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Sample records for organic chemistry experiment

  1. Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

  2. Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the advent of microscale experiments within undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories mainly resulting from environmental safety concerns involving waste disposal. Considers the cost savings in purchasing less reagents and chemicals, the typical glassware and apparatus, the reduced hazards from elimination of open flames, and other…

  3. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  4. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  5. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into

  6. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  7. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  8. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an

  9. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing

  10. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  11. Synthesis of Bisphenol Z: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A student achievable synthesis of bisphenol Z, 4,4'-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol, from the acid-catalyzed reaction of phenol with cyclohexanone is presented. The experiment exemplifies all the usual pedagogy for the standard topic of electrophilic aromatic substitution present in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, while providing…

  12. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  13. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy

  14. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  15. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate…

  16. Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes typically appreciate seeing the connection between course content and the "real world". For this reason, we have developed a synthesis of creatine monohydrate--a popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energy--for introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. Creatine monohydrate

  17. On the Successful Use of Inquiry-Driven Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.; Hammond, Christina Noring; Colby, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The mix of guided-inquiry and design based experiments is feasible to do in introductory organic chemistry lab courses. It can provide students with experience in two parts of experimental chemistry such as the significance and careful analysis of experimental data and the design of experiments.

  18. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  19. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up

  20. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

  1. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different

  2. Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ned H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer…

  3. Analysis of Analgesic Mixtures: An Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ned H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment to analyze commercial analgesic preparations (pain relievers) by silica gel thin layer chromatography, followed by preparative (thick) layer chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis. Key difference from similar experiments is that students are responsible for devising suitable solvent systems for the thin layer

  4. Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Sheila

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

  5. Solvent-Free Reductive Amination: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.; Cross, Amely V.

    2015-01-01

    The reductive amination reaction between an amine and an aldehyde or ketone is an important method to add an additional alkyl group to an amine nitrogen. In this experiment, students react a selection of benzylamines with aldehydes to form the corresponding imines. These imines are reduced with a mixture of "p"-toluenesulfonic acid…

  6. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,

  7. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  8. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  9. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses

  10. Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

  11. Conceptual change in an organic chemistry laboratory: A comparison of computer simulations and traditional laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Barbara A.

    2001-12-01

    This quasi-experimental research study examined the effect of computer simulations and hands-on laboratory experiments in enhancing conceptual understanding and alleviating misconceptions of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Subjects were sixty-nine sophomore-level organic chemistry students enrolled in four laboratory sections. Laboratory sections were stratified across instructor and randomly assigned to serve as a control or treatment laboratory. Students in the control group performed all hands-on experiments. Students in the treatment group performed hands-on experiments for the first and last part of the semester but performed computer simulations for a five-week period in the middle of the semester. Prior to treatment, groups were equivalent with respect to academic orientation, motivation, formal reasoning ability, and spatial visualization ability. Fifteen common misconceptions held by beginning organic chemistry students were identified from the Covalent Bonding and Structures Test. At the end of the semester, thirteen of these misconceptions persisted. Molecular geometry was the only category of misconceptions that significantly improved as a result of computer simulations, F(1,58) = 6.309, p = .015. No significant differential change was observed in misconceptions about bond polarity, molecular polarity, intermolecular forces, lattice structures, or the octet rule. Computer simulations were found to result in significantly greater conceptual understanding of organic chemistry reactions on two of the experiments, Stereochemistry, F(1,55) = 6.174, p = .016, and Nucleophilic Substitution, F(1,57) = 6.093, p = .017. The other three experiments, Infrared Spectroscopy, Elimination, and Oxymercuration, did not show a significant differential effect between types of laboratory experiences. No significant differences were observed on long-term retention of concepts. Overall conclusions from the study are that neither computer simulations nor hands-on laboratory experiments are effective in alleviating misconceptions, but that computer simulations can significantly improve conceptual understanding of organic reaction mechanisms.

  12. Insights Into Atmospheric Aqueous Organic Chemistry Through Controlled Experiments with Cloud Water Surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Ramos, A.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Seitzinger, S.

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable laboratory and field-based evidence that chemical processing in clouds and wet aerosols alters organic composition and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Single-compound laboratory experiments have played an important role in developing aqueous-phase chemical mechanisms that aid prediction of SOA formation through multiphase chemistry. In this work we conduct similar experiments with cloud/fog water surrogates, to 1) evaluate to what extent the previously studied chemistry is observed in these more realistic atmospheric waters, and 2) to identify additional atmospherically-relevant precursors and products that require further study. We used filtered Camden and Pinelands, NJ rainwater as a surrogate for cloud water. OH radical (~10-12 M) was formed by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and samples were analyzed in real-time by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Discrete samples were also analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and ESI-MS after IC separation. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Standards of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde and their major aqueous oxidation products were also analyzed, and control experiments performed. Decreases in the ion abundance of many positive mode compounds and increases in the ion abundance of many negative mode compounds (e.g., organic acids) suggest that precursors are predominantly aldehydes, organic peroxides and/or alcohols. Real-time ESI mass spectra were consistent with the expected loss of methylglyoxal and subsequent formation of pyruvate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. New insights regarding other potential precursors and products will be provided.

