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1

Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

Williamson, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

2

Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

1992-01-01

3

An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

Rothchild, Robert

1979-01-01

4

Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

Bucholtz, Ehren C.

2007-01-01

5

Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

Gregor, Richard W.

2012-01-01

6

Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

Goldstein, Steven W.

2014-01-01

7

Chemistry 321 Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 321 Organic Chemistry Fall 2010 MWF 1:00-2:00 Reichardt Bldg 202 Instructor: Thomas Dept.) Office Hours: By appointment Required Materials: Organic Chemistry 7th Ed., J. McMurry, Brooks of Organic Chemistry 7th Ed. by John McMurry. The course will focus on the bonding, stability, and shapes

Wagner, Diane

8

Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

R. H. Logan, an chemistry instructor at North Lake College, created this introduction to organic chemistry. The introduction covers a eight types of organic compounds, including Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, and Acyl Compounds (forthcoming); Conformational Analysis and Stereoisomerism; and Instrumental Analysis of Organic Compounds, as well an extensive lesson in general chemistry.

9

SYLLABUS CHEMISTRY 5710 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY  

E-print Network

SYLLABUS CHEMISTRY 5710 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY T, Th 9:40AM-10:30AM HEB 2006 understanding of organic chemistry. Methods: lectures, problem solving, laboratory experiments, laboratory reports, Prerequisites: Organic Chemistry II and Lab (Chem 2320 and Chem 2325) DATES (Approximate (except

Simons, Jack

10

An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

2010-01-01

11

Chemistry 675 Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Fall 2014 Chemistry 675 Advanced Organic Chemistry MWF 10:35-11:30 AM 200 LSB Professor John D Description: CHE675 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course focused on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure and reactivity of organic molecules and provides the foundation

Doyle, Robert

12

Student Orientation Guide Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Student Orientation Guide CHEM N3AL Organic Chemistry June 22-August 14, 2015 Organic Chemistry Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry, A Laboratory Experience by Steven F. Pedersen and Arlyn M. Myers. (ISBN: 9781111428167) Organic Chemistry Laboratory Notebook, by Steven F. Pedersen, Jesse H

Rubin, Yoram

13

CHEMISTRY 324W ORGANIC LABORATORY  

E-print Network

1 Fall 2010 CHEMISTRY 324W ORGANIC LABORATORY Course Information Title: Chemistry 324W, Organic a scientific paper consistent with the format of the Journal of Organic Chemistry, American Chemical Society. 7 of Organic Chemistry format. #12;2 Experiment sources: While the text for this course is an excellent guide

Wagner, Diane

14

A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

2011-01-01

15

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty perform research in molecular machines, exotic Harran, Professor and D.J. & J.M Cram Chair in Organic Chemistry: The Harran Group explores new, Distinguished Professor and Saul Winstein Chair in Organic Chemistry: The Houk Group develops qualitative rules

Levine, Alex J.

16

Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer…

Martin, Ned H.

1981-01-01

17

The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

Feist, Patty L.

2008-01-01

18

Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

Ewing, Sheila

1982-01-01

19

Organic Chemistry Laboratory I Fall 2014 Chemistry 341  

E-print Network

Organic Chemistry Laboratory I ­ Fall 2014 Chemistry 341 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Hours Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: Organic Chemistry ­ McMurry (8th Ed that someone skilled in the art of chemistry could successfully repeat the experiment. 3. Relevant Data (10 Pts

Nickrent, Daniel L.

20

Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Fall 2014 Chemistry 443  

E-print Network

Organic Chemistry Laboratory II ­ Fall 2014 Chemistry 443 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: Organic Chemistry ­ McMurry (8th Ed in the art of chemistry could successfully repeat the experiment. 3. Relevant Data (9 Pts.) 4. Results

Nickrent, Daniel L.

21

148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry Prerequisite: Chemistry 242,syntheticmethodology,mod- ernsyntheticreactions,protectinggroups,naturalprod- uctssynthesis,andcombinatorialchemistry.France. Spring Chemistry 350 (3)--Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Prerequisites: Chemistry 250, 252, and 262. Anintro

Dresden, Gregory

22

Teaching Catalytic Antibodies to Undergraduate Students: An Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only 13 years ago, few believed that antibodies could be catalytic or that any protein could be made to order to perform a catalytic task. The field has quickly matured from initial proof of concept and demonstration of fundamental enzyme-like characteristics to one in which antibodies have catalyzed an extremely broad range of organic transformations. Now that the first catalytic antibody is commercially available, it is possible to bring these novel biocatalysts into the classroom so every student can gain hands-on experience and carry out experiments on the cutting edge of scientific discovery. This lab project deals with antibody-catalyzed aldol condensations. It includes the (i) synthesis of substrate and product; (ii) HPLC characterization of the antibody-catalyzed reaction; (iii) titration of the antibody active-site; and (iv) analysis of the kinetics of the antibody-catalyzed reaction. The lab project provides training not only in biocatalysis but in a number of related aspects of chemical and biochemical research, including organic synthesis, mechanistic organic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Students will learn the use of various experimental techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC, to monitor chemical reactions and determine kinetic parameters. They will be exposed to concepts and terminology of bioorganic chemistry, such as protein structure and function, inhibition and active-site titration, and basic principles of biocatalysis.

Shulman, Avidor; Keinan, Ehud; Shabat, Doron; Barbas, Carlos F., III

1999-07-01

23

Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

24

Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.

Van Aken, Koen

1996-01-01

25

Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry Fall Semester 2011 Professor James Hougland675 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course that can be continued in the Spring semester as CHE685. These two courses focus on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure

Mather, Patrick T.

26

SYLLABUS for CHEMISTRY 2310 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1  

E-print Network

SYLLABUS for CHEMISTRY 2310 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 Lectures: Monday, Wednesday and Friday 8:35 AM-9 · Highly Recommended Equipment: Turning Point Clicker · Highly Recommended: (1) "Organic Chemistry I Homework. · Class Objective: To study and begin to understand organic chemistry · Methods: Lectures

Simons, Jack

27

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT Chem 315 (Honors Organic Chemistry)  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT Chem 315 (Honors Organic Chemistry) Fall 2014 Important Registration Information Admission to Honors Organic Chemistry (Fall 2014) is restricted to the following students are interested in taking CHE315 in the fall should register for Organic Chemistry CHE307 and apply for admission

Lawson, Catherine L.

28

Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

1999-01-01

29

Chemistry 320N Organic Chemistry II  

E-print Network

Chemistry 320N Organic Chemistry II for Prehealth Professionals Unique number: 52365 Spring 2013 M students can access the information. #12;Required Text: Brown, Foote, Iverson, & Anslyn Organic Chemistry are less important for Organic II than Organic I, but still incredibly useful at times). Weekly Recitation

30

University of California Organic Chemistry Lab  

E-print Network

04282014 University of California Berkeley CHEM N3AL Organic Chemistry Lab June 23-August 15, 2014 and Conversations to Communicate in Your Course How to Check Your Grade Organic Chemistry Laboratory is hybrid. Textbooks/Course Materials Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry, A Laboratory Experience

Jacobs, Lucia

31

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2012  

E-print Network

CHE 325 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2012 Instructor: Professor James Kallmerten 4-014A Center: Carey and Giuliano, "Organic Chemistry" 8th Edition "Solutions Manual for Organic Chemistry" Molecular of a two-semester sequence presenting a foundational introduction to the science of organic chemistry

Raina, Ramesh

32

Interstellar Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex organic molecules that are stable against radiation may pervade interstellar space, with their degradation products a source of those molecules observed. The connexion between biological and interstellar organic chemistry is, however, analogical rather than substantive, and the prospect for interstellar biology is dim. This article is based on Professor Sagan's contribution to a symposium at the National Radio Astronomy

Carl Sagan

1972-01-01

33

Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry  

PubMed Central

The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

Streitwieser, Andrew

2009-01-01

34

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

David N. Blauch

35

Organic Chemistry 51B -Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions List  

E-print Network

Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions(s). Chapter 7: Nucleophilic Substitution + + NaOH CH3O- #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chapter 8: Elimination Reactions #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013

Rose, Michael R.

36

Organic Chemistry in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

Charnley, Steven

2009-01-01

37

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr. William Donaldson  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr. William Donaldson TW 654, 288-7374, William.Donaldson@mu.edu Prerequisites: Chem 2111/2113 or 2112/2114 Research Interests: Organic chemistry; Use of organo­iron complexes Interests: Organic supramolecular chemistry; Preparation of electroactive organic materials for molecular

Reid, Scott A.

38

The Birthday of Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)

Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.

1979-01-01

39

The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

Feist, Patty L.

2004-01-01

40

Computational organic chemistry: bridging theory and experiment in establishing the mechanisms of chemical reactions.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions, especially catalysis, has been an important and active area of computational organic chemistry, and close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists represent a growing trend. This Perspective provides examples of such productive collaborations. The understanding of various reaction mechanisms and the insight gained from these studies are emphasized. The applications of various experimental techniques in elucidation of reaction details as well as the development of various computational techniques to meet the demand of emerging synthetic methods, e.g., C-H activation, organocatalysis, and single electron transfer, are presented along with some conventional developments of mechanistic aspects. Examples of applications are selected to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of these techniques. Some challenges in the mechanistic studies and predictions of reactions are also analyzed. PMID:25568962

Cheng, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Xu, Liping; Wu, Yun-Dong

2015-02-11

41

An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

2004-01-01

42

Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…

Mullins, Joseph J.

2008-01-01

43

Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

44

Organic chemistry on Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

1979-01-01

45

Chemistry 2321 SPRING 2013 Honors Organic Chemistry II  

E-print Network

Chemistry 2321 SPRING 2013 Honors Organic Chemistry II Instructor: Prof. Matt Sigman, Office HEB: "Organic Chemistry" Janice Smith (3rd addition) Recommended: "Organic Chemistry II as a Second Language. Course Description: This class is the second half of honors organic chemistry. Lecture topics include

Simons, Jack

46

Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

2005-01-01

47

Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2014 Chemistry 443  

E-print Network

Organic Chemistry Laboratory II ­ Spring 2014 Chemistry 443 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: Organic Chemistry ­ McMurry (7th Ed.) Lectures are Mondays at 3 pm in Neckers 240 and Laboratories are in Neckers 203/205 Textbook website: http://thomsonedu.com/chemistry

Nickrent, Daniel L.

48

Mars aqueous chemistry experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

1993-01-01

49

Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

Ball, David B.

2006-01-01

50

Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).…

Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

2007-01-01

51

Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

2012-01-01

52

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

53

Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

1980-01-01

54

Organic Chemistry for the Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a serious shortage of chemists in South Africa, gifted secondary school students are enrolled in an enrichment program in organic chemistry and encouraged to consider chemistry or one of its related fields as a career. The introductory portion of the program involves approximately 90 hours over a 3-year period while the advanced…

deBeer, W. H. J.

55

Organic Chemistry Laboratory I Spring 2014 Chemistry 341  

E-print Network

Organic Chemistry Laboratory I ­ Spring 2014 Chemistry 341 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Text: Experimental Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: (Chem. 340) Organic Chemistry ­ McMurry (7th Ed.) Lectures are Mondays at 4 pm in Neckers 240 and Laboratories

Nickrent, Daniel L.

56

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I: CHEMISTRY 360 SYLLABUS SPRING 2014  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I: CHEMISTRY 360 SYLLABUS SPRING 2014 Classroom: SL104 Dr. Craig P. Jasperse of Carey's Organic Chemistry as used at NDSU, contact me in order to use what you have.) 2) Solutions Manual: "Solutions Manual, Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition OR 7th edition", by Simek, Wade Note

Jasperse, Craig P.

57

Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

2008-01-01

58

Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

1996-11-01

59

Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)

Ferguson, Lloyd N.

1980-01-01

60

Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

1978-01-01

61

CHE 276 Organic Chemistry Lab I Fall 2012 CHE 276 Organic Chemistry Lab I  

E-print Network

CHE 276 Organic Chemistry Lab I Fall 2012 1 CHE 276 Organic Chemistry Lab I Instructor: Professor/CHE 139 - General Chemistry Laboratory (a passing grade is required) CHE 275 - Organic Chemistry I laboratory techniques and important reactions in organic chemistry. Students will learn to conduct organic

Mather, Patrick T.

62

Soil Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

Anderson, G.

1979-01-01

63

Chemistry 685 (CHE 685) Advanced Organic Chemistry: Organic Reaction Mechanisms and Molecular Interactions  

E-print Network

Chemistry 685 (CHE 685) Advanced Organic Chemistry: Organic Reaction Mechanisms and Molecular and physical chemistry Course description and rationale CHE685 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course. These two courses focus on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure and reactivity

Mather, Patrick T.

64

Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

1981-01-01

65

Organic Chemistry in Peril  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Times of Feb. 21 contains a remarkable article by Prof. George Forbes, in which he describes his experience in 1877 when endeavouring to act as war correspondent in the Russo-Turkish war. He was foiled by the Russian officials in every attempt that he made to join their army, until he met with a Prince Swiatipolk Mirski-a distinguished supporter of

Henry E. Armstrong

1930-01-01

66

Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan.

Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

1992-01-01

67

Chem51A: Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OpenCourseWare Initiative has brought hundreds of course materials to people from Indonesia to Indiana. The University of California, Irvine has a number of excellent materials, one of which is this particular course offering. This course in organic chemistry was created by Professor James Nowick. On the site, visitors can view 27 different lectures from the fall 2009 iteration of the course. In addition, they can work through the assigned chapters in the textbook (not available on the website) to deepen their problem-solving skills. The topics covered here include resonance structures, organic compounds, and the properties of chiral compounds. The course materials will be quite useful to persons studying organic chemistry, or for those people who may need a refresher as part of their professional development.

Nowick, James

2012-02-17

68

Chem51A: Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OpenCourseWare Initiative has brought hundreds of course materials to people from Indonesia to Indiana. The University of California, Irvine has a number of excellent materials, one of which is this particular course offering. This course in organic chemistry was created by Professor James Nowick. On the site, visitors can view 27 different lectures from the fall 2009 iteration of the course. In addition, they can work through the assigned chapters in the textbook (not available on the website) to deepen their problem-solving skills. The topics covered here include resonance structures, organic compounds, and the properties of chiral compounds. The course materials will be quite useful to persons studying organic chemistry, or for those people who may need a refresher as part of their professional development.

Nowick, James

69

Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

Murov, Steven

2007-01-01

70

University of California Organic Chemistry Lab  

E-print Network

02262014 University of California Berkeley CHEM N3AL Organic Chemistry Lab June 23-August 15, 2014, Discussions and Conversations to Communicate in Your Course How to Check Your Grade Organic Chemistry-lab and lab report). 1. Textbooks/Course Materials Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry

Walker, Matthew P.

71

Chemistry 541 Organic Structure and Reactivity  

E-print Network

Chemistry 541 Organic Structure and Reactivity Spring 2014 Instructor Dr. Kyle Plunkett Office by my office Required Text and Materials: 1) Text: "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry", 6th edition, M.B. Smith and J. March 2) Text: "Advanced Organic Chemistry; Part A", 5th Ed. F. A. Carey and R.J. Sundberg

Nickrent, Daniel L.

72

Columbia University Organic Chemistry Laboratory Syllabus  

E-print Network

Columbia University Organic Chemistry Laboratory Syllabus CHEM S3543 Summer 2011 Instructor: Operational Organic Chemistry: A Problem-Solving Approach to the Laboratory Course, John W. Lehman, 4th Edition. ISBN 0-13-600092-4 Recommended: Organic Chemistry, John McMurry, 7th Edition. ISBN 978

Lin, Qiao

73

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

74

Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

2012-01-01

75

Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

2012-01-01

76

BOMC LabBOMC Lab (Bio(Bio--Organic Materials Chemistry)Organic Materials Chemistry)  

E-print Network

BOMC LabBOMC Lab (Bio(Bio--Organic Materials Chemistry)Organic Materials Chemistry) FORTHFORTH of Biology and Chemistryat the Interface of Biology and Chemistry #12;OrganicOrganic PolymerPolymer Systems@iesl.forth.gr Potentially Targeted Materials SystemsPotentially Targeted Materials Systems #12;Organic Polymer SystemsOrganic

Jonas, Ulrich - Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology

77

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

78

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEM 2310 Course Syllabus  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEM 2310 Course Syllabus Fall Semester, 2006 Course website address (course: Organic Chemistry, eighth edition by Solomons and Fryhle Study Guide and Solutions Manual for Organic, is offered in this course to provide organized study sessions. These sessions are free and open to all

Simons, Jack

79

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEM 2320 Course Syllabus  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEM 2320 Course Syllabus Spring Semester, 2006 Course website address (course: Organic Chemistry, eighth edition by Solomons and Fryhle Study Guide and Solutions Manual for Organic, is offered in this course to provide organized study sessions. These sessions are free and open to all

Simons, Jack

80

Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483-Fall  

E-print Network

Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483- Fall Tuesdays organic materials. The discussion will include aspects of synthesis. Example of a flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) (from the Center

Sherrill, David

81

General and Organic chemistry Lab Table of Contents  

E-print Network

General and Organic chemistry Lab Table of Contents Laboratory Information ............................................................................................................................11 #12;1 General and Organic chemistry Lab Policies and Information Laboratory Teaching and Technical Staff: Laboratory Directors: General Chemistry Organic Chemistry Dr. Meishan Zhao Dr. Valerie Keller

He, Chuan

82

The Performance of Taiwan's Undergraduates in Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the students' learning outcomes in Organic Chemistry Laboratory, a performance-based assessment was developed and implemented to a group of 222 chemistry-majored sophomores from a research university in Taiwan. A multi-step organic synthesis experiment was chosen, and the basic organic manipulative skills, such as reflux, distillation, extraction, filtration, and recrystallization were incorporated in the laboratory activities. According

Jui-Lin She; Yeun-Min Tsai; Mei-Hung Chiu; Hui-Jung Chen

83

CHEMISTRY 324W Fall 2010 ORGANIC LABORATORY  

E-print Network

1 CHEMISTRY 324W Fall 2010 ORGANIC LABORATORY Lecture: ...................Monday and Friday 2.) Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure by March (McGraw-Hill) is particularly+MACROSCALE TECH.IN ORGAN.LAB , $112 new at the UAF bookstore, $84 used. Amazon.com: $106 new, with free shipping

Wagner, Diane

84

5.13 Organic Chemistry II, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

Intermediate organic chemistry. Synthesis, structure determination, mechanism, and the relationships between structure and reactivity emphasized. Special topics in organic chemistry included to illustrate the role of organic ...

Jamison, Timothy F.

85

Approved Module Information for CH2102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Organic Chemistry II Module Code: CH2102  

E-print Network

Approved Module Information for CH2102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Organic Chemistry II Module Code Chemistry II Organic Chemistry II Carbonyl Chemistry [Part 1]: * To develop basic understanding of various properties using 'curly arrows'. Organic Chemistry Laboratory [Part 3]: To carry out laboratory experiments

Neirotti, Juan Pablo

86

Statistical Automatic Summarization in Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

We present an oriented numerical summarizer algorithm, applied to producing automatic summaries of scientific documents in Organic Chemistry. We present its implementation named Yachs (Yet Another Chemistry Summarizer) that combines a specific document pre-processing with a sentence scoring method relying on the statistical properties of documents. We show that Yachs achieves the best results among several other summarizers on a corpus of Organic Chemistry articles.

Boudin, Florian; Torres-Moreno, Juan-Manuel

2009-01-01

87

CHEMISTRY 324W Spring 2011 ORGANIC LABORATORY  

E-print Network

1 CHEMISTRY 324W Spring 2011 ORGANIC LABORATORY Lecture: ...................Monday and Friday 2 Materials: (1) PAVIA et al. , MICROSCALE+MACROSCALE TECH.IN ORGAN.LAB , $112 new at the UAF bookstore, $84: (1) Material fee for chemicals, glassware breakage, and other supplies $120 (2) chemistry computer

Wagner, Diane

88

Mechanochemical Synthesis of Two Polymorphs of the Tetrathiafulvalene-Chloranil Charge Transfer Salt: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mechanochemical syntheses avoid or considerably reduce the use of reaction solvents, thus providing green chemistry synthetic alternatives that are both environmentally friendly and economically advantageous. The increased solid-state reactivity generated by mechanical energy imparted to the reactants by grinding or milling can offer alternative…

Wixtrom, Alex; Buhler, Jessica; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

2014-01-01

89

Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is…

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

2008-01-01

90

Course Packet for Organic Chemistry Laboratory CHEM 223 Summer Session B  

E-print Network

Course Packet for Organic Chemistry Laboratory CHEM 223 Summer Session B Table Contents Page;Syllabus Summer 2011 Laboratory for Organic Chemistry I and II CHEM. 222L (Session A) and CHEM 223L. Required Supplies: Course Packet for Organic Chemistry Laboratory, with experiments and administrative

91

Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

2011-01-01

92

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

93

Chemistry of Optical Organic Materials 6484-Spring  

E-print Network

Chemistry of Optical Organic Materials 6484- Spring Tuesdays and Thursdays: 9:35-10:55 am Lecture of organic materials will be used to illustrate these key concepts. The discussion will include aspects Mid-term 150 Final 250 Total 500 #12;Date Topic 1 Jan. 10 Electronic Structure of Organic Materials

Sherrill, David

94

Chemistry Experiments: Chemistry Challenge for Kids Ages 5 Through 12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These chemistry experiments for younger students, from the Sciencenter of Ithaca, New York, can be performed as demonstrations by the teacher, at home, or by the students themselves. These experiments, which investigate the properties of chemicals to solve puzzles or challenges, focus on creating electrical current, color-changing solutions, reactions that involve heat loss or gain, identifying unknowns, and other matters. Each is available in downloadable, printable format (PDF) and includes objectives, materials lists, instructions, safety tips, and other information. Other documents include lists of all the experiments, instructions for a take-home chemistry kit, and downloadable, printable signs to be used with the experiments.

Sciencenter of Ithaca, New York

95

Organic Chemistry II Syllabus University of Alaska Fairbanks  

E-print Network

1 Organic Chemistry II Syllabus University of Alaska Fairbanks Fall 2010 Course Information Chemistry F322, Organic Chemistry II, 3.0 Credits. Reichardt 201A, MWF 11:45-12:45pm Prerequisite: Chem 321, Organic Chemistry I Instructor Thomas Green, Professor of Chemistry Reichardt 174, Phone: 474-1559, Email

Wagner, Diane

96

Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

2014-01-01

97

Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of an aqueous-based chemical analyzer for Martian surface materials has been demonstrated to be feasible. During the processes of analysis, design, breadboarding, and most importantly, testing, it has become quite apparent that there are many challenges in implementing such a system. Nonetheless, excellent progress has been made and a number of problems which arose have been solved. The ability to conduct this work under a development environment which is separate and which precedes the project-level development has allowed us to find solutions to these implementation realities at low cost. If the instrument had been selected for a mission without this laboratory pre-project work, the costs of implementation would be much higher. In the four areas covered in Sections D, E, F, and G of this Final Report, outstanding progress has been made. There still remains the task of flight-qualifying certain of the components. This is traditionally done under the aegis of a Flight Project, but just as the concept development can be done at much lower cost when kept small and focused, so could the qualification program of critical parts benefit. We recommend, therefore, that NASA consider means of such qualifications and brass-boarding, in advance of final flight development. This is a generic recommendation, but hardware such as the Mars aqueous chemistry experiment (MACE) and other similarly-new concepts are particularly applicable. MACE now has wide versatility, in being able to reliably dispense both liquids and solids as chemical reagents to an entire suite of samples. The hardware and the experiment is much simpler than was developed for the Viking Biology instrument, yet can accomplish all the inorganic chemical measurements that the Viking desing was capable of. In addition, it is much more flexible and versatile to new experiment protocols (and reagents) than the Viking design ever could have been. MACE opens up the opportunity for many different scientific disciplines to design sub- experiments and to benefit from the investigations that can be conducted. In this sense, it will have the value of a facility, although our recommendation would be that it be under the stewardship of a single lead investigator to insure that conflicting requirements not compromise the straight-forward design that have been achieved. MACE is an excellent candidate for upcoming Mars missions, including the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) lander missions in 2001 and 2003. In addition, it could be used for any mission to the surface of any other planet or planetary body (including small bodies). An important next step is to encourage various investigators to propose specific uses for this experiment that specifically address their major scientific objectives for upcoming missions.

Benton, Clark C. (Editor)

1995-01-01

98

CHEMISTRY 322 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Spring 2010 MWF 11:45-12:45 201A Reichardt Building  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 322 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Spring 2010 MWF 11:45-12:45 201A Reichardt Building Instructor@ALASKA.EDU Required Materials 1. Organic Chemistry 7th Ed., J. McMurry, Brooks/Cole 2. Preparing for Your ACS Examination in Organic Chemistry; ACS, Division of Chemical Education Examinations Institute, Chemistry Dept

Wagner, Diane

99

The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

2004-01-01

100

Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

2008-01-01

101

Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

Tezuka, M.

1980-01-01

102

Application of nonequilibrium plasmas in organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

All organic molecules having similar ionization and dissociation energies, are sensitive to elevated temperatures and can easily be destroyed by plasma. Under selective experimental conditions, however, organic plasma chemistry can be a valuable synthetic method. Main areas of applications are the generation of reactive species, isomerizations, eliminations, cyclisations, condensations, and multistep reactions. During the last decade numerous preparative methods have

Harald Suhr

1983-01-01

103

Virginia Tech Department of Chemistry Faculty Position in Organic Chemistry (Drug Discovery)  

E-print Network

Virginia Tech Department of Chemistry Faculty Position in Organic Chemistry (Drug Discovery) The Department of Chemistry announces a tenure-track opening in the area of Organic Chemistry at the Assistant, or the discovery of biologically active naturally-occurring compounds. Applicants must have a Ph.D. in chemistry

Virginia Tech

104

Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ozonolysis experiment, suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry lab, is presented. Ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil), followed by reductive workup furnishes an aldehyde that is easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra. Ozone (3-5% in oxygen) is produced using an easily built generator. (Contains 2 figures and 1 scheme.)

Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R.

2007-01-01

105

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization  

E-print Network

An Efficient Statistical Approach for Automatic Organic Chemistry Summarization Florian Boudin1 for summa- rizing scientific documents in Organic Chemistry that concentrates on numerical treatments. We of Organic Chemistry articles. 1 Introduction Over 1.7 million new Chemistry articles were published in 20071

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

106

CHE 427/627 THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES  

E-print Network

CHE 427/627 THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Fall 2011 Instructor: Professor James: Solomons and Fryhle, "Organic Chemistry" 9th Edition Molecular Models In Chemistry 427/627 we will continue to build on the foundational principles of organic chemistry established in CHE 275 and CHE 325

Raina, Ramesh

107

Medical Mycology and the Chemistry Classroom: Germinating Student Interest in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to provide active research context to introductory courses in basic sciences are likely to better engage learners and provide a framework for relevant concepts. A simple teaching and learning experiment was conducted to use concepts in organic chemistry to solve problems in the life sciences. Bryant University is a liberal arts university…

Bliss, Joseph M.; Reid, Christopher W.

