry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Cox, R. E.; Derrick, P. J.

1974-01-01

160

Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory manual introduces the idea of Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Instructional samples are included to help teachers integrate green chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. Each laboratory includes: (1) a…

Kirchhoff, Mary, Ed.; Ryan, Mary Ann, Ed.

161

Visual Experiments Supporting Four Basic Concepts in Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual experiments based on color mixing are proposed to illustrate four basic concepts in chemistry. These visual experiments involve connecting liquid puddles of different colors placed on a flat glass surface and observing and describing the phenomena that occur. Employing as nonspecialized a vocabulary as possible, these experiments can be used as part of a general introduction to chemistry.

François Saint-Antonin

2003-01-01

162

Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

1990-01-01

163

Spatial ability and its role in organic chemistry: A study of four organic courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between spatial ability and performance in organic chemistry was studied in four organic chemistry courses designed for students with a variety of majors including agriculture, biology, health sciences, pre-med, pre-vet, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, chemistry, and chemical engineering.Students with high spatial scores did significantly better on questions which required problem solving skills, such as completing a reaction or outlining

Jeffrey R. Pribyl; George M. Bodner

1987-01-01

164

Improving Student Performance in Organic Chemistry: Help Seeking Behaviors and Prior Chemistry Aptitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic Chemistry is perceived to be one of the most challenging of undergraduate science courses, and attrition from this course may impact decisions about pursuing a professional or academic career in the biomedical and related sciences. Research suggests that chemistry students who are strategic help seekers may outperform those students who…

Horowitz, Gail; Rabin, Laura A.; Brodale, Donald L.

2013-01-01

165

Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential…

Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

2006-01-01

166

Organic First: A Biology-Friendly Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the author describes to biologists the advantages of organic-first curriculum, on the assumption that few biologists are regular readers of "Journal of Chemistry Education" and therefore are probably unaware of the method for integrating chemistry and biology curricula. The author begins with the assumption that the majority of…

Reingold, I. David

2005-01-01

167

Contextualized Chemistry Education: The American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a survey of context?based chemistry education in the United States. It begins with a very brief overview of twentieth?century chemistry texts and teaching methods, followed by a short description of a pioneering secondary school text. The major emphasis is on post?secondary instruction and the central case study is provided by Chemistry in Context, a university text intended

A. Truman Schwartz

2006-01-01

168

Integrating Pharmacology into the Organic Chemistry Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many nonchemistry majors are unaware of the unity between chemistry and biology and tend to separate the two disciplines conceptually. In a course designed to emphasize health-related issues using a pharmacological approach, students gained a much better

Kelley, Colleen; Gaither, Katy K.

2001-05-01

169

Photolysis of 4-Phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one: An Undergraduate Experiment in Free Radical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a photochemistry experiment designed to introduce photochemical techniques and experience free radical chemistry. Selects Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy for the analysis. This activity is suggested for use in an upper level undergraduate organic course. (MVL)

White, Rick C.; Ma, Sha

1988-01-01

170

A Research-Based Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of a research component into a sophomore organic chemistry laboratory sequence is described. The students prepare a research proposal, perform the planned two-step synthesis, and present their research as a poster at a departmental \\

D. Scott Davis; Robert J. Hargrove; Jeffrey D. Hugdahl

1999-01-01

171

Laboratory studies into the cosmic origins of organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a novel merged-beams apparatus to study the cosmic origins of organic chemistry. Here we report rate coefficients measurements for reactions of atomic C with H+3. These data are important for astrochemical models.

de Ruette, N.; Miller, K. A.; O'Connor, A. P.; Stützel, J.; Urbain, X.; Savin, D. W.

2014-04-01

172

CARBINOLAMINES AND GEMINAL DIOLS IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic chemistry textbooks generally treat geminal diols as curiosities-exceptions to the stability of the C=O double bond. However, most aldehydes of environmental significance, to wit, trichloroethanal (chloral), methanala (formaldehyde), ethanal (acetaldehyde), and propanal ...

173

Convenient Laboratory Storage of Glassware for Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An apparatus is described for storing laboratory glassware in freshman organic chemistry laboratories. The glassware is mounted on pegboard using hardware gripper clips, and the pegboard is fitted in a slot down one side of the storage cupboard. (BB)

Beatty, James W.; And Others

1979-01-01

174

A Novel Philosophy for a First Course in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on research is suggested as an approach for teaching organic chemistry for nonmajors. Topics of saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons are used as examples to illustrate the approach. (SK)

Newman, Melvin S.

1982-01-01

175

Dodecaamide cages: organic 12-arm building blocks for supramolecular chemistry.  

PubMed

A simple, one-step amidation reaction is used to produce a range of 12-arm organic building blocks for supramolecular chemistry via the derivatization of porous imine cages. As an example, microporous dendrimers are prepared. PMID:23786167

Culshaw, Jamie L; Cheng, Ge; Schmidtmann, Marc; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

2013-07-10

176

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

2005-01-01

177

Development and Formative Evaluation of Computer Simulated College Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the design, preparation, and initial evaluation of a set of computer-simulated chemistry experiments. The experiments entailed the use of an atomic emission spectroscope and a single-beam visible absorption spectrophometer. (Author/IRT)

Cavin, Claudia S.; Cavin, E. D.

1978-01-01

178

An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Facile Hydrogenation of Methyl Trans-Cinnamate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hydrogenation of alkenes is an important reaction in the synthesis of organic molecules. In this experiment, students conduct a high-yield microscale hydrogenation reaction of methyl "trans"-cinnamate using a readily available, safe, and convenient hydrogen source. The conditions are similar to those seen in an organic chemistry textbook for an…

O'Connor, Kenneth J.; Zuspan, Kimberly; Berry, Lonnie

2011-01-01

179

Contextualized Chemistry Education: The American Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a survey of context-based chemistry education in the United States. It begins with a very brief overview of twentieth-century chemistry texts and teaching methods, followed by a short description of a pioneering secondary school text. The major emphasis is on post-secondary instruction and the central case study is provided by…

Schwartz, A. Truman

2006-01-01

180

Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

Bucholtz, Kevin M.

2011-01-01

181

Topic Sequence and Emphasis Variability of Selected Organic Chemistry Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Textbook choice has a significant effect upon course success. Among the factors that influence this decision, two of the most important are material organization and emphasis. This paper examines the sequencing of 19 organic chemistry topics, 21 concepts and skills, and 7 biological topics within nine of the currently available organic textbooks.…

Houseknecht, Justin B.

2010-01-01

182

Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess-Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation is an experiment that provides an avenue to the introduction of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in organic chemistry curriculum as a diagnostic tool for examination of the results of a familiar reaction, and absolute configuration. From the experiment, students increased their understanding of CD theory and…

Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G.

2005-01-01

183

A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory that involves a template-controlled solid-state reaction is described. The experiment utilizes a template to direct the assembly of an olefin in the solid state that undergoes a [2 + 2] photodimerization.

Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R.

2005-01-01

184

Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the carbohydrates continue to gain attention for their central role in numerous areas of chemistry and biology, there is a growing need for experiments at the undergraduate level that highlight these fascinating compounds. In this article we describe a simple two-step laboratory experiment that may be used to highlight several important concepts introduced in sophomore organic chemistry, as applied

Peter Norris; Andrew Fluxe

2001-01-01

185

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Latest Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO extends the wavelength coverage to the 400-1000 nm spectral region. The principal investigator for MAESTRO is T. McElroy of the Meteorological Service of Canada. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE is part of the Canadian Space Agency's small satellite program, and was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics by K. Walker and K. Strong. A mission overview and status report will be presented. Science results for a few selected topics including the detection of organic molecules such as methanol and formaldehyde in the troposphere will be discussed.

Bernath, P.

2008-12-01

186

Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green chemistry principles and practices have been infused in the chemistry curriculum at the University of Scranton, including courses in general, organic, and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, environmental, polymer, industrial, and advanced organic chemistry, and chemical toxicology. Web-based green chemistry teaching modules have been developed for each of these courses. We describe the principles underlying green chemistry and methods of introducing these concepts into the curriculum with an example of incorporating green chemistry into the undergraduate lecture and laboratory organic sequence. See Featured Molecules .

Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

2004-07-01

187

Positive Impacts Using POGIL in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student-centered learning technique, process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), has been developed as a pedagogical technique that facilitates collaborative and cooperative learning in the chemistry classroom. With the use of this technique, students enhance their higher-order thinking skills and process skills synergistically. In…

Hein, Sara M.

2012-01-01

188

Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

2012-01-01

189

Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

Sagan, C.

1973-01-01

190

Undergraduate Oral Examinations in a University Organic Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the successful implementation of an oral examination format in the organic chemistry curriculum at the University of Toronto. Oral examinations are used to replace traditional written midterm examinations in several courses. In an introductory organic class, each student is allotted 15 min to individually discuss one…

Dicks, Andrew P.; Lautens, Mark; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Skonieczny, Stanislaw

2012-01-01

191

Using Popular Nonfiction in Organic Chemistry: Teaching More than Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigning a popular nonfiction book as a supplemental text in organic chemistry can help students learn valuable skills. An analysis of student feedback on assignments related to a nonfiction book in two different organic courses revealed that students applied the information from the book, improved their communication skills, and were more…

Amaral, Katie E.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.

2010-01-01

192

Saying What You Mean: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic reactions in introductory organic chemistry courses are most commonly taught with a mechanism-based approach to the understanding of molecular reactivity. However, the effectiveness of the popular curved arrow representation to describe reaction mechanisms is often compromised by the overuse of shortcuts and obscure notation. The…

Friesen, J. Brent

2008-01-01

193

Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ease the transition from organic chemistry at the beginning of a biochemistry course or at the beginning of the metabolism section of the organic course, an early presentation of the oxidation of ethanol is proposed. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions can smooth the introduction to biochemistry, since they involve three of the simplest compounds: ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic

Richard D. Feinman

2001-01-01

194

Students' understanding of alkyl halide reactions in undergraduate organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is studied in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, establishing a robust understanding of the concepts and reactions related to them can be beneficial in assuring students' success in organic chemistry courses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate and describe students' understanding of alkyl halide reactions in an undergraduate organic chemistry course. Participants were interviewed using a think-aloud protocol in which they were given a set of exercises dealing with reactions and mechanisms of alkyl halide molecules in order to shed light on the students' understanding of these reactions and elucidate any gaps in understanding and incorrect warrants that may be present. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative inquiry approaches. In general, the findings from this study show that the students exhibited gaps in understanding and incorrect warrants dealing with: (1) classifying substances as bases and/or nucleophiles, (2) assessing the basic or nucleophilic strength of substances, (3) accurately describing the electron movement of the steps that take place during alkyl halide reaction mechanisms, and (4) assessing the viability of their proposed reactive intermediates and breakage of covalent bonds. In addition, implications for teaching and future research are proposed.

Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

195

Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

1986-01-01

196

Determination of the Position of the Conformational Equilibrium of a Trans 1,2-Disubstituted Cyclohexane by NMR Spectroscopy. An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry for Undergraduate Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment using NMR spectroscopy to determine the relative amounts of the two chair conformations of trans-1-chloro-2-(2-nitrophenythio)cyclohexane is described. The cyclohexane derivative is prepared in an NMR tube by the addition of 2-nitrophenylsulfenyl chloride to cyclohexene. The coupling constants for the hydrogens adjacent to the chlorine and sulfur are used to calculate the percentage of each conformer in the equilibrium mixture. The coupling constants for these hydrogens in the individual conformers are obtained by application of the Karplus equation. The needed dihedral angles are obtained by a molecular mechanics calculation, although idealized angles can also be used. The reaction is conducted in two solvents, chloroform-d and acetonitrile-d3, so the effect of solvent polarity on the equilibrium is also investigated.

Kutateladze, Andrei G.; Hornback, Joseph M.

2001-01-01

197

Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

1992-01-01

198

View from My Classroom: Introductory Organic Chemistry with Instrumental Analysis: A Third Year High School Chemistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an advanced high school chemistry course that exposes students to a wide variety of modern, realistic instrumental techniques. The laboratory syllabus for the course (which uses the textbook "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd) is included. (JN)

Liebermann, John, Jr.

1985-01-01

199

Experiments in Chemistry: A Model Science Software Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Experiments in Chemistry," in which experiments are performed using software and hardware interfaced to the Apple microcomputer's game paddle port. Experiments include temperature, pH electrode, and EMF (cell potential determinations, oxidation-reduction titrations, and precipitation titrations) investigations. (JN)

Malone, Diana; Tinker, Robert

1984-01-01

200

The Big Picture; A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the article "The Big Picture: A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry", Thomas Poon makes interesting use of the device exploited by Istvan Banyai in his Zoom books to help students of organic chemistry make connections between the molecular world and ways in which those molecules are important in daily life. The paper should have appeal at all levels of science education from the time the idea of molecules is first introduced through college-level courses. Along the way, students will encounter important biological molecules (such as chlorophyll), inks (such as pen ink), CFCs, hydrocarbon fuels, plastics (such as Lexan polycarbonate), and molecules with medical applications (such as aspirin and novocaine).

201

Incorporating a Substantial Writing Assignment into Organic Chemistry: Library Research, Peer Review, and Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial writing assignment in an organic chemistry course provides a means of allowing students to direct their own learning about a specific application of organic chemistry. The use of peer review provided additional benefits: students learned organic chemistry from reading each others' papers and learned more about how classmates write about chemistry. Recommendations about how best to collaborate with

Ivan A. Shibley Jr.; Louis K. Milakofsky; Cynthia L. Nicotera

2001-01-01

202

Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

Duis, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

203

Predicted versus Actual Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry and Implications for Student Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance as measured by grades in the first and second semesters of organic chemistry was predicted using pre-college measures (SAT scores, high school rank, validation exams) and college measures (general chemistry GPA, overall college GPA prior to beginning organic chemistry, first-semester organic chemistry GPA). Data indicate that overall…

Pursell, David P.

2007-01-01

204

CODEX: Assessing the Historical Context of Chemistry and Organics on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chemistry, Organics and Dating EXperiment (CODEX) is a laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for use on Mars, which, by varying the type of ionization used, can operate as an elemental detector, an organics detector, and a radiometric dating instrument. CODEX uses three ionization modes: A) laser ablation mass spectrometry (LAMS) to measure chemistry and isotopes, B) two-step laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (L2MS) to measure organics, and C) laser desorption resonance ionization mass spectrometry (LDRIMS) to measure rubidium-strontium geochronology. Using these modes sequentially, CODEX interrogates hundreds of locations on the surface of a drill core, each of which are initially cleaned by laser ablation to remove surface contaminants. Using microscopic mapping, CODEX places elemental chemistry observations in spatial and temporal context with organic signatures revealing the complex historical context of chemistry and organics. The modes of CODEX have been demonstrated on three well-known samples: a) the Boulder Creek Granite (chemistry and dating), b) the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison (organics and chemistry), and c) the Martian meteorite Zagami (dating). The BCG measurements result in a high-sensitivity chemistry measurements, with isotope ratio precision exceeding ±0.35%; using dating mode, we derived an average age of 1727±62 Ma, as compared to a TIMS age of 1700±40 Ma. The measurements of the Murchison meteorite revealed hundreds of organic compounds consistent with an abiotic carbonaceous chondrite, and elemental abundances that match previous work. Finally, Zagami is a Martian meteorite with a Rb-Sr age of 166±6 Ma. Our measurements result in an age of 170±105 Ma, consistent with the previously published dates, and an accuracy exceeding NASA requirements (±200 Ma).

Anderson, F. Scott; Whitaker, Tom; Levine, Jonathan

2014-05-01

205

Atmospheric chemistry's enhanced effect on organic aerosols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Results of this study indicate that chemical processes in the atmosphere may remove nearly as much organic carbon from the troposphere as rain, which was previously considered the major mechanism for eliminating the pollutant particles. Details are discussed in article.

Al., Molina E.; Agu

206

Organic Chemistry on Titan: Surface Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with ...

W. R. Thompson C. Sagan

1992-01-01

207

Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

2008-01-01

208

Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

2012-01-01

209

A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed an alternative electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory. The experiment is an electrophilic iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesic, using environmentally friendly reagents--sodium iodide and household bleach. Further, we designed the lab as a guided-inquiry…

Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd

2008-01-01

210

Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

2012-01-01

211

Borohydride Reduction of Estrone: Demonstration of Diastereoselectivity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Chiral hindered ketones such as estrone, undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly diastereoselective manner. The diastereomeric estradiols produced in the reaction can be analyzed and…

Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc

2008-01-01

212

The Implementation of a Service-Learning Component in an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

avenues for the implementation of service-learning into their curricula. A second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment, in which the undergraduate students make azo dyes, can provide a vehicle for a service-learning module in which university undergraduate…

Glover, Sarah R.; Sewry, Joyce D.; Bromley, Candice L.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Hlengwa, Amanda

2013-01-01

213

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

214

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

215

A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule  

PubMed Central

A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world.

2014-01-01

216

A Statistical Evaluation: Peer-led Team Learning in an Organic Chemistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the status of peer-led learning, also known as Workshop Chemistry. This National Science Foundation (NSF) systemic-reform initiative focuses on general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. (DDR)

Lyle, Kenneth S.; Robinson, William R.

2003-01-01

217

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type…

Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

218

Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and t...

M. G. Trainer

2012-01-01

219

Organic chemistry in the oceans of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Titan, most of the organics present in the atmosphere must condense in the lower stratosphere and be solid near the surface, except methane, ethane, propane, propene and 1-butene which must be liquid and could form oceans containing large fractions of dissolved N2. Chemical evolution on Titan must have followed a way very different from the terrestrial one, involving physical

F. Raulin

1987-01-01

220

Alternative Conceptions of Organic Chemistry Topics among Fourth Year Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the conceptual understanding for a series of fundamental organic concepts by fourth year chemistry students from a midsize, southeastern, state university. Student volunteers (n = 19) participated in semi-structured interviews using a think aloud protocol. The interview questions were eleven multiple choice questions selected…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Hardy, Rebecca C.; Gwaltney, Kevin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

2008-01-01

221

Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

Deal, Walter J.