  13. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  14. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column

  15. The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

    2008-01-01

    Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,…

  16. The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of "trans"-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates: A Microscale Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S.

    2008-01-01

    Although green chemistry principles are increasingly stressed in the undergraduate curriculum, there are only a few lab experiments wherein the toxicity of reagents is taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. We report a microscale green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates,

  17. Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection of several proteinogenic amino acids and carboxylic acids from Martian analog materials. Preliminary results show a lack of derivatized organic molecules in hydrated solid samples however, where the MTBSTFA reagent possibly reacts preferentially with the water from hydrated minerals (Stalport et al. 2012). This result shows the importance of a complete understanding of the MTBSTFA reaction depending on the nature of the soil and will help guide the selection of optimal samples for the SAM wet chemistry on Mars.

  18. The organic builder: a public experiment in artificial chemistries and self-replication.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Tim J

    2009-01-01

    We describe some results submitted by users of the Organic Builder, a Java applet where the rules of an artificial chemistry can be chosen in order to achieve a desired behavior. Though it was initially intended as a set of challenges to be tackled as a game, the users experimented with the system far beyond this and discovered several novel forms of self-replicators. When searching for a system with certain properties such asself-replication, making the system accessible to the public through a Web site is an unusual but effective way of making scientific discoveries, credit for which must go to the users themselves for their tireless experimentation and innovation. PMID:18855569

  19. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  20. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  1. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the

  2. Exploring Atmospheric Aqueous Chemistry (and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation) through OH Radical Oxidation Experiments, Droplet Evaporation and Chemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Ortiz-Montalvo, D. L.; Sullivan, A.; Häkkinen, S.; Schwier, A. N.; Tan, Y.; McNeill, V. F.; Collett, J. L.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.; Sareen, N.; Carlton, A. G.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gas phase photochemistry fragments and oxidizes organic emissions, making water-soluble organics ubiquitous in the atmosphere. My group and others have found that several water-soluble compounds react further in the aqueous phase forming low volatility products under atmospherically-relevant conditions (i.e., in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols). Thus, secondary organic aerosol can form as a result of gas followed by aqueous chemistry (aqSOA). We have used aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments coupled with product analysis and chemical modeling to validate and refine the aqueous chemistry of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid. The resulting chemical model has provided insights into the differences between oxidation chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. Further, we conducted droplet evaporation experiments to characterize the volatility of the products. Most recently, we have conducted aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments with ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases to identify additional atmospherically-important precursors and products. Specifically, we scrubbed water-soluble gases from the ambient air in the Po Valley, Italy using four mist chambers in parallel, operating at 25-30 L min-1. Aqueous OH radical oxidation experiments and control experiments were conducted with these mixtures (total organic carbon ≈ 100 μM-C). OH radicals (3.5E-2 μM [OH] s-1) were generated by photolyzing H2O2. Precursors and products were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ion chromatography (IC), IC-ESI-MS, and ultra high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chemical modeling suggests that organic acids (e.g., oxalate, pyruvate, glycolate) are major products of OH radical oxidation at cloud-relevant concentrations, whereas organic radical - radical reactions result in the formation of oligomers in wet aerosols. Products of cloud chemistry and droplet evaporation have effective vapor pressures that are orders of magnitude lower when ammonium hydroxide is present (pH 7) than without (at lower pH). In Po Valley experiments, nitrogen-containing organics were prominent precursors and intermediates. Pyruvate and oxalate were among the products. Importantly, formation of aqSOA helps to explain the high O/C ratios found in atmospheric aerosols. While uncertainties remain large, global modeling suggests that aqSOA is comparable in magnitude to SOA formed through gas phase chemistry and vapor pressure driven partitioning (gasSOA).

  3. Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Streitwieser, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

  4. Organic Chemistry in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  5. Online Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  6. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  7. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  8. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique

  9. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  10. The Birthday of Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)

  11. Computational organic chemistry: bridging theory and experiment in establishing the mechanisms of chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Xu, Liping; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions, especially catalysis, has been an important and active area of computational organic chemistry, and close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists represent a growing trend. This Perspective provides examples of such productive collaborations. The understanding of various reaction mechanisms and the insight gained from these studies are emphasized. The applications of various experimental techniques in elucidation of reaction details as well as the development of various computational techniques to meet the demand of emerging synthetic methods, e.g., C-H activation, organocatalysis, and single electron transfer, are presented along with some conventional developments of mechanistic aspects. Examples of applications are selected to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of these techniques. Some challenges in the mechanistic studies and predictions of reactions are also analyzed. PMID:25568962

  12. Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar

  13. Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…

  14. An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto-Enol Tautomerization: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V.