2013-01-01

108

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I Instructor: Professor Hyun-Soon Chong Chemistry Division, BCPS Dept, IIT, LS 398,  

E-print Network

CEHM 237 #12;ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I FALL 2009 Instructor: Professor Hyun-Soon Chong Chemistry Division) Office Hours: MW 3-5 pm in Room LS 398 or by Appointment Required Textbook: 1. Organic Chemistry, L. G. Wade (7th Ed, Prentice Hall) 2. Solution manuals for Organic Chemistry (Simek, 7 th Ed, Prentice Hall

Heller, Barbara

109

Chemistry 104X: A Survey of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Course Syllabus  

E-print Network

Chemistry 104X: A Survey of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Course Syllabus Course: A Survey of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (CHEM F104X); 4 credits Prerequisites: CHEM F103X, placement in ENGL F-mail Required course material: Text: Title: General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (2010) Author: Smith

Wagner, Diane

110

EnCOrE (Encyclopdie de Chimie Organique Electronique): an original way to represent and transfer Knowledge from freshmen to researchers in Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Knowledge from freshmen to researchers in Organic Chemistry EnCOrE (Encyclopédie de Chimie OrganiqueCOrE is an original proposal which is expected to allow to share and transfer knowledge in organic chemistry technology, GRIDs for chemistry. 1. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS AND REPRESENTATION OF DATA Chemistry

Boyer, Edmond

111

Organic chemistry of coke formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modes of formation of carbonaceous deposits (“coke”) during the transformation of organic compounds over acid and over bifunctional noble metal-acid catalysts are described. At low reaction temperatures, (350°C), the coke components are polyaromatic. Their formation involves hydrogen transfer (acid catalysts) and dehydrogenation (bifunctional catalysts) steps in addition to condensation and rearrangement steps. On microporous catalysts, the retention of coke

M Guisnet; P Magnoux

2001-01-01

112

Measuring Conceptual Change in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that used the ordered-tree technique to investigate knowledge change across the first semester of a college course in organic chemistry. Finds that over the course of the semester, students' knowledge trees became more similar to those of their professors. Discusses possible assessment uses for the ordered-tree technique.…

Nash, Jane Gradwohl; Liotta, Louis J.; Bravaco, Ralph J.

2000-01-01

113

Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

2015-01-01

114

Analytical Chemistry Role Playing Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a number of laboratory experiments (available for download in PDF format) which allow students the opportunity to role play in groups to solve problems. Experiments involve titrations, gravimetry, atomic absorption, chromatography.

2011-04-14

115

Purdue University: Division of Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purdue University created this website to promote its organic chemistry department's diverse research initiatives. This expansive website provides links to materials on twelve of the faculty's chemistry research groups. Research includes NMR imaging of micellar solutions, hydride fuel cell examinations, dimerization inhibitors of transcription factors, and gas phase synthesis. Users can find lists of the many publications and view images and photos of the division's work and facilities. Visitors can learn about the many instruments used by the division such as mass spectrometry, continuously rotated cellular reactor, and an ozone generator.

116

Approved Module Information for CH3103, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Organic Chemistry III Module Code: CH3103  

E-print Network

Approved Module Information for CH3103, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Organic Chemistry III Module Code Module Aims: Organic Chemistry III Lectures [Part 1] The aim of this series of lectures is to introduce more generally applicable. Organic Chemistry Laboratory [Part 2] To carry out laboratory experiments

Neirotti, Juan Pablo

117

School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

2001-01-01

118

Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the redesign of the first semester general chemistry laboratory at the college level. An organic component is included in the redesign and it provides students with explicit examples of several types of operations in which chemists engage. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

Olmsted, John III

1998-01-01

119

Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a headspace gas chromatography experiment that enables discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid. Illustrates liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of pure liquids. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.

1995-01-01

120

Synthesis-Spectroscopy Roadmap Problems: Discovering Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry problems that interrelate and integrate synthesis with spectroscopy are presented. These synthesis-spectroscopy roadmap (SSR) problems uniquely engage second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students in the personal discovery of organic chemistry. SSR problems counter the memorize-or-bust strategy that many students tend to…

Kurth, Laurie L.; Kurth, Mark J.

2014-01-01

121

CHEM 2315 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY SYLLABUS SPRING 2013  

E-print Network

1 CHEM 2315 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY SYLLABUS ­ SPRING 2013 INSTRUCTOR: Professor Ilya: eizember@chem.utah.edu COURSE Chem 2315 introduces students to fundamental organic chemistry office hours in NHEB 3102. These will be posted on Canvas. TEXTS AND Organic Chemistry laboratory

Simons, Jack

122

STEREOSELECTIVITY AND REGIOSELECTIVITY IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: NOVEL SYSTEMS AND  

E-print Network

1 STEREOSELECTIVITY AND REGIOSELECTIVITY IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: NOVEL SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS Sacha, torsdagen den 2 mars kl 09.00. Opponent: Dr Tina Persson, Department of Organic Chemistry 1, Lund University and regioselectivity in organic chemistry: novel systems and applications Abstract Molecular recognition has become

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Expanded organic nitrate chemistry Abbreviation Name Abbreviation Name  

E-print Network

1 Appendix D Expanded organic nitrate chemistry Abbreviation Name Abbreviation Name ACD radical from ISOP Table D1 Chemical species in expanded organic nitrate chemistry. #12;2 Abbreviation Name MVK Table D1 (continued) Chemical species in expanded organic nitrate chemistry. #12;3 Species H* (M

Cohen, Ronald C.

124

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 5: Alkanes Preparations and Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

125

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 4: Alkanes-Nomenclature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

126

310 Toxicological Chemistry The fundamentals of organic chemistry are reviewed in Chapter 1. The present  

E-print Network

310 Toxicological Chemistry r . i.2 . The fundamentals of organic chemistry are reviewed in Chapter 1. The present chapter is the first of seven that discuss the toxicological chemistry of organic chemical compounds are organic - most of them toxic to a greater or lesser degree - the toxicological

Ma, Lena

127

An Experiment in Forensic Chemistry: The Breathalyzer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple experiment done in a quantitative analysis course that illustrates the chemistry of the breath alcohol test. Discusses the development and use of the Breathalyzer. Outlines the experimental procedure, along with the appropriate calculations and discussion of the results. (TW)

Timmer, William C.

1986-01-01

128

A Pre-Vacation Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry experiment appropriate for the day before Christmas vacation. Students prepare candy canes by following a recipe written in chemical terms. This illustrates that food is composed of chemicals and that the processes involved in cooking are chemical and physical changes. (JR)

Gabel, Dorothy; McSweeny, Jean

1973-01-01

129

International Year of Chemistry-2011 "Challenges in Organic Chemistry A Mini Symposium"  

E-print Network

International Year of Chemistry-2011 "Challenges in Organic Chemistry A Mini Symposium" Department of Chemistry, IIT Kanpur April 15, 2011 (Outreach Auditorium, IIT Kanpur) Scientific Program 2:302:35 pm Welcome: Prof. R. N. Mukherjee, Head, Department of Chemistry, IIT Kanpur

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

130

Special Topics in Organic Chemistry 8833A Pulping and Bleaching Chemistry  

E-print Network

Special Topics in Organic Chemistry 8833A Pulping and Bleaching Chemistry Course Description: This course focuses on developing an understanding of the fundamental chemistry associated with pulping. The focus is on alkaline/NaSH pulping and ClO2, H2O2, O2/NaOH, O3 bleaching chemistry of chemical

Sherrill, David

131

Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry  

E-print Network

Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry Brian J Yeh & Wendell compounds that went beyond those that naturally occurred,thus giv- ing birth to synthetic organic chemistry A Lim The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead

Lim, Wendell

132

`THE JOURNAL OF Organic Chemistry VOLUME45, NUMBER14  

E-print Network

`THE JOURNAL OF Organic Chemistry VOLUME45, NUMBER14 0 Copyright 1980 by the American Chemical M. Trost* and Ehud Keinan Samuel M. McElvain Laboratories of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Received October 29, 1979 a

Keinan, Ehud

133

Special Topics in Organic Chemistry Biorenewable Polymers 8833  

E-print Network

Special Topics in Organic Chemistry Biorenewable Polymers ­ 8833 Course Summary: The course, Nature Molecular Model Kits Many students find model kits useful when studying organic chemistry, polysaccharides and lignin subunits (b) Overview of plant polysaccharides and lignin II. Fundamental chemistry

Sherrill, David

134

Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching organic chemistry. In this book, the diverse field of organic chemistry modules is introduced. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified…

Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul; Hearle, Robert

135

CH S343 Honors Organic Chemistry Laboratory Introduction  

E-print Network

1 CH S343 ­ Honors Organic Chemistry Laboratory Introduction The honors organic chemistry of "Good Behavior/Bad Behavior." In this course, we study methods for synthesizing small organic molecules molecules and common medicines are small organic molecules, which can easily be studied spectroscopically

Indiana University

136

Approved Department Electives (4) Chem 109A Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Approved Department Electives (4) Chem 109A ­ Organic Chemistry Units (3) Chem 123 ­ Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry (5) ECE 147A ­ Feedback Control Systems ­ Theory and Design (5) ECE 147C ­ Control

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

137

Approved Department Electives (4) Chem 109A Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Approved Department Electives Units (4) Chem 109A ­ Organic Chemistry (3) Chem 123 ­ Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry (5) ECE 147A ­ Feedback Control Systems ­ Theory and Design (5) ECE 147C ­ Control

Liebling, Michael

138

Molecular Orbital Animations for Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses our approach to teaching organic chemistry and introduces the application of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) in animated form. This teaching approach allows students to (i) picture the reaction process in three dimensions, (ii) better understand why a reaction occurs by noting electron-rich and electron-poor centers, (iii) see steric arguments in competing reactions, (iv) observe electron flow from the nucleophile into the electrophile, (v) gain a better understanding of resonance and hyperconjugation, and (vi) gain an appreciation for semiempirical and ab initio calculations.

Fleming, Steven A.; Hart, Greg R.; Savage, Paul B.

2000-06-01

139

Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials  

SciTech Connect

The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

2011-01-20

140

ORGANISK KEMI, FK KOK 020 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course  

E-print Network

ORGANISK KEMI, FK KOK 020 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course Antal poäng: 10.0. Valfri för: K4Bi resultat från laborationskursen. Litteratur Carey, F.A. & Sundberg, R.J.: Advanced Organic Chemistry, 3rd.: Designing Organic Syntheses, John Wiley, N.Y. 1983. #12;

141

ORGANISK KEMI, FK KOK020 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course  

E-print Network

ORGANISK KEMI, FK KOK020 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course Poäng: 10.0 Betygskala: TH Kursansvarig. Litteratur: Carey, F.A. & Sundberg, R.J.: Advanced Organic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Plenum Press, New York - London, 1990. Kompendium: Organisk kemi, fortsättningskurs. Warren, S.: Designing Organic Syntheses, John

142

Organic Dyes, Conjugation, and the Chemistry of Vision  

E-print Network

Organic Dyes, Conjugation, and the Chemistry of Vision François G. Amar Department of Chemistry blue light on a yellow solution and no light gets through: #12;Organic dyes are conjugated molecules) = 165 217 286 345 #12;Some other organic dyes O OH OH HO OH OH N+ N CH NH2 H3C N CH3 H Mauve: the first

Amar, François G.

143

Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N {sigma}-bond addition of amides and S-N {sigma}-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions. The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF. Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.

Zhijian Liu

2006-12-12

144

Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

145

Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

Trainer, Melissa G.

2012-01-01

146

Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes  

PubMed Central

Earth’s atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of prebiotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer – if formed – would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere. PMID:24143126

Trainer, Melissa G.

2013-01-01

147

Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes.  

PubMed

Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of prebiotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere. PMID:24143126

Trainer, Melissa G

2013-08-01

148

Fun with Photons, Reactive Intermediates, and Friends. Skating on the Edge of the Paradigms of Physical Organic Chemistry, Organic  

E-print Network

of Physical Organic Chemistry, Organic Supramolecular Photochemistry, and Spin Chemistry Nicholas J. Turro of the crucial role of geometry and structure in the rapid development of organic chemistry and physical organic chemistry over the past century. 1. PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY: REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES

Turro, Nicholas J.

149

Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

Kennedy, Brian J.

2008-01-01

150

Comment: 2004's fastest organic and biomolecular chemistry!  

PubMed

In January 2004, the Royal Society of Chemistry launched Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (OBC) - a journal promising to provide high quality research from all aspects of synthetic, physical and biomolecular organic chemistry. The journal was set to build upon the foundations laid down by its predecessor publications (J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 and J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2) as well as complement the subject coverage already published in prestigious general chemistry journals such as Chemical Communications and Chemical Society Reviews. Nearly two years on, just how is the programme developing and what can the community expect to see from the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)? PMID:15599407

Potter, Caroline V; Thomas, Sarah; Dean, Janet L; Kybett, Adrian P; Kidd, Richard; James, Melanie; Saxton, Helen

2004-12-21

151

Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The sub-strate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic region, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

152

Organic chemistry. Nanomole-scale high-throughput chemistry for the synthesis of complex molecules.  

PubMed

At the forefront of new synthetic endeavors, such as drug discovery or natural product synthesis, large quantities of material are rarely available and timelines are tight. A miniaturized automation platform enabling high-throughput experimentation for synthetic route scouting to identify conditions for preparative reaction scale-up would be a transformative advance. Because automated, miniaturized chemistry is difficult to carry out in the presence of solids or volatile organic solvents, most of the synthetic "toolkit" cannot be readily miniaturized. Using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions as a test case, we developed automation-friendly reactions to run in dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature. This advance enabled us to couple the robotics used in biotechnology with emerging mass spectrometry-based high-throughput analysis techniques. More than 1500 chemistry experiments were carried out in less than a day, using as little as 0.02 milligrams of material per reaction. PMID:25554781

Buitrago Santanilla, Alexander; Regalado, Erik L; Pereira, Tony; Shevlin, Michael; Bateman, Kevin; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Schneeweis, Jonathan; Berritt, Simon; Shi, Zhi-Cai; Nantermet, Philippe; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Welch, Christopher J; Vachal, Petr; Davies, Ian W; Cernak, Tim; Dreher, Spencer D

2015-01-01

153

UCLA CHEMISTRY-MATERIALS SCIENCE ORGANIC CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY-MATERIALS SCIENCE MAJOR (B.S.), ORGANIC CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily  

E-print Network

UCLA CHEMISTRY-MATERIALS SCIENCE ORGANIC CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY-MATERIALS SCIENCE MAJOR are interested in chemistry with an emphasis on the material properties of organic matter. The major provides for the Major General Chemistry (Chem) 20A(H), 20B(H), 20L, 30AL Organic Chemistry (Chem) 30A(H), 30B, 30BL, 30C

Levine, Alex J.

154

4,5,9/99 Neuman Chapter 21 Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

4,5,9/99 Neuman Chapter 21 0 Chapter 21 Lipids from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, emeritus University of California, Riverside orgchembyneuman@yahoo.com ************************************************************************************** I. Foundations 1. Organic Molecules and Chemical Bonding 2. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 3. Haloalkanes

Reed, Christopher A.

155

Syllabus Organic Chemistry Laboratory CHEM 222, Session A, summer 2013  

E-print Network

Syllabus Organic Chemistry Laboratory CHEM 222, Session A, summer 2013 Location Rooms 145 and 149 Sterling Chemistry Lab (SCL) Time 12:30-4:30pm M and W Instructor: Dr. Christine DiMeglio, 103 SCL, 203.vitale@yale.edu), 145 SCL, 432-3964. Teaching assistants: TBA Required materials: Lab textbook: Techniques in Organic

156

Syllabus Summer 2013 Organic Chemistry CHEM 221b (Session B)  

E-print Network

Syllabus Summer 2013 Organic Chemistry CHEM 221b (Session B) Lectures: M, T, W, Tr, F: 9:30-10:30 a, Ph.D., room 104 SCL, 203-432-5915 jonathan.parr@yale.edu Textbook: Wade, L.G. Organic Chemistry. 8th

157

Analysis of a Distance-Education Program in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the performance and attitudes of students learning organic chemistry from an off-campus site in comparison to the performance and attitudes of students learning organic chemistry in a traditional classroom. Indicates no statistically significant differences between the groups. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

Kurtz, Martha J.; Holden, Brandt E.

2001-01-01

158

Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one in the series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul

159

CEHM 239 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2010 Instructor: Professor Hyun-Soon Chong Chemistry Division, BCPS Dept, IIT, LS 398,  

E-print Network

CEHM 239 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2010 #12;Instructor: Professor Hyun-Soon Chong Chemistry Office Hours: MW 3-5pm in Room LS 398 or by Appointment Required Textbook: 1. Organic Chemistry, L. G. Wade (7th Ed, Prentice Hall) 2. Solution manuals for Organic Chemistry (Simek, 7 th Ed, Prentice Hall

Heller, Barbara

160

UNIVERSITY OF OREGON Organic Chemistry Faculty Position. The Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry invites applications for a tenure  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF OREGON Organic Chemistry Faculty Position. The Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry invites applications for a tenure track or tenured position in organic chemistry beginning Fall 2014 electronics or any other fields of pure & applied organic chemistry are especially encouraged to apply

Oregon, University of

161

Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

1990-01-01

162

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

Bernath, Peter

2010-05-01

163

Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

Bucholtz, Kevin M.

2011-01-01

164

Computational Organic Chemistry: The "Can" and "Can't" be Done with Non Supercomputers in Aromatic Chemistry.  

E-print Network

Computational Organic Chemistry: The "Can" and "Can't" be Done with Non Supercomputers in Aromatic-4-829-3944. E-mail: stanger@tx.technion.ac.il Abstract Computational organic chemistry relies on solving Chemistry. Amnon Stanger Schulich faculty of Chemistry and The Lise-Meitner-Minerva Center for Computational

Adler, Joan

165

United Arab Emirates Freshmen Chemistry Attitude toward Chemistry, Self-Efficacy, and Learning Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the attitudes, self-efficacy, and learning experiences of the UAE freshmen chemistry toward chemistry were investigated. The study focused exclusively on investigating the relationship between attitude, self-efficacy, and learning experiences and their relationship to other variables such as gender, nationally, GPA, secondary school achievement, and matriculation. In this study a total of 429 students from different colleges participated

Ali Khalfan Alnaqbi

2007-01-01

166

What Do I Remember? The Role of Lecture-Experiments in Teaching Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are different chemistry curricula that use lecture-experiments. Different components are discussed within the lecture-experiment format, such as determinism, memory, note taking, descriptive chemistry, and holistic chemistry. Also discussed are different personalities in chemistry education. (DS)

Bent, Henry A.; Bent, Henry E.

1980-01-01

167

A Novel Apparatus To Study Interstellar Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new apparatus to study interstellar organic chemistry. Our focus is on ion-neutral reactions, a class of reactions which drives most of the gas-phase chemistry in the interstellar medium. The proof-of-principle measurement is C + H3+ ? CH+ + H2 which is believed to be a bottleneck in the gas phase chemistry leading to the formation of complex organic molecules in interstellar clouds. Previous experiments have been hampered by the difficulty in producing a sufficiently intense and well characterized beam of neutral atomic carbon. Theory provides little insight as fully quantum mechanical calculations, for four or more atom systems, are beyond current computational capabilities. Experimental reaction studies are thus required as a basis for astrochemical models and to provide benchmarks for future theoretical development. Our apparatus consists of a negative ion sputter source combined with a mass filter to generate a 30 keV C- beam. Using an 808-nm laser (1.53 eV), we neutralize 10% of the beam via photodetachment. The remaining C- is electrostatically removed, yielding a well defined ground term atomic C beam. This beam is then merged with a velocity matched H3+ ion beam generated by a duoplasmatron ion source. As the beams are co-propagating this enables study of reactions for center-of-mass energies from tens of meV ( 100 K) to tens of eV. Reaction channels are studied using an energy analyzer to separate the charged end products which are detected on a channel electron multiplier. Here we will report progress in the apparatus development and preliminary results. This work was supported in part by the NSF Division of Astronomical Sciences.

Connor, Aodh O.; Miller, K. A.; Stützel, J.; Urbain, X.; McCormack, E. F.; Savin, D. W.

2012-05-01

168

CARBINOLAMINES AND GEMINAL DIOLS IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic chemistry textbooks generally treat geminal diols as curiosities-exceptions to the stability of the C=O double bond. However, most aldehydes of environmental significance, to wit, trichloroethanal (chloral), methanala (formaldehyde), ethanal (acetaldehyde), and propanal ...

169

Automated Combinatorial Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multidisciplinary experiment has been developed in which students each synthesize a combinatorial library of 48 hydrazones with the aid of a liquid-handling robot. Each product is then subjected to a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay to assess its antibacterial activity. Students gain experience working with automation and at the…

Nichols, Christopher J.; Hanne, Larry F.

2010-01-01

170

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

171

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Latest Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO extends the wavelength coverage to the 400-1000 nm spectral region. The principal investigator for MAESTRO is T. McElroy of the Meteorological Service of Canada. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE is part of the Canadian Space Agency's small satellite program, and was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics by K. Walker and K. Strong. A mission overview and status report will be presented. Science results for a few selected topics including the detection of organic molecules such as methanol and formaldehyde in the troposphere will be discussed.

Bernath, P.

2008-12-01

172

KTH Studiehandbok 2007-2008 6D2321 Organisk kemi Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

KTH Studiehandbok 2007-2008 6D2321 Organisk kemi Organic Chemistry 5Poäng/KTH Credits, of why and how chemical reactions take place. Also to give students basic abilities in organic chemistry Course 6D2941 Organic chemistry, Advanced course 1, 6D2943 Organic chemistry, Advanced course 2

Lagergren, Jens

173

Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

2012-01-01

174

Saying What You Mean: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic reactions in introductory organic chemistry courses are most commonly taught with a mechanism-based approach to the understanding of molecular reactivity. However, the effectiveness of the popular curved arrow representation to describe reaction mechanisms is often compromised by the overuse of shortcuts and obscure notation. The…

Friesen, J. Brent

2008-01-01

175

A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic

Havanki, Katherine L.

2012-01-01

176

Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

2014-01-01

177

Theoretical advances toward understanding recent experiments in biophysical chemistry  

E-print Network

Several theoretical advances are presented, with the common theme of helping better understand and guide recent experiments in biophysical chemistry. In Chapter 2, I consider a recent criticism of the Jarzynski equality, ...

Zimanyi, Eric Norman

2012-01-01

178

A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed an alternative electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory. The experiment is an electrophilic iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesic, using environmentally friendly reagents--sodium iodide and household bleach. Further, we designed the lab as a guided-inquiry…

Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd

2008-01-01

179

Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

2012-01-01

180

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

181

Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

2012-01-01

182

Borohydride Reduction of Estrone: Demonstration of Diastereoselectivity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Chiral hindered ketones such as estrone, undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly diastereoselective manner. The diastereomeric estradiols produced in the reaction can be analyzed and…

Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc

2008-01-01

183

CODEX: Assessing the Historical Context of Chemistry and Organics on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chemistry, Organics and Dating EXperiment (CODEX) is a laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for use on Mars, which, by varying the type of ionization used, can operate as an elemental detector, an organics detector, and a radiometric dating instrument. CODEX uses three ionization modes: A) laser ablation mass spectrometry (LAMS) to measure chemistry and isotopes, B) two-step laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (L2MS) to measure organics, and C) laser desorption resonance ionization mass spectrometry (LDRIMS) to measure rubidium-strontium geochronology. Using these modes sequentially, CODEX interrogates hundreds of locations on the surface of a drill core, each of which are initially cleaned by laser ablation to remove surface contaminants. Using microscopic mapping, CODEX places elemental chemistry observations in spatial and temporal context with organic signatures revealing the complex historical context of chemistry and organics. The modes of CODEX have been demonstrated on three well-known samples: a) the Boulder Creek Granite (chemistry and dating), b) the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison (organics and chemistry), and c) the Martian meteorite Zagami (dating). The BCG measurements result in a high-sensitivity chemistry measurements, with isotope ratio precision exceeding ±0.35%; using dating mode, we derived an average age of 1727±62 Ma, as compared to a TIMS age of 1700±40 Ma. The measurements of the Murchison meteorite revealed hundreds of organic compounds consistent with an abiotic carbonaceous chondrite, and elemental abundances that match previous work. Finally, Zagami is a Martian meteorite with a Rb-Sr age of 166±6 Ma. Our measurements result in an age of 170±105 Ma, consistent with the previously published dates, and an accuracy exceeding NASA requirements (±200 Ma).

Anderson, F. Scott; Whitaker, Tom; Levine, Jonathan

2014-05-01

184

Remote-controlled experiments with cloud chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing cleaner chemical processes often involves sophisticated flow-chemistry equipment that is not available in many economically developing countries. For reactions where it is the data that are important rather than the physical product, the networking of chemists across the internet to allow remote experimentation offers a viable solution to this problem.

Skilton, Ryan A.; Bourne, Richard A.; Amara, Zacharias; Horvath, Raphael; Jin, Jing; Scully, Michael J.; Streng, Emilia; Tang, Samantha L. Y.; Summers, Peter A.; Wang, Jiawei; Pérez, Eduardo; Asfaw, Nigist; Aydos, Guilherme L. P.; Dupont, Jairton; Comak, Gurbuz; George, Michael W.; Poliakoff, Martyn

2015-01-01

185

Chemistry under Your Skin? Experiments with Tattoo Inks for Secondary School Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a set of easy, hands-on experiments that inquire into and differentiate among tattoo inks of varying quality. A classroom scenario is described for integrating these experiments into secondary school chemistry classes. Initial experiences from the classroom are also presented.

Stuckey, Marc; Eilks, Ingo

2015-01-01

186

Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry

Duis, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

187

Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and

W. Reid Thompson; Carl Sagan

1992-01-01

188

Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes  

SciTech Connect

Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); [UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Wilson, W.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

1994-12-31

189

The Big Picture; A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the article "The Big Picture: A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry", Thomas Poon makes interesting use of the device exploited by Istvan Banyai in his Zoom books to help students of organic chemistry make connections between the molecular world and ways in which those molecules are important in daily life. The paper should have appeal at all levels of science education from the time the idea of molecules is first introduced through college-level courses. Along the way, students will encounter important biological molecules (such as chlorophyll), inks (such as pen ink), CFCs, hydrocarbon fuels, plastics (such as Lexan polycarbonate), and molecules with medical applications (such as aspirin and novocaine).