1975-01-01

222

How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)

Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

2001-01-01

223

Carbinolamines and Geminal Diols in Aqueous Environmental Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic chemistry textbooks generally treat geminal diols as curiosities--exceptions to the stability of the C=O double bond. However, most aldehydes of environmental significance, to wit, trichloroethanal (chloral), methanal (formaldehyde), ethanal (acetaldehyde), and propanal (propionaldehyde), exhibit this behavior. Carbinolamines (hemiaminals) are usually considered to be unstable reaction intermediates of very short lifetime, despite a considerable volume of literature that suggests otherwise.

Edward T. Urbansky

2000-01-01

224

Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",…

Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.

2011-01-01

225

Omar Yaghi on Chemistry and Metal Organic Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

In this edited version of the hour long talk, Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, sat down in conversation with Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, on July 11th, 2012 to discuss his fascination with the hidden world of chemistry and his work on Metal Organic Frameworks.

Omar Yaghi

2012-07-23

226

Learning Organic Chemistry through a Study of Semiochemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topics of nature, for example semiochemicals, are motivating topics, which can be used to teach organic chemistry at high school level. The history, classifications, a few important applications of semiochemicals, and an semiochemical that can be synthesized in the laboratory are presented. The laboratory synthesis is carried out through the…

Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija

2011-01-01

227

Telling It like It Is: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I support and extend the ideas presented by J. Brent Friesen in his article "Saying What You Mean; Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry" ("JCE" November, 2008). I emphasize "telling the truth" about proton transfers. The truth is that in aqueous acid most reactions are subject to "specific" acid catalysis: the only kinetically…

Ault, Addison

2010-01-01

228

Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sudoku puzzle was designed to teach about amino acids and functional groups to the students of undergraduate organic chemistry students. The puzzles focus on helping the student learn the name, 3-letter code and 1-letter code of common amino acids and functional groups.

Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G.

2007-01-01

229

A Simple Mnemonic for Tautomerization Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The familiar word OREO (as in the cookie) is presented as a simple mnemonic for remembering the basic steps of the classical tautomerization mechanisms in organic chemistry. For acid-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton on, resonance, proton off. For base-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton off, resonance, proton on.…

Stephens, Chad E.

2010-01-01

230

Integrating Symmetry in Stereochemical Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of students--two that…

Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.

2011-01-01

231

Omar Yaghi on Chemistry and Metal Organic Frameworks  

ScienceCinema

In this edited version of the hour long talk, Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, sat down in conversation with Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, on July 11th, 2012 to discuss his fascination with the hidden world of chemistry and his work on Metal Organic Frameworks.

Omar Yaghi

2013-06-24

232

Does Mechanistic Thinking Improve Student Success in Organic Chemistry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the curved-arrow notation to depict electron flow during mechanistic processes is one of the most important representational conventions in the organic chemistry curriculum. Our previous research documented a disturbing trend: when asked to predict the products of a series of reactions, many students do not spontaneously engage in…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

233

TECHNETIUM CHEMISTRY IN HLW: ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPLEXANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Technetium complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remo...

234

Two Multipurpose Thermochemical Experiments for General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experiments designed to provide concepts on the difference between heat and temperature and also bond energy. Investigates both a neutralization experiment and a ligation experiment. Notes inexpensive chemicals are used along with simple equipment. Discusses the sharing of lab results for a single class value. (MVL)

Wentworth, R. A. D.

1988-01-01

235

Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis…

Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

2011-01-01

236

Solvated Electrons in Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment is described in which solvated electrons in liquid ammonia reduce a benzyl alcohol carbon without affecting the aromatic ring. The reductive activity of solvated electrons can be partially or completely quenched through the addition of electron scavengers to the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of these scavengers was found…

Ilich, Predrag-Peter; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Atkins, Adam D.; Mell, Geoffrey J.; Flaherty, Timothy J.; Bruck, Martin J.; Goodrich, Heather A.; Hefel, Aaron L.; Juranic, Nenad; Seleem, Suzanne

2010-01-01

237

Volatile organic compound ratios as probes of halogen atom chemistry in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound concentration ratios can be used as indicators of halogen chemistry that occurs during ozone depletion events in the Arctic during spring. Here we use a combination of modeling and measurements of [acetone]/[propanal] as an indicator of bromine chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-butane] are used to study the extent of chlorine chemistry during four ozone depletion events during the Polar Sunrise Experiment of 1995. Using a 0-D photochemistry model in which the input of halogen atoms is controlled and varied, the approximate ratio of [Br]/[Cl] can be estimated for each ozone depletion event. It is concluded that there must be an additional source of propanal (likely from the snowpack) to correctly simulate the VOC chemistry of the Arctic, and further evidence that the ratio of Br atoms to Cl atoms can vary greatly during ozone depletion events is presented.

Cavender, A. E.; Biesenthal, T. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Shepson, P. B.

2008-03-01

238

Volatile organic compound ratios as probes of halogen atom chemistry in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound concentration ratios can be used as indicators of halogen chemistry that occurs during ozone depletion events in the Arctic during spring. Here we use a combination of modeling and measurements of [acetone]/[propanal] as an indicator of bromine chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-butane] are used to study the extent of chlorine chemistry during four ozone depletion events during the Polar Sunrise Experiment of 1995. Using a 0-D photochemistry model in which the input of halogen atoms is controlled and varied, the approximate ratio of [Br]/[Cl] can be estimated for each ozone depletion event. It is concluded that there must be an additional source of propanal (likely from the snowpack) to correctly simulate the VOC chemistry of the Arctic, and that the ratio of Br atoms to Cl atoms can vary greatly during ozone depletion events.

Cavender, A. E.; Biesenthal, T. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Shepson, P. B.

2007-08-01

239

The nucleophilicity N index in organic chemistry.  

PubMed

The nucleophilicity N index (J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 4615), the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/?, and the recently proposed inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/??, (J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4957) have been checked toward (i) a series of single 5-substituted indoles for which rate constants are available, (ii) a series of para-substituted phenols, and for (iii) a series of 2,5-disubstituted bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes which display concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. While all considered indices account well for the nucleophilic behavior of organic molecules having a single substitution, the nucleophilicity N index works better for more complex molecules. Unlike, the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/?, (R(2) = 0.71), and the inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/?? (R(2) = 0.83), a very good correlation of the nucleophilicity N index of twelve 2-substituted-6-methoxy-bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes versus the activation energy associated with the nucleophilic attack on 1,1-dicyanoethylene is found (R(2) = 0.99). This comparative study allows to assert that the nucleophilicity N index is a measure of the nucleophilicity of complex organic molecules displaying concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. PMID:21842104

Domingo, Luis R; Pérez, Patricia

2011-10-21

240

Planetary Organic Chemistry and the Origins of Biomolecules  

PubMed Central

Organic chemistry on a planetary scale is likely to have transformed carbon dioxide and reduced carbon species delivered to an accreting Earth. According to various models for the origin of life on Earth, biological molecules that jump-started Darwinian evolution arose via this planetary chemistry. The grandest of these models assumes that ribonucleic acid (RNA) arose prebiotically, together with components for compartments that held it and a primitive metabolism that nourished it. Unfortunately, it has been challenging to identify possible prebiotic chemistry that might have created RNA. Organic molecules, given energy, have a well-known propensity to form multiple products, sometimes referred to collectively as “tar” or “tholin.” These mixtures appear to be unsuited to support Darwinian processes, and certainly have never been observed to spontaneously yield a homochiral genetic polymer. To date, proposed solutions to this challenge either involve too much direct human intervention to satisfy many in the community, or generate molecules that are unreactive “dead ends” under standard conditions of temperature and pressure. Carbohydrates, organic species having carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a ratio of 1:2:1 and an aldehyde or ketone group, conspicuously embody this challenge. They are components of RNA and their reactivity can support both interesting spontaneous chemistry as part of a “carbohydrate world,” but they also easily form mixtures, polymers and tars. We describe here the latest thoughts on how on this challenge, focusing on how it might be resolved using minerals containing borate, silicate, and molybdate, inter alia.

Benner, Steven A.; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myung-Jung; Ricardo, Alonso

2010-01-01

241

Carbinolamines and Geminal Diols in Aqueous Environmental Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic chemistry textbooks generally treat geminal diols as curiosities--exceptions to the stability of the C=O double bond. However, most aldehydes of environmental significance, to wit, trichloroethanal (chloral), methanal (formaldehyde), ethanal (acetaldehyde), and propanal (propionaldehyde), exhibit this behavior. Carbinolamines (hemiaminals) are usually considered to be unstable reaction intermediates of very short lifetime, despite a considerable volume of literature that suggests otherwise. In aqueous solution, carbinolamines can build up to substantial concentrations and play important roles in kinetics of aldehyde reactions, subsequent to formation of aldehydes as ozonation by-products during drinking water disinfection. A few carbinolamines are isolable, although these are not encountered in environmental systems. In general, the minimal conceptual treatment of these chemical species results from the central theme of synthetic utility that quite reasonably dominates organic chemistry courses and textbooks. Nonetheless, a pedagogical consequence is that students may be left with an incorrect perception that these species are unlikely to be encountered in common situations. Accordingly, it is important for teachers and students of environmental chemistry to remember that aqueous chemistry can be quite different from that observed in less polar and sometimes aprotic organic solvents.

Urbansky, Edward T.

2000-12-01

242

Statistical Analysis Experiment for Freshman Chemistry Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experiment dissolving zinc from galvanized nails in which data can be gathered very quickly for statistical analysis. The data have sufficient significant figures and the experiment yields a nice distribution of random errors. Freshman students can gain an appreciation of the relationships between random error, number of…

Salzsieder, John C.

1995-01-01

243

Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

Fan, Qinbai; And Others

1995-01-01

244

Nuclear Experiments in the Chemistry Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes nuclear teaching experiments and their distribution within the undergraduate curriculum. In addition, sources of information on published nuclear teaching experiments and on the supplier's of nuclear instruments, radiochemical and miscellaneous special materials are identified. Approximate costs for selected nuclear instrument systems…

Clark, Herbert M.

1970-01-01

245

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

246

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO has been added to the mission to extend the wavelength coverage to the 280-1000 nm spectral region. The broad-band atmospheric extinction measured with high signal-to-noise ratio by MAESTRO is particularly useful for the derivation of aerosol and cloud physical properties. The PI for the MAESTRO instrument is T. McElroy from the Meteorological Service of Canada. ACE is unique in that MAESTRO, the ACE-FTS and the imagers all share the same suntracker and make simultaneous measurements of the same scene. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE has been selected in the Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1 program for a planned launch by NASA in May 2003 for a 2 year mission. The main international partners for ACE are NASA, for the launch and algorithm work at NASA-Langley, and Belgium/ESA, for the CMOS imaging arrays and scientific support.

Bernath, P.

2003-04-01

247

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO has been added to the mission to extend the wavelength coverage to the 280-1000 nm spectral region. The broad-band atmospheric extinction measured with high signal-to-noise ratio by MAESTRO is particularly useful for the derivation of aerosol and cloud physical properties. The PI for the MAESTRO instrument is T. McElroy from the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). ACE is unique in that MAESTRO, the ACE-FTS and the imagers all share the same suntracker and make simultaneous measurements of the same scene. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE was selected in the Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1 program, and was successfully launched by NASA on August 12, 2003 for a 2 year mission. The main international partners for ACE are NASA, for the launch and algorithm work at NASA-Langley, and Belgium/ESA, for the CMOS imaging arrays and scientific support.

Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

2003-12-01

248

New organic chemistry of sulfur dioxide.  

PubMed

Simple 1,3-dienes undergo highly stereoselective hetero-Diels-Alder additions with SO2 at low temperature giving sultines. These reactions that are faster than the more exothermic cheletropic additions of SO2-producing sulfolenes. This has led to the invention of a new C-C bond-forming reaction combining electron-rich dienes and alkenes with SO2. The reaction cascade has been exploited to develop combinatorial, one-pot, four-component syntheses of polyfunctional sulfones, sulfonamides, and sulfonic esters. It also allows us to generate, in one-pot operations, enantiomerically enriched polypropionate fragments containing up to three contiguous stereogenic centers and a (E)-alkene unit. These fragments can be used directly in further C-C bond-forming reactions, such as cross-aldol condensations, thus permitting the expeditious construction of complicated natural products of biological interest (e.g., Baconipyrones, Rifamycin S, Apoptolidinone) and analogues. New ene reactions of SO2 have also been discovered; they open new avenues to organic synthesis. PMID:17685582

Vogel, Pierre; Turks, Maris; Bouchez, Laure; Markovi?, Dean; Varela-Alvarez, Adrián; Sordo, José Angel

2007-10-01

249

Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business…

Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

2004-01-01

250

Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry: A Laboratory Course, 1st Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the Organic Chemistry textbook, Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry: A Laboratory Course, 1st Edition, by Pedersen; Myers published by Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2011.

251

Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in the classroom. Eight undergraduate students from four different organic chemistry courses were interviewed and asked to solve three of the problems converted at the end of phase two. Data from these interviews were used to understand the types, methods, and knowledge uses by undergraduate students in the problem-solving process. Data from all three phases were used to assert seven ideas for the development of problems for undergraduate students.

Raker, Jeffrey R.

252

Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agronomy students generally lack interest in chemistry. The objective of this work was to modify the analytical chemistry curriculum to increase student interest. Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments

Sônia Maria N. Gimenez; Maria Josefa S. Yabe; Neide K. Kondo; Rodrigo O. Mouriño; Graziela Cristina R. Moura

2000-01-01

253

Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

1988-01-01

254

Chemistry and Flatulence: An Introductory Enzyme Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inexpensive introductory-level enzyme experiment was developed using raffinose family sugars extracted from green split peas as a substrate and the enzymes alpha-galactosidase and sucrase found in Beano. The reaction studied was the hydrolysis of raffinose family sugars to galactose, glucose, and fructose, and the reaction rate was determined using a retail glucometer to measure the concentration of glucose. Results are given on the effect of substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, temperature, and heavy metals on enzyme activity.

Hardee, John R.; Montgomery, Tina M.; Jones, Wray H.

2000-04-01

255

Techniques in Organic Chemistry, Part 2: Videotape; Abstract of Special Issue 22  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of Techniques in Organic Chemistry, a compilation of short video segments designed to teach the basic techniques of organic chemistry to undergraduate university or college students. Techniques in Organic Chemistry uses a unique style to demonstrate different practical lab skills. The set is designed to help students envision the procedural steps of basic techniques of

Lois M. Browne; Karine Auclair

1998-01-01

256

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 7: Alkenes-Nomenclature and Isomerism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

257

Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions and Mechanisms (by Bernard Miller)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. 338 pp, index. ISBN 0-13-373275-4. $59.00. Recently several short texts on intermediate organic chemistry have been published, intended for use in one-term courses for advanced undergraduates and for graduate students who need more background before taking a graduate-level course. These books fill a need not fully met by graduate-level texts such as Lowry

Daniel Berger

1998-01-01

258

Photocatalysis: a promising route for 21st century organic chemistry.  

PubMed

One of the main goals of 21st century chemistry is to replace environmentally hazardous processes with energy efficient routes allowing to totally avoid the use and production of harmful chemicals and to maximise the quantity of raw material that ends up in the final product. Selective photocatalytic conversions will play a major role in this evolution and this account shows how photocatalysis is offering an alternative green route for the production of organics. PMID:17700873

Palmisano, Giovanni; Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Pagliaro, Mario; Palmisano, Leonardo

2007-09-01

259

p-Toluenesulfonylmethyl Isocyanide: A Versatile Synthon in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

TosMIC, a versatile synthon in organic chemistry, has been extensively used for the synthesis of a wide variety of small, medium and large ring heterocycles. It has immense implications in the synthesis of nitriles, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, cyclophanes and large number of natural products. Several drug intermediates and pharmacologically active compounds have been synthesized from TosMIC. In addition, chiral TosMIC

Vishnu K. Tandon; Sanjay Rai

2003-01-01

260

UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

Dhabanandana, Salag

261

"No one does this for fun": Contextualization and process writing in an organic chemistry laboratory course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the introduction of curriculum innovations into an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. Pre-existing experiments in a traditional course were re-written in a broader societal context. Additionally, a new laboratory notebook methodology was introduced, using the Decision/Explanation/Observation/Inference (DEOI) format that required students to explicitly describe the purpose of procedural steps and the meanings of observations. Experts in organic chemistry, science writing, and chemistry education examined the revised curriculum and deemed it appropriate. The revised curriculum was introduced into two sections of organic chemistry laboratory at Columbia University. Field notes were taken during the course, students and teaching assistants were interviewed, and completed student laboratory reports were examined to ascertain the impact of the innovations. The contextualizations were appreciated for making the course more interesting; for lending a sense of purpose to the study of chemistry; and for aiding in students' learning. Both experts and students described a preference for more extensive connections between the experiment content and the introduced context. Generally, students preferred the DEOI method to journal-style laboratory reports believing it to be more efficient and more focused on thinking than stylistic formalities. The students claimed that the DEOI method aided their understanding of the experiments and helped scaffold their thinking, though some students thought that the method was over-structured and disliked the required pre-laboratory work. The method was used in two distinct manners; recursively writing and revising as intended and concept contemplation only after experiment completion. The recursive use may have been influenced by TA attitudes towards the revisions and seemed to engender a sense of preparedness. Students' engagement with the contextualizations and the DEOI method highlight the need for laboratory curricula that center on the best means to engage students in understanding, rather than simply providing the best examples for transmitting content.

Gay, Andrea

262

Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kuan, Y. J.