    2004-01-01

    Isotope substitution often affects the rate of an organic reaction and can be used to reveal the underlying mechanism. A series of experiments that use (super 1)H NMR to determine primary and secondary isotope effects, activation parameters, and the regioselectivity of butanone enolization are described.

  15. The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2004-01-01

    Segregation and recognition of two unfamiliar concrete organic compounds are achieved through microscale flash chromatography and spectroscopy plus melting point verifications respectively. This inexpensive and harmless microscale experiment for sophomore students ensures exercise in chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

  16. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  17. Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript

  18. Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

  19. Organic chemistry of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    This book reviews the information currently available regarding the chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere. Topics discussed include methods for collecting organic compounds from the atmosphere, the influence of organic compounds on indoor and outdoor air quality, the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, environmental tobacco smoke, organic compounds in rainwater, organic oxysulfur compounds, and the effect of organic compounds on visibility. Many of these topics presented have never been reviewed or have never appeared together in a single volume.

  20. Organic Chemistry Software from COMPress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Sister Isabel

    1982-01-01

    Reviews three organic chemistry computer programs for TRS-80 and Apple microcomputers. Programs include "Introduction to Organic Chemistry,""Qualitative Organic Analysis," and a game called "Chemrain." Indicates that all three produce a readable screen, require exact responses, use graphics in an appealingly and pedagogically sound manner, and are

  1. Organic Chemistry Software from COMPress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Sister Isabel

    1982-01-01

    Reviews three organic chemistry computer programs for TRS-80 and Apple microcomputers. Programs include "Introduction to Organic Chemistry,""Qualitative Organic Analysis," and a game called "Chemrain." Indicates that all three produce a readable screen, require exact responses, use graphics in an appealingly and pedagogically sound manner, and are…

  2. Improving the Effectiveness of Organic Chemistry Experiments through Multimedia Teaching Materials for Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Lin, Hui-Chen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study aimed to explore the effects of three different forms of the multimedia teaching materials on the achievements and attitudes of junior high school students in a chemistry laboratory context. The three forms of the multimedia teaching materials, static pictures, video, and animation, were employed to teach chemistry…

  3. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

  4. A Physical Chemist Looks at Organic Chemistry Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1988-01-01

    Criticizes the way organic chemistry teaching laboratory experiments are approached from the viewpoint of physical chemistry. Compares these experiments to cooking. Stresses that what matters is not the practice of the finger skills of organic chemistry but practice in the style of thinking of organic chemists. (CW)

  5. Enantiomeric Resolution of [Plus or Minus] Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(--)-Ephedrine: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment involving enantiomeric resolution, as an illustration of chiral technology, is an excellent early organic chemistry lab experiment. The success of this enantiomeric resolution can be judged by melting point, demonstrated by [plus or minus]-mandelic acid-(1R,2S)-(--)-ephedrine system.

  6. Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David B.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

  7. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  8. Like Dissolves Like: A Classroom Demonstration and a Guided-Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration supported by the guided-inquiry experience that focuses on separation techniques and other solvent-dependent processes, such as reaction-solvent selection. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  9. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  10. Organic Chemistry for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBeer, W. H. J.

    In response to a serious shortage of chemists in South Africa, gifted secondary school students are enrolled in an enrichment program in organic chemistry and encouraged to consider chemistry or one of its related fields as a career. The introductory portion of the program involves approximately 90 hours over a 3-year period while the advanced…

  11. Organic Chemistry for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBeer, W. H. J.

    In response to a serious shortage of chemists in South Africa, gifted secondary school students are enrolled in an enrichment program in organic chemistry and encouraged to consider chemistry or one of its related fields as a career. The introductory portion of the program involves approximately 90 hours over a 3-year period while the advanced

  12. Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each

  13. Asymmetric Epoxidation: A Twinned Laboratory and Molecular Modeling Experiment for Upper-Level Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational…

  14. Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

  15. Asymmetric Epoxidation: A Twinned Laboratory and Molecular Modeling Experiment for Upper-Level Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational

  16. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  17. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-02-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillationa new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic studentsto isolate an unknown compound. Then, using spectroscopy (IR and NMR), the students collaborate to determine the structure of the product of the reaction. This application of a standard experiment allows general chemistry students to gain exposure to modern spectroscopic instrumentation and to enhance their problem-solving skills. Organic chemistry students improve their understandings of laboratory techniques and spectroscopic interpretation by acting as the resident experts for the team.