190

A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.  

PubMed

A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

2014-01-14

191

Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

Braun, Robert D.

1996-01-01

192

The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers  

SciTech Connect

For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

2014-12-01

193

A Statistical Evaluation: Peer-led Team Learning in an Organic Chemistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the status of peer-led learning, also known as Workshop Chemistry. This National Science Foundation (NSF) systemic-reform initiative focuses on general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. (DDR)

Lyle, Kenneth S.; Robinson, William R.

2003-01-01

194

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type…

Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

195

Carbohydrates as synthetic tools in organic chemistry.  

PubMed

While amino acids, terpenes and alkaloids have found broad application as tools in stereoselective organic synthesis, carbohydrates have only lately been recognised as versatile starting materials for chiral auxiliaries, reagents, ligands and organocatalysts. The structural diversity of carbohydrates and the high density of functional groups offer a wide variety of opportunities for derivatization and tailoring of synthetic tools to a specific problem. PMID:17712826

Boysen, Mike M K

2007-01-01

196

Evolution of Organic Analytical Methods in Environmental Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades the development of environmental regulations, advances in analytical chemistry and other scientific disciplines, and increased rigor in quality control procedures have created a new discipline, environmental forensics. The need for analytical methods that determine qualitatively and quantitatively organic compounds in the environment, especially in drinking waters, was recognized in the early 1950s. These methods were

A. Dallas Wait

2000-01-01

197

A Noncompetitive Introductory Organic Chemistry Course for Premedical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two objectives of the course are the removal of student-student competition replacing it with student-content involvement, and the improvement of the level of understanding of organic chemistry. These objectives are approached through a modified Keller plan with a series of study guides and quizzes as the core material. (GS)

Vournakis, John N.

1974-01-01

198

Does Mechanistic Thinking Improve Student Success in Organic Chemistry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the curved-arrow notation to depict electron flow during mechanistic processes is one of the most important representational conventions in the organic chemistry curriculum. Our previous research documented a disturbing trend: when asked to predict the products of a series of reactions, many students do not spontaneously engage in…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

199

Telling It like It Is: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I support and extend the ideas presented by J. Brent Friesen in his article "Saying What You Mean; Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry" ("JCE" November, 2008). I emphasize "telling the truth" about proton transfers. The truth is that in aqueous acid most reactions are subject to "specific" acid catalysis: the only kinetically…

Ault, Addison

2010-01-01

200

Omar Yaghi on Chemistry and Metal Organic Frameworks  

ScienceCinema

In this edited version of the hour long talk, Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, sat down in conversation with Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, on July 11th, 2012 to discuss his fascination with the hidden world of chemistry and his work on Metal Organic Frameworks.

Omar Yaghi

2013-06-24

201

Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sudoku puzzle was designed to teach about amino acids and functional groups to the students of undergraduate organic chemistry students. The puzzles focus on helping the student learn the name, 3-letter code and 1-letter code of common amino acids and functional groups.

Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G.

2007-01-01

202

Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences  

E-print Network

Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences December 1-5, 2013 #12;II Information 1.1 Agenda December 1, 2013 Sunday Afternoon Arrival and check-in at Lee Gardens Hotel Shanghai, Lee Gardens Hotel Shanghai 08:10 Gather at the hotel lobby (Meet with Prof. YOU Shuli and Prof. LI Ang

Tian, Weidong

203

A Simple Mnemonic for Tautomerization Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The familiar word OREO (as in the cookie) is presented as a simple mnemonic for remembering the basic steps of the classical tautomerization mechanisms in organic chemistry. For acid-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton on, resonance, proton off. For base-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton off, resonance, proton on.…

Stephens, Chad E.

2010-01-01

204

How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)

Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

2001-01-01

205

Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

Deal, Walter J.

1975-01-01

206

Spectroelectrochemical Sensing of Aqueous Iron: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have designed a laboratory experiment to illustrate the use of spectroelectrochemical techniques for determination of aqueous iron. The experiment described in this article is applicable to an undergraduate laboratory course in analytical chemistry. Students are asked to fabricate spectroelectrochemical sensors, make electrochemical and optical…

Shtoyko, Tanya; Stuart, Dean; Gray, H. Neil

2007-01-01

207

Piaget and Organic Chemistry: Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry through Learning Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first application of the Piaget-based learning cycle technique (Atkin & Karplus, Sci. Teach. 1962, 29, 45-51) to an introductory organic chemistry course. It also presents the step-by-step process used to convert a lecture course into a discussion-based active learning course. The course is taught in a series of learning cycles. A learning cycle is a three phase process that provides opportunities for students to explore new material and work with an instructor to recognize logical patterns in data, and devise and test hypotheses. In this application, the first phase, exploration, involves out-of-class student evaluation of data in attempts to identify significant trends and develop hypotheses that might explain the trends in terms of fundamental scientific principles. In the second phase, concept invention, the students and instructor work together in-class to evaluate student hypotheses and find concepts that work best in explaining the data. The third phase, application, is an out-of-class application of the concept to new situations. The development of learning cycles from lecture notes is presented as an 8 step procedure. The process involves revaluation and restructuring of the course material to maintain a continuity of concept development according to the instructor's logic, dividing topics into individual concepts or techniques, and refocusing the presentation in terms of large numbers of examples that can serve as data for students in their exploration and application activities. A sample learning cycle and suggestions for ways of limited implementation of learning cycles into existing courses are also provided.

Libby, R. Daniel

1995-07-01

208

Implementing a Student-Designed Green Chemistry Laboratory Project in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiweek organic chemistry laboratory project is described that emphasizes sustainable practices in experimental design. An emphasis on student-driven development of the project is meant to mirror the independent nature of research. Students propose environmentally friendly modifications of several reactions. With instructor feedback, students…

Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Schaller, Chris P.; McIntee, Edward J.

2014-01-01

209

Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Expectations and Experiences in the School Experience Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' expectations and experiences of teaching practice. Six (four females and two males) pre-service chemistry teachers taking a School Experience II course participated in the study. A case study design was employed. The data were collected from multiple sources including…

Kirbulut, Zubeyde D.; Boz, Yezdan; S. Kutucu, Elif

2012-01-01

210

Solvated Electrons in Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel experiment is described in which solvated electrons in liquid ammonia reduce a benzyl alcohol carbon without affecting the aromatic ring. The reductive activity of solvated electrons can be partially or completely quenched through the addition of electron scavengers to the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of these scavengers was found…

Ilich, Predrag-Peter; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Atkins, Adam D.; Mell, Geoffrey J.; Flaherty, Timothy J.; Bruck, Martin J.; Goodrich, Heather A.; Hefel, Aaron L.; Juranic, Nenad; Seleem, Suzanne

2010-01-01

211

Cooperative Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concept mapping in the organic chemistry laboratory can supplant cookbook activities with higher cognitive exercises. The common thread of most organic lab experiments is the synthesis, isolation, purification, and characterization of a carbon compound. T

Allan A. Gahr

2003-02-01

212

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

213

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Cyclooctyne-based reagents for uncatalyzed click chemistry  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Cyclooctyne-based reagents for uncatalyzed click chemistry: A computational survey Kimberly Chenoweth, David Chenoweth§ and William A. Goddard III chemistry, but without Cu catalysts, we used B3LYP density function theory (DFT) to investigate the trends

Goddard III, William A.

214

Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

2013-01-01

215

Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

Davis, Clyde E.

1983-01-01

216

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO has been added to the mission to extend the wavelength coverage to the 280-1000 nm spectral region. The broad-band atmospheric extinction measured with high signal-to-noise ratio by MAESTRO is particularly useful for the derivation of aerosol and cloud physical properties. The PI for the MAESTRO instrument is T. McElroy from the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). ACE is unique in that MAESTRO, the ACE-FTS and the imagers all share the same suntracker and make simultaneous measurements of the same scene. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE was selected in the Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1 program, and was successfully launched by NASA on August 12, 2003 for a 2 year mission. The main international partners for ACE are NASA, for the launch and algorithm work at NASA-Langley, and Belgium/ESA, for the CMOS imaging arrays and scientific support.

Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

2003-12-01

217

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO has been added to the mission to extend the wavelength coverage to the 280-1000 nm spectral region. The broad-band atmospheric extinction measured with high signal-to-noise ratio by MAESTRO is particularly useful for the derivation of aerosol and cloud physical properties. The PI for the MAESTRO instrument is T. McElroy from the Meteorological Service of Canada. ACE is unique in that MAESTRO, the ACE-FTS and the imagers all share the same suntracker and make simultaneous measurements of the same scene. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE has been selected in the Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1 program for a planned launch by NASA in May 2003 for a 2 year mission. The main international partners for ACE are NASA, for the launch and algorithm work at NASA-Langley, and Belgium/ESA, for the CMOS imaging arrays and scientific support.

Bernath, P.

2003-04-01

218

The experiments in this course are examples of real-life problems which make use of organic chemistry in various ways and have impact on diverse businesses and industries. Each  

E-print Network

is to read the entire package for each experiment and to write a simple, but detailed, list of instructions experiment package are augmented by the Techniques Manual (TM). The Techniques Manual is The Organic Chem Lab Survival Manual by J.W. Zubrick (6th or 7th edition, John Wiley and Sons, ). The weekly lectures

Houston, Paul L.

219

Mixed-Methods Study of Online and Written Organic Chemistry Homework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connect for organic chemistry is an online learning tool that gives students the opportunity to learn about all aspects of organic chemistry through the ease of the digital world. This research project consisted of two fundamental questions. The first was to discover whether there was a difference in undergraduate organic chemistry content…

Malik, Kinza; Martinez, Nylvia; Romero, Juan; Schubel, Skyler; Janowicz, Philip A.

2014-01-01

220

SYNFORMPeople, Trends and Views in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Direct Conversion of Arylamines  

E-print Network

SYNFORMPeople, Trends and Views in Synthetic Organic Chemistry 2010/05 Thieme SYNSTORIES Direct the organic molecules which are essential components of drugs, materials, agrochemicals, and all the organic-chemistry about SYNFORM is welcome, please correspond if you like: marketing@thieme-chemistry.com Downloadedby

Wang, Jianbo

221

Microreactor-based reaction optimization in organic chemistry--glycosylation as a challenge{  

E-print Network

Microreactor-based reaction optimization in organic chemistry-- glycosylation as a challenge and process development in organic chemistry. Although glycosylations have been carried out for more than a major impact on the practice and pace of research and development in organic chemistry. Microfluidic

Ratner, Daniel M.

222

The influence of microbial communities, management, and soil texture on soil organic matter chemistry  

E-print Network

in organic matter chemistry was linked to management, soil edaphic properties, microbial communities, or labile C. Organic matter chemistry was determined before and after a 232-d incubation using pyrolysis gas (PCR), and microbial biomass. There was considerable variation in soil organic matter chemistry among

Fierer, Noah

223

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ELECTIVES* CHEM 109A (4) Organic Chemistry Bruice  

E-print Network

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ELECTIVES* 2013-2014 Fall 2013 CHEM 109A (4) Organic Chemistry Creation: Entrepreneurship Greathouse Winter 2014 CHEM 109A Organic Chemistry Staff ENGR 101 Ethics and Materials Levi Spring 2014 CHEM 109A Organic Chemistry Staff ENGR 101 Ethics in Engineering Staff ENV S 105

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

224

University of California UC Berkeley CHEM N3AL Organic Chemistry Lab  

E-print Network

University of California Berkeley UC Berkeley CHEM N3AL Organic Chemistry Lab June 18 ­ August 10, 2012 Orientation CHEM N3AL ­ Organic Chemistry Laboratory is hybrid course, meaning there are twice from: Ned's Berkeley Bookstore, 2476 Bancroft Way "Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry

Doudna, Jennifer A.

225

1 | P a g e Fall 2011 CHE 275 Organic Chemistry I  

E-print Network

1 | P a g e Fall 2011 CHE 275 Organic Chemistry I Instructor: Professor Yan-Yeung Luk Office Required Texts: Organic Chemistry, 8th edition by Carey and Giuliano (Publisher: McGrawHill) including will function as review sessions. Course Description. Organic Chemistry I (CHE275) ­ the first course in a two

Mather, Patrick T.

226

Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 3: Alkanes-Homologous Series and Isomerism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

Zdravkovich, V.

227

Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry Checklist Name of student:______________________________ Date of Entry:_______________  

E-print Network

Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry Checklist Name of student:______________________________ Date of Entry): Analytical: _________ Inorganic:________ Organic:_______ Physical:________ or 862(3cr) ________ or 874 (3cr

New Hampshire, University of

228

UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

Dhabanandana, Salag

229

Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

2010-01-01

230

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect

Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

2012-08-03

231

Integration of Video-Based Demonstrations to Prepare Students for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consistent, high-quality introductions to organic chemistry laboratory techniques effectively and efficiently support student learning in the organic chemistry laboratory. In this work, we developed and deployed a series of instructional videos to communicate core laboratory techniques and concepts. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested the videos in five traditional laboratory experiments by integrating them with the standard pre-laboratory student preparation presentations and instructor demonstrations. We assessed the influence of the videos on student laboratory knowledge and performance, using sections of students who did not view the videos as the control. Our analysis of pre-quizzes revealed the control group had equivalent scores to the treatment group, while the post-quiz results show consistently greater learning gains for the treatment group. Additionally, the students who watched the videos as part of their pre-laboratory instruction completed their experiments in less time.

Nadelson, Louis S.; Scaggs, Jonathan; Sheffield, Colin; McDougal, Owen M.

2014-12-01

232

Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kuan, Y. J.

2001-01-01

233

MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.  

PubMed

Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date. PMID:23548024

González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

2013-01-01

234

The THS experiment: probing Titan's atmospheric chemistry at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Titan’s atmosphere, a complex chemistry between N2 and CH4 occurs at temperatures lower than 200K and leads to the production of heavy molecules and subsequently solid aerosols that form the haze surrounding Titan. The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment has been developed at the NASA Ames COSmIC facility to study Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at low temperature in order to help interpret Cassini’s observational data. In the THS, the chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic expansion. With this unique design, the gas is jet-cooled to Titan-like temperature 150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma, and remains at low temperature in the plasma discharge 200K). Different N2-CH4-based gas mixtures can be injected in the plasma, with or without the addition of heavier precursors present as trace elements on Titan. Both the gas phase and solid phase products resulting from the plasma-induced chemistry can be monitored and analyzed using a combination of complementary in situ and ex situ diagnostics.Here we present the complementary results of two studies of the gas and solid phase. A Mass spectrometry analysis of the gas phase has demonstrated that the THS experiment is a unique tool to probe the first and intermediate steps as well as specific chemical pathways of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at Titan-like temperature. The more complex chemistry, observed in the gas phase when adding trace elements to the initial N2-CH4 mixture, has also been confirmed by an extensive study of the solid phase products: Scanning Electron Microscopy images have shown that aggregates produced in N2-CH4-C2H2-C6H6 mixtures (up to 5 ?m in diameter) are much larger than those produced in N2-CH4 mixtures (0.1-0.5 ?m), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance results support a growth evolution of the chemistry when adding acetylene to the N2-CH4 mixture, resulting in the production of more complex hydrogen bonds than with a simple N2-CH4 mixture.These complementary studies show the high potential of THS to better understand Titan’s chemistry and the origin of aerosol formation.AcknowledgmentsThis research is supported by NASA SMD PATM.

Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Upton, Kathleen; Beauchamp, Jack L; Salama, Farid

2014-06-01

235

Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners' Experiences in High School Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the experiences of Spanish-speaking English language learners in high school chemistry courses, focusing largely on experiences in learning the English language, experiences learning chemistry, and experiences learning chemistry in the English language. The findings illustrate the cognitive processes the students undertake…

Flores, Annette; Smith, K. Christopher

2013-01-01

236

Structure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an experiment that introduces freshman chemistry students to NMR. Students are trained to work on the instrument, analyze 1H and 13C spectra, and identify simple organic molecules. They are also introduced to the idea of functional groups and they use concepts learned in class about Lewis structures to distinguish among spectra of isomers of C3H8O. As part of this exercise students submit written reports and complete a survey evaluating the experiment. The lab experiment, survey results, and findings are presented.

Dávila, Rosa M.; Widener, R. K.

2002-08-01

237

*Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Frankfurt, Marie Curie Strasse 11, 60439 Frankfurt, Germany;  

E-print Network

487 Addresses *Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Frankfurt, Marie Curie Strasse 11 Avenue, Laboratory for Mass Spectrometry and Gaseous Ion Chemistry, 64th Street and York Avenue, New York

Chait, Brian T.

238

Spectroscopic Issues for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere, launched August 2003. The primary instrument on board is a high-resolution (25 cm maximum optical path difference) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) operating in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1). The current status of the mission will be described, along with summaries of recent results, work on the forthcoming processing version (v4.0), and spectroscopic needs for the mission.

Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

2014-06-01

239

Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents extensive validation analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. The ACE satellite instruments operate in the mid-infrared and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral regions using the solar occultation technique. In order to continue

E. Dupuy; K. A. Walker; J. Kar; C. D. Boone; C. T. McElroy; P. F. Bernath; J. R. Drummond; R. Skelton; S. D. McLeod; R. C. Hughes; C. R. Nowlan; D. G. Dufour; J. Zou; F. Nichitiu; K. Strong; P. Baron; R. M. Bevilacqua; T. Blumenstock; G. E. Bodeker; T. Borsdorff; A. E. Bourassa; H. Bovensmann; I. S. Boyd; A. Bracher; C. Brogniez; J. P. Burrows; V. Catoire; S. Ceccherini; S. Chabrillat; T. Christensen; M. T. Coffey; U. Cortesi; J. Davies; C. de Clercq; D. A. Degenstein; M. de Mazière; P. Demoulin; J. Dodion; B. Firanski; H. Fischer; G. Forbes; L. Froidevaux; D. Fussen; P. Gerard; S. Godin-Beekman; F. Goutail; J. Granville; D. Griffith; C. S. Haley; J. W. Hannigan; M. Höpfner; J. J. Jin; A. Jones; N. B. Jones; K. Jucks; A. Kagawa; Y. Kasai; T. E. Kerzenmacher; A. Kleinböhl; A. R. Klekociuk; I. Kramer; H. Küllmann; J. Kuttippurath; E. Kyrölä; J.-C. Lambert; N. J. Livesey; E. J. Llewellyn; N. D. Lloyd; E. Mahieu; G. L. Manney; B. T. Marshall; J. C. McConnell; M. P. McCormick; I. S. McDermid; M. McHugh; C. A. McLinden; J. Mellqvist; K. Mizutani; Y. Murayama; D. P. Murtagh; H. Oelhaf; A. Parrish; S. V. Petelina; C. Piccolo; J.-P. Pommereau; C. E. Randall; C. Robert; C. Roth; M. Schneider; C. Senten; T. Steck; A. Strandberg; K. B. Strawbridge; R. Sussmann; D. P. J. Swart; D. W. Tarasick; J. R. Taylor; C. Tétard; L. W. Thomason; A. M. Thompson; M. B. Tully; J. Urban; F. Vanhellemont; T. von Clarmann; P. von der Gathen; C. von Savigny; J. W. Waters; J. C. Witte; M. Wolff; J. M. Zawodny

2008-01-01

240

Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne,

E. Dupuy; K. A. Walker; J. Kar; C. D. Boone; C. T. McElroy; P. F. Bernath; J. R. Drummond; R. Skelton; S. D. McLeod; R. C. Hughes; C. R. Nowlan; D. G. Dufour; J. Zou; F. Nichitiu; K. Strong; P. Baron; R. M. Bevilacqua; T. Blumenstock; G. E. Bodeker; T. Borsdorff; A. E. Bourassa; H. Bovensmann; I. S. Boyd; A. Bracher; C. Brogniez; J. P. Burrows; V. Catoire; S. Ceccherini; S. Chabrillat; T. Christensen; M. T. Coffey; U. Cortesi; J. Davies; C. de Clercq; D. A. Degenstein; M. de Mazière; P. Demoulin; J. Dodion; B. Firanski; H. Fischer; G. Forbes; L. Froidevaux; D. Fussen; P. Gerard; S. Godin-Beekmann; F. Goutail; J. Granville; D. Griffith; C. S. Haley; J. W. Hannigan; M. Höpfner; J. J. Jin; A. Jones; N. B. Jones; K. Jucks; A. Kagawa; Y. Kasai; T. E. Kerzenmacher; A. Kleinböhl; A. R. Klekociuk; I. Kramer; H. Küllmann; J. Kuttippurath; E. Kyrölä; J.-C. Lambert; N. J. Livesey; E. J. Llewellyn; N. D. Lloyd; E. Mahieu; G. L. Manney; B. T. Marshall; J. C. McConnell; M. P. McCormick; I. S. McDermid; M. McHugh; C. A. McLinden; J. Mellqvist; K. Mizutani; Y. Murayama; D. P. Murtagh; H. Oelhaf; A. Parrish; S. V. Petelina; C. Piccolo; J.-P. Pommereau; C. E. Randall; C. Robert; C. Roth; M. Schneider; C. Senten; T. Steck; A. Strandberg; K. B. Strawbridge; R. Sussmann; D. P. J. Swart; D. W. Tarasick; J. R. Taylor; C. Tétard; L. W. Thomason; A. M. Thompson; M. B. Tully; J. Urban; F. Vanhellemont; C. Vigouroux; T. von Clarmann; P. von der Gathen; C. von Savigny; J. W. Waters; J. C. Witte; M. Wolff; J. M. Zawodny

2009-01-01

241

Organic Chemistry in the Saturn System: Titan and Enceladus  

E-print Network

Organic Chemistry in the Saturn System: Titan and Enceladus J. H. Waite J. Westlake B. Magee T­4 Saturn 1.7 (+0.75/­0.45) x 10­5 Jupiter 2.25±0.35 x 10­5 Protosolar 2.1±0.4 x 10­5 D/H Cometary Were parIally devolaIlized in the early Saturn nebula, losing CO, N2, and Ar, but not CH4 Mousis et al

Kaiser, Ralf I.

242

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

2003-05-01

243

COMMUNICATION www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Flow chemistry kinetic studies reveal reaction conditions for ready access to  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Flow chemistry kinetic studies molecule. It is synthesized by plants, bacteria and all invertebrates1 as a protective agent against stress-phosphate (2). In plants, bacteria and yeast, trehalose-6-phosphate (2) acts as a signalling molecule

Davis, Ben G.

244

CHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN TWO STREAMS DRAINING FORESTED WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration, major fractions, and contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) to stream chemistry were examined in two paired streams draining upland catchments in eastern Maine. oncentrations of DOC in East and West Bear Brooks were 183 +/- 73 and 169 +/- 70 umol CL-1 (...

245

Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation: from atmospheric chemistry to climate  

E-print Network

1 Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation: from atmospheric chemistry to climate .........................................................13 1.3 Secondary organic aerosol formation ........................................................................................................18 CHAPTER 2 Global modeling of SOA formation from dicarbonyls, epoxides, organic nitrates

Sillman, Sanford

246

Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

247

ORGANISK KEMI, FK, LSKURS KOK021 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course, Theory  

E-print Network

ORGANISK KEMI, FK, L�SKURS KOK021 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course, Theory Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala). Litteratur: Carey, F.A.; Sundberg, R.J.: Advanced Organic Chemistry, 3:e uppl., Plenum Press, New York and London, 1990. Kompendium: Organisk kemi, fortsättningskurs. Warren, S.: Designing Organic Syntheses, John

248

Selective Bifunctional Modification of a Non-catenated Metal-Organic Framework Material via "Click" Chemistry  

E-print Network

to the pivotal role played by organic chemistry in its study, there is a noticeable want of participation and independently with different organic molecules. Recently, Sharpless' "click" chemistry10 has been suggestedSelective Bifunctional Modification of a Non-catenated Metal-Organic Framework Material via "Click

249

ORGANISK KEMI, FK, LSKURS KOK 021 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course, Theory  

E-print Network

ORGANISK KEMI, FK, L�SKURS KOK 021 Organic Chemistry, Advanced Course, Theory Antal poäng: 5, Fortsättningskurs (KOK 020). Litteratur Carey, F.A.; Sundberg, R.J.: Advanced Organic Chemistry, 3:e uppl., Plenum Organic Syntheses, John Wiley, New York, 1993. #12;

250

COMMUNICATION www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Rigid-rod pushpull naphthalenediimide photosystems  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Rigid-rod push of pyrene 12, reaction of the resulting dichlorodianhydride first a Department of Organic Chemistry of push­pull rods on self-organization, pho- toinduced charge separation and photosynthetic activity

Candea, George

251

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8:00 Adv. Organic Chemistry II  

E-print Network

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8:00 Adv. Organic Chemistry II: Functional -systems Hirsch, Kryschi [CM3-B-L] H3 14:00 Alternate date for CM1-B-S H2 15:00 Adv.Organic Chemistry II: Current issues by agreement, please contact Dr. A. Zahl ·Advanced Organic Chemistry - PRACTICAL (Tsogoeva) [CM2-C1-LAB] ­ 7

Fiebig, Peter

252

The Use of Modular Computer-Based Lessons in a Modification of the Classical Introductory Course in Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental course in organic chemistry utilized computer-assisted instructional (CAI) techniques. The CAI lessons provided tutorial drill and practice and simulated experiments and reactions. The Conversational Language for Instruction and Computing was used, along with a CDC 6400-6600 system; students scheduled and completed the lessons at…

Stotter, Philip L.; Culp, George H.

253

Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

2011-01-01

254

Ceria-based solid catalysts for organic chemistry.  