2001-01-01

263

The THS experiment: probing Titan's atmospheric chemistry at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Titan’s atmosphere, a complex chemistry between N2 and CH4 occurs at temperatures lower than 200K and leads to the production of heavy molecules and subsequently solid aerosols that form the haze surrounding Titan. The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment has been developed at the NASA Ames COSmIC facility to study Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at low temperature in order to help interpret Cassini’s observational data. In the THS, the chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic expansion. With this unique design, the gas is jet-cooled to Titan-like temperature 150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma, and remains at low temperature in the plasma discharge 200K). Different N2-CH4-based gas mixtures can be injected in the plasma, with or without the addition of heavier precursors present as trace elements on Titan. Both the gas phase and solid phase products resulting from the plasma-induced chemistry can be monitored and analyzed using a combination of complementary in situ and ex situ diagnostics.Here we present the complementary results of two studies of the gas and solid phase. A Mass spectrometry analysis of the gas phase has demonstrated that the THS experiment is a unique tool to probe the first and intermediate steps as well as specific chemical pathways of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at Titan-like temperature. The more complex chemistry, observed in the gas phase when adding trace elements to the initial N2-CH4 mixture, has also been confirmed by an extensive study of the solid phase products: Scanning Electron Microscopy images have shown that aggregates produced in N2-CH4-C2H2-C6H6 mixtures (up to 5 ?m in diameter) are much larger than those produced in N2-CH4 mixtures (0.1-0.5 ?m), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance results support a growth evolution of the chemistry when adding acetylene to the N2-CH4 mixture, resulting in the production of more complex hydrogen bonds than with a simple N2-CH4 mixture.These complementary studies show the high potential of THS to better understand Titan’s chemistry and the origin of aerosol formation.AcknowledgmentsThis research is supported by NASA SMD PATM.

Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Upton, Kathleen; Beauchamp, Jack L; Salama, Farid

2014-06-01

264

NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

Gabris, E. A.

1981-01-01

265

Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder…

Palmer, David R. J.

2004-01-01

266

Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners' Experiences in High School Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the experiences of Spanish-speaking English language learners in high school chemistry courses, focusing largely on experiences in learning the English language, experiences learning chemistry, and experiences learning chemistry in the English language. The findings illustrate the cognitive processes the students undertake…

Flores, Annette; Smith, K. Christopher

2013-01-01

267

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and a number of cognitive and noncognitive variables, and explores whether gender differences existed for any of these relationships. Concludes that general chemistry grade, ACT-math score, and motivation are significant predictors of organic chemistry achievement. Indicates gender…

Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

2003-01-01

268

Science commissioning of the atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) was launched in August 2003 on board the Canadian scientific satellite SciSat-1. The ACE payload consists of two instruments: ACE-FTS, a high resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation), a dual UV-visible-NIR spectrograph. Primarily, the two instruments use a solar occultation

Kaley A. Walker; Jiansheng Zou; Florian Nichitiu; Kathleen L. Gilbert; David Turnbull; C. Thomas McElroy; Wayne F. J. Evans; Chris S. Ferguson; Eldon Puckrin; Chris Boone; Sean D. McLeod; Michael Butler; Clive Midwinter; James R. Drummond; Peter F. Bernath

2004-01-01

269

Aqueous-Phase Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling. A Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An upper-level inorganic/organic experiment presents important concepts in modern green chemistry. A water-soluble modified triphenylphosphine ligand is prepared and used to prepare a water-soluble palladium catalyst. The palladium catalyst is formed in situ and used for the aqueous, homogenous, palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of iodobenzene and diethyl phosphite. The product is diethyl phenylphosphonate.

Featured on the Cover

Harper, Brandy A.; Chance Rainwater, J.; Birdwhistell, Kurt; Knight, D. Andrew

2002-06-01

270

A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted

Patrick Gerard Meyer

2005-01-01

271

Tholins: Organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complex organic solid produced from cosmically abundant molecules explains many properties of the interstellar grains and gas. The product, a brown, sometimes sticky residue that is resistant to conventional analytic chemistry, has been named tholins and is discussed as a major constituent of the interstellar medium. Sequential and nonsequential pyrolysis followed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy were used to determine something of the composition of this material. The production and properties of tholins produced by spark discharges and by ultraviolet light are examined.

Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

1978-01-01

272

Organic matter chemistry and dynamics in clear-cut and unmanaged hardwood forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest harvesting alters the organic matter cycle by changing litter inputs and the decomposition regime. We hypothesized that these changes would result in differences in organic matter chemistry between clear-cut and uncut watershed ecosystems. We studied the chemistry of soil organic matter (SOM), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil solutions and stream samples in clear-cut and uncut sites at

K'OH. Dai; Chris E. Johnson; Charles T. Driscoll

2001-01-01

273

Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agronomy students generally lack interest in chemistry. The objective of this work was to modify the analytical chemistry curriculum to increase student interest. Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses. Evaluation of several chemical and physicochemical parameters of samples demonstrated in a clear way the application of the theoretical and practical concepts of chemistry.

Gimenez, Sônia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mouriño, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R.

2000-02-01

274

Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

2013-02-01

275

Interstellar Ice Chemistry: From Water to Complex Organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular cloud cores, protostellar envelopes and protoplanetary disk midplanes are all characterized by freeze-out of atoms and molecules (other than H and H2) onto interstellar dust grains. On the grain surface, atom addition reactions, especially hydrogenation, are efficient and H2O forms readily from O, CH3OH from CO etc. The result is an icy mantle typically dominated by H2O, but also rich in CO2, CO, NH3, CH3OH and CH4. These ices are further processed through interactions with radiation, electrons and energetic particles. Because of the efficiency of the freeze-out process, and the complex chemistry that succeeds it, these icy grain mantles constitute a major reservoir of volatiles during star formation and are also the source of much of the chemical evolution observed in star forming regions. Laboratory experiments allow us to explore how molecules and radicals desorb, dissociate, diffuse and react in ices when exposed to different sources of energy. Changes in ice composition and structure is constrained using infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By comparing ice desorption, segregation, and chemistry efficiencies under different experimental conditions, we can characterize the basic ice processes, e.g. diffusion of different species, that underpin the observable changes in ice composition and structure. This information can then be used to predict the interstellar ice chemical evolution. I will review some of the key laboratory discoveries on ice chemistry during the past few years and how they have been used to predict and interpret astronomical observations of ice bands and gas-phase molecules associated with ice evaporation. These include measurements of thermal diffusion in and evaporation from ice mixtures, non-thermal diffusion efficiencies (including the recent results on frequency resolved UV photodesorption), and the expected temperature dependencies of the complex ice chemistry regulated by radical formation and diffusion. Based on these examples I will argue that the combination of laboratory experiments and observations is crucial to formulate and to test hypotheses on key processes that regulate the interstellar ice chemistry.

Oberg, Karin I.; Fayolle, E.; Linnartz, H.; van Dishoeck, E.; Fillion, J.; Bertin, M.

2013-06-01

276

CHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN TWO STREAMS DRAINING FORESTED WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration, major fractions, and contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) to stream chemistry were examined in two paired streams draining upland catchments in eastern Maine. oncentrations of DOC in East and West Bear Brooks were 183 +/- 73 and 169 +/- 70 umol CL-1 (...

277

Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

278

What Does the Acid Ionization Constant Tell You? An Organic Chemistry Student Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students find the transition from first-year general chemistry to second-year organic chemistry a daunting task. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is their lack of a solid understanding and appreciation of the importance of some basic concepts and principles from general chemistry that play an extremely critical role in…

Rossi, Robert D.

2013-01-01

279

Orthogonality in organic, polymer, and supramolecular chemistry: from Merrifield to click chemistry.  

PubMed

The concept of orthogonality has been applied to many areas of chemistry, ranging from wave functions to chromatography. But it was Barany and Merrifield's orthogonal protecting group strategy that paved the way for solid phase peptide syntheses, other important classes of biomaterials such as oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, and ultimately to a term in widespread usage that is focused on chemical reactivity and binding selectivity. The orthogonal protection strategy has been extended to the development of orthogonal activation, and recently the click reaction, for streamlining organic synthesis. The click reaction and its variants are considered orthogonal as the components react together in high yield and in the presence of many other functional groups. Likewise, supramolecular building blocks can also be orthogonal, thereby enabling programmed self-assembly, a superb strategy to create complex architectures. Overall, orthogonal reactions and supramolecular interactions have dramatically improved the syntheses, the preparation of functional materials, and the self-assembly of nanoscale structures. PMID:23282586

Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C

2013-02-28

280

Colloid mobilization in an aggregated soil system as affected of organic matter and solution chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil colloids are mobilized as a result of chemical and physical release processes. The chemical release processes due to electrostatics interaction, Van der Walls interaction and steric repulsion are controlled by type of colloids, organic matter, pH, type of cations and ionic strength. The physical release processes include shear stress mobilization, mobilization of stagnant water containing colloids and slaking of aggregates. This study investigates the processes of colloid mobilization due to changes in chemistry in a soil system with simple geometry. The simple geometry allows for isolation of the processes of mobilization from the process of transport. Agricultural soils with two different levels of organic matter content were used in the experiments. All the experiments were conducted under the same physical boundary conditions. Columns were packed with natural soil aggregates (2-4 mm in diameter). The columns were slowly saturated to -10 hPa and incubated for two weeks. Then the columns were exposed to leaching experiments. Solutions of CaCl2 and KCl in three ionic strengths were used as saturation and infiltrating water. Lower boundary was a kept at -10 hPa and the inflow to the upper boundary was 10 mm/h. Colloid concentration, organic matter, pH and EC were monitored during the experiments. Conservative tracer experiment was performed. The experiments will contribute to answer the following questions: Does the difference in organic matter content found in agricultural soils influence the mobilization process? Does the soil water chemistry have both short-term and long-term effects on colloid mobilization?

Laegdsmand, M.; Moldrup, P.; de Jonge, L. W.

2003-04-01

281

Reactive Heterogeneous Chemistry on Organic Aerosols: Two Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sets of laboratory studies will be discussed to illustrate the impact that heterogeneous chemistry involving tropospheric organic aerosols may have on both the gas-phase composition of the atmosphere and the chemical nature of the particles themselves. In the first case, the reactive uptake coefficient for the hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on organic aerosols has been measured in an entrained aerosol flow tube coupled to a Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). The general observation is that the reaction on aqueous malonic acid aerosols behaves in an analogous manner to that on aqueous inorganic salts, i.e. the uptake coefficient shows a linear dependence on the particle water content up to 50% relative humidity (RH), at which point the effect saturates. In addition, there is evidence for the kinetics being dependent on both the size of the particles and the levels of dissolved nitrate. By contrast, the N2O5 hydrolysis kinetics on solid azelaic acid particles are too slow to be atmospherically significant, even at 85% RH. In the second case, the kinetics and product yields from the oxidation of liquid oleic acid by ozone have been studied in considerable detail, with emphasis on the quantification of gas-phase products (nonanal) by CIMS and water-soluble species by HPLC/Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (azelaic acid, nonanoic acid). The atmospheric importance of these results will be discussed, in particular with respect to the role of organic aerosol oxidation as a source of cloud condensation nuclei.

Abbatt, J.; Braban, C.; Broekhuizen, K.; Thornberry, T.; Thornton, J.

2003-12-01

282

Irradiated benzene ice provides clues to meteoritic organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Martin, Mildred G.; Peeters, Zan; Hudson, Reggie L.

2013-11-01

283

Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ease the transition from organic chemistry at the beginning of a biochemistry course or at the beginning of the metabolism section of the organic course, an early presentation of the oxidation of ethanol is proposed. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions can smooth the introduction to biochemistry, since they involve three of the simplest compounds: ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Using these reactions as a model encourages the study of metabolic pathways by a systematic approach rather than by rote memorization. Reactions that can be presented as variations on a theme include methanol poisoning, the polyol reaction, and, most important, the sequence glycerol-3-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. This last sequence integrates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and, by comparison with the model reaction, brings out the principles of substrate-level phosphorylation. The method has evoked favorable verbal feedback from students and, in addition to medical and graduate courses, has been successfully used in the biochemical section of an undergraduate organic course.

Feinman, Richard D.

2001-09-01

284

Methanol Photodissociation Branching Ratios and Their Influence on Interstellar Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is the most abundant organic molecule in interstellar ices, and its photodissociation is the dominant source of organic radicals in these ices. These organic radicals become mobile and react in warm (>30 K) environments. Such combination reactions lead to a variety of complex organic molecules with differing structural arrangements of organic functional groups. It is plausible, then, that methanol photodissociation branching ratios directly impact the relative abundances of structural isomers observed in interstellar environments. Previous laboratory investigations of the methanol photodissociation process yielded disparate results, and few of these experiments were conducted under conditions that can be directly applied to interstellar chemistry. We are therefore undertaking a combined laboratory spectroscopy and astrochemical modeling investigation of the methanol photodissociation reaction mechanism. In this talk, we will present our progress towards developing a submillimeter spectrometer designed to probe the gas-phase photodissociation branching ratios of methanol. We will also report on the results of an astrochemical modeling study that tests the influence of methanol photodissociation branching ratios on complex interstellar chemistry.

Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus; Garrod, Robin T.

2010-06-01

285

Organic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

2007-12-07

286

Molecular Images in Organic Chemistry: Assessment of Understanding in Aromaticity, Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

When students take General Chemistry there are substantially fewer molecular images than they will encounter in Organic Chemistry.\\u000a The molecular images Organic Chemistry students see in their textbooks are ones that use dashes and wedges to represent 2D\\u000a and semi 3D views, ball and spoke, ball and wire, and structural formulas, to name just a few. They also use physical

Julie B. Ealy; Jim Hermanson

2006-01-01

287

TextRev: A Window into How General and Organic Chemistry Students Use Textbook Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paper-based survey of first-year general chemistry and second-year organic chemistry students included responses from approximately 3200 students at nine colleges and universities. The students answered questions about the time they spent using various textbook resources, and about the quality and helpfulness of each resource. Five important results emerged. Organic chemistry students report spending approximately 40% more time using textbook

Bradley D. Smith; Dennis C. Jacobs

2003-01-01

288

The Chemical World of Paul Walden: Organic Chemistry from 1880 to 1935  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Paul Walden's history of organic chemistry as a continuation of Carl Graebe's work, covering the period from 1880 to 1935. Indicates that a general intellectual outlook, controlling ideas, and mental furnishings characteristic of his time are revealed besides factual information about the classical age of organic chemistry. (CC)

Tarbell, D. Stanley

1974-01-01

289

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in

Ronna C. Turner; Harriet A. Lindsay

2003-01-01

290

Mapping Students' Thinking Patterns in Learning Organic Chemistry by the Use of Knowledge Space Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' thinking patterns in learning organic chemistry were tracked through the one-year course taught to a total of approximately 1300 students, mostly biology majors, for a period of 2 years. As expected, the students' knowledge base increases, but the cognitive organization of the knowledge is surprisingly weak and misconceptions persist even after two years of college chemistry. Both a simple

Mare Taagepera; S. Noori

2000-01-01

291

Improving the teaching quality of Organic Chemistry by adopting some modern teaching methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first gives a description of the tertiary education context in China, which has been greatly influenced by examination-oriented policies. The current curriculum of Organic Chemistry and the teaching strategy for Organic Chemistry in Huazhong Agricultural University have also been reviewed. To improve the quality of teaching and learning, some modern teaching theories and strategies have been discussed. A

Hong Jiang

2004-01-01

292

Microscale Organic Laboratory II: The Benefits Derived from Conversion to the Program and Representative Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smaller amounts of materials are used in organic chemistry experiments as a means of improving air quality in the laboratory. Outlines benefits from this approach and describes two representative experiments in detail. These experiments are the Cannizzaro reaction and preparation of an aromatic nitrile. (JN)

Mayo, Dana W.; And Others

1985-01-01

293

Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

Dannhauser, Walter

1980-01-01

294

Investigating Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry at Low Temperature with the Titan Haze Simulation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, possesses a dense atmosphere (1.5 bar at the surface) composed mainly of N2 and CH4. The solar radiation and electron bombardment from Saturn's magnetosphere induces a complex organic chemistry between these two constituents leading to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid aerosols. These aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere form the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. Since 2004, the instruments onboard the Cassini orbiter have produced large amounts of observational data, unraveling a chemistry much more complex than what was first expected, particularly in Titan's upper atmosphere. Neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules have been detected in the ionosphere of Titan, including benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3). The presence of these critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan's aerosols. The aim of the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment, developed at the NASA Ames COSmIC facility, is to study the chemical pathways that link the simple molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature (~150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Due to the short residence time of the gas in the plasma discharge, the THS experiment can be used to probe the first and intermediate steps of Titan's chemistry by injecting different gas mixtures in the plasma. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using two complementary techniques: Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Thin tholin deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and IR spectroscopy. Here we present the results of a systematic mass spectrometry study using N2-based, Ar-based and N2-CH4(90:10)-based mixtures with several hydrocarbon precursors to investigate specific pathways associated with the presence of these trace elements in Titan's atmosphere. These results show the uniqueness of the THS experiment to help understand the first and intermediate steps of Titan's atmospheric chemistry as well as specific chemical pathways leading to Titan's haze formation. We will also present the results of ex situ analyses performed on tholins produced in the THS experiment with different gas mixtures, and compare them to tholin films produced in a static photochemistry cell using VUV instead of plasma as the energy source for the chemistry. Acknowledgments This research is supported by NASA SMD (Planetary Atmospheres Program). E.S.O. acknowledges the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP) and thanks Claire L. Ricketts for the help and discussions with regard to the photochemistry cell. Finally, the authors acknowledge the technical support of R. Walker (NASA ARC).

Sciamma-O'Brien, E. M.; Salama, F.

2012-12-01

295

A Collaborative, Wiki-Based Organic Chemistry Project Incorporating Free Chemistry Software on the Web  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, postsecondary instructors have recognized the potential of wikis to transform the way students learn in a collaborative environment. However, few instructors have embraced in-depth student use of chemistry software for the creation of interactive chemistry content on the Web. Using currently available software, students are able…

Evans, Michael J.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

296

The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map II: Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a way to assist chemistry departments with programmatic assessment of undergraduate chemistry curricula, the ACS Examinations Institute is devising a map of the content taught throughout the undergraduate curriculum. The structure of the map is hierarchal, with large grain size at the top and more content detail as one moves "down"…

Raker, Jeffrey; Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

2013-01-01

297

History of early Organizer Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the research and publication of the paper entitled: ÃÂVersuche zur Analyse der Induktionsmittel in der EmbryonalentwicklungÃÂ [Attempts to analyse the Organizer of the Embryo] and links to other articles about these associates and their historic work.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)

2011-09-20

298

Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

2011-01-01

299

The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

2009-01-01

300

Lunar carbon chemistry - Relations to and implications for terrestrial organic geochemistry.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Survey of the various ways in which studies of lunar carbon chemistry have beneficially affected terrestrial organic geochemistry. A lunar organic gas-analysis operating system is cited as the most important instrumental development in relation to terrestrial organic geochemistry. Improved methods of analysis and handling of organic samples are cited as another benefit derived from studies of lunar carbon chemistry. The problem of controlling contamination and minimizing organic vapors is considered, as well as the possibility of analyzing terrestrial samples by the techniques developed for lunar samples. A need for new methods of analyzing carbonaceous material which is insoluble in organic solvents is indicated.

Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

1972-01-01

301

UNIVERSITY STUDENTSí PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AT UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL: PERCEPTION OF INSTRUCTORS FROM UNIVERSITIES IN THE SADC REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Organic Chemistry is a challenging subject and students often fail to perform well in it. Both students and instructors have their own views about Organic Chemistry teaching and learning. The study describes the per- ception of Organic Chemistry instructors from different universities in the SADC (Southern African Development Community) region on the performance of stu- dents in this subject.

Deepa Sanjay MAHAJAN; Girija Shankar SINGH

302

Organic Chemistry of the Cell: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Learning with a Focus on Reading, Analyzing, and Critiquing Primary Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sophomore-level learning community entitled Organic Chemistry of the Cell has been designed that is comprised of two linked courses, Organic Chemistry I and Cell Biology, and an Integrative Seminar. The Integrative Seminar is grounded in the reading, critical analysis, and discussion of primary literature that ties together organic chemistry and cell biology. Each student takes on the roles of

Craig A. Almeida; Louis J. Liotta

2005-01-01

303

Thalidomide Makes a Comeback: A Case Discussion Exercise That Integrates Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case discussion method, which involves teaching scientific theory in a framework that students can relate to their own world, is an interdisciplinary pedagogical tool. Therefore, case study exercises can be used to integrate biochemistry with other advanced chemistry courses. The case presented here can be used at the end of a second-semester organic chemistry course or in an introductory

Nicole Bennett; Kathleen Cornely

2001-01-01

304

A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

2008-01-01

305

Research in College Science Teaching: Spatial Visualization Training Improves Performance in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined if spatial training (independent of classroom, laboratories, and instructors) would improve achievement of organic chemistry students (N=67) at a small liberal arts college and if advanced chemistry students could benefit from such training. The spatial training program systematically developed skills required to use model kits…

Small, Melinda Y.; Morton, Mary E.

1983-01-01

306

An Asymptotic Approach to the Development of a Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products. Some of the philosophical questions and practical decisions that have guided the greening of the organic chemistry laboratory at Hendrix College in…

Goodwin, Thomas E.

2004-01-01

307

ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

2008-01-01

308

Influence of ozone and radical chemistry on limonene organic aerosol production and thermal characteristics.  

PubMed

Limonene has a strong tendency to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere and in indoor environments. Initial oxidation occurs mainly via ozone or OH radical chemistry. We studied the effect of O(3) concentrations with or without a OH radical scavenger (2-butanol) on the SOA mass and thermal characteristics using the Gothenburg Flow Reactor for Oxidation Studies at Low Temperatures and a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer. The SOA mass using 15 ppb limonene was strongly dependent on O(3) concentrations and the presence of a scavenger. The SOA volatility in the presence of a scavenger decreased with increasing levels of O(3), whereas without a scavenger, there was no significant change. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the observations using vapor pressure estimates for compounds that potentially contributed to SOA. The model showed that the product distribution was affected by changes in both OH and ozone concentrations, which partly explained the observed changes in volatility, but was strongly dependent on accurate vapor pressure estimation methods. The model-experiment comparison indicated a need to consider organic peroxides as important SOA constituents. The experimental findings could be explained by secondary condensed-phase ozone chemistry, which competes with OH radicals for the oxidation of primary unsaturated products. PMID:22985264

Pathak, Ravi K; Salo, Kent; Emanuelsson, Eva U; Cai, Cilan; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Asa M; Hallquist, Mattias

2012-11-01

309

Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

1984-09-01

310

Exploring organic chemistry in planet-forming zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Over the last few years, the chemistry of molecules other than CO in the planet-forming zones of disks is starting to be explored with Spitzer and high-resolution ground-based data. However, these studies have focused only on a few simple molecules. Aims: The aim of this study is to put observational constraints on the presence of more complex organic and sulfur-bearing molecules predicted to be abundant in chemical models of disks and to simulate high resolution spectra in view of future missions. Methods: High signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) Spitzer spectra of the near edge-on disks IRS 46 and GV Tau are used to search for mid-infrared absorption bands of various molecules. These disks are good laboratories because absorption studies do not suffer from low line/continuum ratios that plague emission data. Simple local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) slab models are used to infer column densities (or upper limits) and excitation temperatures. Results: Mid-infrared bands of HCN, C2H2 and CO2 are clearly detected toward both sources. The HCN and C2H2 absorption arises in warm gas with excitation temperatures of 400-700 K, whereas the CO2 absorption originates in cooler gas of ~250 K. Column densities and their ratios are comparable for the two sources. No other absorption features are detected at the 3? level. Column density limits of the majority of molecules predicted to be abundant in the inner disk - C2H4, C2H6, C6H6, C3H4, C4H2, CH3, HNC, HC3N, CH3CN, NH3 and SO2 - are determined and compared with disk models. Conclusions: The inferred abundance ratios and limits with respect to C2H2 and HCN are roughly consistent with models of the chemistry in high temperature gas. Models of UV irradiated disk surfaces generally agree better with the data than pure X-ray models. The limit on NH3/HCN implies that evaporation of NH3-containing ices is only a minor contributor. The inferred abundances and their limits also compare well with those found in comets, suggesting that part of the cometary material may derive from warm inner disk gas. The high resolution simulations show that future instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) can probe up to an order of magnitude lower abundance ratios and put important new constraints on the models, especially if pushed to high S/Ns. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Bast, J. E.; Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

2013-03-01

311

Simulations as real-time integration of information: "Covalence", an Organic Chemistry game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

College-level Organic Chemistry classes can be overwhelming to their students. In addition to learning a relatively large amount of information, students have to learn to read multiple visual models and use them to understand subtle differences in the science. In making the puzzle game Covalence to address Organic Chemistry education, I decided to focus on three aspects of the subject's education -- Hidden information in the various visual models, the lack of integration of these representations into a 3D representation of Chemical phenomena, and an atom-based view of the molecules and how they contribute to the field's subtle issues. This paper discusses various traditional visual models taught in Organic Chemistry classes, devising a new visual model to bring out hidden information in these traditional models, and designing levels based on known reactions and their consequences, to illustrate Organic Chemistry's elegance and subtlety.

Mathias, Jason

312

Teaching a Modified Hendrickson, Cram, and Hammond Curriculum in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modified Hendrickson, Cram and Hammond (HCH) curriculum was recently introduced in the study of organic chemistry. The approach focuses on the fundamentals and is found to have a lot of positive impact on the students.

Karty, Joel M.; Gooch, Gene; Bowman, B. Gray

2007-01-01

313

Learning the language of organic chemistry: How do students develop reaction mechanism problem-solving skills?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction mechanisms and the associated electron-pushing formalism are a symbolic language used by practicing organic chemists to navigate problems common to organic chemistry. Although the importance of this mechanistic language has been noted by practitioners and educators alike, it is often misunderstood and poorly applied by students and novice organic chemists. It was the disconnection between student and practitioner that

Jason P Anderson

2009-01-01

314

An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

315

Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epoxide chemistry is widely used in organic synthesis and regularly discussed in organic chemistry textbooks. An experiment to generate dimethyldioxirane in situ from acetone using Oxone is explained.

Broshears, Williams C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M.

2004-01-01

316

Iron Analysis by Redox Titration. A General Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simplified redox method for total iron analysis suitable for execution in a three-hour laboratory period by general chemistry students. Discusses materials, procedures, analyses, and student performance. (CW)

Kaufman, Samuel; DeVoe, Howard

1988-01-01

317

"Molecules-in-Medicine": Peer-Evaluated Presentations in a Fast-Paced Organic Chemistry Course for Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To accentuate the importance of organic chemistry in development of contemporary pharmaceuticals, a three-week unit entitled "Molecules-in-Medicine" was included in the curriculum of a comprehensive one-semester four-credit organic chemistry course. After a lecture on medicinal chemistry concepts and pharmaceutical practices, students…

Kadnikova, Ekaterina N.

2013-01-01

318

Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/...

1993-01-01

319

Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multi-generation gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a mid-experiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. The results of the current work have a number of implications for SOA models. While the dynamics of an aerosol size distribution reflects the mechanism of growth, we demonstrate here that it provides a key constraint in interpreting laboratory and ambient SOA formation. This work, although carried out specifically for the long chain alkane, dodecane, is expected to be widely applicable to other major classes of SOA precursors. SOA consists of a myriad of organic compounds containing various functional groups, which can generally undergo heterogeneous/multiphase reactions forming low-volatility products such as oligomers and other high molecular mass compounds. If particle-phase chemistry is indeed central to SOA growth in general, the size-resolved SOA formation is better described in terms of kinetically limited condensational growth, rather than solely by thermodynamic equilibrium partitioning.

Shiraiwa, M.; Yee, L. D.; Schilling, K.; Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Zuend, A.; Ziemann, P. J.; Seinfeld, J.

2013-12-01

320

Aqueous chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol formed from glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospherically abundant, volatile, water soluble organic compounds formed through gas-phase oxidation (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and acetic acid) have great potential to form secondary organic aerosol via aqueous chemistry (SOAaq) in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols. In this work, detailed reaction mechanisms and a full kinetic model were developed for aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal and acetic acid; they were validated, in part, with laboratory experiments (Tan et al., 2012). This new model was combined with the previous glyoxal model (Lim et al., 2010), and used to simulate atmospheric concentration dynamics and estimate SOAaq yields. At cloud relevant concentrations, the major photooxidation products are oxalic and pyruvic acids, and simulated molar SOA yields are ~76-77% for glyoxal and ~64-65% for methylglyoxal, regardless of our assumptions regarding the continued production of precursor (i.e., for both batch and continuously stirred tank reactor assumptions). In the presence of ammonium ion, organic acid salt formation is expected to decrease product vapor pressures and increase SOA yields. In the concentrated solutions encountered in wet aerosols, oligomers form via organic radical-radical reactions; simulated molar SOA yields are ~40% for both glyoxal and methylglyoxal.

Lim, Y. B.; Tan, Y.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Turpin, B. J.

2012-12-01

321

Motivational Beliefs and Learning Strategies in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students enter college chemistry courses with different sources of motivation, appropriate or inappropriate assumptions about their probability of success and how to study. This study is theoretically aligned with self-regulated learning research. Clearly, academic performance is closely related to student motivational beliefs and learning…

Lynch, Douglas Jay; Trujillo, Hernando

2011-01-01

322

Using the QCPE Holdings in Chemical Education: Molecular Models in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a successfully implemented laboratory experiment that compares the strengths and weaknesses of mechanical and computer models. The computer models used are available from the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange (QCPE) at a modest price. (JN)

Lipkowitz, Kenny

1984-01-01

323

The Importance of Undergraduate General and Organic Chemistry to the Study of Biochemistry in Medical School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much literature has been devoted to the problems associated with teaching undergraduate chemistry courses. General chemistry reform has been called for by the Committee on Professional Training (1), the American Chemical Society (2), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (3), the National Science Foundation (4), Sigma Xi (5), the Worchester Polytechnic Institute (6), and individual authors (7 - 13). Organic chemistry reform is not as well documented, but does include proponents from some of the above authors (8, 14) and professional societies (2 - 5). In the early 1990s, the ACS established a task force to investigate the need for change in the general chemistry curriculum. No such task force currently exists to evaluate undergraduate organic chemistry course. A 1991 general chemistry curriculum survey was distributed to chemists and engineers (9). The present survey built on earlier efforts to reform undergraduate chemical curricula by both inquiring about a greater number of more specific topics and extending the list of topics to organic chemistry.

Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.

1996-12-01

324

Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the organic nitrogen (Norg) on Earth is disseminated in crustal sediments and rocks in the form of fossil nitrogen-containing organic matter. The chemical speciation of fossil Norg within the overall molecular structure of organic matter changes with time and heating during burial. Progressive thermal evolution of organic matter involves phases of enhanced elimination of Norg and ultimately produces

Jean-Paul Boudou; Arndt Schimmelmann; Magali Ader; Maria Mastalerz; Mathieu Sebilo; Léon Gengembre

2008-01-01

325

Filtrates & Residues: Hemoglobinometry--A Biochemistry Experiment that Utilizes the Principles of Transition Metal Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry experiment dealing with hemoglobinometry that can apply to transition metal chemistry, colorimetry, and biochemistry. Provides a detailed description of the experimental procedure, including discussions of the preparation of the cyanide reagent, colorimetric measurements, and waste disposal and treatment. (TW)

Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul

1987-01-01

326

Students Doing Chemistry: A Hand-On Experience for K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hands-on, minds-on inquiry chemistry experiment was developed for use in K-12 schools that enables students to combine the chemicals of their choice and observe the results. The chemistry involved is water based and builds upon acid-base, double displacement, and iodometric detection of starch reactions. Chemicals readily available in the…

Selco, Jodye I.; Bruno, Mary; Chan, Sue

2012-01-01

327

Green Chemistry in the Organic Teaching Laboratory: An Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Adipic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmentally benign ("green") chemical techniques are growing in importance in academic and industrial research laboratories. Such chemistry has been slow to appear in teaching laboratories, owing in part to a lack of published material on this subject. Recent developments in green synthesis provide opportunities to introduce this material in teaching laboratories. We present a synthesis of adipic acid that utilizes green reagents (hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant), solvents (water), and methods (phase-transfer catalysis, catalyst recycling). The synthesis works well and provides an excellent forum for emphasizing green chemical concepts while teaching laboratory skills. It demonstrates reuse of a product, synthesis using a nonhazardous solvent, elimination of deleterious by-products, and use of a recyclable catalyst. It can be carried out on either the macroscale or microscale and generates little waste if the catalyst solution is recycled. This experiment fits well in a sophomore organic sequence; it covers the topics of oxidation, phase-transfer catalysis, and the technique of recrystallization, reinforces lecture topics such as alkene synthesis and reactivity, and provides an opportunity to introduce polymer chemistry.

Reed, Scott M.; Hutchison, James E.

2000-12-01

328

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and its interaction with other matter and with energy. It is the branch of natural science that deals with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions.

K-12 Outreach,

329

Modeling SOAaq Formation: Explicit Organic Chemistry in Cloud Droplets with CMAQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere has a substantial impact on climate and can lead to air quality changes that adversely impact human health and the environment. The chemistry is complex because of the variety of compounds present in the atmosphere and the phase transitions associated with multiphase reactions. These reactions can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAAQ) in the atmosphere. When included, current photochemical models typically use a simple parameterization to describe SOAAQ formation. Here, we discuss the implementation of explicit aqueous SOA chemistry in a box model of the CMAQ 5.0.1 aqueous phase chemistry mechanism using the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP). The expanded chemistry model includes reactions of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde as precursors to form SOAAQ and is based on the mechanism from Lim et. al. 2010. The current aqueous phase chemistry module in CMAQ uses a forward Euler method to solve the system of oxidation equations, estimating the pH with a bisection method assuming electroneutrality, and multiphase processes are solved sequentially. This is not robust for systems with large dynamic range (e.g., multiphase systems), and inhibits expansion of the aqueous phase chemical mechanism to adequately incorporate the growing body of literature that describes multiphase organic chemistry. The KPP solver allows for all processes to be solved simultaneously and facilitates expansion of the current mechanism. Addition of explicit organic reactions and H2O2 photolysis in the KPP box model results in increased mass of organic aerosol and more realistic predictions. For particulate matter focused air quality management strategies to be effective, it is important that models move away from the yield-based approach currently used and expand to include more explicit organic chemistry.

Carlton, A. G.; Sareen, N.; Fahey, K.; Hutzell, W. T.

2013-12-01

330

Incorporating Guided-Inquiry Learning into the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided-inquiry experiments also known as discovery-based experiments, which combine the pedagogical advantages of open-inquiry methods with the practical advantages of expository experiments, are described. Unlike open-inquiry or problem-based experiments, guided-inquiry experiments could be readily adapted to large laboratory sections and induces…

Gaddis, Barbara A.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

2007-01-01

331

Sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by earthworms.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil sterilization on the bioavailability of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene to the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Physical and chemical changes to soil organic matter (SOM) induced by sterilization were also studied. Uptake of both compounds added after soil was autoclaved or gamma irradiated increased for E. fetida. Sterilization had no effect on bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE by L. terrestris, and anthracene uptake increased only in gamma-irradiated soils. Analyses by FT-IR and DSC indicate sterilization alters SOM chemistry and may reduce pollutant sorption. Chemical changes to SOM were tentatively linked to changes in bioaccumulation, although the effects were compound and species specific. Artifacts produced by sterilization could lead to inaccurate risk assessments of contaminated sites if assumptions derived from studies carried out in sterilized soil are used. Ultimately, knowledge of SOM chemistry could aid predictions of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants. PMID:20227150

Kelsey, Jason W; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Peters, Richard D; Melnick, Adam M

2010-06-01

332

Structure & Reactivity in Organic, Biological and Inorganic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of web-pages designed to support an integrated treatment of related topics from organic, inorganic and biochemistry. The topics are organized around common principles of structure or reactivity.

Schaller, Chris P.

333

Developing Problem-Solving Skills through Retrosynthetic Analysis and Clickers in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique approach to teaching and learning problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in the context of retrosynthetic analysis is described. In this approach, introductory organic chemistry students, who typically see only simple organic structures, undertook partial retrosynthetic analyses of real and complex synthetic targets. Multiple…

Flynn, Alison B.