  18. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  19. Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).…

  20. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology

  1. Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC: An Introductory Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment to determine the rotational barrier about a C[subscript aryl]-N[subscript imide] single bond that is suitable for first-semester organic chemistry students is presented. The investigation begins with the one-step synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, which exists as two room temperature-stable atropisomers (syn and anti).

  2. Organic chemistry in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  3. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  4. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  5. Bioactivity in Organic Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lloyd N.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are three ways in which bioactivity of organic compounds has been introduced in organic chemistry courses. One is to point out a typical bioactivity of a given functional group. A second is to discuss biorganic mechanisms. A third is to draw structure-activity correlations (SAR). (Author/HM)

  6. Titan's organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  7. Chemistry Education: Experiments Worth Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    The Education system has decided to introduce various new experiments and a digital system for imparting chemistry education to children in schools. The new programs are expected to prepare graduate students completely for their professional lives beyond the graduate school.

  8. Soil Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

  9. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

  10. Beginning Organic Chemistry 1 and Beginning Organic Chemistry 2 (by Graham L. Patrick)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagni, Richard

    1997-10-01

    Beginning Organic Chemistry 1 (paperback, 176 pp; ISBN 0-19-855935-6; 25) Beginning Organic Chemistry 2 (paperback, 312 pp; ISBN 0-19-855936-4; 32) Graham L. Patrick. Oxford University: New York, 1997. Graham Patrick has written two workbooks whose purpose is to help beginning students master the fundamental concepts, principles, and reactions of organic chemistry through self-study and problem solving. With such mastery the student will develop confidence and skill and have a rewarding experience in the course.

  11. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 1: Review of General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet is one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland. It provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire…

  12. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  13. Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

  14. Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan.

  15. Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Thompson, W R; Khare, B N

    1992-01-01

    When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan. PMID:11537156

  16. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Aline M.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  17. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murov, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

  18. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

  19. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top

  20. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

  1. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater

  2. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  3. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of the "Tennis Ball" Dimer and Subsequent Encapsulation of Methane. An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hof, Fraser; Palmer, Liam C.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2001-11-01

    While important to the biological and materials sciences, noncovalent interactions, self-folding, and self-assembly often receive little discussion in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. The synthesis and NMR characterization of a molecular "tennis ball" in an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory is a simple and effective way to introduce the relevance of these concepts. In appropriate solvents, the monomer dimerizes through a seam of eight hydrogen bonds with encapsulation of a guest molecule and symmetry reminiscent of a tennis ball. The entire experiment can be completed in three lab periods, however large-scale synthetic preparation of the starting monomer by a teaching assistant would reduce the laboratory to a single lab period for NMR studies.

  4. Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

  5. Chemistry of Covalent Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Waller, Peter J; Gándara, Felipe; Yaghi, Omar M

    2015-12-15

    Linking organic molecules by covalent bonds into extended solids typically generates amorphous, disordered materials. The ability to develop strategies for obtaining crystals of such solids is of interest because it opens the way for precise control of the geometry and functionality of the extended structure, and the stereochemical orientation of its constituents. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of porous covalent organic structures whose backbone is composed entirely of light elements (B, C, N, O, Si) that represent a successful demonstration of how crystalline materials of covalent solids can be achieved. COFs are made by combination of organic building units covalently linked into extended structures to make crystalline materials. The attainment of crystals is done by several techniques in which a balance is struck between the thermodynamic reversibility of the linking reactions and their kinetics. This success has led to the expansion of COF materials to include organic units linked by these strong covalent bonds: B-O, C-N, B-N, and B-O-Si. Since the organic constituents of COFs, when linked, do not undergo significant change in their overall geometry, it has been possible to predict the structures of the resulting COFs, and this advantage has facilitated their characterization using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) techniques. It has also allowed for the synthesis of COF structures by design and for their formation with the desired composition, pore size, and aperture. In practice, the modeled PXRD pattern for a given expected COF is compared with the experimental one, and depending on the quality of the match, this is used as a starting point for solving and then refining the crystal structure of the target COF. These characteristics make COFs an attractive class of new porous materials. Accordingly, they have been used as gas storage materials for energy applications, solid supports for catalysis, and optoelectronic devices. A large and growing library of linkers amenable to the synthesis of COFs is now available, and new COFs and topologies made by reticular synthesis are being reported. Much research is also directed toward the development of new methods of linking organic building units to generate other crystalline COFs. These efforts promise not only new COF chemistry and materials, but also the chance to extend the precision of molecular covalent chemistry to extended solids. PMID:26580002

  6. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

  7. Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

  8. Caring for the Environment while Teaching Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Elvira Santos; Gavilan Garcia, Irma Cruz; Lejarazo Gomez, Eva Florencia

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive program in the field of green chemistry, which concentrates on processing and managing of wastes produced during laboratory experiments, is presented. The primary aim of the program is to instill a sense of responsibility and a concern for the environment through organic chemistry education.