PubMed

Ceria has been the subject of thorough investigations, mainly because of its use as an active component of catalytic converters for the treatment of exhaust gases. However, ceria-based catalysts have also been developed for different applications in organic chemistry. The redox and acid-base properties of ceria, either alone or in the presence of transition metals, are important parameters that allow to activate complex organic molecules and to selectively orient their transformation. Pure ceria is used in several organic reactions, such as the dehydration of alcohols, the alkylation of aromatic compounds, ketone formation, and aldolization, and in redox reactions. Ceria-supported metal catalysts allow the hydrogenation of many unsaturated compounds. They can also be used for coupling or ring-opening reactions. Cerium atoms can be added as dopants to catalytic system or impregnated onto zeolites and mesoporous catalyst materials to improve their performances. This Review demonstrates that the exceptional surface (and sometimes bulk) properties of ceria make cerium-based catalysts very effective for a broad range of organic reactions. PMID:20486156

Vivier, Laurence; Duprez, Daniel

2010-06-21

255

History of early Organizer Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the research and publication of the paper entitled: Â?Versuche zur Analyse der Induktionsmittel in der EmbryonalentwicklungÂ? [Attempts to analyse the Organizer of the Embryo] and links to other articles about these associates and their historic work.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)

2011-09-20

256

Molecules, Supramolecules and Materials Conference The Department of Chemistry, IIT Kanpur organized a conference titled `Molecules,  

E-print Network

and computational applications for different physical and chemical problems and metal-organic chemistry wereMolecules, Supramolecules and Materials Conference 1st - 3rd The Department of Chemistry, IIT areas of Chemistry. Some of the notable speakers included: 1. Dr. Sivaram from NCL Pune, gave

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

257

Spatial ability and its role in organic chemistry: A study of four organic courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between spatial ability and performance in organic chemistry was studied in four organic chemistry courses designed for students with a variety of majors including agriculture, biology, health sciences, pre-med, pre-vet, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, chemistry, and chemical engineering.Students with high spatial scores did significantly better on questions which required problem solving skills, such as completing a reaction or outlining a multi-step synthesis, and questions which required students to mentally manipulate two-dimensional representations of a molecule. Spatial ability was not significant, however, for questions which could be answered by rote memory or by the application of simple algorithms.Students who drew preliminary figures or extra figures when answering questions were more likely to get the correct answer. High spatial ability students were more likely to draw preliminary figures, even for questions that did not explicitly require these drawings. When questions required preliminary or extra figures, low spatial ability students were more likely to draw figures that were incorrect. Low spatial ability students were also more likely to draw structures that were lopsided, ill-proportioned, and nonsymmetric.The results of this study are interpreted in terms of a model which argues that high spatial ability students are better at the early stages of problem solving described as understanding the problem. A model is also discussed which explains why students who draw preliminary or extra figures for questions are more likely to get correct answers.

Pribyl, Jeffrey R.; Bodner, George M.

258

Lesson Planner for Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry Videodisc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lesson Planner is a Microsoft Excel (1) macro that generates barcodes for video included on the Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry videodisc (2). It allows instructors who do not have computer control capability for their videodisc player, but do have a barcode reader, to prepare customized lessons for use in the classroom or laboratory. There is no need to flip through pages in the documentation manual or photocopy pages of barcodes and physically cut and paste them to follow your lecture notes. Lesson Planner includes a complete list of the demonstrations and all sections and subsections included on the videodisc. You simply select the entire demos, sections, or subsections of demos you want to include in your presentation and add them to a lesson list with a mouse click. Lesson Planner generates a list of your selections with barcodes to access the correct video frames. Simply print a copy of the lesson on a laser printer and you are ready to go.

Surovell, Todd A.

1995-09-01

259

Reactive Heterogeneous Chemistry on Organic Aerosols: Two Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sets of laboratory studies will be discussed to illustrate the impact that heterogeneous chemistry involving tropospheric organic aerosols may have on both the gas-phase composition of the atmosphere and the chemical nature of the particles themselves. In the first case, the reactive uptake coefficient for the hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on organic aerosols has been measured in an entrained aerosol flow tube coupled to a Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). The general observation is that the reaction on aqueous malonic acid aerosols behaves in an analogous manner to that on aqueous inorganic salts, i.e. the uptake coefficient shows a linear dependence on the particle water content up to 50% relative humidity (RH), at which point the effect saturates. In addition, there is evidence for the kinetics being dependent on both the size of the particles and the levels of dissolved nitrate. By contrast, the N2O5 hydrolysis kinetics on solid azelaic acid particles are too slow to be atmospherically significant, even at 85% RH. In the second case, the kinetics and product yields from the oxidation of liquid oleic acid by ozone have been studied in considerable detail, with emphasis on the quantification of gas-phase products (nonanal) by CIMS and water-soluble species by HPLC/Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (azelaic acid, nonanoic acid). The atmospheric importance of these results will be discussed, in particular with respect to the role of organic aerosol oxidation as a source of cloud condensation nuclei.

Abbatt, J.; Braban, C.; Broekhuizen, K.; Thornberry, T.; Thornton, J.

2003-12-01

260

Irradiated Benzene Ice Provides Clues to Meteoritic Organic Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

Callahan, Michael Patrick; Gerakines, Perry Alexander; Martin, Mildred G.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Peeters, Zan

2013-01-01

261

Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ease the transition from organic chemistry at the beginning of a biochemistry course or at the beginning of the metabolism section of the organic course, an early presentation of the oxidation of ethanol is proposed. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions can smooth the introduction to biochemistry, since they involve three of the simplest compounds: ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Using these reactions as a model encourages the study of metabolic pathways by a systematic approach rather than by rote memorization. Reactions that can be presented as variations on a theme include methanol poisoning, the polyol reaction, and, most important, the sequence glycerol-3-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. This last sequence integrates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and, by comparison with the model reaction, brings out the principles of substrate-level phosphorylation. The method has evoked favorable verbal feedback from students and, in addition to medical and graduate courses, has been successfully used in the biochemical section of an undergraduate organic course.

Feinman, Richard D.

2001-09-01

262

The Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur is organizing a conference `Celebration of Chemistry@IITK' during December 03-05, 2011 to commemorate the  

E-print Network

The Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur is organizing a conference `Celebration of Chemistry@IITK' during December 03-05, 2011 to commemorate the `International Year of Chemistry ­ 2011' (IYC 2011). It is intended to be a celebration of chemistry and aims to bring chemists working

Lal, Arbind K.

263

Using Structure-Based Organic Chemistry Online Tutorials with Automated Correction for Student Practice and Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and implementation of an open-access organic chemistry question bank for online tutorials and assessments at University College Cork and Dublin Institute of Technology. SOCOT (structure-based organic chemistry online tutorials) may be used to supplement traditional small-group tutorials, thereby allowing…

O'Sullivan, Timothy P.; Hargaden, Gra´inne C.

2014-01-01

264

T H E JOURNAL OF Organic Chemistry VOLUME52, NUMBER23  

E-print Network

T H E JOURNAL OF Organic Chemistry VOLUME52, NUMBER23 0 Copyright 1987 by the American Chemical of Chemistry, Indiana University,Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Received May 18, 1987 Inver igations of iodine in high yields by strains of As- pergillus terreus, one of the most common of soil organ- i s m

Williams, David R.

265

Chemistry/Biology Interface Training Program Goals of the Program and Rationale for the Program Organization  

E-print Network

of interest (e.g., synthetic/mechanistic organic and inorganic chemistry, molecular biology, mechanistic2008 Chemistry/Biology Interface Training Program Goals of the Program and Rationale for the Program Organization Predoctoral trainees (6 total) will be selected from a pool of graduate students who

Thomas, David D.

266

Ligand chemistry of titania precursor affects transient photovoltaic behavior in inverted organic solar cells  

E-print Network

Ligand chemistry of titania precursor affects transient photovoltaic behavior in inverted organic://apl.aip.org/features/most_downloaded Information for Authors: http://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Ligand chemistry of titania precursor affects transient photovoltaic behavior in inverted organic solar cells Jong Bok Kim,1,a) Seokhoon Ahn,2,b) Seok Ju

Hone, James

267

Z .Marine Chemistry 67 1999 3342 Differences in seawater particulate organic carbon concentration  

E-print Network

Z .Marine Chemistry 67 1999 33­42 Differences in seawater particulate organic carbon concentration Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA Received 20 August 1998; accepted 11 May 1999 Abstract Z . Z . ZParticulate organic carbon POC data collected

268

Modeling CO2 chemistry, d13 C, and oxidation of organic  

E-print Network

Modeling CO2 chemistry, d13 C, and oxidation of organic carbon and methane in sediment porewater Abstract I present a numerical diffusion­advection-reaction model to simulate CO2 chemistry, d13 C, and oxidation of organic car- bon and methane in sediment porewater. The model takes into account detailed

Zeebe, Richard E.

269

Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed. PMID:25609552

McNeill, V Faye

2015-02-01

270

Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general chemistry grade was the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry. The importance of other independent variables in explaining organic chemistry achievement varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between independent variables and organic chemistry achievement than females. The report contains 19 tables detailing the statistical analyses. Suggestions for improved practice and further research are also included

Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

271

Investigating Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry at Low Temperature with the Titan Haze Simulation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, possesses a dense atmosphere (1.5 bar at the surface) composed mainly of N2 and CH4. The solar radiation and electron bombardment from Saturn's magnetosphere induces a complex organic chemistry between these two constituents leading to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid aerosols. These aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere form the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. Since 2004, the instruments onboard the Cassini orbiter have produced large amounts of observational data, unraveling a chemistry much more complex than what was first expected, particularly in Titan's upper atmosphere. Neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules have been detected in the ionosphere of Titan, including benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3). The presence of these critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan's aerosols. The aim of the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment, developed at the NASA Ames COSmIC facility, is to study the chemical pathways that link the simple molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature (~150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Due to the short residence time of the gas in the plasma discharge, the THS experiment can be used to probe the first and intermediate steps of Titan's chemistry by injecting different gas mixtures in the plasma. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using two complementary techniques: Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Thin tholin deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and IR spectroscopy. Here we present the results of a systematic mass spectrometry study using N2-based, Ar-based and N2-CH4(90:10)-based mixtures with several hydrocarbon precursors to investigate specific pathways associated with the presence of these trace elements in Titan's atmosphere. These results show the uniqueness of the THS experiment to help understand the first and intermediate steps of Titan's atmospheric chemistry as well as specific chemical pathways leading to Titan's haze formation. We will also present the results of ex situ analyses performed on tholins produced in the THS experiment with different gas mixtures, and compare them to tholin films produced in a static photochemistry cell using VUV instead of plasma as the energy source for the chemistry. Acknowledgments This research is supported by NASA SMD (Planetary Atmospheres Program). E.S.O. acknowledges the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP) and thanks Claire L. Ricketts for the help and discussions with regard to the photochemistry cell. Finally, the authors acknowledge the technical support of R. Walker (NASA ARC).

Sciamma-O'Brien, E. M.; Salama, F.

2012-12-01

272

The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

2009-01-01

273

Exploring organic chemistry in planet-forming zones  

E-print Network

Over the last few years, the chemistry of molecules other than CO in the planet-forming zones of disks is starting to be explored with Spitzer and high-resolution ground-based data. However, these studies have focused only on a few simple molecules. The aim of this study is to put observational constraints on the presence of more complex organic and sulfur-bearing molecules predicted to be abundant in chemical models of disks and to simulate high resolution spectra in view of future missions. High S/N Spitzer spectra at 10-30 micron of the near edge-on disks IRS46 and GVTau are used to search for mid-infrared absorption bands of various molecules. These disks are good laboratories because absorption studies do not suffer from low line/continuum ratios that plague emission data. Simple LTE slab models are used to infer column densities (or upper limits) and excitation temperatures. Bands of HCN, C2H2 and CO2 are clearly detected toward both sources. The HCN and C2H2 absorption arises in warm gas with Tex of 40...

Bast, Jeanette E; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Tielens, Alexander G G M

2012-01-01

274

Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Paula Y. Bruice)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1998, xxx +1256 pp, 6 appendices. ISBN 0-13-841925-6. $99. The author has made some constructive changes to the second edition of this visually pleasing book. The chapter order has been rearranged so that all of spectroscopy is covered in two adjoining chapters (new problems combining NMR and IR have been added), all of the chapters on bioorganic chemistry are grouped together (information on reducing sugars has been added), and the last section now covers heterocycles, pericyclic reactions, polymer synthesis, multistep synthetic strategies, and drug design. The publisher offers additional material at its Web site and a paperback for students assisting them in using the Internet. The ChemCentral Organic Web site has problem sets to supplement each chapter (including hints for struggling students) and animations of molecules undergoing reactions. In addition the Web site provides syllabus construction software for instructors. The accompanying study guide/solutions manual, written by the textbook author, contains a glossary, answers to chapter problems, and a practice test (for the first twenty chapters). There are sections called "special topics" which offer in-depth treatment of pH, pKa, buffers, and the electron-pushing formalism.

Katz, Marlene G.

1998-11-01

275

A context based approach using Green Chemistry/Bio-remediation principles to enhance interest and learning of organic chemistry in a high school AP chemistry classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of our planet to sustain life and heal itself is not as predictable as it used to be. Our need for educated future scientists who know what our planet needs, and can passionately apply that knowledge to find solutions should be at the heart of science education today. This study of learning organic chemistry through the lens of the environmental problem "What should be done with our food scraps?" explores student interest, and mastery of certain concepts in organic chemistry. This Green Chemistry/ Bio-remediation context-based teaching approach utilizes the Nature MillRTM, which is an indoor food waste composting machine, to learn about organic chemistry, and how this relates to landfill reduction possibilities, and resource production. During this unit students collected food waste from their cafeteria, and used the Nature MillRTM to convert food waste into compost. The use of these hands on activities, and group discussions in a context-based environment enhanced their interest in organic chemistry, and paper chromatography. According to a one-tailed paired T-test, the result show that this context-based approach is a significant way to increase both student interest and mastery of the content.

Miller, Tricia

276

Laboratory Simulations Of Titan’s Atmospheric Chemistry With The NASA Ames Titan Haze Simulation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar UV radiation and electron bombardment from Saturn’s magnetosphere dissociate nitrogen and methane in Titan’s atmosphere, leading to the production of heavier molecules and solid organic aerosols that contribute to the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. The detection of benzene and toluene, critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), in Titan’s ionosphere, by the Cassini INMS suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan’s aerosols. The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment has been developed at NASA Ames’ Cosmic Simulation facility (COSmIC) to study the chemical pathways that link the simple molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN..) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titan’s atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic jet expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature ( 150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Different gas mixtures containing the first products of Titan’s N2-CH4 chemistry, but also much heavier molecules like PAHs or PANHs can be injected to study specific chemical reactions. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Thin tholin (Titan aerosol analogs) deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We present the results of mass spectrometry studies using different gas mixtures, and discuss their relevance for the study of specific pathways in Titan’s atmospheric chemistry. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by NASA PATM. E.S.O., C.S.C. and C.L.R acknowledge the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program. The authors acknowledge the collaboration of H. Imanaka, C. McKay and S. Lebonnois.

Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

2012-05-01

277

Peer-reviewed manuscript of the article published in Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2010, 8, 864-872  

E-print Network

Peer-reviewed manuscript of the article published in Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2010, 8, 864,version1-11Sep2010 Author manuscript, published in "Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry / Organic-872 Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry http://www

Boyer, Edmond

278

Message of Welcome The Organic Chemistry Department of Alicante University was established in 1990. Since then, it is involved in  

E-print Network

Message of Welcome The Organic Chemistry Department of Alicante University was established in 1990. Since then, it is involved in the teaching and research of the organic chemistry area. Among the forty PhD theses per year. The Organic Chemistry Department laboratories are fully-equipped to perform high

Escolano, Francisco

279

A Collaborative, Wiki-Based Organic Chemistry Project Incorporating Free Chemistry Software on the Web  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, postsecondary instructors have recognized the potential of wikis to transform the way students learn in a collaborative environment. However, few instructors have embraced in-depth student use of chemistry software for the creation of interactive chemistry content on the Web. Using currently available software, students are able…

Evans, Michael J.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

280

Wet Chemistry experiments on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander mission: Data analysis and results  

E-print Network

Wet Chemistry experiments on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander mission: Data analysis and results: Kounaves, S. P., et al. (2010), Wet Chemistry experiments on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander missionH, and the electrical conductivity. From Viking to the MERs, previous landed missions to Mars using elemental

Kounaves, Samuel P.

281

An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ligation States of Myoglobin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there are numerous inorganic model systems that are readily presented as undergraduate laboratory experiments in bioinorganic chemistry, there are few examples that explore the inorganic chemistry of actual biological molecules. We present a laboratory experiment using the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin that can be easily incorporated…

Bailey, James A.

2011-01-01

282

Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

2014-01-01

283

Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

2011-01-01

284

A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

2008-01-01

285

The Tip of the Iceberg in Organic Chemistry Classes: How Do Students Deal with the Invisible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry education is one of the youngest research areas among all chemistry related research efforts, and its published scholarly work has become vibrant and diverse over the last 15 years. Research on problem-solving behavior, students' use of the arrow-pushing formalism, the investigation of students' conceptual knowledge and…

Graulich, Nicole

2015-01-01

286

Ethnically Diverse Students' Knowledge Structures in First-Semester Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemistry courses remain a challenge for many undergraduate students. In particular, first-semester organic chemistry has been labeled as a gatekeeper with high attrition rates, especially among students of color. Our study examines a key factor related to conceptual understanding in science and predictive of course outcomes-knowledge structures.…

Lopez, Enrique J.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

2014-01-01

287

The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

1980-01-01

288

ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

2008-01-01

289

Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism Jean-Paul Boudou  

E-print Network

and to shed light on the subsurface biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and its participating organic and inorganic Earth's geochemical nitrogen cycle links the relatively small pool of organic nitrogen in living biomassOrganic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism Jean-Paul Boudou a *, Arndt Schimmelmann b

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING VOL. 24, NO. 3, PP. 229-240 (1987) SPATIAL ABILITY AND ITS ROLE IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  

E-print Network

ROLE IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: A STUDY OF FOUR ORGANIC COURSES JEFFREY R. PRIBYL and GEORGE M. BODNER spatial ability and performance in organic chemistry was studied in four organic chemistry courses correct answers. Introduction Organic chemistry texts are filled with drawings of stick structures, space

Bodner, George M.

291

Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

2006-01-01

292

Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

2014-01-01

293

Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

1976-01-01

294

Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

1984-09-01

295

Article published in European Journal of Organic Chemistry: Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2003,(19), 3621-3627.  

E-print Network

Article published in European Journal of Organic Chemistry: Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2003,(19), 3621. hal-00139505,version1-31Mar2007 Author manuscript, published in "European Journal of Organic Chemistry. of Chemistry, Sardar Patel University Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Anand, Gujarat, INDIA [b] LEDSS, UMR 5616

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Organic Photovoltaics: An Early Innovator Michael McGehee and the Chemistry of Materials' 1k Club  

E-print Network

Organic Photovoltaics: An Early Innovator Michael McGehee and the Chemistry of Materials' 1k Club in organic solar cells, but I Published: September 23, 2014 Figure 1. Member of the Chemistry of Materials 1k with Michael D. McGehee (MM, Figure 1), who wrote a review for Chemistry of Materials (CM) in 2004 entitled

McGehee, Michael

297

Institute of Chemistry Seminar Lectures -June 8-21, 2014 Doped organic molecules with biological activityMr. Barak Menagen  

E-print Network

Institute of Chemistry Seminar Lectures - June 8-21, 2014 Doped organic molecules with biologicalTime & Place Organized By / Event Date #12;Institute of Chemistry Seminar Lectures - June 8-21, 2014 Doing activityMr. Barak Menagen Institute of Chemistry, HUJI 13:00 Los Angeles M.Sc. Seminar Sunday 8

Einat, Aharonov

298

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Chemistry, by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, M. Larry Peck, George G. Stanley published by Brooks/Cole, 2010.

299

Using the QCPE Holdings in Chemical Education: Molecular Models in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a successfully implemented laboratory experiment that compares the strengths and weaknesses of mechanical and computer models. The computer models used are available from the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange (QCPE) at a modest price. (JN)

Lipkowitz, Kenny

1984-01-01

300

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Glycosynthase-based synthesis of xylo-oligosaccharides using an engineered  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Glycosynthase-based synthesis of xylo was chromatographically a Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T

McIntosh, Lawrence P.

301

Students Doing Chemistry: A Hand-On Experience for K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hands-on, minds-on inquiry chemistry experiment was developed for use in K-12 schools that enables students to combine the chemicals of their choice and observe the results. The chemistry involved is water based and builds upon acid-base, double displacement, and iodometric detection of starch reactions. Chemicals readily available in the…

Selco, Jodye I.; Bruno, Mary; Chan, Sue

2012-01-01

302

Modeling SOAaq Formation: Explicit Organic Chemistry in Cloud Droplets with CMAQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere has a substantial impact on climate and can lead to air quality changes that adversely impact human health and the environment. The chemistry is complex because of the variety of compounds present in the atmosphere and the phase transitions associated with multiphase reactions. These reactions can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAAQ) in the atmosphere. When included, current photochemical models typically use a simple parameterization to describe SOAAQ formation. Here, we discuss the implementation of explicit aqueous SOA chemistry in a box model of the CMAQ 5.0.1 aqueous phase chemistry mechanism using the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP). The expanded chemistry model includes reactions of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde as precursors to form SOAAQ and is based on the mechanism from Lim et. al. 2010. The current aqueous phase chemistry module in CMAQ uses a forward Euler method to solve the system of oxidation equations, estimating the pH with a bisection method assuming electroneutrality, and multiphase processes are solved sequentially. This is not robust for systems with large dynamic range (e.g., multiphase systems), and inhibits expansion of the aqueous phase chemical mechanism to adequately incorporate the growing body of literature that describes multiphase organic chemistry. The KPP solver allows for all processes to be solved simultaneously and facilitates expansion of the current mechanism. Addition of explicit organic reactions and H2O2 photolysis in the KPP box model results in increased mass of organic aerosol and more realistic predictions. For particulate matter focused air quality management strategies to be effective, it is important that models move away from the yield-based approach currently used and expand to include more explicit organic chemistry.

Carlton, A. G.; Sareen, N.; Fahey, K.; Hutzell, W. T.

2013-12-01

303

Incorporating Guided-Inquiry Learning into the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided-inquiry experiments also known as discovery-based experiments, which combine the pedagogical advantages of open-inquiry methods with the practical advantages of expository experiments, are described. Unlike open-inquiry or problem-based experiments, guided-inquiry experiments could be readily adapted to large laboratory sections and induces…

Gaddis, Barbara A.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

2007-01-01

304

Nomenclature101.com: A Free, Student-Driven Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental to a student's understanding of organic chemistry is the ability to interpret and use its language, including molecules' names and other key terms. A learning gap exists in that students often struggle with organic nomenclature. Although many resources describe the rules for naming molecules, there is a paucity of resources…

Flynn, Alison B.; Caron, Jeanette; Laroche, Jamey; Daviau-Duguay, Melissa; Marcoux, Caroline; Richard, Gise`le

2014-01-01

305

The influence of microbial communities, management, and soil texture on soil organic matter chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter dynamics following land-use change remain difficult to predict because of the complex biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms that control C turnover. We examined twelve sites, representing four broad land-use types (cultivated agriculture, pine forest, hardwood forest, and pasture), in the South Carolina Piedmont to determine whether variation in organic matter chemistry was linked to management, soil edaphic

A. Stuart Grandy; Michael S. Strickland; Christian L. Lauber; Mark A. Bradford; Noah Fierer

2009-01-01

306

Isotopes of Volatile Organic Compounds: An Emerging Approach for Studying Atmospheric Budgets and Chemistry  

E-print Network

Isotopes of Volatile Organic Compounds: An Emerging Approach for Studying Atmospheric Budgets and Chemistry Allen H. Goldstein* and Stephanie L. Shaw Department of Environmental Science, Policy-methane volatile organic com- pounds (VOCs) in ambient atmospheric samples had not been achieved. Advances

Goldstein, Allen

307

Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A writing assignment to increase student understanding of and interest in practical applications of organic chemistry is described. Students were required to study a pharmaceutical or other organic compound and perform a qualitative risk assessment on the chemical. Student perceptions of the benefits of the paper were generally positive. (Contains…

Ablin, Lois

2008-01-01

308

A Mass Spectral Chlorine Rule for Use in Structure Determinations in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The low-resolution mass spectrum of integral masses is used to determine the number of bromine and chlorine atoms in an organic compound. The chlorine rule is a tool suitable for use in structural determinations in first year organic chemistry and it is supported by the ability of sophomore-level students to successfully determine n and m from the…

Gross, Ray A., Jr.

2004-01-01

309

Climate, Litter Chemistry, and Nitrogen Controls on Litter Decomposition and Organic Matter Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate interacts with N availability and other factors to control organic matter decomposition rates and carbon cycling. We analyzed data from the LIDET (Long-Term Inter-site Decomposition Experiment Team) experiment to investigate the controls on litter decomposition rates and organic matter stabilization. Bags containing vegetative litter from different woody and herbaceous species were placed in 28 sites representing a wide array of biomes. Samples were collected approximately ten times, once per year for all sites except tropical sites, which were sampled every 3-6 months. Each sample was analyzed for total N, ash, lignin, and cellulose using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. To account for water and temperature impacts on decomposition, we calculated a Climate Decomposition Index (CDI) for each site based on long term weather data. We then performed step-wise regression analyses to test how well CDI and litter chemistry were correlated with the amount of biomass remaining in litter bags after 1, 5, and 10 years. CDI was the primary control, accounting for 74, 48, and 58% of variability in biomass remaining at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In addition to CDI, The C/N ratio of labile organic matter and lignin content significantly impacted biomass remaining at 1 and 5 years, while lignin and cellulose content were significant for biomass remaining at 10 years. Increased C/N ratio was associated with slower initial decomposition rate. Lignin content was positively, and cellulose negatively, correlated with long term organic matter stabilization. If CDI and lignin content were similar, then C/N did not influence long term stabilization. If N was not limiting, cellulose decomposed quickly.

DelGrosso, S.; Parton, W. J.; Adair, C.

2012-12-01

310

Structure & Reactivity in Organic, Biological and Inorganic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of web-pages designed to support an integrated treatment of related topics from organic, inorganic and biochemistry. The topics are organized around common principles of structure or reactivity.

Schaller, Chris P.

311

The Fourier Transform in Chemistry-NMR, Part 3. Multiple-Pulse Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are six multipulse experiments with an emphasis on their application to common problems in chemistry. Exercises in relaxation time measurement, spin echoes, and polarization transfer are proposed. (CW)

Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W.

1990-01-01

312

A Solid State Chemistry Experiment: Dislocations in Etched Calcite by Polaroid Photomicrography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that adequate attention should be given to lattice imperfections in teaching solid state chemistry. Some concepts to be included in such a program are explained. An experiment to be performed by undergraduates on photomicrography is described in detail. (PS)

Agnew, N. H.

1972-01-01

313

Separation and Identification of Commonly Used Drugs: A Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment for Freshman Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a freshman chemistry experiment in which students separate and identify commonly used drugs by thin-layer chromatography. Materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

Bonicamp, Judith M.