2011-01-01

334

Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A writing assignment to increase student understanding of and interest in practical applications of organic chemistry is described. Students were required to study a pharmaceutical or other organic compound and perform a qualitative risk assessment on the chemical. Student perceptions of the benefits of the paper were generally positive. (Contains…

Ablin, Lois

2008-01-01

335

The Role of Spatial Ability and Strategy Preference for Spatial Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In organic chemistry, spatial reasoning is critical for reasoning about spatial relationships in three dimensions and representing spatial information in diagrams. Despite its importance, little is known about the underlying cognitive components of spatial reasoning and the strategies that students employ to solve spatial problems in organic…

Stieff, Mike; Ryu, Minjung; Dixon, Bonnie; Hegarty, Mary

2012-01-01

336

Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: a Rapid and Sustainable Route to Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of emerging microwave (MW)-assisted chemistry techniques in conjunction with benign reaction media is dramat- ically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. The present review summarizes recent developments in MW-assisted synthesis, name reactions and organic transformations, and rapid generation of nanoparticles with uniform size distribution. Greener protocols have been developed for the

Vivek Polshettiwar; A Mallikarjuna

2009-01-01

337

The influence of microbial communities, management, and soil texture on soil organic matter chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter dynamics following land-use change remain difficult to predict because of the complex biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms that control C turnover. We examined twelve sites, representing four broad land-use types (cultivated agriculture, pine forest, hardwood forest, and pasture), in the South Carolina Piedmont to determine whether variation in organic matter chemistry was linked to management, soil edaphic

A. Stuart Grandy; Michael S. Strickland; Christian L. Lauber; Mark A. Bradford; Noah Fierer

2009-01-01

338

Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

2007-01-01

339

Photochemical Reactions of Tris (Oxalato) Iron (III): A First-Year Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a first-year chemistry experiment that illustrates the fundamental concepts of a photoinduced reaction. Qualitative and quantitative parts of the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate are detailed. (CS)

Baker, A. D.; And Others

1980-01-01

340

Determination of Rate Constants for Ouabain Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase: An Undergraduate Biological Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate biological chemistry laboratory experiment which provides students with an example of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the cardiac glycoside inhibition of mammalism sodium and potassium transport. (SL)

Sall, Eri; And Others

1978-01-01

341

Separation and Identification of Commonly Used Drugs: A Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment for Freshman Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a freshman chemistry experiment in which students separate and identify commonly used drugs by thin-layer chromatography. Materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

Bonicamp, Judith M.

1985-01-01

342

Cross-Disciplinary Thermoregulation and Sweat Analysis Laboratory Experiences for Undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a qualitative evaluation of Cross-Disciplinary health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines (chemistry and exercise physiology) combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis.

2011-06-01

343

A Solid State Chemistry Experiment: Dislocations in Etched Calcite by Polaroid Photomicrography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that adequate attention should be given to lattice imperfections in teaching solid state chemistry. Some concepts to be included in such a program are explained. An experiment to be performed by undergraduates on photomicrography is described in detail. (PS)

Agnew, N. H.

1972-01-01

344

Bridging Native American Culture and Chemistry: Gas Chromatography Experiments That Examine Native Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three chemistry experiments that link common foodstuffs traditionally and currently harvested by Native Americans in different parts of North America to modern chemical instrumentation and discovery methods. (CCM)

Sykes, Andrew G.; Caple, Gerald

1999-01-01

345

A Novel W-Tube for Microscale Experiments in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple W-shaped apparatus was developed by bending glass tubing to contain all of the chemicals involved and to limit the quantities to microscale. The W-tubes were tested by the teachers and students from a few schools to demonstrate its great utility and convenience in microscale chemistry laboratory.

Gupta, H. O.

2007-01-01

346

Demystifying Introductory Chemistry. Part 1: Electron Configurations from Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for alternative presentations of some of the material that usually forms part of the introductory chemistry course. Emphasizes development of concepts from experimental results. Discusses electronic configurations and quantum numbers, experimental evidence for electron configurations, deducing the shell model from the periodic…

Gillespie, Ronald J.; And Others

1996-01-01

347

Theoretical Chemistry Comes Alive: Full Partner with Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expected thrust for theoretical chemistry in the next decade will be to combine knowledge of fundamental chemical steps/interactions with advances in chemical dynamics, irreversible statistical mechanics, and computer technology to produce simulations of chemical systems with reaction site competition. A sample simulation (using the enzyme…

Goddard, William A., III

1985-01-01

348

Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

2012-01-01

349

Stereoisomerism in Coordination Chemistry: A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experimental procedure to acquaint inorganic chemistry students with stereochemical concepts using tris-(2,3-butanediamine)cobalt(III). Notes two isomeric forms exist and both form metal chelates. Separation is accomplished by chromatography and analysis is by NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Provides spectra of isomers. (MVL)

Gargallo, Maria Fe; And Others

1988-01-01

350

A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity are not adequate to determine the shape of a molecule---but some apply the VSEPR theory in incorrect ways. (9) Students do not reason significantly differently when working with various representations of molecules such as ball-and-stick models, molecular formulas, and Lewis structures. The study illuminated specific parts of the general chemistry curriculum that are particularly troublesome for students but necessary for their further achievement in chemistry. This information is important; it gives the discipline of chemistry education target areas to focus on for general chemistry pedagogical improvement efforts.

Meyer, Patrick Gerard

351

Climate, Litter Chemistry, and Nitrogen Controls on Litter Decomposition and Organic Matter Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate interacts with N availability and other factors to control organic matter decomposition rates and carbon cycling. We analyzed data from the LIDET (Long-Term Inter-site Decomposition Experiment Team) experiment to investigate the controls on litter decomposition rates and organic matter stabilization. Bags containing vegetative litter from different woody and herbaceous species were placed in 28 sites representing a wide array of biomes. Samples were collected approximately ten times, once per year for all sites except tropical sites, which were sampled every 3-6 months. Each sample was analyzed for total N, ash, lignin, and cellulose using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. To account for water and temperature impacts on decomposition, we calculated a Climate Decomposition Index (CDI) for each site based on long term weather data. We then performed step-wise regression analyses to test how well CDI and litter chemistry were correlated with the amount of biomass remaining in litter bags after 1, 5, and 10 years. CDI was the primary control, accounting for 74, 48, and 58% of variability in biomass remaining at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In addition to CDI, The C/N ratio of labile organic matter and lignin content significantly impacted biomass remaining at 1 and 5 years, while lignin and cellulose content were significant for biomass remaining at 10 years. Increased C/N ratio was associated with slower initial decomposition rate. Lignin content was positively, and cellulose negatively, correlated with long term organic matter stabilization. If CDI and lignin content were similar, then C/N did not influence long term stabilization. If N was not limiting, cellulose decomposed quickly.

DelGrosso, S.; Parton, W. J.; Adair, C.

2012-12-01

352

Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.  

PubMed

During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system. PMID:11603399

Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

2001-01-01

353

An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

Palmer, Richard E.

1985-01-01

354

Perfluoropolyether functional oligomers: unusual reactivity in organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of some functional perfluoropolyether (PFPE) macromolecules, synthesised by oxidative photopolymerisation of perfluoroolefins, is described. Starting from ethyl ester precursors different synthetic routes focused on ?, ?-difunctional or monofunctional molecules are explored. These molecules are characterised by the following segmented structures:(I)Rh?CF2O(CF2CF2O)p(CF2O)qCF2?Rh(II)Cl(C3F6O)nCF2?RhSome significant examples showing the specific reactivity imparted by the fluorinated moiety to the molecule, together with important effects

Claudio Tonelli; Antonella Di Meo; Simonetta Fontana; Antonio Russo

2002-01-01

355

A One-Pot Synthesis of m-Terphenyls: A Guided Exploration of Reaction Chemistry, Chromatography, and Spectroscopy. A Miniproject for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This four-week project-based laboratory exercise, developed for advanced organic chemistry students, involves a one-pot synthesis of m-terphenyls. Chemistry of aryl diazonium salts and Grignard reagents and reactivity of aryne intermediates toward nucleophilic reagents form the reaction chemistry basis for the project. The project exposes students to a number of important laboratory techniques (thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and column chromatography)

Kishorekumar T. Anam; Michael P. Curtis; Muhammad J. Irfan; Michael P. Johnson; Andrew P. Royer; Kianor Shahmohammadi; Thottumkara K. Vinod

2002-01-01

356

Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

2011-01-01

357

Spatial organization of stream water discharge and chemistry in forested headwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that, in small catchments, stream water discharge and chemistry are highly variable but the variability decreases gradually with an increase in the catchment area. Wood et al. (1988) showed that model calculations of infiltration and the runoff rate became constant above a certain threshold area. They defined the threshold area as the representative elementary area (REA) and stated that above the REA only minimum knowledge of the underlying parameters is needed to explain the stream water discharge and chemistry. Subsequently, empirical studies were conducted in several catchments. These studies all verified the existence of an REA in real catchments and indicated that the REA values differed among catchments. The results also suggested that the confluence processes of stream water discharge and chemistry differed among catchments. However, it has not been clarified how the confluence processes behave and why processes differ among catchments. One of the unclear things to resolve is whether the variability of discharge and chemistry among small catchments can be regarded as randomness or if it is organized. Two previous studies examined it and reported the opposite results. Woods et al. (1995) reported that organization was apparent from their observations of specific discharge. However, Asano and Uchida (2010) stated that their results for SiO2 could be regarded as randomness. These studies targeted different observed items and different catchments. Therefore, general knowledge about organization of stream water discharge and chemistry has not been obtained. We observed spatial variability of stream water discharge and chemistry and examined the existence of spatial organization by using the statistical method. Our objective was to elucidate whether the spatial organization exists about stream water discharge and chemistry. Observations were conducted in three forested catchments in Japan. Snapshot samplings of stream water discharge and chemistry were conducted at low flow conditions. We compared observed data with the theoretical line suggested by Woods et al. (1995). Our results showed that the spatial variability in observed items did not completely decrease along the theoretical line in any catchment. Furthermore, the results for dissolved matter were different from the results for specific discharge. Specific discharge showed higher average values in small catchments than in the entire catchment, and convergence of specific discharge occurred more quickly than did convergence of dissolved components. These results meant that the variability and convergence of stream water discharge and chemistry couldn't be regarded as simple mixing of randomly distributed variability and verified the existence of organization. We discussed the factor of forming the spatial organization by using conceptual model considering micro topography.

Egusa, T.; Ohte, N.; Oda, T.; Suzuki, M.

2013-12-01

358

Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments  

PubMed Central

An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical progression of research-inspired laboratory modules serves to “tour” the macroscopic characteristics of the fruit and the submicroscopic properties of its constituent cuticular biopolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–visible, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods at increasingly detailed molecular levels. The modular curriculum can be tailored for specialty undergraduate courses or summer high school workshops. By applying analytical tools to investigate biopolymers, making connections between molecular and microscale structure, and linking both structural regimes to the functional properties of natural polymers, groundwork is established for further student investigations at the interface of chemistry with biology or chemical engineering.

Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

359

Complexometric Titration of Zinc: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexometric titrations with EDTA have traditionally been performed in undergraduate analytical chemistry courses to determine the calcium or magnesium content of water. These titrations are performed at a basic pH, where the formation constants of Ca-EDTA and Mg-EDTA complexes are high. These types of problems are well-treated in the analytical chemistry textbooks. In contrast, treatment of metal ions whose EDTA complexes occur significantly at low pH (e.g., Zn2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Al3+) is sparse. An incorrect conclusion can be reached by the student that practical EDTA titrations are only performed at high pH. In addition, widening the window of possible metal ions for complexometric titration affords the possibility of analyzing real world products, such as the cold lozenges discussed in the article.

Novick, S. G.

1997-12-01

360

Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods  

SciTech Connect

This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

Not Available

1993-08-01

361

Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

1976-01-01

362

Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites.  

PubMed

Organic matter in extraterrestrial materials has isotopic anomalies in hydrogen and nitrogen that suggest an origin in the presolar molecular cloud or perhaps in the protoplanetary disk. Interplanetary dust particles are generally regarded as the most primitive solar system matter available, in part because until recently they exhibited the most extreme isotope anomalies. However, we show that hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic compositions in carbonaceous chondrite organic matter reach and even exceed those found in interplanetary dust particles. Hence, both meteorites (originating from the asteroid belt) and interplanetary dust particles (possibly from comets) preserve primitive organics that were a component of the original building blocks of the solar system. PMID:16675696

Busemann, Henner; Young, Andrea F; Alexander, Conel M O'd; Hoppe, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Nittler, Larry R

2006-05-01

363

Trace Organic Analysis: A New Frontier in Analytical Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers in diverse areas must currently perform critical analyses on minute quantities of organic compounds in various matrices. It was the aim of this Symposium to bring together these scientists to discuss their common problems and to explore curren...

H. S. Hertz S. N. Chesler

1979-01-01

364

Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

Field, Christopher Ryan

2009-01-01

365

Application of the organic on water reactions to prebiotic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old view that prebiotic reactions in water are hampered by the low solubility of the organic compounds in water is now being revised due to the discoveries of the reactions "on water". These reactions occur in the heterogeneous system comprising of the organic compounds and water. Unexpectedly, such reactions are extremely efficient; they often give quantitative yields, and are accelerated in the presence of water as compared to the organic solvents. These "on water" reactions are not the same as the "in water" reactions, which occur in solution, and are thus homogenous. Examples of the "on water" reactions include Diels-Alder, Claisen, Passerini and Ugi reactions, among many others. Some of these reactions are multicomponent, but give a single product. We survey a selected number of the "on water" reactions, which have a potential prebiotic applications.

Kolb, Vera M.

2012-10-01

366

Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the organic nitrogen (Norg) on Earth is disseminated in crustal sediments and rocks in the form of fossil nitrogen-containing organic matter. The chemical speciation of fossil Norg within the overall molecular structure of organic matter changes with time and heating during burial. Progressive thermal evolution of organic matter involves phases of enhanced elimination of Norg and ultimately produces graphite containing only traces of nitrogen. Long-term chemical and thermal instability makes the chemical speciation of Norg a valuable tracer to constrain the history of sub-surface metamorphism and to shed light on the subsurface biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and its participating organic and inorganic nitrogen pools. This study documents the evolutionary path of Norg speciation, transformation and elimination before and during metamorphism and advocates the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to monitor changes in Norg speciation as a diagnostic tool for organic metamorphism. Our multidisciplinary evidence from XPS, stable isotopes, traditional quantitative coal analyses, and other analytical approaches shows that at the metamorphic onset Norg is dominantly present as pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen. The relative abundance of nitrogen substituting for carbon in condensed, partially aromatic systems (where N is covalently bonded to three C atoms) increases exponentially with increasing metamorphic grade, at the expense of pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen. At the same time, much Norg is eliminated without significant nitrogen isotope fractionation. The apparent absence of Rayleigh-type nitrogen isotopic fractionation suggests that direct thermal loss of nitrogen from an organic matrix does not serve as a major pathway for Norg elimination. Instead, we propose that hot H, O-containing fluids or some of their components gradually penetrate into the carbonaceous matrix and eliminate Norg along a progressing reaction front, without causing nitrogen isotope fractionation in the residual Norg in the unreacted core of the carbonaceous matrix. Before the reaction front can reach the core, an increasing part of core Norg chemically stabilizes in the form of nitrogen atoms substituting for carbon in condensed, partially aromatic systems forming graphite-like structural domains with delocalized ??-electron systems (nitrogen atoms substituting for "graphitic" carbon in natural metamorphic organic matter). Thus, this nitrogen species with a conservative isotopic composition is the dominant form of residual nitrogen at higher metamorphic grade. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Boudou, J. -P.; Schimmelmann, A.; Ader, M.; Mastalerz, M.; Sebilo, M.; Gengembre, L.

2008-01-01

367

Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an activity that promotes the more active involvement of organic chemistry students in their learning. In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions. In carrying out the skill exercises, students must also review and apply some of the concepts learned in their general chemistry courses. Because of the wide variety of applications of the Hammond postulate, we believe that this activity, along with the associated discussions, represents an effective teaching/learning model that is particularly useful at the early stages of an organic chemistry series.

Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y.

2001-02-01

368

Cooperative Digoxin Experiment I - Summary Report, Clinical Chemistry Division, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous clinical laboratories and manufacturers of diagnostic products were invited to participate in an experiment to assess the present status of assays for the quantitation of digoxin. The response was excellent, and a cooperative digoxin experiment w...

W. H. Hannon D. M. Fast

1978-01-01

369

Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

1983-01-01

370

Geochemistry and Organic Chemistry on the Surface of Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titan's atmosphere produces a wealth of organic products from methane and nitrogen. These products, deposited on the surface in liquid and solid form, may interact with surface ices and energy sources to produce compounds of exobiological interest. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Lunine, J. I.; Beauchamp, P.; Beauchamp, J.; Dougherty, D.; Welch, C.; Raulin, F.; Shapiro, R.; Smith, M.

2001-01-01

371

Organic chemistry of graphene: the Diels-Alder reaction.  