  9. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Two Polymorphs of the Tetrathiafulvalene-Chloranil Charge Transfer Salt: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixtrom, Alex; Buhler, Jessica; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Mechanochemical syntheses avoid or considerably reduce the use of reaction solvents, thus providing green chemistry synthetic alternatives that are both environmentally friendly and economically advantageous. The increased solid-state reactivity generated by mechanical energy imparted to the reactants by grinding or milling can offer alternative…

  10. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Two Polymorphs of the Tetrathiafulvalene-Chloranil Charge Transfer Salt: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixtrom, Alex; Buhler, Jessica; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Mechanochemical syntheses avoid or considerably reduce the use of reaction solvents, thus providing green chemistry synthetic alternatives that are both environmentally friendly and economically advantageous. The increased solid-state reactivity generated by mechanical energy imparted to the reactants by grinding or milling can offer alternative

  11. Understanding Academic Performance in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szu, Evan; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lopez, Enrique J.; Penn, John H.; Scharberg, Maureen; Hill, Geannine W.

    2011-01-01

    Successful completion of organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, yet the failure rate for this sequence of courses is notoriously high. To date, few studies have examined why some students succeed while others have difficulty in organic chemistry. This…

  12. Understanding Academic Performance in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szu, Evan; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lopez, Enrique J.; Penn, John H.; Scharberg, Maureen; Hill, Geannine W.

    2011-01-01

    Successful completion of organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, yet the failure rate for this sequence of courses is notoriously high. To date, few studies have examined why some students succeed while others have difficulty in organic chemistry. This

  13. STS Education and Social Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Wu

    1994-01-01

    Gives an overview of Science-Technology-Society (STS) education, which views scientific and technological progress as social processes. An STS course called Social Organic Chemistry is described as a replacement for Application of Organic Chemistry in a teachers' college. The course addresses the application of the principles and fundamentals of…

  14. A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

    2006-01-01

    Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a…

  15. A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

    2006-01-01

    Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a

  16. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmsted, John A., III

    1998-10-01

    An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.

  17. The Wittig Reaction: Generation, Observation and Reactivity of a Phosphorous Ylide Intermediate. An Experiment for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Gary W.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment has been devised that illustrates three important concepts in organic chemistry: the synthesis of an alkene via the Wittig reaction, characterization of a reactive intermediate by 1H NMR, and site - specific deuterium labelling. Deprotonation of ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (1) by methylsulfinyl carbanion (generated in situ by the reaction of NaH with DMSO-d6) results in the formation of the ylide, CH3CH-PPH3(2 -H). An ensuing, rapid deuterium exchange process between the deuterated solvent, and 2-H at the C-1 position affords CH3CD - PPH3 (2-D). The 1H NMR spectrum of 2-D was obtained, and the ylide was quenched with benzophenone to obtain 2-deutero-diphenylpropene (3) in 42% yield.

  18. Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Lindsay Diana

    The photooxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a major component of fine particulate matter. Improvements to air quality require insight into the many reactive intermediates that lead to SOA formation, of which only a small fraction have been measured at the molecular level. This thesis describes the chemistry of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from several atmospherically relevant hydrocarbon precursors. Photooxidation experiments of methoxyphenol and phenolic compounds and C12 alkanes were conducted in the Caltech Environmental Chamber. These experiments include the first photooxidation studies of these precursors run under sufficiently low NOx levels, such that RO2 + HO2 chemistry dominates, an important chemical regime in the atmosphere. Using online Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometery (CIMS), key gas-phase intermediates that lead to SOA formation in these systems were identified. With complementary particle-phase analyses, chemical mechanisms elucidating the SOA formation from these compounds are proposed. Three methoxyphenol species (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol) were studied to model potential photooxidation schemes of biomass burning intermediates. SOA yields (ratio of mass of SOA formed to mass of primary organic reacted) exceeding 25% are observed. Aerosol growth is rapid and linear with the organic conversion, consistent with the formation of essentially non-volatile products. Gas and aerosol-phase oxidation products from the guaiacol system show that the chemical mechanism consists of highly oxidized aromatic species in the particle phase. Syringol SOA yields are lower than that of phenol and guaiacol, likely due to unique chemistry dependent on methoxy group position. The photooxidation of several C12 alkanes of varying structure n-dodecane, 2-methylundecane, cyclododecane, and hexylcyclohexane) were run under extended OH exposure to investigate the effect of molecular structure on SOA yields and photochemical aging. Peroxyhemiacetal formation from the reactions of several multifunctional hydroperoxides and aldehyde intermediates was found to be central to organic growth in all systems, and SOA yields increased with cyclic character of the starting hydrocarbon. All of these studies provide direction for future experiments and modeling in order to lessen outstanding discrepancies between predicted and measured SOA.