1985-01-01

314

Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

2007-01-01

315

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Ruthenium half-sandwich complexes as protein kinase inhibitors  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Ruthenium half-sandwich complexes being to organize the organic ligands in three-dimensional space. As a proof-of-principle study, we have to a Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. E

Meggers, Eric

316

Theoretical Chemistry Comes Alive: Full Partner with Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expected thrust for theoretical chemistry in the next decade will be to combine knowledge of fundamental chemical steps/interactions with advances in chemical dynamics, irreversible statistical mechanics, and computer technology to produce simulations of chemical systems with reaction site competition. A sample simulation (using the enzyme…

Goddard, William A., III

1985-01-01

317

Stereoisomerism in Coordination Chemistry: A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experimental procedure to acquaint inorganic chemistry students with stereochemical concepts using tris-(2,3-butanediamine)cobalt(III). Notes two isomeric forms exist and both form metal chelates. Separation is accomplished by chromatography and analysis is by NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Provides spectra of isomers. (MVL)

Gargallo, Maria Fe; And Others

1988-01-01

318

Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

2011-01-01

319

General syllabus for third-cycle studies in Organic Chemistry TEKOKF00 This syllabus has been adopted by the Board of LTH, 11 October 2010  

E-print Network

General syllabus for third-cycle studies in Organic Chemistry TEKOKF00 This syllabus has been adopted by the Board of LTH, 11 October 2010 1. Description Organic chemistry deals with the chemistry both in nature and those that are artificial. Organic chemistry comprises synthesis and structure

320

Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

2010-01-01

321

Chemistry/Biology Interface Training Program (CBITG) Goals of the Program and Rationale for the Program Organization  

E-print Network

2011 Chemistry/Biology Interface Training Program (CBITG) Goals of the Program and Rationale for the Program Organization Predoctoral trainees will be selected from a pool of graduate students who have been recruited by the Chemistry, BMBB, Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Departments, at a stage

Thomas, David D.

322

Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments  

PubMed Central

An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical progression of research-inspired laboratory modules serves to “tour” the macroscopic characteristics of the fruit and the submicroscopic properties of its constituent cuticular biopolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–visible, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods at increasingly detailed molecular levels. The modular curriculum can be tailored for specialty undergraduate courses or summer high school workshops. By applying analytical tools to investigate biopolymers, making connections between molecular and microscale structure, and linking both structural regimes to the functional properties of natural polymers, groundwork is established for further student investigations at the interface of chemistry with biology or chemical engineering. PMID:23526490

Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

323

Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites.  

PubMed

Organic matter in extraterrestrial materials has isotopic anomalies in hydrogen and nitrogen that suggest an origin in the presolar molecular cloud or perhaps in the protoplanetary disk. Interplanetary dust particles are generally regarded as the most primitive solar system matter available, in part because until recently they exhibited the most extreme isotope anomalies. However, we show that hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic compositions in carbonaceous chondrite organic matter reach and even exceed those found in interplanetary dust particles. Hence, both meteorites (originating from the asteroid belt) and interplanetary dust particles (possibly from comets) preserve primitive organics that were a component of the original building blocks of the solar system. PMID:16675696

Busemann, Henner; Young, Andrea F; Alexander, Conel M O'd; Hoppe, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Nittler, Larry R

2006-05-01

324

Development of gas-phase chemistry, secondary organic aerosol, and aqueous-phase chemistry modules for PM modeling. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) is sponsoring a multi-phase study to develop improved air quality models for particulate matter (PM). Improved urban and regional scale PM air quality models are needed to develop reliable emission control strategies for areas that exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM-2.5 and PM-10, and for National Parks and other Class 1 areas with impaired visibility. This report describes the development and implementation of two process modules for PM models. These particular process modules are needed to simulate secondary aerosol species, which are often the dominate portion of PM-2.5 mass. The first module simulates the gas-phase atmospheric chemistry of the VOC/NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2}/ozone system and the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The module also simulates the formation of inorganic species, including sulfuric acid and nitric acid, that form important aerosol species: sulfate and nitrate; The second module simulates the aqueous-phase chemistry in fogs and clouds. This chemistry primarily enhances SO{sub 2} oxidation rates and leads to enhanced sulfate aerosol concentrations.

Strader, R.; Gurciullo, C.S.; Pandis, S.N.; Kumar, N.; Lurmann, F.W.

1998-10-30

325

Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular chemistry has developed a wide range of very powerful procedures for constructing ever more sophisticated molecules from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Beyond molecular chemistry lies supramolecular chemistry, which aims at developing highly complex chemical systems from components interacting via non-covalent intermolecular forces. By the appropriate manipulation of these interactions, supramolecular chemistry became progressively the chemistry of molecular information, involving the storage of information at the molecular level, in the structural features, and its retrieval, transfer, and processing at the supramolecular level, through molecular recognition processes operating via specific interactional algorithms. This has paved the way towards apprehending chemistry also as an information science. Numerous receptors capable of recognizing, i.e. selectively binding, specific substrates have been developed, based on the molecular information stored in the interacting species. Suitably functionalized receptors may perform supramolecular catalysis and selective transport processes. In combination with polymolecular organization, recognition opens ways towards the design of molecular and supramolecular devices based on functional (photoactive, electroactive, ionoactive, etc) components. A step beyond preorganization consists in the design of systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components. Self-organization processes, directed by the molecular information stored in the components and read out at the supramolecular level through specific interactions, represent the operation of programmed chemical systems. They have been implemented for the generation of a variety of discrete functional architectures of either organic or inorganic nature. Self-organization processes also give access to advanced supramolecular materials, such as supramolecular polymers and liquid crystals, and provide an original approach to nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, the spontaneous but controlled generation of well-defined, functional supramolecular architectures of nanometric size through self-organization represents a means of performing programmed engineering and processing of nanomaterials. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry, in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when a molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibly, so as to make possible a continuous change in constitution and structure by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. This behaviour defines a constitutional dynamic chemistry that allows self-organization by selection as well as by design at both the molecular and supramolecular levels. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization by selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation in a Darwinistic fashion. The merging of the features, information and programmability, dynamics and reversibility, constitution and structural diversity, points towards the emergence of adaptative and evolutionary chemistry. Together with the corresponding fields of physics and biology, it constitutes a science of informed matter, of organized, adaptative complex matter. This article was originally published in 2003 by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in the framework of its Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures series. Reprinted by permission of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Lehn, Jean-Marie

2004-03-01

326

Application of the organic on water reactions to prebiotic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old view that prebiotic reactions in water are hampered by the low solubility of the organic compounds in water is now being revised due to the discoveries of the reactions "on water". These reactions occur in the heterogeneous system comprising of the organic compounds and water. Unexpectedly, such reactions are extremely efficient; they often give quantitative yields, and are accelerated in the presence of water as compared to the organic solvents. These "on water" reactions are not the same as the "in water" reactions, which occur in solution, and are thus homogenous. Examples of the "on water" reactions include Diels-Alder, Claisen, Passerini and Ugi reactions, among many others. Some of these reactions are multicomponent, but give a single product. We survey a selected number of the "on water" reactions, which have a potential prebiotic applications.

Kolb, Vera M.

2012-10-01

327

Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the organic nitrogen (Norg) on Earth is disseminated in crustal sediments and rocks in the form of fossil nitrogen-containing organic matter. The chemical speciation of fossil Norg within the overall molecular structure of organic matter changes with time and heating during burial. Progressive thermal evolution of organic matter involves phases of enhanced elimination of Norg and ultimately produces graphite containing only traces of nitrogen. Long-term chemical and thermal instability makes the chemical speciation of Norg a valuable tracer to constrain the history of sub-surface metamorphism and to shed light on the subsurface biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and its participating organic and inorganic nitrogen pools. This study documents the evolutionary path of Norg speciation, transformation and elimination before and during metamorphism and advocates the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to monitor changes in Norg speciation as a diagnostic tool for organic metamorphism. Our multidisciplinary evidence from XPS, stable isotopes, traditional quantitative coal analyses, and other analytical approaches shows that at the metamorphic onset Norg is dominantly present as pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen. The relative abundance of nitrogen substituting for carbon in condensed, partially aromatic systems (where N is covalently bonded to three C atoms) increases exponentially with increasing metamorphic grade, at the expense of pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen. At the same time, much Norg is eliminated without significant nitrogen isotope fractionation. The apparent absence of Rayleigh-type nitrogen isotopic fractionation suggests that direct thermal loss of nitrogen from an organic matrix does not serve as a major pathway for Norg elimination. Instead, we propose that hot H, O-containing fluids or some of their components gradually penetrate into the carbonaceous matrix and eliminate Norg along a progressing reaction front, without causing nitrogen isotope fractionation in the residual Norg in the unreacted core of the carbonaceous matrix. Before the reaction front can reach the core, an increasing part of core Norg chemically stabilizes in the form of nitrogen atoms substituting for carbon in condensed, partially aromatic systems forming graphite-like structural domains with delocalized ??-electron systems (nitrogen atoms substituting for "graphitic" carbon in natural metamorphic organic matter). Thus, this nitrogen species with a conservative isotopic composition is the dominant form of residual nitrogen at higher metamorphic grade. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Boudou, J.-P.; Schimmelmann, A.; Ader, M.; Mastalerz, M.; Sebilo, M.; Gengembre, L.

2008-01-01

328

Organic chemistry as a language and the implications of chemical linguistics for structural and retrosynthetic analyses.  

PubMed

Methods of computational linguistics are used to demonstrate that a natural language such as English and organic chemistry have the same structure in terms of the frequency of, respectively, text fragments and molecular fragments. This quantitative correspondence suggests that it is possible to extend the methods of computational corpus linguistics to the analysis of organic molecules. It is shown that within organic molecules bonds that have highest information content are the ones that 1)?define repeat/symmetry subunits and 2)?in asymmetric molecules, define the loci of potential retrosynthetic disconnections. Linguistics-based analysis appears well-suited to the analysis of complex structural and reactivity patterns within organic molecules. PMID:25044611

Cadeddu, Andrea; Wylie, Elizabeth K; Jurczak, Janusz; Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

2014-07-28

329

Annotated List of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments with Computer Access. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Chemlab was designed to prepare an "Annotated List of Laboratory Experiments in Chemistry from the Journal of Chemical Education (1957-1979)" and to develop a computer file and program to search for specific types of experiments. Provided in this document are listings (photoreduced copies of printouts) of over 1500 entries classified into…

Bunce, S. C.; And Others

330

Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

2008-01-01

331

Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

2010-01-01

332

GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

2007-01-01

333

Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple multiday laboratory exercise suitable for use in a high school or community college chemistry course or a biotechnology advanced placement biology course is described. In this experiment students gain experience in the use of column chromatography as a tool for the separation and characterization of biomolecules, thus expanding their…

Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K.

2008-01-01

334

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: XCVIII. Experiments Involving Thermal Methods of Analysis for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains some experiments involving thermal methods of analysis for undergraduate chemistry laboratories. Some experiments are: (1) the determination of the density and degree of crystallinity of a polymer; and (2) the determination of the specific heat of a nonvolatile compound. (HM)

Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

1978-01-01

335

Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

1983-01-01

336

Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

1983-01-01

337

Integrated Concentration in Science, 2012 Sugar an Organic Chemistry Lesson Plan  

E-print Network

© Integrated Concentration in Science, 2012 Sugar ­ an Organic Chemistry Lesson Plan Objective is sugar? A carbohydrate. Explain importance of carbohydrates as biomolecules (starch, cellulose, sugars sugar in fruits, Mono. Rxns - -OH groups can convert to esters and ethers, making molecule easier

Auerbach, Scott M.

338

An Introductory Organic Chemistry Review Homework Exercise: Deriving Potential Mechanisms for Glucose Ring Opening in Mutarotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique homework assignment has been designed as a review exercise to be implemented near the end of the one-year undergraduate organic chemistry sequence. Within the framework of the exercise, students derive potential mechanisms for glucose ring opening in the aqueous mutarotation process. In this endeavor, 21 general review principles are…

Murdock, Margaret; Holman, R. W.; Slade, Tyler; Clark, Shelley L. D.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

339

Accidental Drowning or Foul Play?: A Case Study in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case was developed for a sophomore organic chemistry lab to illustrate how a combination of techniques is usually required in the identification of chemical compounds. It involves a murder mystery with a forensic twist: Two bodies have been recovered from two different lakes, but because of a mix-up at the morgue, the coroner is unable to…

Konaklieva, Monika

2004-01-01

340

A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

341

Using Green Chemistry Principles as a Framework to Incorporate Research into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the accepted pedagogical value of integrating research into the laboratory curriculum, this approach has not been widely adopted. The activation barrier to this change is high, especially in organic chemistry, where a large number of students are required to take this course, special glassware or setups may be needed, and dangerous…

Lee, Nancy E.; Gurney, Rich; Soltzberg, Leonard

2014-01-01

342

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation provides a major source of reactive carbon entering the atmosphere. These compounds play an important role in (1) shaping global tropospheric chemistry, (2) regional photochemical oxidant formation, (3) balancing the global carbon cycle, and (4) production of organic acids which contribute to acidic deposition in rural areas. Present estimates place the total annual global emission of these compounds between

Fred Fehsenfeld; Jack Calvert; Ray Fall; Paul Goldan; A. B. Guenther; C. N. Hewitt; Brian Lamb; Shaw Liu; Michael Trainer; Hal Westberg; Pat Zimmerman

1992-01-01

343

Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Engaging Students with Cell Phone Technology in Organic Chemistry Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of organic chemistry traditionally make 3 x 5 in. flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flash cards to be viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use…

Pursell, David P.

2009-01-01

344

A New Higher Education Curriculum in Organic Chemistry: What Questions Should Be Asked?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry is often considered to be a difficult subject to teach and to learn, particularly as students prefer to resort to memorization alone rather than reasoning using models from chemical reactivity. Existing studies have led us to suggest principles for redefining the curriculum, ranging from its overall structure to the tasks given…

Lafarge, David L.; Morge, Ludovic M.; Méheut, Martine M.

2014-01-01

345

Kinetic versus Static Visuals for Facilitating College Students' Understanding of Organic Reaction Mechanisms in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using animated computer-generated graphics to assist instruction has recently attracted the attention of educators and educational researchers. The specific focus of this study is to compare the influence of animated visuals with static visuals on college students' understanding of organic reaction mechanisms in chemistry. This study also focuses…

Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Abraham, Michael R.

2009-01-01

346

The Flipped Classroom for Teaching Organic Chemistry in Small Classes: Is It Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The flipped classroom is a pedagogical approach that moves course content from the classroom to homework, and uses class time for engaging activities and instructor-guided problem solving. The course content in a sophomore level Organic Chemistry I course was assigned as homework using video lectures, followed by a short online quiz. In class,…

Fautch, Jessica M.

2015-01-01

347

Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

2012-01-01

348

Students' Understanding of the Descriptive and Predictive Nature of Teaching Models in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate secondary students' understanding of the descriptive and predictive nature of teaching models used in representing compounds in introductory organic chemistry. Of interest were the relationships between teaching models, scientific models, and students' mental models and expressed models. The results from…

Treagust, David F.; Chittleborough, Gail D.; Mamiala, Thapelo L.

2004-01-01

349

Incorporating Chemical Information Instruction and Environmental Science into the First-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical information instruction and environmental science which is incorporated into a first-year organic chemistry laboratory is presented. The students are charged with devised search strategies, conducting online searches and limiting the project scope to ocean systems. The laboratory serves to provide for search strategy development…

Landolt, R. G.

2006-01-01

350

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

351

Using the Cambridge Structural Database to Teach Molecular Geometry Concepts in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a set of two homework assignments that can be used in a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry class. These assignments were designed to help reinforce concepts of molecular geometry and to give students the opportunity to use a technological database and data mining to analyze experimentally determined chemical…

Wackerly, Jay Wm.; Janowicz, Philip A.; Ritchey, Joshua A.; Caruso, Mary M.; Elliott, Erin L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

352

Reasonable Reasoning: Multi-Variate Problem-Solving in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to understand how students approach multi-variate problems, we report a study on the cues organic chemistry graduate students perceive from mechanism tasks, and the reasoning processes induced by those cues. We used the think-aloud protocol in interviews with sixteen graduate students as they worked on two types of tasks: one, in which…

Kraft, Adam; Strickland, Amanda M.; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

2010-01-01

353

2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

Casey, Charles P.

2006-01-01

354

The Titan Haze Simulation experiment: a laboratory study to explore the role of PAHs and PANHs in Titan's atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex organic chemistry between Titan's two main constituents, N2 and CH4, leads to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid organic aerosols. These aerosol particles form the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. In situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard Cassini have revealed the presence of large amounts of neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules in the ionosphere of Titan[1,2]. In particular, benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3)[3], which are critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, have been detected, suggesting that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan's aerosols. Moreover, results from numerical models[4,5] as well as laboratory simulations[6,7] of Titan's atmospheric chemistry are also suggesting chemical pathways that link the simple precursor molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN...) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (or PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. The aim of the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment is to study the chemical formation pathways, going from simple gas phase molecules to the more complex gas phase precursors of aerosols; and more specifically, to investigate the role of PAHs and PANHs in the nitrogen-methane enriched Titan atmosphere. In the THS experiment, Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated by a plasma jet expansion at pressure and temperature conditions close to those of Titan's atmosphere in the regions where aerosols are formed. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using two complementary techniques: Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy[8] and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry[9]. We will present the results of ongoing studies on different aspects of Titan's chemistry using various gas mixtures: from N2-CH4 gas mixtures at different CH4 concentrations to more targeted gas mixtures including trace elements present in Titan's atmosphere such as, for example, N2-C2H2, N2-C6H6 and N2-C2H2-C6H6 to study specific pathways to the production of PAHs and PANHs and large organic aerosols.

Sciamma-o'brien, E. M.; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

2011-12-01

355

Interactions between Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Soil Organic Matter Chemistry in Arctic Tundra Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used long-term laboratory incubations and chemical fractionation to characterize the mineralization dynamics of organic\\u000a soils from tussock, shrub, and wet meadow tundra communities, to determine the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a decomposition and chemistry, and to quantify the relative proportions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in tundra SOM that are\\u000a biologically available for decomposition. In all soils

Michael N. Weintraub; Joshua P. Schimel

2003-01-01

356

Using Commercially Available Techniques to Make Organic Chemistry Representations Tactile and More Accessible to Students with Blindness or Low Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic chemistry courses can present major obstacles to access for students with blindness or low vision (BLV). In recent years, efforts have been made to represent organic chemistry concepts in tactile forms for blind students. These methodologies are described in this manuscript. Further work being done at Illinois State University is also…

Supalo, Cary A.; Kennedy, Sean H.

2014-01-01

357

Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2010-01-01

358

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Towards the stereoselective synthesis of inherently chiral pseudorotaxanes  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Towards the stereoselective synthesis members of this class of fascinating molecules.1 They are assemblies composed a Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. E-mail: jerome

Candea, George

359

References and Notes (1) R. W. Taft, Jr., in "Steric Effects in Organic Chemistry", M. S.Newman.  

E-print Network

7908 References and Notes (1) R. W. Taft, Jr., in "Steric Effects in Organic Chemistry", M. S of Organic Compounds", Wiley, New York, N.Y., 1969. N. L. Allinger and J. L. Coke, J. Org. Chem., 26, 2096. Chem. Soc.. Perkin Trans. 2. 15 (1975). (25) D. F.DeTar, "Computer Programs for Chemistry", Vol. 4, D

Goddard III, William A.

360

Coordination-Chemistry Control of Proton Conductivity in the Iconic Metal-Organic Framework Material HKUST-1  

E-print Network

Coordination-Chemistry Control of Proton Conductivity in the Iconic Metal-Organic Framework* Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: HKUST-1, a metal-organic

361

The Impacts of Marine Organic Emissions on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using laboratory studies and global/regional climate model results, this talk will contribute to two main research questions: 1) what can be learned about the carbon emission inducing stress factors for marine algae, and 2) what is a potential impact of marine biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Marine photosynthetic organisms emit VOCs which can form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Currently large uncertainty exists in the magnitude of the marine biogenic sources, their spatiotemporal distribution, controlling factors, and contributions to natural background of organic aerosols. Here laboratory results for the production of isoprene and four monoterpene (?-pinene, ?-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) compounds as a function of variable light and temperature regimes for 6 different phytoplankton species will be discussed. The experiment was designed to simulate the regions where phytoplankton is subjected to changeable light/temperature conditions. The samples were grown and maintained at a climate controlled room. VOCs accumulated in the water and headspace above the water were measured by passing the sample through a gas chromatography/mass system equipped with a sample pre-concentrator allowing detection of low ppt levels of hydrocarbons. The VOC production rates were distinctly different for light/temperature stressed (the first 12 hour cycle at light/temperature levels higher than what the cultures were acclimated to in a climate controlled room) and photo/temperature-acclimated (the second 12 hour light/temperature cycle) states. In general, all phytoplankton species showed a rapid increase in isoprene and monoterpene production at higher light levels (between 150 to 420 ?E m-2 s-1) until a constant production rate was reached. Isoprene and ?-pinene, production rates also increased with temperature until a certain level, after which the rates declined as temperature increased further. Two modeling studies with the online emissions of marine isoprene/monoterpene and size-resolved marine primary organic aerosol have been carried out. The US EPA regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system was used to determine the impact of marine emissions on air quality, while the global-through-urban WRF/Chem model was applied to examine effect of ocean-derived trace gases and aerosols on chemistry-aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. With the isoprene reactions included in this study, the average contribution of marine isoprene to SOA and ozone (O3) concentrations is predicted to be small, up to 0.004 ?g m-3 for SOA and 0.2 ppb for O3 in coastal urban areas. When marine primary organic emissions are included, PM2.5 levels can be increased by 0.1-0.3 ?g m-3 (up to 5%) in some coastal cities such as San Francisco, CA. Regionally, marine organics (primary and secondary) can cause up to 20% increase in surface cloud condensation nuclei concentration. Global effects on cloud droplet number and indirect forcing are predicted to be small, less than 1 cm-3 and -0.1 W m-2, respectively.

Meskhidze, N.; Gantt, B.

2013-12-01

362

Primordial organic chemistry and the origin of life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspects of Darwinian revolution are discussed together with spontaneous generation, the inorganic chemical evolution, the primitive atmosphere, and interstellar matter. The significance of the change of the earth's reducing atmosphere to an atmosphere with oxidizing characteristics is considered. Experiments regarding the abiogenic synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins are reported. It was found that micromolecules can be formed in simulation experiments. The condensation reaction taking place in the presence of water was studied together with the condensation reaction taking place in the relative absence of water or under hypohydrous conditions. Jupiter simulation studies were conducted, and lunar and meteorite material was analyzed.

Ponnamperuma, C.

1971-01-01

363

Tholins - Organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses tholins, defined as complex organic solids formed by the interaction of energy - for example, UV light or spark discharge - with various mixtures of cosmically abundant gases - CH4, C2H6, NH3, H2O, HCHO, and H2S. It is suggested that tholins occur in the interstellar medium and are responsible for some of the properties of the interstellar

Carl Sagan; B. N. Khare

1979-01-01

364

Shock-induced chemistry in simple organic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrogating chemical reactions behind a shock front is immensely difficult, and as a result, the details of shock-induced chemistry remain poorly understood. Shock compression creates transient distorted structures from which molecular reactions initiate. Previous works have reported that dimerizations, polymerizations, ring-opening and decomposition reactions occur under shock compression, depending on molecular structure. Certainly for explosives, exothermic decomposition reactions ultimately drive self-supported detonation. Questions regarding the thresholds for incipient reaction for different chemical functional groups, the nature of first and subsequent reaction steps, and the influence of shock input conditions on reaction kinetics remain to be answered. Evidence of reaction can be discerned from discontinuities in the mechanical variables for reactions with a change in density along the reaction coordinate, similar to first-order phase transformations. Here, we have applied in-situ electromagnetic gauging at multiple Lagrangian positions to elucidate the evolution of multiple-wave structures associated with shock-induced reactions. We have applied in-situ gauging, in concert with reactive molecular dynamic simulations, to investigate shock-reactivity of several simple functional groups: carbon-carbon double (-C=C-) and triple bonds, and nitriles (e.g. phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile), and aromatic ring structures (benzene), all building blocks for explosives. From measurements of the reactive flow, we have obtained detailed information about the temporal evolution of the waves, and global kinetics associated with transformation(s) between partially- and fully-reacted states. Near the reactive threshold, evolution in particle velocities point to reaction timescales on the order of several hundred nanoseconds. We have defined the reactive cusp Hugoniot states, and established the relative order of group reactivity under single shock conditions. These observations will be compared with reactions from the solid phase under static high pressure/temperature conditions, with a description of crystalline phase, and identification of polymerized products by in-situ x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2011-06-01

365

Atmospheric Organic Aerosols: Their Role as Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Sites for Heterogeneous Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given recent findings that a large component of tropospheric aerosols are composed of organic materials, this talk will focus on a number of detailed laboratory studies that are assessing the chemical role that selected organics may play in the atmosphere. There will be two general topics. In the first, the role of organic aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), i.e. the sites for cloud droplet nucleation, will be examined systematically by investigating the impact that organic solubility and surface tension have on the activation process. Particular attention will be given to the dramatic enhancement in CCN activity observed when trace soluble and surface active species are present alongside sparingly soluble organics. The second half of the talk will address whether organic aerosols can act as sites for the promotion of gas-particle heterogeneous chemistry, i.e. chemistry that is known to be prevalent for inorganic aerosols. In this regard, a detailed study of the hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide has been performed on water soluble organic aerosols. The conversion of dinitrogen pentoxide over to less reactive nitrogen oxide species is one of the most important heterogeneous reactions in the troposphere and yet its rate has not been well studied on organic materials. Similarly, the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids by gas-phase ozone has been studied to determine the kinetics, reaction products and impact on CCN activity of such organics. For all these case studies, possible impacts on atmospheric processes will be discussed.

Abbatt, Jonathan

2004-03-01

366

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING VOL. 47, NO. 6, PP. 643660 (2010) Non-Mathematical Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Solving in Organic Chemistry David P. Cartrette, George M. Bodner Department of Chemistry, Purdue: Differences in problem-solving ability among organic chemistry graduate students and faculty were studied of participants' success. � 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 47: 643­660, 2010 Keywords:chemistry

Bodner, George M.

367

Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

2005-01-01

368

Computer Programs for Chemistry Experiments I and II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction includes nine laboratory experiments. All of the experiments are from the D.C. Health Revision of the Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) with one exception. Program six is the lab from the original version of the CHEMS program. Each program consists of three parts (1) the lab and computer hints, (2) the description…

Reynard, Dale C.

369

Demystifying the Chemistry Literature: Building Information Literacy in First-Year Chemistry Students through Student-Centered Learning and Experiment Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes curriculum modules developed for first-year general chemistry laboratory courses that use scientific literature and creative experiment design to build information literacy in a student-centered learning environment. Two curriculum units are discussed: Exploring Scientific Literature and Design Your Own General Chemistry

Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.