PubMed

Herein, by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory, we investigated the Diels-Alder chemistry of pristine and defective graphene. Three dienes were considered, namely 2,3-dimethoxy-1,3-butadiene (DMBD), 9-methylanthracene (9MA), and 9,10-dimethylanthracene (910DMA). The dienophiles that were assayed were tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and maleic anhydride (MA). When pristine graphene acted as the dienophile, we found that the cycloaddition products were 47-63?kcal?mol(-1) less stable than the reactants, thus making the reaction very difficult. The presence of Stone-Wales translocations, 585 double vacancies, or 555-777 reconstructed double vacancies did not significantly improve the reactivity because the cycloaddition products were still located at higher energy than the reactants. However, for the addition of 910DMA to single vacancies, the product showed comparable stability to the separated reactants, whereas for unsaturated armchair edges the reaction was extremely favorable. With regards the reactions with dienophiles, for TCNE, the cycloaddition product was metastable. In the case of MA, we observed a reaction product that was less stable than the reactants by 50?kcal?mol(-1) . For the reactions between graphene as a diene and the dienophiles, we found that the most-promising defects were single vacancies and unsaturated armchair edges, because the other three defects were much-less reactive. Thus, we conclude that the reactions with these above-mentioned dienes may proceed on pristine or defective sheets with heating, despite being endergonic. The same statement also applies to the dienophile maleic anhydride. However, for TCNE, the reaction is only likely to occur onto single vacancies or unsaturated armchair edges. We conclude that the dienophile character of graphene is slightly stronger than its behavior as a diene. PMID:24115199

Denis, Pablo A

2013-11-11

372

Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution

Robin Wright; Sehoya Cotner; Amy Winkel

2009-01-01

373

Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. ^ This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education

Jeffrey R Raker

2011-01-01

374

Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems. Each step is briefly described as part of a pre-laboratory study assignment with follow-up application by

Christopher W. Alexander; Gary L. Asleson; Charles F. Beam; Marion T. Doig; Frederick J. Heldrich; Shannon Studer-Martinez

1999-01-01

375

Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an activity that promotes the more active involvement of organic chemistry students in their learning. In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the

J. E. Meany; Vicky Minderhout; Y. Pocker

2001-01-01

376

Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic chemistry class at Oral Roberts University (ORU) is a two-semester lecture course of three credits per semester in which the majority of students are declared pre- medical, predental, or prepharmacy majors and plan to pursue a career in the health professions. To supplement standard assessment methods of quizzes, homework assignments, and exams, various alternative methods of assessment have

Lois Ablin

2008-01-01

377

Multi-Phase Chemistry of C 2 and C 3 Organic Compounds in the Marine Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A box model is used to explore the detailed chemistry of C2 and C3 organic compounds in the marine troposphere by tracing the individual reaction paths resulting from the oxidation of ethane, ethene, acetylene, propane, propene and acetic acid. The mechanisms include chemical reactions in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase of clouds and aerosol particles at cloud

Peter Warneck

2005-01-01

378

Kinetic versus Static Visuals for Facilitating College Students' Understanding of Organic Reaction Mechanisms in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using animated computer-generated graphics to assist instruction has recently attracted the attention of educators and educational researchers. The specific focus of this study is to compare the influence of animated visuals with static visuals on college students' understanding of organic reaction mechanisms in chemistry. This study also focuses…

Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Abraham, Michael R.

2009-01-01

379

Content-Related Interactions and Methods of Reasoning within Self-Initiated Organic Chemistry Study Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…

Christian, Karen Jeanne

2011-01-01

380

Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory…

Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

2009-01-01

381

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

382

A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

2011-01-01

383

EPOCH: An Organic Chemistry Homework Program that Offers Response-Specific Feedback to Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Web-based organic chemistry home work program, EPOCH is developed, whose two most important features are that students draw structures as responses to posed questions, and then students receive feedback tailored specifically to their responses. EPOCH is a tool that can have a real effect on student learning and provides one-to-one interaction…

Chamala, Raghu Ram; Ciochina, Roxana; Grossman, Robert B.; Finkel, Raphael A.; Kannan, Saravana; Ramachandran, Prasanth

2006-01-01

384

Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Engaging Students with Cell Phone Technology in Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of organic chemistry traditionally make 3 x 5 in. flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flash cards to be viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use…

Pursell, David P.

2009-01-01

385

Decorating with Arrows: Toward the Development of Representational Competence in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much effort has been expended in developing improved methods for presenting mechanistic thinking and the curved-arrow notation to organic chemistry students; however, most of these techniques are not research-based. The little research that has been conducted has mainly focused on understanding the meaning that students associate with the…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Rush, Kelli M.

2012-01-01

386

Case Study Using Online Homework in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Results and Student Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing student needs for effective learning in a large-enrollment, introductory organic chemistry course can be a challenging task. Because instructor time is at a premium, it is imperative to find resources that engage the students in active learning and provide them with feedback about their understanding of course content. Appropriately…

Parker, Laurie L.; Loudon, G. Marc

2013-01-01

387

Using the Cambridge Structural Database to Teach Molecular Geometry Concepts in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a set of two homework assignments that can be used in a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry class. These assignments were designed to help reinforce concepts of molecular geometry and to give students the opportunity to use a technological database and data mining to analyze experimentally determined chemical…

Wackerly, Jay Wm.; Janowicz, Philip A.; Ritchey, Joshua A.; Caruso, Mary M.; Elliott, Erin L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

388

A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

389

Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis and Combinatorial Chemistry: A Laboratory Preparation of Oligopeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles and practice of solid-phase organic synthesis and combinatorial chemistry are utilized in a laboratory preparation of oligopeptides. A parallel synthesis scheme is used to generate a series of tripeptides. A divergent synthesis scheme is used to prepare two pentapeptides, one of which is leucine enkephalin, a neurotransmitter known to be an analgesic agent.

Truran, George A.; Aiken, Karelle S.; Fleming, Thomas R.; Webb, Peter J.; Hodge Markgraf, J.

2002-01-01

390

Reasonable Reasoning: Multi-Variate Problem-Solving in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to understand how students approach multi-variate problems, we report a study on the cues organic chemistry graduate students perceive from mechanism tasks, and the reasoning processes induced by those cues. We used the think-aloud protocol in interviews with sixteen graduate students as they worked on two types of tasks: one, in which…

Kraft, Adam; Strickland, Amanda M.; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

2010-01-01

391

Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

2012-01-01

392

Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Synthetic Applications for Rapid Assembly of Nanomaterials and Organics  

EPA Science Inventory

The magic of microwave (MW) heating technique, termed as the Bunsen burner of the 21th Century, has emerged as valuable alternative in synthesis of organics, polymers, inorganics, and nanomaterials. Important innovations in MW-assisted chemistry now enable chemists to prepare cat...

393

Incorporating Chemical Information Instruction and Environmental Science into the First-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical information instruction and environmental science which is incorporated into a first-year organic chemistry laboratory is presented. The students are charged with devised search strategies, conducting online searches and limiting the project scope to ocean systems. The laboratory serves to provide for search strategy development…

Landolt, R. G.

2006-01-01

394

Teaching Biochemistry to Medical Students in Singapore - From Organic Chemistry to Problem-based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical faculty in the National University of Singapore started in 1905 but the Chair in Biochemistry was only established in 1927. For many years the biochemistry course consisted of the teaching of the organic chemistry of substances of physiological importance, nutrition, metabolism and hormones. In 1961, clinical biochemistry was introduced and in the 1980s, genetics and molecular biology were

Khoo Hoon Eng

395

Grade/Study-Performance Contracts, Enhanced Communication, Cooperative Learning, and Student Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a teaching strategy, designed to increase student retention while maintaining academic performance levels in undergraduate organic chemistry, that uses grade/study-performance contracts, enhanced communication using electronic mail, and cooperative learning. Concludes that a series of interventions can substantially…

Dougherty, Ralph C.

1997-01-01

396

GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

2007-01-01

397

Thai Undergraduate Chemistry Practical Learning Experiences Using the Jigsaw IV Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported in this study consisted of an investigation of student learning experiences in Thai chemistry laboratories using the Jigsaw IV method. A hands-on experiment based on the Jigsaw IV method using a real life example based on green tea beverage was designed to improve student affective variables for studying topics related to…

Jansoon, Ninna; Somsook, Ekasith; Coll, Richard K.

2008-01-01

398

Enquiry-Based Learning: Experiences of First Year Chemistry Students Learning Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the experiences of first year chemistry students of an Enquiry-Based Learning (EBL) approach to learning spectroscopy. An investigation of how students' perceived confidences changed as a result of their experience of using EBL in the spectroscopy course was carried out. Changes in the students' perceived confidence, both in their…

Lucas, Timothy; Rowley, Natalie M.

2011-01-01

399

Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

2008-01-01

400

Decision-tree programs for an adaptive automated chemistry workstation. Application to catalyst screening experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated chemistry workstations with the capability of altering the course of experimentation based on acquired data are essential for performing strategic searches. Such adaptive experimentation requires the ability to compose experimental plans for initiating, monitoring, evaluating, and making decisions about experiments. We have developed a decision-tree (DT) experiment-planning module that includes a complete command set for adaptive operation of the

Hai Du; Wei Shen; Patricia Y Kuo; Jonathan S Lindsey

1999-01-01

401

Annotated List of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments with Computer Access. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Chemlab was designed to prepare an "Annotated List of Laboratory Experiments in Chemistry from the Journal of Chemical Education (1957-1979)" and to develop a computer file and program to search for specific types of experiments. Provided in this document are listings (photoreduced copies of printouts) of over 1500 entries classified into…

Bunce, S. C.; And Others

402

Differential Scanning Calorimetric Study of Bilayer Membrane Phase Transitions. A Biophysical Chemistry Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments designed for a biologically-oriented physical chemistry lab, the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition of phospholipid bilayers is examined by differential scanning calorimetry. The four interrelated experiments examine the effect of altering lipid bilayer composition on the thermodynamic properties of the phase transition. Bilayer composition is modified by (i) varying the length of the phospholipid acyl

Shane M. Ohline; Mary L. Campbell; Marilyn T. Turnbull; Susan J. Kohler

2001-01-01

403

PERSPECTIVE: From computational quantum chemistry to computational biology: experiments and computations are (full) partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computations are being integrated into biological research at an increasingly fast pace. This has not only changed the way in which biological information is managed; it has also changed the way in which experiments are planned in order to obtain information from nature. Can experiments and computations be full partners? Computational chemistry has expanded over the years, proceeding from computations

Buyong Ma; Ruth Nussinov

2004-01-01

404

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: XCVIII. Experiments Involving Thermal Methods of Analysis for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains some experiments involving thermal methods of analysis for undergraduate chemistry laboratories. Some experiments are: (1) the determination of the density and degree of crystallinity of a polymer; and (2) the determination of the specific heat of a nonvolatile compound. (HM)

Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

1978-01-01

405

Primordial organic chemistry and the origin of life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspects of Darwinian revolution are discussed together with spontaneous generation, the inorganic chemical evolution, the primitive atmosphere, and interstellar matter. The significance of the change of the earth's reducing atmosphere to an atmosphere with oxidizing characteristics is considered. Experiments regarding the abiogenic synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins are reported. It was found that micromolecules can be formed in simulation experiments. The condensation reaction taking place in the presence of water was studied together with the condensation reaction taking place in the relative absence of water or under hypohydrous conditions. Jupiter simulation studies were conducted, and lunar and meteorite material was analyzed.

Ponnamperuma, C.

1971-01-01

406

Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will review the various types of organic materials observed in different environments in the interstellar medium, discuss the processes by which these materials may have formed and been modified, and present the evidence supporting the contention that at least a fraction of this material survived incorporation, substantially unaltered, into our Solar System during its formation. The nature of this organic material is of direct interest to issues associated with the origin of life, both because this material represents a large fraction of the Solar System inventory of the biogenically-important elements, and because many of the compounds in this inventory have biogenic implications. Several specific examples of such molecules will be briefly discussed.

Sandford, Scott; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

407

Hot-atom chemistry of metal complexes in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations and recent research developments concerning the scavenger ; effect of metal complexes in organic solvents are described. Retentions of \\/sup ; 60\\/Co and ⁵¹Cr were obtained after irradiating benzene solutions of 0.2-0.5 ; M Co(acac)â and Cr(acac)â with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor ; and separating the recoil products by the solvent extraction method and other ; methods.

Tominaga

1973-01-01

408

Some recent progress in the organic chemistry of water chlorination  

SciTech Connect

Research progress that has been recently in understanding the organic reactions occuring during low-level chlorination of natural waters is reviewed. Topics discussed are: humate materials: potential interactions with aqueous chlorine; effects of pH on reactivity of aqueous chlorine at low concentrations; natural phenolics as substrates for chlorine: haloform production; proteins as substrates for chlorine: production of carbon dioxide and haloacetonitriles, and depolymerization reactions.

Bean, R.M.

1981-11-01

409

Microgravity experiments in the field of physical chemistry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan has been operating 'KIBO' (`hope' in Japanese) as Japanese experimental module on ISS (International Space Station) to perform researches on physical, life, medical, space sciences in space. Several research racks and facilities have already been accommodated in the pressurized module of 'KIBO' and some researches have already been carried out. Japan currently has 17 ISS flight projects (including 4 candidates) in the field of physical sciences and also incubates new projects through are search support program named as 'research WG (Working Group)', where 25 research WGs are active in the field of physical sciences. Those include 1 flight candidate and 2 research WGs in the field of physical chemistry. The article introduces those to promote international collaborations.

Natsuisaka, M.; Tsujii, K.; Shimomura, M.; Yabu, H.; Hirai, Y.; Mashiko, T.; Deguchi, S.; Mukai, S.; Inoue, Y.; Nishiyama, Y.; Sawada, M.; Okumura, K.; Sakamoto, K.

2011-12-01

410

Interactions between Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Soil Organic Matter Chemistry in Arctic Tundra Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used long-term laboratory incubations and chemical fractionation to characterize the mineralization dynamics of organic\\u000a soils from tussock, shrub, and wet meadow tundra communities, to determine the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a decomposition and chemistry, and to quantify the relative proportions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in tundra SOM that are\\u000a biologically available for decomposition. In all soils

Michael N. Weintraub; Joshua P. Schimel

2003-01-01

411

Organic chemistry as a language and the implications of chemical linguistics for structural and retrosynthetic analyses.  

PubMed

Methods of computational linguistics are used to demonstrate that a natural language such as English and organic chemistry have the same structure in terms of the frequency of, respectively, text fragments and molecular fragments. This quantitative correspondence suggests that it is possible to extend the methods of computational corpus linguistics to the analysis of organic molecules. It is shown that within organic molecules bonds that have highest information content are the ones that 1)?define repeat/symmetry subunits and 2)?in asymmetric molecules, define the loci of potential retrosynthetic disconnections. Linguistics-based analysis appears well-suited to the analysis of complex structural and reactivity patterns within organic molecules. PMID:25044611

Cadeddu, Andrea; Wylie, Elizabeth K; Jurczak, Janusz; Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

2014-07-28

412

Designs for explorative experiments in organic synthetic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper highlights different situations encountered when a chemical reaction is to be elaborated into a synthetic method. This includes designs for analysing discrete variations of the reaction space {substrates, reagents, catalysts, solvents …} as well as methods for exploring the variation of the experimental conditions.It is shown how the principal properties of the reaction space can furnish efficient designs

Rolf Carlson

2004-01-01

413

Teaching a Modified Hendrickson, Cram, and Hammond Curriculum in Organic Chemistry. Curriculum Redesign To Turn Around Student Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the 2004 2005 academic year, a variety of indicators suggested a severe problem with the two-semester organic chemistry series at Elon University, a private, liberal arts institution with an enrollment averaging about 4500 undergraduate students. Student evaluations of teaching for organic chemistry were below the university average, the student attrition rate was near 50%, students exhibited poor competency

Joel M. Karty; Gene Gooch; B. Gray Bowman

2007-01-01

414

Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques---which utilize commercially available products---facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor.

Thomas Poon; Ronit Ovadia

2008-01-01

415

Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

416

Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques--which utilize commercially available products--facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor. (Contains 1 figure, 2 tables and 1…

Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit

2008-01-01

417

Computer Programs for Chemistry Experiments I and II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction includes nine laboratory experiments. All of the experiments are from the D.C. Health Revision of the Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) with one exception. Program six is the lab from the original version of the CHEMS program. Each program consists of three parts (1) the lab and computer hints, (2) the description…

Reynard, Dale C.

418

Tholins - Organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses tholins, defined as complex organic solids formed by the interaction of energy - for example, UV light or spark discharge - with various mixtures of cosmically abundant gases - CH4, C2H6, NH3, H2O, HCHO, and H2S. It is suggested that tholins occur in the interstellar medium and are responsible for some of the properties of the interstellar grains and gas. Additional occurrences of tholins are considered. Tholins have been produced experimentally; 50 or so pyrolytic fragments of the brown, sometimes sticky substances have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the incidence of these fragments in tholins produced by different procedures is reported.

Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

1979-01-01

419

Organic chemistry of Murchison meteorite: Carbon isotopic fractionation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The carbon isotopic composition of individual organic compounds of meteoritic origin remains unknown, as most reported carbon isotopic ratios are for bulk carbon or solvent extractable fractions. The researchers managed to determine the carbon isotopic ratios for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids isolated from a Murchison sample by a freeze-thaw-ultrasonication technique. The abundances of monocarboxylic acids and saturated hydrocarbons decreased with increasing carbon number and the acids are more abundant than the hydrocarbon with the same carbon number. For both classes of compounds, the C-13 to C-12 ratios decreased with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic number than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with a kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues for lower ones.

Yuen, G. U.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Cronin, J. R.; Chang, S.

1986-01-01

420

The Heat Capacity of Metals: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented here are improvements in the original design of an introductory statistical thermodynamics experiment with the result that heat capacities of metals are routinely obtained within ten percent of literature values. (BB)

Shigeishi, R. A.

1979-01-01

421

50-Minute Experiment: Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists equipment and materials needed and procedures for analyzing soil, in which secondary school students experience practical applications to acid-base reactions, pH, oxidation-reduction, precipitation and solubility. (CS)

Baruch, Gerard, Ed.; And Others

1980-01-01

422

The Kinetics of Photographic Development: A General Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student activities and experimental procedures are described for an experiment using black and white photographic development to illustrate the determination of reaction rate, kinetic order of a reactant, and activation energy. (Author/SK)

Byrd, J. E.; Perona, M. J.

1982-01-01

423

The Reaction Rolodex; A Web-Based System for Learning Reactions in Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web-based system of note cards has been developed to aid students in learning the vast number of reactions encountered in organic chemistry. A thorough knowledge of these reactions is essential for success in first- and second-semester organic chemistry courses. The reactions are organized by functional group and can be chosen from a menu at the left side of the Web page. Once a particular reaction has been selected, the main frame displays the reactant(s) and reagent(s) along with a question mark in place of the product. After considering the reaction as long as needed, the user can click the question mark to reveal the reaction product. Clicking the product will again hide the answer and regenerate the question mark so that the reaction can be practiced again. Selecting other reactions from the menu on the left allows them to be practiced in the same manner.