  19. Green chemistry oriented organic synthesis in water.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marc-Olivier; Li, Chao-Jun

    2012-02-21

    The use of water as solvent features many benefits such as improving reactivities and selectivities, simplifying the workup procedures, enabling the recycling of the catalyst and allowing mild reaction conditions and protecting-group free synthesis in addition to being benign itself. In addition, exploring organic chemistry in water can lead to uncommon reactivities and selectivities complementing the organic chemists' synthetic toolbox in organic solvents. Studying chemistry in water also allows insight to be gained into Nature's way of chemical synthesis. However, using water as solvent is not always green. This tutorial review briefly discusses organic synthesis in water with a Green Chemistry perspective. PMID:22048162

  20. A Discovery Chemistry Experiment on Buffers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulevich, Suzanne E.; Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    The Holy Cross Chemistry Department has designed and implemented an experiment on buffers as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum. The pedagogical philosophy of Discovery Chemistry is to make the laboratory the focal point of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. We first pose questions in prelaboratory

  1. A Discovery Chemistry Experiment on Buffers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulevich, Suzanne E.; Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    The Holy Cross Chemistry Department has designed and implemented an experiment on buffers as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum. The pedagogical philosophy of Discovery Chemistry is to make the laboratory the focal point of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. We first pose questions in prelaboratory…

  2. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  3. Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

    2008-01-01

    A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is…

  4. Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

    2008-01-01

    A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

  6. Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much

  7. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  8. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily

  9. Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, Clark C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an aqueous-based chemical analyzer for Martian surface materials has been demonstrated to be feasible. During the processes of analysis, design, breadboarding, and most importantly, testing, it has become quite apparent that there are many challenges in implementing such a system. Nonetheless, excellent progress has been made and a number of problems which arose have been solved. The ability to conduct this work under a development environment which is separate and which precedes the project-level development has allowed us to find solutions to these implementation realities at low cost. If the instrument had been selected for a mission without this laboratory pre-project work, the costs of implementation would be much higher. In the four areas covered in Sections D, E, F, and G of this Final Report, outstanding progress has been made. There still remains the task of flight-qualifying certain of the components. This is traditionally done under the aegis of a Flight Project, but just as the concept development can be done at much lower cost when kept small and focused, so could the qualification program of critical parts benefit. We recommend, therefore, that NASA consider means of such qualifications and brass-boarding, in advance of final flight development. This is a generic recommendation, but hardware such as the Mars aqueous chemistry experiment (MACE) and other similarly-new concepts are particularly applicable. MACE now has wide versatility, in being able to reliably dispense both liquids and solids as chemical reagents to an entire suite of samples. The hardware and the experiment is much simpler than was developed for the Viking Biology instrument, yet can accomplish all the inorganic chemical measurements that the Viking desing was capable of. In addition, it is much more flexible and versatile to new experiment protocols (and reagents) than the Viking design ever could have been. MACE opens up the opportunity for many different scientific disciplines to design sub- experiments and to benefit from the investigations that can be conducted. In this sense, it will have the value of a facility, although our recommendation would be that it be under the stewardship of a single lead investigator to insure that conflicting requirements not compromise the straight-forward design that have been achieved. MACE is an excellent candidate for upcoming Mars missions, including the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) lander missions in 2001 and 2003. In addition, it could be used for any mission to the surface of any other planet or planetary body (including small bodies). An important next step is to encourage various investigators to propose specific uses for this experiment that specifically address their major scientific objectives for upcoming missions.

  10. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when

  11. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  12. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  13. Newer Reagents in Preparative Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Outlined is the development and use of oxidants for use in elementary organic chemistry classes. Discussed is the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, and the oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes to carboxylic acids. (CW)

  14. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

  15. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with

  16. Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

  17. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  18. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  19. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with

  20. The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

  1. Cooperative Chemistry: Concept Mapping in the Organic Chemistry Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahr, Allan A.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates concept mapping into the chemistry laboratory and requires students to construct a concept map for each experiment. Reports a decrease in student questions concerning set up and procedure. Recommends using computer software such as Chem Sketch 5.0 which is free and available from the Internet. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  2. The 'wired' universe of organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Bishop, Kyle J M; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Wilmer, Christopher E

    2009-04-01

    The millions of reactions performed and compounds synthesized by organic chemists over the past two centuries connect to form a network larger than the metabolic networks of higher organisms and rivalling the complexity of the World Wide Web. Despite its apparent randomness, the network of chemistry has a well-defined, modular architecture. The network evolves in time according to trends that have not changed since the inception of the discipline, and thus project into chemistry's future. Analysis of organic chemistry using the tools of network theory enables the identification of most 'central' organic molecules, and for the prediction of which and how many molecules will be made in the future. Statistical analyses based on network connectivity are useful in optimizing parallel syntheses, in estimating chemical reactivity, and more. PMID:21378798