2015-01-01

370

The Reaction Rolodex; A Web-Based System for Learning Reactions in Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web-based system of note cards has been developed to aid students in learning the vast number of reactions encountered in organic chemistry. A thorough knowledge of these reactions is essential for success in first- and second-semester organic chemistry courses. The reactions are organized by functional group and can be chosen from a menu at the left side of the Web page. Once a particular reaction has been selected, the main frame displays the reactant(s) and reagent(s) along with a question mark in place of the product. After considering the reaction as long as needed, the user can click the question mark to reveal the reaction product. Clicking the product will again hide the answer and regenerate the question mark so that the reaction can be practiced again. Selecting other reactions from the menu on the left allows them to be practiced in the same manner.

371

Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

2010-01-01

372

Ordered vacancies and their chemistry in metal-organic frameworks.  

PubMed

Vacancies are common in solid materials, but it remains a challenge to introduce them at specific locations with controlled distributions. Here we report the creation of ordered metal vacancies and linker vacancies in a cubic metal-organic framework (MOF) based on Zn(II) and pyrazolecarboxylic acid by removing a quarter of the metal ions and half of the linkers. The MOF with ordered vacancies shows increased pore size, thus allowing large dye molecules to fit in the pores. Furthermore, by filling the vacancies with new metals and new linkers, eight new single-crystalline MOFs with multicomponents in absolute order are introduced. The capability of performing stepwise elimination and addition reactions systematically in extended solids without destroying the structural integrity has generated complex MOF structures which otherwise cannot be made. PMID:25229624

Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Wu, Doufeng; Song, Yuna; Weng, Linhong; Li, Qiaowei

2014-10-15

373

50-Minute Experiment: Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists equipment and materials needed and procedures for analyzing soil, in which secondary school students experience practical applications to acid-base reactions, pH, oxidation-reduction, precipitation and solubility. (CS)

Baruch, Gerard, Ed.; And Others

1980-01-01

374

Fluorescent labels for in situ wet chemistry experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate a wide selection of dyes and suggest a panel that would be the most likely to succeed in a simple flight instrument with a single excitation laser. We also investigate fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots as additions to or replacements for these organic dyes.

Kloepfer, J. A.; Nadeau, J. L.

2003-01-01

375

Eliciting Metacognitive Experiences and Reflection in a Year 11 Chemistry Classroom: An Activity Theory Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.

Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

2013-06-01

376

Planetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space exposure  

E-print Network

) on the EXPOSE facility on the International Space Station (ISS). For the small fluence that was collected during; International Space Station; Photo-stability 1. Introduction Carbon chemistry in space occurs most efficientlyPlanetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 383­400 The ORGANICS experiment on BIOPAN V: UV and space

377

Chemical insights, explicit chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol from methylglyoxal and glyoxal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospherically abundant, volatile water soluble organic compounds formed through gas phase chemistry (e.g., glyoxal (C2), methylglyoxal (C3) and acetic acid) have great potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via aqueous chemistry in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols. This paper (1) provides chemical insights into aqueous-phase OH radical-initiated reactions leading to SOA formation from methylglyoxal and (2) uses this and a previously published glyoxal mechanism (Lim et al., 2010) to provide SOA yields for use in chemical transport models. Detailed reaction mechanisms including peroxy radical chemistry and a full kinetic model for aqueous photochemistry of acetic acid and methylglyoxal are developed and validated by comparing simulations with the experimental results from previous studies (Tan et al., 2010, 2012). This new methylglyoxal model is then combined with the previous glyoxal model (Lim et al., 2010), and is used to simulate the profiles of products and to estimate SOA yields. At cloud relevant concentrations (∼ 10-6-∼ 10-3 M; Munger et al., 1995) of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the major photooxidation products are oxalic acid and pyruvic acid, and simulated SOA yields (by mass) are ∼ 120% for glyoxal and ∼ 80% for methylglyoxal. Oligomerization of unreacted aldehydes during droplet evaporation could enhance yields. In wet aerosols, where total dissolved organics are present at much higher concentrations (∼ 10 M), the major products are oligomers formed via organic radical-radical reactions, and simulated SOA yields (by mass) are ∼ 90% for both glyoxal and methylglyoxal.

Lim, Y. B.; Tan, Y.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-02-01

378

Electrochemistry in a Nutshell: A General Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment uses a nine-chambered plexiglas unit to facilitate rapid construction of galvanic cells and measurement of cell voltage. Using this procedure, a pair of students can construct and obtain the cell voltages of two precipitation cells, three concentration cells, and six redox cells in 30-40 minutes. (BB)

Baca, Glenn; Lewis, Dennis A.

1978-01-01

379

Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1988-01-01

380

Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM): Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural organic matter (NOM) is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Because of their universality and chemical reversibility, oxidation/reductions (redox) reactions of NOM have an especially interesting and important role in geochemistry. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM-mediated redox reactions are only partially understood. This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions. In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples.

MacAlady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

2011-01-01

381

Syllabus for Organic Chemistry CHEM 220, Summer 2013 Lectures: M, T, W, T, F: 9:30-10:30 a.m. ROOMS: TBA  

E-print Network

Syllabus for Organic Chemistry CHEM 220, Summer 2013 Lectures: M, T, W, T, F: 9:30-10:30 a.m. ROOMS 103SCL, 203-432-5914; christine.dimeglio@yale.edu Textbook: Wade, L.G. Organic Chemistry. 8 th ed Molecules as an example) Organic Chemistry as a Second Language; David Klein, ISBN-13: 978

382

Overview of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project conducted a 7-week field campaign during May and June 2012 to study thunderstorm dynamical, physical, and electrical characteristics, as well as their effects on the atmosphere's composition, especially ozone and particles in the climate-sensitive upper troposphere near the thunderstorm tops. The NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) and the NASA DC-8 aircraft flew 17 coordinated flights to sample low-level inflow and upper troposphere outflow air near thunderstorms and to sample convective outflow air as it chemically aged during the next 24 hours. The DLR Falcon aircraft observed the fresh storm outflow and also obtained measurements of aged outflow. In total, 19 cases of active thunderstorms and over 6 cases of photochemical aging were flown. The DC3 aircraft, based in Salina, Kansas, were equipped with instruments to measure a variety of gases, aerosols, and cloud particle characteristics in situ as well as the NASA DC-8 measuring the ozone and aerosol distribution by lidar. The aircraft targeted storms predicted to occur within range of coverage by ground-based radar pairs, lightning mapping arrays (LMAs), and frequent launches of balloon-borne instruments that could measure the storm's physical, kinematic, and lightning characteristics. This coverage occurred in three regions: 1) northeastern Colorado, 2) central Oklahoma to western Texas, and 3) northern Alabama. DC3 demonstrated that it is possible to sample with two aircraft the inflow and outflow of storms, which were simultaneously sampled by the ground radars, LMAs, and soundings. The DC3 data set is extensive and rich. This presentation will summarize the overall statistics of the DC3 measurements giving a general idea of storm characteristics, transport of trace gases, and photochemical aging of species. Examples will be given of specific thunderstorm cases, including a Colorado case where a biomass-burning plume was ingested by a storm, and of sampling a thunderstorm, forecasting the location of the convective outflow plume the next day, and sampling the Day 2 convective outflow. In addition, the photochemical aging of convective outflow air from a decaying Mesoscale Convective System will be highlighted.

Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Flocke, F. M.; Huntrieser, H.

2012-12-01

383

Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

2007-01-01

384

A Multi-Technique Forensic Experiment for a Nonscience-Major Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multi-technique experiment with a forensic theme was developed for a nonscience-major chemistry course. The students are provided with solid samples and informed that the samples are either cocaine or a combination of drugs designed to mimic the stimulant and anesthetic qualities of cocaine such as caffeine and lidocaine. The students carry…

Szalay, Paul S.; Zook-Gerdau, Lois Anne; Schurter, Eric J.

2011-01-01

385

Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments to Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The browser-based software program, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) developed by the Molecular Science Project enables instructors to create structured writing assignments in which students learn by writing and reading for content. Though the CPR project covers only one experiment in general chemistry, it might provide lab instructors with a method…

Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin

2007-01-01

386

An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

2007-01-01

387

An Attenuated Total Reflectance Sensor for Copper: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sensor experiment which can be applied to advanced undergraduate laboratory course in physical or analytical chemistry is described along with certain concepts like the demonstration of chemical sensing, preparation of thin films on a substrate, microtitration, optical determination of complex ion stoichiometry and isosbestic point. It is seen…

Shtoyko, Tanya; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Richardson, John N.

2004-01-01

388

Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

2011-01-01

389

Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

2012-01-01

390

A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

Prigodich, Richard V.

2014-01-01

391

Suitable Class Experiments in Biochemistry for High-school Chemistry and Biology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the scope of experimental investigations for biochemistry education in high school biology and chemistry courses. Gives a brief overview of biochemistry experiments with proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins, metabolism, electron transport, and photosynthesis including materials, procedures, and outcomes.…

Myers, A.

1987-01-01

392

An Environmental Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Radon Levels in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a radiation experiment developed to complement a new environmental chemistry laboratory curriculum. A scintillation counter is used to measure radon in water. The procedure relies on the fact that toluene will preferentially extract radon from water. Sample preparation is complete in less than 90 minutes. Because the level of…

Welch, Lawrence E.; Mossman, Daniel M.

1994-01-01

393

Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

2009-01-01

394

Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects. PMID:19906673

Staley, Joanna T.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W.; Wright, Denis J.; Leather, Simon R.; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T.; van Emden, Helmut F.; Poppy, Guy M.

2010-01-01

395

The Proceedings of the 53rd International Meeting of Physical Chemistry Organic Coatings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings represent papers presented at the 53rd international meeting on physical chemistry held in Paris. The main topics discussed include theoretical and experimental aspects of adhesion, electrochemical techniques, plasma techniques, spin{minus}coating, coil{minus}coating, organosilane grafting and other techniques of film deposition, physicochemical characterization of films and interfaces and applications of organic coatings. There were 58 papers presented and all have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

Lacaze, P. [Institut de Topologie et de Dynamique des Systemes de l`Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, associe au CNRS,1,rue Guy de la Brosse, 75005 Paris (France)

1996-07-01

396

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These sites willhelp you gain greater understanding of Chemistry! Weather is also available Three areas to be on the test. STUDY HARD!!!! Equations Types of Equations Types of Equations text/htmlMichigan Teacher Network Matter Density of solids Density of solids text/htmlICSD ScienceZone Metals Kidneys and Metals Problem Set Kidneys and Metals Problem Set image/tiffCenter for Digital Curriculum Research POTENTIAL SURROGATE METALS FOR INCINERATOR TRIAL BURNS POTENTIAL SURROGATE METALS FOR INCINERATOR TRIAL BURNS text/html Let it snow Interactive Weather Maker Interactive Weather Maker urlexample ...

Riley

2006-04-22

397

Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

2013-01-01

398

Organic Laboratory Experiments: Micro vs. Conventional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents relevant statistics accumulated in a fall organic laboratory course. Discusses laboratory equipment setup to lower the amount of waste. Notes decreased solid wastes were produced compared to the previous semester. (MVL)

Chloupek-McGough, Marge

1989-01-01

399

Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

Scot Martin

2013-01-31

400

A Need to Reassess Physical-Organic Curricula: A Course Enhancement Using Readily Available Quantum Chemistry Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a graduate-level course in physical-organic chemistry in which students learn to solve problems using computer programs available through the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange. Includes condensed syllabus and time line showing where various computational programs are introduced. (Author/JN)

Lipkowitz, Kenny B.

1982-01-01

401

What Can We Do about "Parker"? A Case Study of a Good Student Who Didn't "Get" Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a qualitative study of seven students enrolled in a two-semester organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors that focused on the reasoning the students had used to answer questions on the course exams. Narrative analysis was applied to create case records for each participant that were then…

Anderson, Trisha L.; Bodner, George M.

2008-01-01

402

Organic Aerosol Formation in the Humid, Photochemically-Active Southeastern US: SOAS Experiments and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized low volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light absorbing (brown) carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, health, and the environment. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols) leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ). Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify other precursors that are atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere at Brent, Alabama during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Four mist chambers in parallel collected ambient gases in a DI water medium at 20-25 LPM with a 4 hr collection time. Total organic carbon (TOC) values in daily composited samples were 64-180 ?M. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments were conducted with these mixtures in a newly designed cuvette chamber to understand the formation of SOA through gas followed by aqueous chemistry. OH radicals (3.5E-2 ?M [OH] s-1) were formed in-situ in the chamber, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Precursors and products of these aqueous OH experiments were characterized using ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. ESI-MS results from a June 12th, 2013 sample showed precursors to be primarily odd, positive mode ions, indicative of the presence of non-nitrogen containing alcohols, aldehydes, organic peroxides, or epoxides. Products were seen in the negative mode and included organic acid ions like pyruvate and oxalate. The results from this study will be used to better understand aqueous chemistry in clouds/fogs and to identify precursors for laboratory study of wet aerosol, fog, and cloud chemistry.

Sareen, N.; Lim, Y. B.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.

2013-12-01

403

Faculty Positions in Organic Synthesis The Department of Chemistry at University at Albany, State University of New York  

E-print Network

Faculty Positions in Organic Synthesis The Department of Chemistry at University at Albany, State ORGANIC CHEMISTS to join our newly established Institute of Neurodegenerative Disease Research. Our goal of whom form a highly interactive, collegial, and supportive group. Broadly trained SYNTHETIC ORGANIC

Linsley, Braddock K.

404

ELSEVIER Marine Chemistry 51 (1995) 201-212 Mineralization of dissolved organic carbon in the Sargasso Sea  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Marine Chemistry 51 (1995) 201-212 Mineralization of dissolved organic carbon Abstract The lability of dissolved organic carbon was estimated in the Sargasso Sea. Rates of DOC heterotrophy in the Sargasso Sea. 1. Introduction Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the largest reservoir

Hansell, Dennis

405

The Chemistry of Cocaine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study on the chemistry of cocaine is in the form of a classroom discussion between a professor and her students about cocaine, its addictive properties, a search for an addiction treatment, and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of cocaine in its various forms. The case can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. In addition, it provides students with experience in locating, reading, and analyzing a research paper.  The case was designed for the second course in a two-course sequence in undergraduate organic chemistry, but it could be adapted for medicinal chemistry classes.

Brahmadeo Dewprashad

2010-01-01

406

Lean Production: Experience among Australian Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the findings of a study which investigated the adoption of lean production methods in Australian manufacturing industry. Data were gathered through a telephone survey from 51 companies representing a range of industry sectors. The study found that a large majority of the companies were practising lean production methods. Discusses the organizational changes which had occurred in the organizations as

Amrik S. Sohal; Adrian Egglestone

1994-01-01

407

Seasonal Carbonate Chemistry Covariation with Temperature, Oxygen, and Salinity in a Fjord Estuary: Implications for the Design of Ocean Acidification Experiments  

PubMed Central

Carbonate chemistry variability is often poorly characterized in coastal regions and patterns of covariation with other biologically important variables such as temperature, oxygen concentration, and salinity are rarely evaluated. This absence of information hampers the design and interpretation of ocean acidification experiments that aim to characterize biological responses to future pCO2 levels relative to contemporary conditions. Here, we analyzed a large carbonate chemistry data set from Puget Sound, a fjord estuary on the U.S. west coast, and included measurements from three seasons (winter, summer, and fall). pCO2 exceeded the 2008–2011 mean atmospheric level (392 µatm) at all depths and seasons sampled except for the near-surface waters (< 10 m) in the summer. Further, undersaturated conditions with respect to the biogenic carbonate mineral aragonite were widespread (?ar<1). We show that pCO2 values were relatively uniform throughout the water column and across regions in winter, enriched in subsurface waters in summer, and in the fall some values exceeded 2500 µatm in near-surface waters. Carbonate chemistry covaried to differing levels with temperature and oxygen depending primarily on season and secondarily on region. Salinity, which varied little (27 to 31), was weakly correlated with carbonate chemistry. We illustrate potential high-frequency changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature, and oxygen conditions experienced simultaneously by organisms in Puget Sound that undergo diel vertical migrations under present-day conditions. We used simple calculations to estimate future pCO2 and ?ar values experienced by diel vertical migrators based on an increase in atmospheric CO2. Given the potential for non-linear interactions between pCO2 and other abiotic variables on physiological and ecological processes, our results provide a basis for identifying control conditions in ocean acidification experiments for this region, but also highlight the wide range of carbonate chemistry conditions organisms may currently experience in this and similar coastal ecosystems. PMID:24586915

Reum, Jonathan C. P.; Alin, Simone R.; Feely, Richard A.; Newton, Jan; Warner, Mark; McElhany, Paul

2014-01-01

408

From the interstellar clouds, through the inner to the outer solar system: a universally distributed complex organic chemistry. Preface.  

PubMed

High molecular weight organic compounds are involved in the chemistry and physics of many astrophysical and planetary objects. They are or should be present in interstellar dust, in comets and meteorites, in the Giant planets and Titan, in asteroids Triton and icy satellites. They represent a class of very complex organic material, part of which may have played a role in the origin of life on Earth. Thus they directly concern prebiotic chemistry and exobiology. PMID:11541344

Raulin, F; Greenberg, J M

1997-01-01

409

Thalidomide Makes a Comeback: A Case Discussion Exercise That Integrates Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The case discussion method, which involves teaching scientific theory in a framework that students can relate to their own world, is an interdisciplinary pedagogical tool. Therefore, case study exercises can be used to integrate biochemistry with other advanced chemistry courses. The case presented here can be used at the end of a second-semester organic chemistry course or in an introductory biochemistry course. The case is a fact-based, fictional story in which an FDA official must decide whether to carry out the agency's threat to shut down several buyers clubs that import thalidomide from overseas and dispense it to their members for the treatment of AIDS. Students are required to read the body of the case, analyze data, and search for information using limited leads. Using well-considered arguments based on their research, they are asked to come to conclusions about how the element of risk involved in thalidomide distribution is assessed. They apply their knowledge of biochemistry to assess how thalidomide acts at the cellular level and they apply their knowledge of organic chemistry in writing mechanisms of thalidomide hydrolysis and in the design of thalidomide analogs. Students are assessed on their ability to work in groups, to critically analyze scientific data, and to develop public policies based on risk-benefit analysis.

Bennett, Nicole; Cornely, Kathleen

2001-06-01

410

New Insights into Titan's Organic Chemistry in the Gas and Aerosol Phases . This paper is dedicated to Paul Bruston who so suddenly passed away on October 3, 1998  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, with a dense atmosphere very rich in organics, and many couplings in the various parts of its ``geofluid'', is a reference for studying prebiotic chemistry on a planetary scale. New data have been obtained from experiments simulating this organic chemistry (gas and aerosol phases), within the right ranges of temperature and a careful avoiding of any chemical contamination. They show a very good agreement with the observational data, demonstrating for the first time the formation of all the organic species already detected in Titan atmosphere including, at last, C4N2, together with many other species not yet detected in Titan. This strongly suggests the presence of more complex organics in Titan's atmosphere and surface, including high molecular weight polyynes and cyanopolyynes. The NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission has been successfully launched in October 1997. The Cassini spacecraft will reach the Saturn system in 2004 and become an orbiter around Saturn, while the Huygens probe will penetrate into Titan's atmosphere. In situ measurements, in particular from Huygens GC-MS and ACP instruments, will provide a detailed analysis of the organics present in the air, aerosols, and surface. This very ambitious mission should yield much information of crucial importance for our knowledge of the complexity of Titan's chemistry, and, more generally for the field of exobiology

Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Smith, N.; Bénilan, Y.; Bruston, P.; Gazeau, M.-C.

1999-01-01

411

"Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

Field, Kurt W.; And Others

1979-01-01

412

Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of organic aerosols (OA) in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3-10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25) not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15-20 ug m-3, and SOA peaking at 10-15 ?g m-3 during mid-day. The majority (> 75%) of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by *- hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, B.; Baker, A.; Camredon, M.; Hodzic, Alma; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, Eric; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-12-21

413

The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.  

PubMed

The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations. PMID:22680688

Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André

2012-05-01

414

Projectile compositions and modal frequencies on the chemistry of micrometeoroids LDEF experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids Experiment (LDEF instrument A0187-1) exposed witness plates of high-purity gold (greater than 99.99 percent Au) and commercial aluminum (greater than 99 percent Al) with the objective of analyzing the residues of cosmic-dust and orbital-debris particles associated with hypervelocity impact craters. The gold substrates were located approximately 8 deg off LDEF's trailing edge (Bay A03), while the

Ronald P. Bernhard; Thomas H. See; Friedrich Hoerz

1993-01-01

415

Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and (for NO2) an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation). In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the

T. Kerzenmacher; M. A. Wolff; K. Strong; E. Dupuy; K. A. Walker; L. K. Amekudzi; R. L. Batchelor; P. F. Bernath; G. Berthet; T. Blumenstock; C. D. Boone; K. Bramstedt; C. Brogniez; S. Brohede; J. P. Burrows; V. Catoire; J. Dodion; J. R. Drummond; D. G. Dufour; B. Funke; D. Fussen; F. Goutail; D. W. T. Griffith; C. S. Haley; F. Hendrick; M. Höpfner; N. Huret; N. Jones; J. Kar; I. Kramer; E. J. Llewellyn; M. López-Puertas; G. Manney; C. T. McElroy; C. A. McLinden; S. Mikuteit; D. Murtagh; F. Nichitiu; J. Notholt; C. Nowlan; C. Piccolo; J.-P. Pommereau; C. Randall; P. Raspollini; M. Ridolfi; A. Richter; M. Schneider; O. Schrems; M. Silicani; G. P. Stiller; J. Taylor; C. Tétard; M. Toohey; F. Vanhellemont; T. Warneke; J. M. Zawodny; J. Zou

2008-01-01

416

Bench Remarks: A Burner and a Beaker: Experiments for a First Day in a First Course in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a running commentary on a chemistry instructor's first day in a first course in chemistry. Focuses on the use of fire and chemists' attempts to explain this phenomenon. Provides the ongoing descriptions of the experiments, a summary of the observations, and the key comments made by the instructor. (TW)

Bent, Henry A.

1986-01-01

417

Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

2011-01-01

418

S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

Hart, Kathy, Ed.

419

The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an introductory organic chemistry lab in which students isolate rubber from the leaves of milkweed plants (Asclepias syriaca). Students isolated rubber with a recovery of 2.4 ± 1.8% and 1.8 ± 0.7% for the microscale and macroscale procedures, respectively. Infrared spectra of their products were compared with the spectrum of synthetic rubber, cis-polyisoprene. Students tested for elasticity of their product by twisting it on a spatula and pulling; all students found some degree of elasticity.

Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P.

2002-01-01

420

Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes--A Discovery Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in chemical kinetics as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum is described. Discovery Chemistry is a pedagogical philosophy that makes the laboratory the key center of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. Questions are posed in the pre-laboratory discussion and assessed using pooled…

Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P.

2008-01-01

421

A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry (by William S. Johnson)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This latest volume is the 20th in Jeff Seeman's projected 22-volume series of autobiographies of 20th-century organic chemists that began publication in 1990 (Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A21). Unfortunately, Johnson did not live to see this volume in print. Ted Bartlett and Ray Conrow reviewed the final manuscript, galleys, and page proofs; and Ted Bartlett, Paul Bartlett, John D. Roberts, and Gilbert Stork contributed an epilogue that complements Johnson's own words, adds a warm, personal final touch that he was unable to provide, and incorporates his final research into the volume. Born in New Rochelle, New York, on February 24, 1913, William Summer Johnson attended Amherst College with the aid of a scholarship and various odd jobs such as tending furnace, washing dishes, and playing saxophone in dance bands (he seriously considered becoming a professional musician). Here he became enamored with organic chemistry, which he taught as an instructor for a year after his graduation magna cum laude in 1936. He then worked with a fellowship under Louis Fieser, who sparked his interest in steroids, at Harvard University, from which he received his M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1940) degrees. In 1940 Johnson joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, where he rose through the ranks, eventually becoming Homer Adkins Professor of Chemistry (1954-60). He began the total synthesis of steroids, the main subject of his life's work, "which soon proved to be the hottest synthetic target of the time". In 1960 he accepted an invitation to become head of and to upgrade the Stanford University Chemistry Department. With faculty recruiting as his primary concern, he was able to add Carl Djerassi, Paul J. Flory, Harden M. McConnell, Henry Taube, and Eugene E. van Tamelen to the department, resulting in its spectacular rise from 15th to 5th place in the nation. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career, serving as department head for nine years. He died at the age of 82 on August 19, 1995. Johnson's book reads like a Who's Who of Organic Chemistry, with descriptions, impressions, and thumbnail sketches of such luminaries as Sir Robert Robinson, Robert B. Woodward, Gilbert Stork, Carl Djerassi, Derek Barton, John D. ("Jack") Roberts, and authors of other Profiles volumes. During his long and productive career, Johnson made many contributions to contemporary organic chemistry, the genesis and course of which he describes lucidly with extensive use of 110 structural formulas, 75 reaction schemes, and occasional laboratory notebook pages. Three hundred fifty-six graduate and undergraduate students, postdocs, and visiting professors (many of whom are shown in the 63 formal and informal photographs in the book) have worked with him through five and a half decades. In "Some Concluding Remarks about Our Research", Johnson states, "The reviewed research did not evolve from a master plan; indeed it was largely a matter of following one's nose and trying to look at things that related to areas that were regarded as important issues of the time." Johnson's intimate and revealing autobiography will not only appeal to synthetic organic chemists but will be of interest to both present and future generations of students and instructors of chemistry courses and the history of science as well as to all persons concerned with the human aspects of science.

Kauffman, Reviewed By George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

1999-12-01

422

Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular chemistry has developed a wide range of very powerful procedures for constructing ever more sophisticated molecules from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Beyond molecular chemistry lies supramolecular chemistry, which aims at developing highly complex chemical systems from components interacting via non-covalent intermolecular forces. By the appropriate manipulation of these interactions, supramolecular chemistry became progressively the chemistry of molecular information,

Jean-Marie Lehn

2004-01-01

423

Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of…

Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

2014-01-01

424

A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Niemeier, U.; Schmidt, H.; Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

2015-01-01

425

Pollution Prevention Plan for the Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization Off-Site Union Valley Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) Off-Site Union Valley Facility (Union Valley Facility) is managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, L.L.C. (B and W Y-12) through the Y-12 National Security Complex organization. Accordingly, the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program encompasses the operations conducted at the Union Valley Facility. The Y-12 Program is designed to fully comply with state, federal and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements concerning waste minimization/pollution prevention as documented in the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program Plan. The Program is formulated to reduce the generation and toxicity of all Y-12 wastes in all media, including those wastes generated by the Union Valley Facility operations. All regulatory and DOE requirements are met by the Y-12 Program Plan.