424

Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

2010-01-01

425

Fluorescent labels for in situ wet chemistry experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate a wide selection of dyes and suggest a panel that would be the most likely to succeed in a simple flight instrument with a single excitation laser. We also investigate fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots as additions to or replacements for these organic dyes.

Kloepfer, J. A.; Nadeau, J. L.

2003-01-01

426

Laboratory Investigations Into The Origins Of Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chain of chemical reactions leading towards life is thought to begin in molecular clouds when atomic carbon is fixed into molecules, initiating the synthesis of complex organic species. Spectroscopic observations, combined with sophisticated astrochemical models to interpret the collected spectra, provide much of our knowledge of this process. However, uncertainties in the underlying chemical data in these models limit our understanding of the molecular universe. Theory provides little insight as fully quantum mechanical calculations for reactions with four or more atoms are too complex for current capabilities. Measurements of rate coefficients for reactions of C with molecular ions are extremely challenging. This is due to the difficulty in producing a sufficiently intense and well characterized beam of neutral carbon atoms. We have developed a novel merged beam apparatus to study reactions of neutral atomic C with molecular ions. A C- beam is created in a cesium ion sputter source and accelerated to 28 keV. A series of apertures and electrostatic optics create a collimated beam. Using an 808 nm (1.53 eV) laser beam, ~4% of the C- beam is neutralized via photodetachment. We produce a pure ground term neutral C beam by electrostatically removing the remaining C-. A velocity matched, co-propagating H3+ beam at 7.05 keV, created with a duoplasmatron source, is then merged with the C beam. The merged beams method allows us to use fast beams, which are easy to handle and monitor, while being able to achieve relative collision energies down to some tens of meV. An electrostatic energy analyzer separates and detects the charged end products of the different reaction channels. The reactions rate coefficients are determined by measuring all the relevant currents, beam shapes, energies, signal counts and background rates. We have measured the absolute rate coefficients for C + H3+ ? CH+ + H2 and C + H3+ ? CH2+ + H. Since H3+ is ubiquitous in molecular clouds, these reactions are some of the first steps leading to the formation of complex organic molecules within such clouds. Our reaction studies will help to provide a better basis for astrochemical models and benchmarks for future theoretical development.

de Ruette, Nathalie; Miller, K. A.; O'Connor, A.; Stuetzel, J.; Urbain, X.; Savin, D. W.

2013-06-01

427

Occupational health experience with organic additives  

SciTech Connect

For many decades, interest in occupational medicine has been focused on the wide variety of organic additives, which includes a large number of substances, for example, dyestuffs, pigments, and auxiliaries for the textile, leather, and paper industries. The reason is that, if the recommended precautions are not observed, there is a risk of exposure to most of these substances during both production and use. Moreover, over the years, some additives have caused concern and aroused suspicion regarding adverse effects on health. In order to deal with health problems in this field, it is important to be aware of how, what, and where occupational diseases or accidents arise. Much knowledge has been gained about these, and it would be an impossible task to give a systematic survey of the data that have accumulated, especially since it is necessary to take account of the problem of exposure to more than one substance. Thus an attempt is made to report on occupational health experience in general, and to demonstrate how an industrial hygienist may approach the many and various problems. Some epidemiological studies on organic additives (auramine, anthraquinone dyestuffs, organic dyes, etc.) are discussed.

Thiess, A.M.; Wellenreuther, G.

1984-12-01

428

Eliciting Metacognitive Experiences and Reflection in a Year 11 Chemistry Classroom: An Activity Theory Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.

Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

2013-06-01

429

Foam Fractionation of Lycopene: An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by foam fractionation is described. Foam fractionation is a process for separating and concentrating chemicals by utilizing differences in their surface activities. Extraction of lycopene by foam fractionation is a new method that has not been previously reported in the…

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mingjie; Hu, Yongliang

2010-01-01

430

Coulometric Analysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An undergraduate experiment on coulometric analysis of four commercial household products is presented. A special type of coulometry cell made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer is utilized. The PDMS cell consists of multiple analyte compartments and an internal network of salt bridges. Experimental procedure for the analysis of the acid in a…

Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Thor, Ryan

2011-01-01

431

Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1988-01-01

432

Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

Ellison, Herbert R.

2005-01-01

433

Sampling Error in a Particulate Mixture: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate experiment demonstrating sampling error. Selected as the sampling system is a mixture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and sucrose; using a self-zeroing, automatically refillable buret to minimize titration time of multiple samples and employing a dilute back-titrant to obtain high end-point precision. (CS)

Kratochvil, Byron

1980-01-01

434

Integrating Computational Chemistry into a Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Experience: A New Twist on the Lysozyme Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemistry laboratory at many universities is becoming more focused on a project-oriented experience. For example, a single enzyme is chosen and studied throughout the entire semester. A project-oriented laboratory has been adapted and expanded to include computational and carbohydrate chemistry. Egg-white lysozyme was purified and characterized. To expand and update the experiment, a computational module was added in which

Rachel R. Peterson; James R. Cox

2001-01-01

435

Chemical insights, explicit chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol from methylglyoxal and glyoxal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospherically abundant, volatile water soluble organic compounds formed through gas phase chemistry (e.g., glyoxal (C2), methylglyoxal (C3) and acetic acid) have great potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via aqueous chemistry in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols. This paper (1) provides chemical insights into aqueous-phase OH radical-initiated reactions leading to SOA formation from methylglyoxal and (2) uses this and a previously published glyoxal mechanism (Lim et al., 2010) to provide SOA yields for use in chemical transport models. Detailed reaction mechanisms including peroxy radical chemistry and a full kinetic model for aqueous photochemistry of acetic acid and methylglyoxal are developed and validated by comparing simulations with the experimental results from previous studies (Tan et al., 2010, 2012). This new methylglyoxal model is then combined with the previous glyoxal model (Lim et al., 2010), and is used to simulate the profiles of products and to estimate SOA yields. At cloud relevant concentrations (∼ 10-6-∼ 10-3 M; Munger et al., 1995) of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the major photooxidation products are oxalic acid and pyruvic acid, and simulated SOA yields (by mass) are ∼ 120% for glyoxal and ∼ 80% for methylglyoxal. Oligomerization of unreacted aldehydes during droplet evaporation could enhance yields. In wet aerosols, where total dissolved organics are present at much higher concentrations (∼ 10 M), the major products are oligomers formed via organic radical-radical reactions, and simulated SOA yields (by mass) are ∼ 90% for both glyoxal and methylglyoxal.

Lim, Y. B.; Tan, Y.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-02-01

436

Overview of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project conducted a 7-week field campaign during May and June 2012 to study thunderstorm dynamical, physical, and electrical characteristics, as well as their effects on the atmosphere's composition, especially ozone and particles in the climate-sensitive upper troposphere near the thunderstorm tops. The NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) and the NASA DC-8 aircraft flew 17 coordinated flights to sample low-level inflow and upper troposphere outflow air near thunderstorms and to sample convective outflow air as it chemically aged during the next 24 hours. The DLR Falcon aircraft observed the fresh storm outflow and also obtained measurements of aged outflow. In total, 19 cases of active thunderstorms and over 6 cases of photochemical aging were flown. The DC3 aircraft, based in Salina, Kansas, were equipped with instruments to measure a variety of gases, aerosols, and cloud particle characteristics in situ as well as the NASA DC-8 measuring the ozone and aerosol distribution by lidar. The aircraft targeted storms predicted to occur within range of coverage by ground-based radar pairs, lightning mapping arrays (LMAs), and frequent launches of balloon-borne instruments that could measure the storm's physical, kinematic, and lightning characteristics. This coverage occurred in three regions: 1) northeastern Colorado, 2) central Oklahoma to western Texas, and 3) northern Alabama. DC3 demonstrated that it is possible to sample with two aircraft the inflow and outflow of storms, which were simultaneously sampled by the ground radars, LMAs, and soundings. The DC3 data set is extensive and rich. This presentation will summarize the overall statistics of the DC3 measurements giving a general idea of storm characteristics, transport of trace gases, and photochemical aging of species. Examples will be given of specific thunderstorm cases, including a Colorado case where a biomass-burning plume was ingested by a storm, and of sampling a thunderstorm, forecasting the location of the convective outflow plume the next day, and sampling the Day 2 convective outflow. In addition, the photochemical aging of convective outflow air from a decaying Mesoscale Convective System will be highlighted.

Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Flocke, F. M.; Huntrieser, H.

2012-12-01

437

Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM): Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural organic matter (NOM) is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Because of their universality and chemical reversibility, oxidation/reductions (redox) reactions of NOM have an especially interesting and important role in geochemistry. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM-mediated redox reactions are only partially understood. This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions. In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples.

Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

2011-01-01

438

Nitrogen deposition effects on soil organic matter chemistry are linked to variation in enzymes, ecosystems and size fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has dramatically advanced our understanding of soil organic matter chemistry and the role of N in some organic\\u000a matter transformations, but the effects of N deposition on soil C dynamics remain difficult to anticipate. We examined soil\\u000a organic matter chemistry and enzyme kinetics in three size fractions (>250 ?m, 63–250 ?m, and <63 ?m) following 6 years of\\u000a simulated atmospheric N deposition

A. Stuart Grandy; Robert L. Sinsabaugh; Jason C. Neff; Martina Stursova; Donald R. Zak

2008-01-01

439

Thermodynamics of DNA Duplex Formation: A Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this biophysical experiment is to measure thermodynamic properties of a short DNA duplex by melting the ordered native structure (duplex) into the disordered, denatured state (single strands) while monitoring the transition using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The DNA samples we used were two complementary synthetic DNA oligomers, dCA7G and dCT7G. The absorbance of four separate DNA samples with different

Kathleen P. Howard

2000-01-01

440

A Multi-Technique Forensic Experiment for a Nonscience-Major Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multi-technique experiment with a forensic theme was developed for a nonscience-major chemistry course. The students are provided with solid samples and informed that the samples are either cocaine or a combination of drugs designed to mimic the stimulant and anesthetic qualities of cocaine such as caffeine and lidocaine. The students carry…

Szalay, Paul S.; Zook-Gerdau, Lois Anne; Schurter, Eric J.

2011-01-01

441

EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

Eastman, Michael P.

1982-01-01

442

The U.S. Experience in Promoting Sustainable Chemistry (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope. Recent developments in European chemicals policy, including the Registration, Evaluation and Au- thorization of Chemicals (REACH) proposal, provide a unique opportunity to examine the U.S. experience in promoting sus- tainable chemistry as well as the strengths and weaknesses of ex- isting policies. Indeed, the problems of industrial chemicals and limitations in current regulatory approaches to address

Joel A. Tickner; Ken Geiser; Melissa Coffin

2005-01-01

443

Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

2007-01-01

444

An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

2007-01-01

445

Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

2009-01-01

446

A Practical and Convenient Diffusion Apparatus: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a diffusion apparatus to be used in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment to determine the diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions of sucrose and potassium dichromate. Included is the principle of the method, apparatus design and description, and experimental procedure. (Author/DS)

Clifford, Ben; Ochiai, E. I.

1980-01-01

447

Providing a Chemistry Laboratory Experience for a Cerebral-Palsied Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the experiences of a student with cerebral palsy in a college-level, first-semester chemistry laboratory course. Explains how a laboratory assistant worked with the handicapped student in assembling apparatus and manipulating some of the smaller equipment. Discusses the outstanding work performed by the student. (TW)

Davis, George R.; McGowen, Audrey

1986-01-01

448

Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

2013-01-01

449

A model for tropospheric multiphase chemistry: application to one cloudy event during the CIME experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiphase box model for a remote environment of the troposphere has been developed with an explicit chemistry for both gas and aqueous phase. The model applied to a set of measurements performed by Voisin et al. (2000) during the European CIME experiment for a cloud event on 13th December 1997 at the top of the Puy de Dôme (France).

Maud Leriche; Didier Voisin; Nadine Chaumerliac; Anne Monod; Bernard Aumont

2000-01-01

450

Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

2012-01-01

451

Suitable Class Experiments in Biochemistry for High-school Chemistry and Biology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the scope of experimental investigations for biochemistry education in high school biology and chemistry courses. Gives a brief overview of biochemistry experiments with proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins, metabolism, electron transport, and photosynthesis including materials, procedures, and outcomes.…

Myers, A.

1987-01-01

452

An Environmental Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Radon Levels in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a radiation experiment developed to complement a new environmental chemistry laboratory curriculum. A scintillation counter is used to measure radon in water. The procedure relies on the fact that toluene will preferentially extract radon from water. Sample preparation is complete in less than 90 minutes. Because the level of…

Welch, Lawrence E.; Mossman, Daniel M.

1994-01-01

453

Wet Chemistry on SAM: How it Helps to Detect Organics on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars with wet chemistry. This analytical technique modifies organic components in such a way that improves their detection, either by releasing the compounds from sample matrices, or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter effect is particularly important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, onboards two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization [1-2] and thermochemolysis [3-4]. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment in SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in the first SAM analyzes, and the implications of this detection. Chemical derivatization of polar molecular compounds is achieved by the MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) / DMF (Dimethylformamide) silylation reaction in order to transform refractory polar compounds into a more volatile form that can be analyzed and detected by GCMS. The first samples of Martian soil (Rocknest, Gale crater) have been analyzed by evolved gas analysis (EGA) and via GC using thermal conductivity (TCD) and MS detection. The samples have been heated up to approximately 840°C with a heating rate of 35°C/min under He flow. The evolved gas was analyzed directly by the QMS in EGA mode. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax TA, Carbosieve G) over a specific temperature range. Trapped volatiles were then released by heating the trap to ~300 °C and sent to the GC under He flow. The first results obtained when running an analysis with an empty cup (no solid sample) showed the presence of MTBSTFA in the system. MTBSTFA was first detected in the EGA-QMS analysis blank then by GC-TCD-QMS analysis. This means that MTBSTFA is part of the background signal under its gaseous phase and is derived from at least one of the seven MTBSTFA/DMF derivatization cups in SAM. Since MTBSTFA is able to react in the gaseous phase, its detection implies the possibility to have some MTBSTFA reactions with all the labile compounds possibly present in the Martian soil, in the sampling system and/or inside the SAM instrument. In addition, we also have observed the presence of compounds resulting from the derivatization reaction between MTBSTFA and water. Indeed, water has been detected by two ways: the EGA experiment and the GC-TCD-MS run. Due to the presence of mono- and bi-silylated water derivatives, several characteristic ions can be detected in the EGA mode (e.g. m/z = 147, 73), and two characteristic peaks in the GC-TCD-MS analysis are also observed. In addition to water, a sylilated chloride compound has been detected after pyrolysis of the Rocknest soil. This compound is the simplest chloride derivative compound: chloro(1,1-dimethylethyl)dimethyl-silane, and it co-elutes with the mono-sylilated water derivative. [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Stalport, F. et al. (2012) Planet. Space Sci. 67: 1-13. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

Buch, Arnaud; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Danny; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Eigenbrode, Jen; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jen; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Dworkin, Jason; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

2013-04-01

454

Grade\\/Performance Contracts, Enhanced Communication, Cooperative Learning and Student Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a grade\\/study-performance contract that was designed to increase student retention while maintaining academic performance levels in undergraduate organic chemistry. The experimental course included enhanced communication using electronic mail, and cooperative learning in addition to grade\\/study-performance contracts. The objective of the grade\\/study-performance contract was the development of learning skills with creation of a basis for unobtrusive auditing of

Ralph C. Dougherty

1997-01-01

455

Metallocenes@COF-102: organometallic host-guest chemistry of porous crystalline organic frameworks.  

PubMed

The organometallic host-guest chemistry of porous covalent organic frameworks is explored by vapour phase infiltration of volatile organometallic precursors; namely, [Fe(?(5)-C(5)H(5))(2)], [Co(?(5)-C(5)H(5))(2)], and [Ru(cod)(cot)]. The unique arrangement of ferrocene molecules inside COF-102 is driven by ?-? (host-guest) interactions and replicates the framework symmetry. PMID:21503349

Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Yusenko, Kirill; Fischer, Roland A

2011-08-14

456

A Statistical Evaluation: Peer-led Team Learning in an Organic Chemistry Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described by Lydia Tien, Vicki Roth, and Jack Kampmeier (J. Res. Sci. Teach. 2002, 39, 606-632) clearly suggests that peer-led team learning workshops in the organic chemistry course studied both increased the level of student achievement and increased the retention of students in the course. The benefit appears to apply to all groups, regardless of gender or ethnicity.

Lyle, Kenneth S.; Robinson, William R.

2003-02-01

457

Organic Chemistry Course Development in a Forensic Science Program: Use of FTNMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of a modern, multinuclear, medium-field (7 tesla) FT-NMR, with partial support from NSF-ILI, has made possible the introduction of a major special project for second-semester organic chemistry laboratory, within a forensic science program. The eight-week special project focuses on microscale syntheses of Diels-Alder adducts of phencyclone. Students synthesize a wide range of different N-substituted maleimides for use as

Ronald Callahan; Lawrence Kobilinsky; Robert Rothchild

1999-01-01

458

Grade/Performance Contracts, Enhanced Communication, Cooperative Learning and Student Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a grade/study-performance contract that was designed to increase student retention while maintaining academic performance levels in undergraduate organic chemistry. The experimental course included enhanced communication using electronic mail, and cooperative learning in addition to grade/study-performance contracts. The objective of the grade/study-performance contract was the development of learning skills with creation of a basis for unobtrusive auditing of performance. The retention rate in the experimental course was 0.82 for the first term and 0.93 for the second term. The overall retention was 0.76. This value was 3.8 times the average retention for the same sequence in the previous five years at the same institution. It was seven standard deviations away from the previous mean. The ACS Organic Chemistry Examination percentile score for the control section was 46+25 (n=117). The corresponding data for the experimental section was 53+23 (n=143). When the course was offered with the same instructor, cooperative learning, e-mail, but no grade/study-performance contract the ACS Exam percentile average 37+29. This represents a drop of 9.9 standard deviations for comparison of the means. We conclude that grade/study-performance contracts can be effective in increasing both student performance and retention in undergraduate organic chemistry.