  3. Using a Sequence of Experiments with Turmeric Pigments from Food to Teach Extraction, Distillation, and Thin-Layer Chromatography to Introductory Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da S. F. Fagundes, Thayssa; Dutra, Karen Danielle B.; Ribeiro, Carlos Magno R.; de A. Epifanio, Rosa^ngela; Valverde, Alessandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment encourages students to use deductive reasoning skills to understand the correlation between different techniques used in a chemistry laboratory and to extract and analyze curcuminoids using natural products and processed food from a grocery store. Turmeric pigments were used to teach continuous or discontinuous extraction, vacuum…

  4. Using a Sequence of Experiments with Turmeric Pigments from Food to Teach Extraction, Distillation, and Thin-Layer Chromatography to Introductory Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da S. F. Fagundes, Thayssa; Dutra, Karen Danielle B.; Ribeiro, Carlos Magno R.; de A. Epifanio, Rosa^ngela; Valverde, Alessandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment encourages students to use deductive reasoning skills to understand the correlation between different techniques used in a chemistry laboratory and to extract and analyze curcuminoids using natural products and processed food from a grocery store. Turmeric pigments were used to teach continuous or discontinuous extraction, vacuum

  5. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  6. Organic Composition of PM2.5 and Size-Segregated Aerosols During the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, R. T.; Zika, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected for the analysis of organic source markers using a Tisch Environmental PM2.5 high volume sampler and two Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDIs) as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Tampa, Florida. PM2.5 samples were collected at ground level on quartz fiber filters (QFF) while size-segregated samples were collected 12 meter above ground level on aluminum foil discs. MOUDIs with aerodynamic cut diameters of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32 and 0.17 um were used. Samples were collected on a 24 hour schedule. The collected samples were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone/hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) operated in single ion mode. PM2.5 extracts were analyzed using conventional splitless low volume injections (1 ul). Size-segregated aerosol extracts were analyzed using a Hewlett-Packard Programmable Temperature Vaporizing inlet (PTV) combined with large volume injections (80ul). Excellent chromatographic resolutions were obtained with either a 30 or 60 meter long RTX-5MS, 0.25 mm I.D. column. Target compounds were chosen to cover the range of potential sources and included alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Investigation of potential aerosol sources for different particle sizes using known organic markers and source profiles will be presented. Relationship between the collected PM2.5 and size-segregated samples will be studied. Size distributions of carbon preference indices (CPI), percent wax n-alkanes (%WNA) and concentration of selected compounds will be discussed.

  7. A Discovery-Based Experiment Involving Rearrangement in the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides: Permanent Magnet [to the thirteenth power]C NMR in the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Tucker, Ryand J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of permanent magnet [to the thirteenth power]C NMR in large-section first-semester organic chemistry lab courses is limited by the availability of experiments that not only hinge on first-semester lecture topics, but which also produce at least 0.5 mL of neat liquid sample. This article reports a discovery-based experiment that meets both…

  8. Epoxide Chemistry: Guided Inquiry Experiment Emphasizing Structure Determination and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurty, H. G.; Jain, Niveta; Samby, Kiran

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an operationally simple three-step synthesis of an a-hydroxy acid based on epoxide chemistry. The focus of the experiment is on the preparation of the chalcone epoxide and its reaction with hot alcoholic alkali. The experiment leads to an unpredicted reaction product. Its structure is established as 2-benzyl-2-phenylglycollic acid by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. The hydroxyacid is a good example to bring home an important NMR principle: the nonequivalence of hydrogens adjacent to a stereogenic center. The formation of the alpha-hydroxy acid is a mechanistic puzzle. A stepwise mechanism can be developed applying lecture-based organic chemistry concepts. On the other hand, acid-catalyzed (H2SO4, BF3) reaction of the chalcone epoxide gives benzoylphenylacetaldehyde. The exercise can be used as a multistep organic chemistry experiment. It also gives students a research-type experience.

  9. Organic chemistry: Reactions triggered electrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Limin; Tao, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule experiments have revealed that chemical reactions can be controlled using electric fields -- and that the reaction rate is sensitive to both the direction and the strength of the applied field. See Letter p.88

  10. Ethical Issues in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Peter; Coad, Raylene

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that a literature survey can alert students to real-life ethical problems surrounding many organic compounds. Topic areas students could explore include: hazards in the workplace, toxic chemicals, and nerve gas structures. Background information and an extensive bibliography are given. (DH)

  11. Medical Mycology and the Chemistry Classroom: Germinating Student Interest in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Joseph M.; Reid, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to provide active research context to introductory courses in basic sciences are likely to better engage learners and provide a framework for relevant concepts. A simple teaching and learning experiment was conducted to use concepts in organic chemistry to solve problems in the life sciences. Bryant University is a liberal arts university…

  12. Medical Mycology and the Chemistry Classroom: Germinating Student Interest in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Joseph M.; Reid, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to provide active research context to introductory courses in basic sciences are likely to better engage learners and provide a framework for relevant concepts. A simple teaching and learning experiment was conducted to use concepts in organic chemistry to solve problems in the life sciences. Bryant University is a liberal arts university

  13. Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R.