Jackson, J. G.

2010-03-01

426

Integration of Computational Chemistry into the Chemistry Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational chemistry has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington by incorporating laboratory experiments into six existing undergraduate chemistry courses and adding one new course. This initiative was sponsored by an ILI grant from the National Science Foundation, which provided computers and software. The existing courses affected by the curricular change include Introduction to Computer Applications and Chemical Literature, Organic Chemistry I and II, Advanced Techniques of Organic Chemistry, Biochemical Techniques and Instrumentation, and Medicinal Chemistry. The new course that has been added is Structural Chemistry and Computational Methodology. Experiments are described which integrate the use of molecular modeling for prediction with verification by laboratory experiment. The unifying theme we utilized is to couple computational predictions with experimental results as much as possible. We have attempted to teach computational chemistry as one of a number of tools available to chemists, rather than a separate field of endeavor. Preliminary evaluation of this initiative indicates that students enjoy visualizing models of chemical structures and that the incorporation of computational chemistry into the curriculum has increased their interest in chemistry.

Martin, Ned H.

1998-02-01

427

Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

Boot, C. M.

2012-12-01

428

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

429

The fate or organic matter during planetary accretion - Preliminary studies of the organic chemistry of experimentally shocked Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites during hypervelocity (1-2 km/sec) impacts is investigated using results of experiments in which three samples of the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite were shocked to 19, 20, and 36 GPa and analyzed by highly sensitive thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry (SALI). The thermal-desorptive SALI mass spectra of unshocked CM2 material revealed presence of indigenous aliphatic, aromatic, sulfur, and organosulfur compounds, and samples shocked to about 20 GPa showed little or no loss of organic matter. On the other hand, samples shocked to 36 GPa exhibited about 70 percent loss of organic material and a lower alkene/alkane ratio than did the starting material. The results suggest that it is unlikely that the indigenous organic matter in carbonaceous chondritelike planetesimals could have survived the impact on the earth in the later stages of earth's accretion.

Tingle, Tracy N.; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Becker, Christopher H.

1992-01-01

430

Molecular identification of organic compounds in atmospheric complex mixtures and relationship to atmospheric chemistry and sources.  

PubMed Central

This article describes a chemical characterization approach for complex organic compound mixtures associated with fine atmospheric particles of diameters less than 2.5 m (PM2.5). It relates molecular- and bulk-level chemical characteristics of the complex mixture to atmospheric chemistry and to emission sources. Overall, the analytical approach describes the organic complex mixtures in terms of a chemical mass balance (CMB). Here, the complex mixture is related to a bulk elemental measurement (total carbon) and is broken down systematically into functional groups and molecular compositions. The CMB and molecular-level information can be used to understand the sources of the atmospheric fine particles through conversion of chromatographic data and by incorporation into receptor-based CMB models. Once described and quantified within a mass balance framework, the chemical profiles for aerosol organic matter can be applied to existing air quality issues. Examples include understanding health effects of PM2.5 and defining and controlling key sources of anthropogenic fine particles. Overall, the organic aerosol compositional data provide chemical information needed for effective PM2.5 management. PMID:12634131

Mazurek, Monica A

2002-01-01

431

Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

1994-01-01

432

Introduction of water chemistry conditions of the secondary coolant circuit with metering organic amines at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from introduction of new water chemistry conditions involving metering of organic amines (morpholine and ethanolamine) at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are presented.

Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

2009-05-01

433

The Spontaneous Hydrolysis of Methyl Chloroformate: A Physical Chemistry Experiment for Teaching Techniques in Chemical Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory, the spontaneous hydrolysis of methyl chloroformate has the following attractive features: the reagent is inexpensive, and its stock solution in acetonitrile can be safely handled; the experiment requires very little preparation and can be carried out in a single 4-hour laboratory period; data acquisition can be performed either manually or with a microcomputer. The concentration of one of the reaction products, HCl, is determined either directly by pH measurement or indirectly by conductance measurement or by following the decrease in absorbance of the basic form of the indicator bromophenol blue. The present experiment is used to exemplify the scope and variety of techniques that can be employed for rate measurements and to demonstrate important features of first-order kinetics. These subjects are usually addressed in the specialized literature.

El Seoud, Omar A.; Takashima, Keiko

1998-12-01

434

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

435

Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations. An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid. The redox titration endpoint is determined by the first iodine excess that is complexed with starch, giving a deep blue-violet color. The results of the titration of iodine solution using ascorbic acid as a calibration standard were compared with the results acquired by the classic method using a standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was accurate and precise, with the advantages of saving time and avoiding mistakes due to solution preparation. The colorless ascorbic acid solution gives a very clear and sharp titration end point with starch. It was shown by thermogravimetric analysis that ascorbic acid can be dried at 393 K for 2 h without decomposition. This experiment allows general chemistry students to perform an iodometric titration during a single laboratory period, determining with precision the content of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulations.

Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

1999-10-01

436

Global tropospheric experiment at the Hong Kong Atmosphere Chemistry Measurement Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major activities of the Global Tropospheric Experiment at the Hong Kong Atmospheric Chemistry Measurement Station are presented for the period 1 January - 31 December 1995. Activities included data analysis, reduction, and archiving of atmospheric measurements and sampling. Sampling included O3, CO, SO2, NO, TSP, RSP, and ozone column density. A data archive was created for the surface meteorological data. Exploratory data analysis was performed, including examination of time series, frequency distributions, diurnal variations and correlation. The major results have been or will be published in scientific journals as well as presented at conferences/workshops. Abstracts are attached.

Carroll, Mary Ann; Wang, Tao

1995-01-01

437

1870 Current Organic Chemistry, 2010, 14, 1870-1882 1385-2728/10 $55.00+.00 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.  

E-print Network

1870 Current Organic Chemistry, 2010, 14, 1870-1882 1385-2728/10 $55.00+.00 © 2010 Bentham Science-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA 2 Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Department of Bioengineering synthetic chemistry because of poor substrate or product selectivity. This review highlights recent advances

Zhao, Huimin

438

Development and analysis of educational technologies for a blended organic chemistry course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blended courses incorporate elements of both face-to-face and online instruction. The extent to which blended courses are conducted online, and the proper role of the online components of blended courses, have been debated and may vary. What can be said in general, however, is that online tools for blended courses are typically culled together from a variety of sources, are often very large scale, and may present distractions for students that decrease their utility as teaching tools. Furthermore, large-scale educational technologies may not be amenable to rigorous, detailed study, limiting evaluation of their effectiveness. Small-scale educational technologies run from the instructor's own server have the potential to mitigate many of these issues. Such tools give the instructor or researcher direct access to all available data, facilitating detailed analysis of student use. Code modification is simple and rapid if errors arise, since code is stored where the instructor can easily access it. Finally, the design of a small-scale tool can target a very specific application. With these ideas in mind, this work describes several projects aimed at exploring the use of small-scale, web-based software in a blended organic chemistry course. A number of activities were developed and evaluated using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains survey, and data from the activities were analyzed using quantitative methods of statistics and social network analysis methods. Findings from this work suggest that small-scale educational technologies provide significant learning benefits for students of organic chemistry---with the important caveat that instructors must offer appropriate levels of technical and pedagogical support for students. Most notably, students reported significant learning gains from activities that included collaborative learning supported by novel online tools. For the particular context of organic chemistry, which has a unique semantic language (Lewis structures), the incorporation of shared video was a novel but important element of these activities. In fields for which mere text would not provide enough information in communications between students, video offers an appealing medium for student-student interaction.

Evans, Michael James

439

Sensitivity of cloud properties to organic carbon aerosol parameterization using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of organic carbon (OC) aerosol on clouds constitutes a main uncertainty in regional and global climate modeling. There is a need to distinguish between primary and secondary organic aerosols (i.e., POA and SOA) in parameterization schemes. Here we study the sensitivity of model calculated cloud properties on POA and SOA compounds and the corresponding radiative effects on climate. Clouds are represented with a two-moment microphysics scheme, which prognostically computes the droplet number concentration and mass, using an online aerosol module (GMXe) in the EMAC (ECHAM5 MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) model. Firstly, sensitivity tests with different settings of 1) OC fraction of the aerosol and 2) various effective hygroscopicity parameters are performed. Secondly, we evaluate several simulated cloud properties (cloud amount/distribution, cloud radiative effects) and the precipitation rate with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global level 3 cloud observations, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant system experiments (CERES EBAF) data, and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) daily precipitation data. Additionally, the global and seasonal patterns of these cloud properties are analyzed in view of the first and second indirect aerosol effects on climate.

Chang, D.; Tost, H.; Steil, B.; Lelieveld, J.; Pringle, K.

2011-12-01

440

Adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals: a few suggestions for prebiotic chemistry experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids and nucleic acid bases are very important for the living organisms. Thus, their protection from decomposition, selection, pre-concentration and formation of biopolymers are important issues for understanding the origin of life on the Earth. Minerals could have played all of these roles. This paper discusses several aspects involving the adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals under conditions that could have been found on the prebiotic Earth; in particular, we recommend the use of minerals, amino acids, nucleic acid bases and seawater ions in prebiotic chemistry experiments. Several experiments involving amino acids, nucleic acid bases, minerals and seawater ions are also suggested, including: (a) using well-characterized minerals and the standardization of the mineral synthesis methods; (b) using primary chondrite minerals (olivine, pyroxene, etc.) and clays modified with metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Mo, Zn, etc.); (c) determination of the possible products of decomposition due to interactions of amino acids and nucleic acid bases with minerals; (d) using minerals with more organophilic characteristics; (e) using seawaters with different concentrations of ions (i.e. Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2- and Cl-) (f) using non-protein amino acids (AIB, ?-ABA, ?-ABA, ?-ABA and ?-Ala and g) using nucleic acid bases other than adenine, thymine, uracil and cytosine. These experiments could be useful to clarify the role played by minerals in the origin of life on the Earth.

Zaia, Dimas A. M.

2012-10-01

441

Evaluation of modeled cloud chemistry mechanism against laboratory irradiation experiments: The HxOy/iron/carboxylic acid chemical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, cloud chemistry models are including more detailed and explicit multiphase mechanisms based on laboratory experiments that determine such values as kinetic constants, stability constants of complexes and hydration constants. However, these models are still subject to many uncertainties related to the aqueous chemical mechanism they used. Particularly, the role of oxidants such as iron and hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative capacity of the cloud aqueous phase has typically never been validated against laboratory experimental data. To fill this gap, we adapted the M2C2 model (Model of Multiphase Cloud Chemistry) to simulate irradiation experiments on synthetic aqueous solutions under controlled conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, light intensity) and for actual cloud water samples. Various chemical compounds that purportedly contribute to the oxidative budget in cloud water (i.e., iron, oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide: H2O2) were considered. Organic compounds (oxalic, formic and acetic acids) were taken into account as target species because they have the potential to form iron complexes and are good indicators of the oxidative capacity of the cloud aqueous phase via their oxidation in this medium. The range of concentrations for all of the chemical compounds evaluated was representative of in situ measurements. Numerical outputs were compared with experimental data that consisted of a time evolution of the concentrations of the target species. The chemical mechanism in the model describing the “oxidative engine” of the HxOy/iron (HxOy = H2O2, HO2rad /O2rad - and HOrad ) chemical system was consistent with laboratory measurements. Thus, the degradation of the carboxylic acids evaluated was closely reproduced by the model. However, photolysis of the Fe(C2O4)+ complex needs to be considered in cloud chemistry models for polluted conditions (i.e., acidic pH) to correctly reproduce oxalic acid degradation. We also show that iron and formic acid lead to a stable complex whose photoreactivity has currently not been investigated. The updated aqueous chemical mechanism was compared with data from irradiation experiments using natural cloud water. The new reactions considered in the model (i.e., iron complex formation with oxalic and formic acids) correctly reproduced the experimental observations.

Long, Yoann; Charbouillot, Tiffany; Brigante, Marcello; Mailhot, Gilles; Delort, Anne-Marie; Chaumerliac, Nadine; Deguillaume, Laurent

2013-10-01

442

Modular Thiol-Ene Chemistry Approach towards Mesoporous Silica Monoliths with Organically Modified Pore Walls.  

PubMed

The surface modification of mesoporous silica monoliths through thiol-ene chemistry is reported. First, mesoporous silica monoliths with vinyl, allyl, and thiol groups were synthesized through a sol-gel hydrolysis-polycondensation reaction from tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and vinyltriethoxysilane, allyltriethoxysilane, and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, respectively. By variation of the molar ratio of the comonomers TMOS and functional silane, mesoporous silica objects containing different amounts of vinyl, allyl, and thiol groups were obtained. These intermediates can subsequently be derivatized through radical photoaddition reactions either with a thiol or an olefin, depending on the initial pore wall functionality, to yield silica monoliths with different pore-wall chemistries. Nitrogen sorption, small-angle X-ray scattering, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and redox titration demonstrate that the synthetic pathway influences the morphology and pore characteristics of the resulting monoliths and also plays a significant role in the efficiency of functionalization. Moreover, the different reactivity of the vinyl and allyl groups on the pore wall affects the addition reaction, and hence, the degree of the pore-wall functionalization. This report demonstrates that thiol-ene photoaddition reactions are a versatile platform for the generation of a large variety of organically modified silica monoliths with different pore surfaces. PMID:25335454

Göbel, Ronald; Hesemann, Peter; Friedrich, Alwin; Rothe, Regina; Schlaad, Helmut; Taubert, Andreas

2014-12-22

443

Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana

2012-01-01

444

Dear Colleague Letter on Cyber-Enabled Chemistry  

NSF Publications Database

... to the Division of Chemistry relevant to cyber-enabled chemistry Dear Colleague: The National ... Chemistry; Inorganic, Bioinorganic & Organometallic Chemistry; Organic & Macromolecular Chemistry ...

445

Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers in Tissue Culture Flasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclose. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

446

Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise integrates the infrared unknown identification ("IR-ID") experiment common to most organic laboratory syllabi with computer molecular modeling. In this modification students are still required to identify unknown compounds from their IR spectra, but must additionally match some of the absorptions with computed frequencies they…

Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E.

2007-01-01

447

Green Chemistry Decision-Making in an Upper-Level Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-directed independent synthesis experiment was developed for a third-year undergraduate organic laboratory. Students were provided with the CAS numbers of starting and target compounds and devised a synthetic plan to be executed over two 4.5 h laboratory periods. They consulted the primary literature in order to develop and carry out an…

Edgar, Landon J. G.; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Golmakani, Mehrnaz; Dicks, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

448

Synthesis and Hydrogenation of Disubstituted Chalcones: A Guided-Inquiry Organic Chemistry Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided-inquiry experiments offer the same opportunities to participate in the process of science as classical organic qualitative analysis used to do. This three-week guided-inquiry project involves an aldol-dehydration synthesis of a chalcone chosen from a set of nine, followed by a catalytic transfer hydrogenation reaction using ammonium formate…

Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Schatz, Paul F.; Davidson, Tammy A.

2009-01-01

449

The impact of building recirculation rates on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous investigators have documented increases in the concentrations of airborne particles as a consequence of ozone\\/terpene reactions in indoor environments. This study examines the effect of building recirculation rates on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) resulting from reactions between indoor limonene and ozone. The experiments were conducted in a large environmental chamber using four recirculation rates (11, 14,

M. S. Zuraimi; C. J. Weschler; K. W. Tham; M. O. Fadeyi

2007-01-01

450

Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets.  

PubMed

The investigation of chemical evolution of bodies in our solar system has, in the past, included observations, theoretical modeling, and laboratory simulations. Of these programs, the last one has been the most criticized due to the inherent difficulties in accurately recreating alien environments in the laboratory. Processes such as wall reactions and changes in chemistry due to difficulties in achieving realistic conditions of temperature, pressure, composition, and energy flux may yield results which are not truly representative of the systems being modeled. However, many laboratory studies have been done which have yielded data useful in planetary science. Gross simulations of atmospheric chemistry have placed constraints on the nature of complex molecules expected in planetary atmospheres. More precise studies of specific chemical processes have provided information about the sources and properties of product gases and aerosols. Determinations of basic properties such as spectral features and reaction rate constants yield data useful in the interpretation of observations and in computational modeling. Alone, and in conjunction with modeling, laboratory experiments will continue to be used to further our understanding of the outer solar system, and some experiments that need to be done are listed. PMID:11538221

Scattergood, T W

1987-01-01

451

Content-related interactions and methods of reasoning within self-initiated organic chemistry study groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of content processing, and types of reasoning processes used by students within their groups. Our analysis showed that groups engaged in predominantly three types of interactions when discussing chemistry content: co-construction, teaching, and tutoring. Although each group engaged in each of these types of interactions at some point, their prevalence varied between groups and group members. Our analysis suggests that the types of interactions that were most common depended on the relative content knowledge of the group members as well as on the difficulty of the tasks in which they were engaged. Additionally, we were interested in characterizing the reasoning methods used by students within their study groups. We found that students used a combination of three content-relevant methods of reasoning: model-based reasoning, case-based reasoning, or rule-based reasoning, in conjunction with one chemically-irrelevant method of reasoning: symbol-based reasoning. The most common way for groups to reason was to use rules, whereas the least common way was for students to work from a model. In general, student reasoning correlated strongly to the subject matter to which students were paying attention, and was only weakly related to student interactions. Overall, results from this study may help instructors to construct appropriate tasks to guide what and how students study outside of the classroom. We found that students had a decidedly strategic approach in their study groups, relying heavily on material provided by their instructors, and using the reasoning strategies that resulted in the lowest levels of content processing. We suggest that instructors create more opportunities for students to explore model-based reasoning, and to create opportunities for students to be able to co-construct in a collaborative manner within the context of their organic chemistry course.

Christian, Karen Jeanne

2011-12-01

452

Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3CO·O2NO2, abbreviated as PAN) is a trace molecular species present in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due primarily to pollution from fuel combustion and the pyrogenic outflows from biomass burning. In the lower troposphere, PAN has a relatively short life-time and is principally destroyed within a few hours through thermolysis, but it can act as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the colder temperatures of the upper troposphere where UV photolysis becomes the dominant loss mechanism. Pyroconvective updrafts from large biomass burning events can inject PAN into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), providing a means for the long-range transport of NOx. Given the extended lifetimes at these higher altitudes, PAN is readily detectable via satellite remote sensing. A new PAN data product is now available for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) Version 3.0 data set. We report measurements of PAN in Boreal biomass burning plumes recorded during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) campaign. The retrieval method employed and errors analysis are described in full detail. The retrieved volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles are compared to coincident measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on the European Space Agency (ESA) ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT). Three ACE-FTS occultations containing measurements of Boreal biomass burning outflows, recorded during BORTAS, were identified as having coincident measurements with MIPAS. In each case, the MIPAS measurements demonstrated good agreement with the ACE-FTS VMR profiles for PAN. The ACE-FTS PAN data set is used to obtain zonal mean distributions of seasonal averages from ~5 to 20 km. A strong seasonality is clearly observed for PAN concentrations in the global UTLS. Since the principal source of PAN in the UTLS is due to lofted biomass burning emissions from the pyroconvective updrafts created by large fires, the observed seasonality in enhanced PAN coincides with fire activity in different geographical regions throughout the year. This work is part of an in-depth investigation that is being conducted in an effort to study the aging and chemical evolution of biomass burning emissions in the UTLS by remote, space-borne measurements made by ACE-FTS to further our understanding of the impact of pyrogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Included in this study will be the addition of new, pyrogenic, volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) to expand upon the already extensive suite of molecules retrieved by ACE-FTS to aid in elucidating biomass burning plume chemistry in the free troposphere.

Tereszchuk, K. A.; Moore, D. P.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Park, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Randel, W. J.; Bernath, P. F.

2013-01-01

453

Adhesion of bacterial pathogens to soil colloidal particles: influences of cell type, natural organic matter, and solution chemistry.  

PubMed

Bacterial adhesion to granular soil particles is well studied; however, pathogen interactions with naturally occurring colloidal particles (<2 ?m) in soil has not been investigated. This study was developed to identify the interaction mechanisms between model bacterial pathogens and soil colloids as a function of cell type, natural organic matter (NOM), and solution chemistry. Specifically, batch adhesion experiments were conducted using NOM-present, NOM-stripped soil colloids, Streptococcus suis SC05 and Escherichia coli WH09 over a wide range of solution pH (4.0-9.0) and ionic strength (IS, 1-100 mM KCl). Cell characterization techniques, Freundlich isotherm, and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory (sphere-sphere model) were utilized to quantitatively determine the interactions between cells and colloids. The adhesion coefficients (Kf) of S. suis SC05 to NOM-present and NOM-stripped soil colloids were significantly higher than E. coli WH09, respectively. Similarly, Kf values of S. suis SC05 and E. coli WH09 adhesion to NOM-stripped soil colloids were greater than those colloids with NOM-present, respectively, suggesting NOM inhibits bacterial adhesion. Cell adhesion to soil colloids declined with increasing pH and enhanced with rising IS (1-50 mM). Interaction energy calculations indicate these adhesion trends can be explained by DLVO-type forces, with S. suis SC05 and E. coli WH09 being weakly adhered in shallow secondary energy minima via polymer bridging and charge heterogeneity. S. suis SC05 adhesion decreased at higher IS 100 mM, which is attributed to the change of hydrophobic effect and steric repulsion resulted from the greater presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on S. suis SC05 surface as compared to E. coli WH09. Hence, pathogen adhesion to the colloidal material is determined by a combination of DLVO, charge heterogeneity, hydrophobic and polymer interactions as a function of solution chemistry. PMID:24495985

Zhao, Wenqiang; Walker, Sharon L; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

2014-04-15

454

Chemistry Gateways and Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemistry Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of chemistry-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources pertaining to many areas of the discipline - general chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and others - and intended for a wide range of audiences: educators and learners, the general public, and chemistry research communities.

2008-03-14

455

The Construction of Metal-Organic Framework with Active Backbones by the Utilization of Reticular Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the principles of reticular chemistry, metal-organic frameworks with ultra-high porosity, chiral-recognition unit as a chiral stationary phase, metalloporhyrins for enhanced hydrogen adsorption and an intrinsic conductivity to form porous conductors, have been prepared. This dissertation presents how the principles of reticular chemistry were utilized to achieve in the preparations of metal-organic frameworks with a large surface area and active backbones. Through the simple isoreticular (having the same framework topology) expansion from MOF-177 composed with 1,3,5-tris(4'-carboxyphenyl-)benzene (BTB3-) as the strut; MOF-200 was prepared with 4,4',4"-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzene-4,1-diy1))tribenzoic acid an extension from BTB3- by a phenylene unit to yield one of the most porous MOFs with a Langmuir surface area of 10,400 m2. and the lowest density of 0.22 cm3.g-1. A successful thermal polymerization reaction at 325 °C inside of the pores of highly porous MOF, MOF-177, was performed and verified the integrity of the MOF structure even after the thermal reaction. 1,4-Diphenylbutadiyne that is known to polymerize upon heating to form a conjugated backbone was impregnated via solution-diffusion into MOF-177 and then subsequently polymerized by heat to form polymer impregnated MOF-177. Characterization was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction and volumetric sorption analyzer. MOF-1020 with a linear quaterphenyl dicarboxylate-based strut was designed to contain a chiral bisbinaphthyl crown-ether moiety for alkyl ammonium resolution was precisely placed into a Zn4O(CO2)6-based cubic MOF structure. Unfortunately, the chiral resolution was not achieved due to the sensitivity and the pore environment of MOF-1020. However, an interesting phenomenon was observed, where the loss of crystallinity occurs upon solvent removal while the crystallites remain shiny and crystalline, but it readily is restored upon re-solvation of the crystallites. This rare phenomenon was studied by powder X-ray diffraction and supported by gas adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis. Layered MOFs with metalloporphyrins with Zn, Cu, Co and Fe at their +2 oxidation states as struts were prepared to facilitate non-structural metal sites and tested for hydrogen adsorption and the binding enthalpies. Steep uptakes are indeed observed, but rather due to the optimal interlayer distance of 9 A for dihydrogen, and the binding enthalpies are 6.7 -- 7.6 kJ . mo1-1 which are not ·extraordinary. Although the metals did not seem to play a large role, a trend was observed where the binding enthalpies increase as the metals in the metalloporphyrins go from late to early transition metals. With the concept of conductive metal oxides, a journey of constructing conductive MOFs was taken by attempting the formation of metal-carbon bonds by linking transition metal ions with conjugated organic struts which are 1,4-benzenediisonitrile, 1,4-benzenediethynylide and p-cyanophenylethynylide. Among the attempted systems, a reaction of Cr(III) and 1,4-benzenediethynylide yielded an amorphous material with a BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area of 80 m2.g-1, hydrogen uptake of 47 cm 3. g-1 and a resistance of 20 MO. Also a crystalline compound was prepared by mimicking Prussian blue by using p-cyanophenylethynylide where one end can bind metal with ethynylic carbon and the other end with the cyano nitrogen by following the similar synthesis of Prussian blue analogues. The principles of reticular chemistry are demonstrated through each chapter and show how powerful and beneficial reticular chemistry is by allowing the predetermination of the structure and function. The details of the ways to approach an ideal compound and the synthetic aspects are also described in this dissertation.

Choi, Eunwoo

456

Determination of Spin-Lattice Relaxation of Time Using (Super 13)C NMR: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.

Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni

2004-01-01

457

Characterization of High Explosives and Other Energetic Compounds by Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling: Experiments for Undergraduate Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments suited for the undergraduate instructional laboratory in which the heats of formation of several aliphatic and aromatic compounds are calculated, are described. The experiments could be used to introduce students to commercially available computational chemistry and its thermodynamics, while assess and compare the energy content of…

Bumpus, John A.; Lewis, Anne; Stotts, Corey; Cramer, Christopher J.

2007-01-01

458

Identification of Copper(II) Complexes in Aqueous Solution by Electron Spin Resonance: An Undergraduate Coordination Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment which examines, through electron spin resonance spectroscopy, complex species formed by cupric and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate ions in aqueous solutions. The experiment is illustrative of several aspects of inorganic and coordination chemistry, including the identification of species…

Micera, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

459

Investigations of Global Chemistry-Climate Interactions and Organic Aerosol Using Atmospheric Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol, or particulate matter (PM), is an important component of the atmosphere responsible for negative health impacts, environmental degradation, reductions in visibility, and climate change. In this work, the global chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, is used as a tool to examine chemistry-climate interactions and organic aerosols. GEOS-Chem is used to simulate present-day (year 2000) and future (year 2050) sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosols and investigate the potential effects of changes in climate and emissions on global budgets and U.S. air quality. Changes in a number of meteorological parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, are potentially important for aerosols and could lead to increases or decreases in PM concentrations. Although projected changes in sulfate and nitrate precursor emissions favor lower PM concentrations over the U.S., projected increases in ammonia emissions could result in higher nitrate concentrations. The organic aerosol simulation in GEOS-Chem is updated to include aerosol from primary semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS), intermediate volatility compounds (IVOCs), NOx dependent terpene aerosol, and aerosol from isoprene + NO3 reaction. SVOCs are identified as the largest global source of organic aerosol even though their atmospheric transformation is highly uncertain and emissions are probably underestimated. As a result of significant nighttime terpene emissions, fast reaction of monoterpenes with the nitrate radical, and high aerosol yields from NO3 oxidation, biogenic hydrocarbons reacting with the nitrate radical are expected to be a major contributor to surface level aerosol concentrations in anthropogenically influenced areas such as the United States. Globally, 69 to 88 Tg/yr of aerosol is predicted to be produced annually, approximately 22 to 24 Tg/yr of which is from biogenic hydrocarbons.