Dougherty, Ralph C.

1997-06-01

459

Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

2013-01-01

460

A Need to Reassess Physical-Organic Curricula: A Course Enhancement Using Readily Available Quantum Chemistry Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a graduate-level course in physical-organic chemistry in which students learn to solve problems using computer programs available through the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange. Includes condensed syllabus and time line showing where various computational programs are introduced. (Author/JN)

Lipkowitz, Kenny B.

1982-01-01

461

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of chemistry to be used in chemistry courses of secondary schools. Three experiments concerning differential thermal analysis are among these notes presented. (HM)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

462

3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry  

PubMed Central

Summary We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products.

Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J

2013-01-01

463

3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry.  

PubMed

We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products. PMID:23766811

Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J; Cronin, Leroy

2013-01-01

464

Ralph F. Hirschmann award address 2009: Merger of organic chemistry with peptide diversity.  

PubMed

A huge unleashed potential lies hidden in the large and diverse pool of encoded and particularly nonencoded chiral alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids available today. Although these have been extensively exploited in peptide science, the community of organic chemistry has only used this source of diversity in a quite focused and targeted manner. The properties and behavior of peptides as functional molecules in biology are well documented and based on the ability of peptides to adapt a range of discrete conformers at a minimal entropic penalty and therefore ideally fitting their endogenous targets. The development of new organic reactions and chemistries that in a general and quantitative way transform peptides into new functional molecules, preferably on solid support, is a source of completely new classes of molecules with important and advantageous functional properties. The peptide diversity and the ability to perform chemistry on solid support add tremendously to the combinatorial scope of such reactions in pharmaceutical and materials screening scenario. In recent years, the need for "click" reactions to shape complex molecular architecture has been realized mainly with a basis in the world of peptides and DNA, and in polymer chemistry where connection of highly functionalized biologically active substances or property bearing fragments are assembled as molecular LEGO using quantitative and orthogonal click chemistries. In this article, three such new reactions originating in the Carlsberg Laboratory over the last decade taking advantage of organic transformations in the peptide framework is presented. Initially, the click reaction between azide and terminal alkynes catalyzed by Cu(1) (CuAAC-reaction) is described. This CuAAC "click" reaction was observed first at Carlsberg Laboratory in reactions of azido acid chlorides with alkynes on solid support. Second, the Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Cyclization-Intramolecular Click-Cascade (EASCy-ICC) reaction will be presented. This quantitative stereo-selective cascade reaction provides a highly diverse set of interesting novel scaffolds from peptides. Finally, we describe the preparation of solid phase peptide phosphine- and carbene-based green catalysts (organozymes), which upon complex formation with transition metal perform with high turnovers under aqueous conditions. These catalysts thrive from the peptide folding and diversity, while phosphines and carbenes in the backbone provide for bidental complex formation with transition metals in a format providing an excellent entry into combinatorial catalyst chemistry. PMID:20225304

Meldal, Morten; Tornøe, Christian W; Nielsen, Thomas E; Diness, Frederik; Le Quement, Sebastian T; Christensen, Christian A; Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Worm-Leonhard, Kasper; Groth, Thomas; Bouakaz, Lamine; Wu, Boqian; Hagel, Grith; Keinicke, Lise

2010-01-01

465

Carbonaceous Chondrites: A Window on Organic Chemistry in the Early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origin of life hypotheses postulate prior formation of some minimum set of molecular components by strictly abiotic processes. In most cases, the spontaneous synthesis of organic compounds of considerable complexity is proposed. Knowledge acquired over the last 40 years of stellar, interplanetary, and planetary processes now allows us to place organic chemical evolution in a cosmochemical context in which each of these locales plays a unique and significant role in the development of organic structural complexity. The organic matter of carbonaceous chondrites provides important insights to these processes by bridging the gap between stellar and interstellar chemistry, and the final steps that were played out on the surface of the early Earth. The study of these primitive meteorites allows us to see how stellar and interstellar processes are made manifest in/on planetary bodies and also provides a data base which might prove useful in extrapolating toward the as yet uncharted territory of a pre-RNA world.

Cronin, J. R.

1996-12-01

466

Process Development as a Curriculum Component in Organic Chemistry Courses: Points of View from Academia and Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of process development as a curriculum component in organic chemistry courses and its potential impact on student education is discussed. Two possible ways of introducing elements of process development into the curriculum are suggested.

Konieczny, Marek; Zanka, Atsuhiko

2003-03-01

467

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

468

Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

Scot Martin

2013-01-31

469

From the interstellar clouds, through the inner to the outer solar system: a universally distributed complex organic chemistry. Preface.  

PubMed

High molecular weight organic compounds are involved in the chemistry and physics of many astrophysical and planetary objects. They are or should be present in interstellar dust, in comets and meteorites, in the Giant planets and Titan, in asteroids Triton and icy satellites. They represent a class of very complex organic material, part of which may have played a role in the origin of life on Earth. Thus they directly concern prebiotic chemistry and exobiology. PMID:11541344

Raulin, F; Greenberg, J M

1997-01-01

470

Preparation of cyclodextrin chiral stationary phases by organic soluble catalytic 'click' chemistry.  

PubMed

We describe an effective and simple protocol that uses click chemistry to attach native ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) to silica particles, resulting in a chiral stationary phase (CCNCSP) that can be used for the enantioseparation of chiral drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Starting from ?-CD, the CCNCSP is prepared in several steps: (i) reaction of ?-CD with 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-imidazole to afford mono-6-toluenesulfonyl-?-CD; (ii) azidolysis of mono-6-toluenesulfonyl-?-CD in dimethylformamide to give mono-6-azido-?-CD (N(3)-CD); (iii) reaction of cuprous iodide with triphenylphosphine to form an organic soluble catalyst CuI(PPh(3)); (iv) preparation of alkynyl-modified silica particles; and (v) click chemistry immobilization of N(3)-CD onto alkynyl-modified silica to afford the desired chiral stationary phase. Synthesis of the stationary phase and column packing takes ?1 week. PMID:21720308

Wang, Yong; Chen, Hui; Xiao, Yin; Ng, Cheong Hengq; Oh, Ting Shan; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Ng, Siu Choon

2011-07-01

471

Seasonal carbonate chemistry covariation with temperature, oxygen, and salinity in a fjord estuary: implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments.  

PubMed

Carbonate chemistry variability is often poorly characterized in coastal regions and patterns of covariation with other biologically important variables such as temperature, oxygen concentration, and salinity are rarely evaluated. This absence of information hampers the design and interpretation of ocean acidification experiments that aim to characterize biological responses to future pCO2 levels relative to contemporary conditions. Here, we analyzed a large carbonate chemistry data set from Puget Sound, a fjord estuary on the U.S. west coast, and included measurements from three seasons (winter, summer, and fall). pCO2 exceeded the 2008-2011 mean atmospheric level (392 µatm) at all depths and seasons sampled except for the near-surface waters (< 10 m) in the summer. Further, undersaturated conditions with respect to the biogenic carbonate mineral aragonite were widespread (?ar<1). We show that pCO2 values were relatively uniform throughout the water column and across regions in winter, enriched in subsurface waters in summer, and in the fall some values exceeded 2500 µatm in near-surface waters. Carbonate chemistry covaried to differing levels with temperature and oxygen depending primarily on season and secondarily on region. Salinity, which varied little (27 to 31), was weakly correlated with carbonate chemistry. We illustrate potential high-frequency changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature, and oxygen conditions experienced simultaneously by organisms in Puget Sound that undergo diel vertical migrations under present-day conditions. We used simple calculations to estimate future pCO2 and ?ar values experienced by diel vertical migrators based on an increase in atmospheric CO2. Given the potential for non-linear interactions between pCO2 and other abiotic variables on physiological and ecological processes, our results provide a basis for identifying control conditions in ocean acidification experiments for this region, but also highlight the wide range of carbonate chemistry conditions organisms may currently experience in this and similar coastal ecosystems. PMID:24586915

Reum, Jonathan C P; Alin, Simone R; Feely, Richard A; Newton, Jan; Warner, Mark; McElhany, Paul

2014-01-01

472

Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of organic aerosols (OA) in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3-10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25) not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15-20 ug m-3, and SOA peaking at 10-15 ?g m-3 during mid-day. The majority (> 75%) of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by *- hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, B.; Baker, A.; Camredon, M.; Hodzic, Alma; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, Eric; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-12-21

473

VOC Source and Inflow Characterization during the Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign, which was based out of Salina, KS May 10 - June 30, 2012. DC3 investigated the impact of deep, mid-latitude continental convective clouds on upper tropospheric composition and chemistry. The UCI Whole Air Sampler (WAS) measured VOCs on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft and the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) measured VOCs on board the NSF GV. Coordinated flights between the two aircraft produced a rich dataset with which to characterize the inflow and outflow of convective events. While probing storm inflow, numerous natural and anthropogenic sources were encountered, including oil and gas wells in Colorado, Texas, and Oklahoma, biomass burning, biogenic VOC emissions, and other anthropogenic sources (urban, feedlots, etc). The significant and widespread influence of oil and gas activities dominated VOC alkane distributions during DC3, in both inflow and outflow, effectively illustrating the connection between emission and fast vertical transport of VOCs into the free troposphere. We present a mass balance analysis of a flight over TX and OK, which allowed us to estimate oil and gas emissions in that region. The results from this analysis will be compared to previous work in the same area, as well as to emissions from other oil and gas regions and to model simulations from the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-chem).

Blake, N. J.; Hartt, G.; Barletta, B.; Simpson, I. J.; Schroeder, J.; Hung, Y.; Marrero, J.; Gartner, A.; Hirsch, C.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.; Zhang, Y.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Campos, T. L.; Emmons, L. K.

2013-12-01

474

Meaningful Learning in a First-Year Chemistry Laboratory Course: Differences across Classical, Discovery, and Instrumental Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, the second-semester general chemistry course for chemistry majors is the equivalent of an analytical laboratory course. The experiments in the course are classified as classical, discovery, or instrumental on the basis of their structure and purpose. To investigate students' perceptions of learning through…

Emenike, Mary Elizabeth; Danielson, Neil D.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2011-01-01

475

Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

2011-01-01

476

Manufacturing strategy: Experiences from select indian organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing function can be a formidable weapon to achieve competitive superiority. Through three case studies, this paper observes the manufacturing strategy practices in select Indian organizations. The common aspects and differences between the example organizations are highlighted. A model is proposed linking the manufacturing competitive priorities and the action plan pursued by these firms.

G. S. Dangayach; S. G. Deshmukh

2000-01-01

477

A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry (by William S. Johnson)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This latest volume is the 20th in Jeff Seeman's projected 22-volume series of autobiographies of 20th-century organic chemists that began publication in 1990 (Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A21). Unfortunately, Johnson did not live to see this volume in print. Ted Bartlett and Ray Conrow reviewed the final manuscript, galleys, and page proofs; and Ted Bartlett, Paul Bartlett, John D. Roberts, and Gilbert Stork contributed an epilogue that complements Johnson's own words, adds a warm, personal final touch that he was unable to provide, and incorporates his final research into the volume. Born in New Rochelle, New York, on February 24, 1913, William Summer Johnson attended Amherst College with the aid of a scholarship and various odd jobs such as tending furnace, washing dishes, and playing saxophone in dance bands (he seriously considered becoming a professional musician). Here he became enamored with organic chemistry, which he taught as an instructor for a year after his graduation magna cum laude in 1936. He then worked with a fellowship under Louis Fieser, who sparked his interest in steroids, at Harvard University, from which he received his M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1940) degrees. In 1940 Johnson joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, where he rose through the ranks, eventually becoming Homer Adkins Professor of Chemistry (1954-60). He began the total synthesis of steroids, the main subject of his life's work, "which soon proved to be the hottest synthetic target of the time". In 1960 he accepted an invitation to become head of and to upgrade the Stanford University Chemistry Department. With faculty recruiting as his primary concern, he was able to add Carl Djerassi, Paul J. Flory, Harden M. McConnell, Henry Taube, and Eugene E. van Tamelen to the department, resulting in its spectacular rise from 15th to 5th place in the nation. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career, serving as department head for nine years. He died at the age of 82 on August 19, 1995. Johnson's book reads like a Who's Who of Organic Chemistry, with descriptions, impressions, and thumbnail sketches of such luminaries as Sir Robert Robinson, Robert B. Woodward, Gilbert Stork, Carl Djerassi, Derek Barton, John D. ("Jack") Roberts, and authors of other Profiles volumes. During his long and productive career, Johnson made many contributions to contemporary organic chemistry, the genesis and course of which he describes lucidly with extensive use of 110 structural formulas, 75 reaction schemes, and occasional laboratory notebook pages. Three hundred fifty-six graduate and undergraduate students, postdocs, and visiting professors (many of whom are shown in the 63 formal and informal photographs in the book) have worked with him through five and a half decades. In "Some Concluding Remarks about Our Research", Johnson states, "The reviewed research did not evolve from a master plan; indeed it was largely a matter of following one's nose and trying to look at things that related to areas that were regarded as important issues of the time." Johnson's intimate and revealing autobiography will not only appeal to synthetic organic chemists but will be of interest to both present and future generations of students and instructors of chemistry courses and the history of science as well as to all persons concerned with the human aspects of science.

Kauffman, Reviewed By George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

1999-12-01

478

Detonation chemistry apparatus experiments with nonreactive liquids, reactive liquids, and a reactive solid  

SciTech Connect

The detonation chemistry apparatus was designed to analyze the results of detonating small quantities of explosives or the results of rapidly mixing reactants. The diagnostics are rapid Schlieren photography of the emitted plume (up to 10 photographs per microsecond) and rapid mass spectroscopy (12 {micro}s per scan). The authors report here the results of a series of experiments with two liquids that do not react exothermically and another series with liquids that do react exothermically. They also report some experiments with a solid reactant, Teflon.

Lyman, J.; Fry, H.; Breshears, D.; Romero, J.

1996-05-01

479

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

480

Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes--A Discovery Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in chemical kinetics as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum is described. Discovery Chemistry is a pedagogical philosophy that makes the laboratory the key center of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. Questions are posed in the pre-laboratory discussion and assessed using pooled…

Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P.

2008-01-01

481

Stereochemical Control in Carbohydrate Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbohydrates, in the form of glycoconjugates, have recently been shown to control a wide range of cellular processes. Accordingly, students interested in the study of organic chemistry and biomedical sciences should be exposed to carbohydrate chemistry. To this end, we have developed a sequence of experiments that leads the student from the…

Batchelor, Rhys; Northcote, Peter T.; Harvey, Joanne E.; Dangerfield, Emma M.; Stocker, Bridget L.

2008-01-01

482

State-of-the-Art-Symposium: Self-Organization in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles dealing with chaotic systems. Lists sources for nine demonstrations or experiments dealing with self-organization. Provides a vocabulary review of self-organization. Describes three chemical oscillator models. Discusses the role of chaos in flow systems. (MVL)

Soltzberg, Leonard J.; And Others

1989-01-01

483

Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry: A Field Experiment Planned for Summer 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective transport is a major pathway of rapidly moving chemical constituents (including water) from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere (UT) and in some cases to the lower stratosphere (LS). Yet the global-scale impact of convective transport on the UTLS composition and chemistry has not been characterized. In addition, only a few studies have attempted to examine the detailed dynamics of deep convection and the concomitant redistribution, production, or removal of reactive constituents. The proposed Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) experiment will obtain measurements of enough chemical species to characterize the effects of convection on the transport and transformation of ozone and its precursors. For example, HOx species, its precursors, and NOx species in both inflow and outflow regions of deep convection will be measured along with microphysical properties, storm kinematics, and lightning discharges. These measurements are planned for over the Great Plains of the United States, where we hope to contrast regions of remote continental air to those more influenced by anthropogenic emissions. The primary goals of DC3 are 1) to quantify the impact of continental, midlatitude convective storm dynamics, multiphase chemistry, lightning, and cloud microphysics on the transport of chemical constituents to the upper troposphere, 2) to evaluate the anvil dynamics, microphysics, radiation, electrification, and multiphase chemistry that leads to the chemical composition observed in the convective outflow, 3) to determine the effects of convectively-perturbed air masses on ozone and its related chemistry in the midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 12-48 hours after the near convection region is sampled, and 4) to contrast the influence of different boundary-layer chemical inputs on the composition of convective outflow. The strategy of reaching these goals as part of DC3 will be presented.

Barth, M. C.; Brune, W.; Cantrell, C.; Rutledge, S.

2006-12-01

484

Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)

Chloupek-McGough, Marge

1989-01-01

485

A Series of Synthetic Organic Experiments Demonstrating Physical Organic Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones. Includes concepts on kinetic versus thermodynamic control of reaction, rearrangement of a secondary carbocation to a tertiary cation, and the effect of the size of the base on orientation during elimination. (MVL)

Sayed, Yousry; And Others

1989-01-01

486

Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-12-01

487

Integration of Computational Chemistry into the Chemistry Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational chemistry has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington by incorporating laboratory experiments into six existing undergraduate chemistry courses and adding one new course. This initiative was sponsored by an ILI grant from the National Science Foundation, which provided computers and software. The existing courses affected by the curricular change include Introduction to Computer Applications and Chemical Literature, Organic Chemistry I and II, Advanced Techniques of Organic Chemistry, Biochemical Techniques and Instrumentation, and Medicinal Chemistry. The new course that has been added is Structural Chemistry and Computational Methodology. Experiments are described which integrate the use of molecular modeling for prediction with verification by laboratory experiment. The unifying theme we utilized is to couple computational predictions with experimental results as much as possible. We have attempted to teach computational chemistry as one of a number of tools available to chemists, rather than a separate field of endeavor. Preliminary evaluation of this initiative indicates that students enjoy visualizing models of chemical structures and that the incorporation of computational chemistry into the curriculum has increased their interest in chemistry.

Martin, Ned H.

1998-02-01

488

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

489

Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

Weigand, Willis A.

2000-10-01