Pye, Havala Olson Taylor

460

Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

1982-01-01

461

The Cyclohexanol Cycle and Synthesis of Nylon 6,6: Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A one-term synthesis project that incorporates many of the principles of green chemistry is presented for the undergraduate organic laboratory. In this multistep scheme of reactions, students react, recycle, and ultimately convert cyclohexanol to nylon 6,6. The individual reactions in the project employ environmentally friendly methodologies, and…

Dintzner, Matthew R.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Pulkrabek, Kimberly; Arena, Anthony F.

2012-01-01

462

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthetic peptides with selective affinity for apoptotic cells  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthetic peptides with selective affinity of anionic phosphatidylserine (PS) in the outer monolayer of the plasma membrane is a universal indicator, or apoptosis, are used often in cell biology research and also in the drug discovery process. Various

Smith, Bradley D.

463

Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

2012-01-01

464

Validating the Use of Concept-Mapping as a Diagnostic Assessment Tool in Organic Chemistry: Implications for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has become a key focus in the U.S. government's public education agenda. Many STEM degrees require the successful completion of undergraduate introductory organic chemistry (O-Chem), which is notorious for its difficulty and high attrition rate. Concept Maps (CM) have been used as…

Lopez, Enrique; Kim, Jennifer; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Cardin, Nate; Shavelson, Richard J.; Penn, John H.

2011-01-01

465

Development and Implementation of a First-Semester Hybrid Organic Chemistry Course: Yielding Advantages for Educators and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A first-semester organic chemistry course was developed as a hybrid course. The students met face-to-face for one class each week (50 minutes) and the lectures were accessible online via Adobe Connect. Quizzes were scheduled for almost every lecture with access online through ANGEL. In addition, the students had three in-class tests and one final…

Ealy, Julie B.

2013-01-01

466

New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller's spark discharge experiments.  

PubMed

1953 was a banner year for biological chemistry: The double helix structure of DNA was published by Watson and Crick, Sanger's group announced the first amino acid sequence of a protein (insulin) and the synthesis of key biomolecules using simulated primordial Earth conditions has demonstrated by Miller. Miller's studies in particular transformed the study of the origin of life into a respectable field of inquiry and established the basis of prebiotic chemistry, a field of research that investigates how the components of life as we know it can be formed in a variety of cosmogeochemical environments. In this review, I cover the continued advances in prebiotic syntheses that Miller's pioneering work has inspired. The main focus is on recent state-of-the-art analyses carried out on archived samples of Miller's original experiments, some of which had never before been analyzed, discovered in his laboratory material just before his death in May 2007. One experiment utilized a reducing gas mixture and an apparatus configuration (referred to here as the "volcanic" apparatus) that could represent a water-rich volcanic eruption accompanied by lightning. Another included H(2)S as a component of the reducing gas mixture. Compared to the limited number of amino acids Miller identified, these new analyses have found that over 40 different amino acids and amines were synthesized, demonstrating the potential robust formation of important biologic compounds under possible cosmogeochemical conditions. These experiments are suggested to simulate long-lived volcanic island arc systems, an environment that could have provided a stable environment for some of the processes thought to be involved in chemical evolution and the origin of life. Some of the alternatives to the Miller-based prebiotic synthesis and the "primordial soup" paradigm are evaluated in the context of their relevance under plausible planetary conditions. PMID:23340907

Bada, Jeffrey L

2013-03-01

467

Cognitive Ability Experiment with Photosensitive Organic Molecular Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an optical experiment which permits us to evaluate the information exchange necessary to self-induce cooperatively a well-organized pattern in a randomly activated molecular assembly. A low-power coherent beam carrying polarization and wavelength information is used to organize a surface relief grating on a photochromic polymer thin film which is photoactivated by a powerful incoherent beam. We demonstrate experimentally that less than 1% of the molecules possessing information cooperatively transmit it to the entire photoactivated polymer film.

Barille, Régis; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Ortyl, Ewelina; Kucharski, Stanislaw; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

2006-07-01

468

Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The Li-O2 chemistry in nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes and the underneath reason of its limited reversibility was exhaustively investigated. The discharge products collected from the air cathode in a Li-O2 battery at different depth of discharge (DOD) were systematically analyzed with X-ray diffraction. It is revealed that, independent of the discharge depth, lithium alkylcarbonate (either lithium propylenedicarbonate - LPDC, or lithium ethylenedicarbonate - LEDC, with other related derivatives) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are always the main products, obviously originated from the electrolyte solvents propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC). These lithium alkylcarbonates are obviously generated from the single-electron reductive decomposition of the corresponding carbonate solvents initiated by the attack of superoxide radical anions. On the other hand, neither lithium peroxide (Li2O2) nor lithium oxide (Li2O) is detected. More significantly, from in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy it is found that Li2CO3 and Li2O cannot be oxidized even when charged up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+, while LPDC, LEDC and Li2O2 are readily able to, with CO2 and CO released with the re-oxidation of LPDC and LEDC. It is therefore concluded that the quasi-reversibility of Li-O2 chemistry observed hitherto in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte is actually reliant on the formation of lithium alkylcarbonates through the reductive decomposition of carbonate solvents during discharge process and the subsequent oxidation of these same alkylcarbonates during charge process. It is the poor oxidizability of these alkylcarbonate species that constitutes the obstruction to an ideal rechargeable Li-O2 battery.

Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-11-15

469

Quantum Chemistry in Nanoscale Environments: Insights on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Organic Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of molecular effects in nanoscale environments is becoming increasingly relevant for various emerging fields. These include spectroscopy for molecular identification as well as in finding molecules for energy harvesting. Theoretical quantum chemistry has been increasingly useful to address these phenomena to yield an understanding of these effects. In the first part of this dissertation, we study the chemical effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We use quantum chemistry simulations to study the metal-molecule interactions present in these systems. We find that the excitations that provide a chemical enhancement contain a mixed contribution from the metal and the molecule. Moreover, using atomistic studies we propose an additional source of enhancement, where a transition metal dopant surface could provide an additional enhancement. We also develop methods to study the electrostatic effects of molecules in metallic environments. We study the importance of image-charge effects, as well as field-bias to molecules interacting with perfect conductors. The atomistic modeling and the electrostatic approximation enable us to study the effects of the metal interacting with the molecule in a complementary fashion, which provides a better understanding of the complex effects present in SERS. In the second part of this dissertation, we present the Harvard Clean Energy Project, a high-throughput approach for a large-scale computational screening and design of organic photovoltaic materials. We create molecular libraries to search for candidates structures and use quantum chemistry, machine learning and cheminformatics methods to characterize these systems and find structure-property relations. The scale of this study requires an equally large computational resource. We rely on distributed volunteer computing to obtain these properties. In the third part of this dissertation we present our work related to the acceleration of electronic structure methods using graphics processing units. This hardware represents a change of paradigm with respect to the typical CPU device architectures. We accelerate the resolution-of-the-identity Moller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory algorithm using graphics cards. We also provide detailed tools to address memory and single-precision issues that these cards often present.

Olivares-Amaya, Roberto

470

Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments  

SciTech Connect

In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

2011-04-05

471

Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

Burns, Mary Sue

2001-01-01

472

The Molecular Modeling Workbook for Organic Chemistry (by Warren J. Hehre, Alan J. Shusterman, and Janet E. Nelson)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavefunction, Inc.: Irvine, CA, 1998. 307 pp. ISBN 1-890661-06-6. 30.00. This workbook is the latest in a series of "lab manuals" designed to increase the presence of molecular modeling and computational chemistry in undergraduate courses. The authors have designed the workbook to differ from its predecessors in two ways: the target audience is introductory organic chemistry students, and a CD-ROM containing files of molecules and data replaces the need for expensive molecular modeling software. It also differs from its predecessors in that the exercises in it are not really molecular modeling experiments. Instead, students are introduced to the field by viewing the results of computational work stored on the CD-ROM. The workbook is divided into 21 chapters, each of which covers a topic encountered in introductory-level organic chemistry. The sequence of chapters follows the sequence of topics that instructors of introductory organic courses might employ, allowing the workbook to be used with most modern organic chemistry texts. The heart of the workbook, though, is the CD-ROM included with the book. It contains files of molecules and their accompanying computational results as well as Spartan View, a software package that allows these models to be visualized. Although it does not allow actual calculations to be performed, Spartan View permits the user to rotate molecules, intermediates, and transition states and retrieve "precalculated" values of bond and dihedral angles, bond lengths, energies, dipole moments, charge, and frequency of vibration. Spartan View also allows the user to search molecules and intermediates for electron-rich or electron-poor regions by showing electrostatic potential as well as HOMOs and LUMOs. Some files allow for animation of reactions or conformational changes. Note, however, that since the data are just stored on the CD-ROM, not all the data are available for all files. Although performing calculations is not an option, Spartan View can be used to display models and data obtained using Spartan or MacSpartan and stored on a disk. In this way, student exercises can be customized by the instructor or the instructor can prepare customized examples for use in lecture. Each chapter in the workbook contains a series of 3 to 17 exercises that use models and associated data contained on the accompanying CD-ROM. The exercises are not simply cookbook procedures in which the student is directed how to solve a problem. Instead, the authors provide background in a two-part tutorial and several essays that describe the information that can be obtained through molecular modeling, and then introduce a problem in organic chemistry that can be addressed using molecular modeling. The student is left to determine how best to obtain the requested data. For example, an exercise in the chapter Acids & Bases directs the student to determine the atomic charges and view the electrostatic potential map of the conjugate bases of three organic acids. The student is not, however, told which menu to pull or button to push. At the end of the exercise, the student is directed to compare the reactivity of the acids with the data collected from Spartan View. The exercises are relatively easy to complete after spending a few minutes with the tutorials, and many require students to compare the results of calculations with the reactivity of the molecules as discussed in the traditional lecture portion of the course. In this sense, the workbook provides a meaningful link between molecular modeling exercises outside of class and activities in the classroom. While some exercises involve comparing the energies of intermediates or transition states, others are more like videos of processes. Instructors will find many of these to be useful as visual aids in lecture. Mechanisms of Ring Inversion, for example, allows the instructor to show the stepwise ring flip of cyclohexane. Although some of the animations are very similar to those contained on CD-ROMs that sometimes accompany textbooks, the exercises in this

Crouch, R. David

1999-09-01

473

The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry experiment (WCE). The WCE is the first application of electrochemical sensors to study soil chemistry on another planetary body, in addition to being the first measurement of soil/water solution properties on Mars. The chemical composition and properties of the watersoluble materials present in the Martian soil are of considerable interest to the planetary science community because characteristic salts are formed by the water-based weathering of rocks, the action of volcanic gases, and biological activity. Thus the characterization of water-soluble soil materials on Mars can provide information on the geochemical history of the planet surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Grannan, S. M.; Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, H.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K. S.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.

1999-01-01

474

Doing Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes over 150 chemistry experiments in the following areas: Atomic Structure, Bonding, Chemical Reactions, Colligative Properties, Condensed States, Electrochemistry, Equilibrium Gases, Instrumentation, Limiting Reactant and more.

Brooks, David W.

2010-05-25

475

Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

2008-01-01

476

Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

2012-01-01

477

First Global Observations of Atmospheric COCIF from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonyl chlorofluoride (COCIF) is an important reservoir of chlorine and fluorine in the Earth's atmosphere. Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of COCIF, obtained by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) for a time period spanning February 2004 through April 2007, have been used in a global distribution study. There is a strong source region for COCIF in the tropical stratosphere near 27 km. A layer of enhanced COCIF spans the low- to mid-stratosphere over all latitudes, with volume mixing ratios of 40-100 parts per trillion by volume, largest in the tropics and decreasing toward the poles. The COCIF volume mixing ratio profiles are nearly zonally symmetric, but they exhibit a small hemispheric asymmetry that likely arises from a hemispheric asymmetry in the parent molecule CCl3 F. Comparisons are made with a set of in situ stratospheric measurements from the mid-1980s and with predictions from a 2-D model.

Fu, Dejian; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Manney, Gloria L.; Walker, Kaley A.

2010-01-01

478

Two-dimensional atmospheric transport and chemistry model: numerical experiments with a new advection algorithm.  

PubMed

Extensive testing of the advective scheme, proposed by Prather (1986), has been carried out in support of the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory two-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere. We generalize the original scheme to include higher-order moments. In addition, we show how well the scheme works in the presence of chemistry as well as eddy diffusion. Six types of numerical experiments including simple clock motion and pure advection in two dimensions have been investigated in detail. By comparison with analytic solutions it is shown that the new algorithm can faithfully preserve concentration profiles, has essentially no numerical diffusion, and is superior to a typical fourth-order finite difference scheme. PMID:11538482

Shia, R L; Ha, Y L; Wen, J S; Yung, Y L

1990-05-20

479

Normal and Inverse Ferrite Spinels: A Set of Solid State Chemistry Related Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents one of the themes of a French chemistry college laboratory course, which concerns the field of solid state chemistry and is focused on the study of the cation distribution in the case of certain spinel ferrites. (HM)

Chaumont, C.; Burgard, M.

1979-01-01

480

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep + idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2014-05-01

481

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas-chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species, such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep+idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2013-09-01

482

Evaluation of the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model during the ICARTT/ITOP Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate the Meteo-France global chemistry transport 3D model MOCAGE (MOdele de Chimie Atmospherique a Grande Echelle) using the important set of aircraft measurements collected during the ICARRT/ITOP experiment. This experiment took place between US and Europe during summer 2004 (July 15-August 15). Four aircraft were involved in this experiment providing a wealth of chemical data in a large area including the North East of US and western Europe. The model outputs are compared to the following species of which concentration is measured by the aircraft: OH, H2O2, CO, NO, NO2, PAN, HNO3, isoprene, ethane, HCHO and O3. Moreover, to complete this evaluation at larger scale, we used also satellite data such as SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO. Interestingly, the comprehensive dataset allowed us to evaluate separately the model representation of emissions, transport and chemical processes. Using a daily emission source of biomass burning, we obtain a very good agreement for CO while the evaluation of NO2 points out incertainties resulting from inaccurate ratio of emission factors of NOx/CO. Moreover, the chemical behavior of O3 is satisfactory as discussed in the paper.

Bousserez, N.; Attie, J. L.; Peuch, V. H.; Michou, M.; Pfister, G.; Edwards, D.; Emmons, L.; Arnold, S.; Heckel, A.; Richter, A.; Shlager, H.; Lewis A.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Browell, E.; Ferrare, R.

2007-01-01

483

A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmospheric composition, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO2 year-1. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of two years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the significance of the impact of geoengineering and the abrupt termination after 50 years on climate and composition of the atmosphere in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input dataset is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Niemeier, U.; Schmidt, H.; Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

2014-08-01

484

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From the Heterogeneous Chemistry of Isoprene-Derived Epoxides: Implications for Air Quality, Climate and Public Health  

E-print Network

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From the Heterogeneous Chemistry of Isoprene- Derived Epoxides, the largest mass fraction of PM2.5 is organic, and is mostly dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA underestimate observations. By combining organic synthesis, computational calculations, mass spectrometry, smog

Lin, Qiao

485

Organic Chemistry Online: Building Collaborative Learning Communities through Electronic Communication Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do we make the undergraduate "large lecture" class seem like a small learning community? How can we utilize the new computer-mediated communication tools on the Internet to enhance communication and engage students in active learning? In this article, we report on the use of group research projects in an undergraduate course in organic chemistry to build small learning communities. Students engaged in group research projects via online resources and developed reports that were published online. They also worked together in groups to review the online reports of their peers. This work was facilitated by use of electronic media, including the course Web site, email, and an electronic discussion list. The resulting projects far exceeded our expectations. Students reported that the process of collaborative group work was beneficial for studying as well as for project work. Future plans include refinement of the research project assignment, development of an automated Web tool for reporting and calculating peer review scores, and refinement of the course evaluation tools.

Glaser, Rainer E.; Poole, Melissa J.

1999-05-01

486

Heterogeneous Chemistry of Glyoxal on Acidic Solutions. An Oligomerization Pathway for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous chemistry of glyoxal on sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated at various acid concentrations and temperatures, utilizing a low-pressure fast flow laminar reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS). The uptake coefficient (?) of glyoxal ranges from (1.2 ± 0.06) × 10(-2) to (2.5 ± 0.01) × 10(-3) for 60-93 wt % H2SO4 at 253-273 K. The effective Henry's Law constant (H*) ranges from (98.9 ± 4.9) × 10(5) to (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(5) M atm(-1) for 60-93 wt % at 263-273 K. Both the uptake coefficient and Henry's Law constant increase with decreasing acid concentration and temperature. Our results reveal a reaction mechanism of hydration followed by oligomerization for glyoxal on acidic media, indicating an efficient aqueous reaction of glyoxal on hygroscopic particles leading to secondary organic aerosol formation. PMID:25369518

Gomez, Mario E; Lin, Yun; Guo, Song; Zhang, Renyi

2014-11-20

487

Nucleic acid chemistry in the organic phase: from functionalized oligonucleotides to DNA side chain polymers.  

PubMed

DNA-incorporating hydrophobic moieties can be synthesized by either solid-phase or solution-phase coupling. On a solid support the DNA is protected, and hydrophobic units are usually attached employing phosphoramidite chemistry involving a DNA synthesizer. On the other hand, solution coupling in aqueous medium results in low yields due to the solvent incompatibility of DNA and hydrophobic compounds. Hence, the development of a general coupling method for producing amphiphilic DNA conjugates with high yield in solution remains a major challenge. Here, we report an organic-phase coupling strategy for nucleic acid modification and polymerization by introducing a hydrophobic DNA-surfactant complex as a reactive scaffold. A remarkable range of amphiphile-DNA structures (DNA-pyrene, DNA-triphenylphosphine, DNA-hydrocarbon, and DNA block copolymers) and a series of new brush-type DNA side-chain homopolymers with high DNA grafting density are produced efficiently. We believe that this method is an important breakthrough in developing a generalized approach to synthesizing functional DNA molecules for self-assembly and related technological applications. PMID:25265497

Liu, Kai; Zheng, Lifei; Liu, Qing; de Vries, Jan Willem; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y; Herrmann, Andreas

2014-10-01

488

Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.  

SciTech Connect

Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and %22flexible%22 force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing %242.75 M in funding from outside agencies to continue the research. 3

Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Simmons, Blake

2008-09-01

489

Hot Organic Molecules Toward a Young Low-Mass Star: A Look at Inner Disk Chemistry  

E-print Network

Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the low mass young stellar object (YSO) IRS 46 (L_bol ~ 0.6 L_sun) in Ophiuchus reveal strong vibration-rotation absorption bands of gaseous C2H2, HCN, and CO2. This is the only source out of a sample of ~100 YSO's that shows these features and the first time they are seen in the spectrum of a solar-mass YSO. Analysis of the Spitzer data combined with Keck L- and M-band spectra gives excitation temperatures of > 350 K and abundances of 10(-6)-10(-5) with respect to H2, orders of magnitude higher than those found in cold clouds. In spite of this high abundance, the HCN J=4-3 line is barely detected with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, indicating a source diameter less than 13 AU. The (sub)millimeter continuum emission and the absence of scattered light in near-infrared images limits the mass and temperature of any remnant collapse envelope to less than 0.01 M_sun and 100 K, respectively. This excludes a hot-core type region as found in high-mass YSO's. The most plausible origin of this hot gas rich in organic molecules is in the inner (<6 AU radius) region of the disk around IRS 46, either the disk itself or a disk wind. A nearly edge-on 2-D disk model fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) and gives a column of dense warm gas along the line of sight that is consistent with the absorption data. These data illustrate the unique potential of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy to probe organic chemistry, gas temperatures and kinematics in the planet-forming zones close to a young star.

F. Lahuis; E. F. van Dishoeck; A. C. A. Boogert; K. M. Pontoppidan; G. A. Blake; C. P. Dullemond; N. J. Evans II; M. R. Hogerheijde; J. K. Joergensen; J. E. Kessler-Silacci; C. Knez

2005-11-29

490

A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment was developed as a means of incorporating instrumental analyses into an introductory chemistry laboratory. A two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitation and their relative amounts measured. These compounds were chosen because the combination of…

Szalay, Paul S.

2008-01-01

491

Estimating the One-Electron Reduction Potential for Vanadium (V) by Chemical Techniques: An Experiment for General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment which requires only qualitative observations, is suitable for general chemistry students, prompts an understanding of thermodynamic spontaneity, gives chemical meaning to electrode potentials, requires non-electrochemical equipment, and allows estimates of the standard potential for the reduction of Vanadium (V) to V (IV).…

Wentworth, R. A. D.

1985-01-01

492

A Guided Inquiry Experiment for the Measurement of Activation Energies in the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory: Decarboxylation of Pyrrole-2-Carboxylate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data…

Hutchinson, Kelly M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D.; Smiley, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01

493

Lessons Learned from the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) and Implications for Nitrogen Management of Tampa Bay  

EPA Science Inventory

Results from air quality modeling and field measurements made as part of the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) along with related scientific literature were reviewed to provide an improved estimate of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) deposition to Tampa Bay, to...

494

[60]Fullerene Displacement from (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The kinetics experiments on the ligand-C[subscript 60] exchange reactions on (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], form an educational activity for the inorganic chemistry laboratory that promotes graphical thinking as well as the understanding of kinetics, mechanisms, and the…

Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

2006-01-01

495

An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

2011-01-01

496

Semiempirical and ab initio Calculations of Charged Species Used in the Physical Organic Chemistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concentrates on the semiempirical methods MINDO/3, MNDO, and AMI available in the program AMPAC from the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange at Indiana University. Uses charged ions in the teaching of computational chemistry. Finds that semiempirical methods are accurate enough for the general use of the bench chemist. (MVL)

Gilliom, Richard D.

1989-01-01

497

Microwave-assisted chemistry: synthetic applications for rapid assembly of nanomaterials and organics.  

PubMed

The magic of microwave (MW) heating technique, termed the Bunsen burner of the 21st century, has emerged as a valuable alternative in the synthesis of organic compounds, polymers, inorganic materials, and nanomaterials. Important innovations in MW-assisted chemistry now enable chemists to prepare catalytic materials or nanomaterials and desired organic molecules, selectively, in almost quantitative yields and with greater precision than using conventional heating. By controlling the specific MW parameters (temperature, pressure, and ramping of temperature) and choice of solvents, researchers can now move into the next generation of advanced nanomaterial design and development. Microwave-assisted chemical reactions are now well-established practices in the laboratory setting although some controversy lingers as to how MW irradiation is able to enhance or influence the outcome of chemical reactions. Much of the discussion has focused on whether the observed effects can, in all instances, be rationalized by purely thermal Arrhenius-based phenomena (thermal microwave effects), that is, the importance of the rapid heating and high bulk reaction temperatures that are achievable using MW dielectric heating in sealed reaction vessels, or whether these observations can be explained by so-called "nonthermal" or "specific microwave" effects. In recent years, innovative and significant advances have occurred in MW hardware development to help delineate MW effects, especially the use of silicon carbide (SiC) reaction vessels and the accurate measurement of temperature using fiber optic (FO) temperature probes. SiC reactors appear to be good alternatives to MW transparent borosilicate glass, because of their high microwave absorptivity, and as such they serve as valuable tools to demystify the claimed magical MW effects. This enables one to evaluate the influence of the electromagnetic field on the specific chemical reactions, under truly identical conventional heating conditions, wherein temperature is measured accurately by fiber optic (FO) probe. This Account describes the current status of MW-assisted synthesis highlighting the introduction of various prototypes of equipment, classes of organic reactions pursued using nanomaterials, and the synthesis of unique and multifunctional nanomaterials; the ensuing nanomaterials possess zero-dimensional to three-dimensional shapes, such as spherical, hexagonal, nanoprisms, star shapes, and nanorods. The synthesis of well-defined nanomaterials and nanocatalysts is an integral part of nanotechnology and catalysis science, because it is imperative to control their size, shape, and compositional engineering for unique deployment in the field of nanocatalysis and organic synthesis. MW-assisted methods have been employed for the convenient and reproducible synthesis of well-defined noble and transition core-shell metallic nanoparticles with tunable shell thicknesses. Some of the distinctive attributes of MW-selective heating in the synthesis and applications of magnetic nanocatalysts in organic synthesis under benign reaction conditions are highlighted. Sustainable nanomaterials and their applications in benign media are an ideal blend for the development of greener methodologies in organic synthesis; MW heating provides superb value to the overall sustainable process development via process intensification including the flow systems. PMID:24666323

Gawande, Manoj B; Shelke, Sharad N; Zboril, Radek; Varma, Rajender S

2014-04-15

498

Lewis base mediated efficient synthesis and solvation-like host-guest chemistry of covalent organic framework-1.  

PubMed

N-Lewis base mediated room temperature synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) starting from a solution of building blocks instead of partially soluble building blocks was developed. This protocol shifts COF synthetic chemistry from sealed tubes to open beakers. Non-conventional inclusion compounds of COF-1 were obtained by vapor phase infiltration of ferrocene and azobenzene, and solvation like effects were established. PMID:23208512

Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Wiktor, Christian; Ramakrishnan, Ayyappan; Weßing, Jana; Schneemann, Andreas; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Fischer, Roland A

2013-01-18

499

Porosity tuning of carborane-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) via coordination chemistry and ligand design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials based on boron-rich cluster struts (p-carborane) are reported herein. Cu(I) catalyzed coupling chemistry was used to synthesize carboxylate-based ligands, which are substantially longer than the previously studied dicarboxylated p-carborane, leading to structures with greater porosity. Solvothermal syntheses involving these ligands and Zn salts were used to prepare two new Zn(II)-based MOFs with 2D and

Alexander M. Spokoyny; Omar K. Farha; Karen L. Mulfort; Joseph T. Hupp; Chad A. Mirkin

2010-01-01

500