    2007-01-01

    An ozonolysis experiment, suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry lab, is presented. Ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil), followed by reductive workup furnishes an aldehyde that is easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra. Ozone (3-5% in oxygen) is produced using an easily built generator. (Contains 2 figures and 1 scheme.)

  14. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  15. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  16. Research Summaries for Teachers, Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbier, William R., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes that the concept of neighboring group participation (NGP) be introduced in undergraduate organic chemistry. Discusses the requirements for NGP with respect to electron availability, kinetics, and steric factors. Finally, the author presents the controversy over bridged ions, particularly phenonium ions in the solvolyses of beta-pheylethyl

  17. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized

  18. Experiments in the Chemistry of Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Elbert C.

    This booklet presents 18 experiments in the chemistry of food, suitable for elementary and secondary school science classes. Experiments deal with an analysis of milk, determinations of the amounts of sulfur dioxide, iron, and fat in foods, and the concentration of vitamin C in fruit juice and iodine in salt. Tests are provided for fats,…

  19. Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a headspace gas chromatography experiment that enables discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid. Illustrates liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of pure liquids. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  20. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral radicals. These radical species subsequently might form carbanions via radiative electron attachment at low temperatures with thermal electrons. The classic example is the perinaphthenyl anion in Titan's upper atmosphere. Therefore, future astronomical observations of selected carbocations and corresponding carbanions are required to settle the key issue of molecular anion chemistry on Titan. Other than earth, Titan is the only planetary body in our solar system that is known to have reservoirs of permanent liquids on its surface. The synthesis of complex biomolecules either by organic catalysis of precipitated solutes “on hydrocarbon solvent” on Titan or through the solvation process indeed started in its upper atmosphere. The most notable examples in Titan's prebiotic atmospheric chemistry are conjugated and aromatic polycyclic molecules, N-heterocycles including the presence of imino >Cdbnd N-H functional group in the carbonium chemistry. Our major conclusion in this paper is that the synthesis of organic compounds in Titan's upper atmosphere is a direct consequence of the chemistry of carbocations involving the ion-molecule reactions. The observations of complexity in the organic chemistry on Titan from the Cassini-Huygens mission clearly indicate that Titan is so far the only planetary object in our solar system that will most likely provide an answer to the question of the synthesis of complex biomolecules on the primitive earth and the origin of life.

  1. Spiral Puzzle for Organic Chemistry Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, Ender

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle is designed to test the ability of students to remember named organic reactions and reagents. An undergraduate student who is successful in organic chemistry at the sophomore level is expected to solve the puzzle while also having fun. A portion of the puzzle is intended for the more advanced level. This in-class or at-home activity can also be used as a test because students are expected to remember the synthetic purposes and mechanisms of the named organic reactions and reagents.

  2. Organic Chemistry in Action! What Is the Reaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The "Organic Chemistry in Action!" ("OCIA!") program is a set of teaching resources designed to facilitate the teaching and learning of introductory level organic chemistry. The "OCIA!" program was developed in collaboration with practicing and experienced chemistry teachers, using findings from Chemistry Education

  3. Organic Chemistry in Action! What Is the Reaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The "Organic Chemistry in Action!" ("OCIA!") program is a set of teaching resources designed to facilitate the teaching and learning of introductory level organic chemistry. The "OCIA!" program was developed in collaboration with practicing and experienced chemistry teachers, using findings from Chemistry Education…

  4. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, John III

    1998-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the first semester general chemistry laboratory at the college level. An organic component is included in the redesign and it provides students with explicit examples of several types of operations in which chemists engage. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  5. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening. PMID:26030211

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Experiments Integrating Evaluation of Chemical Hazards into the Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, J. T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Proposes use of two experiments to sample and analyze contaminents in the laboratory. Experiments focus on estimating hydrogen sulfide levels in the general chemistry laboratory during qualitative analysis and determining the concentration of organic vapors associated with organic chemistry laboratories. (JN)

  7. Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Michael J.; Craig, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the case of traditional covalent polymers, the entanglements that determine properties of supramolecular polymers are defined by very specific, intermolecular interactions. Recent work using modular molecular platforms to probe the mechanisms underlying mechanical response of supramolecular polymers is reviewed. The contributions of supramolecular kinetics, thermodynamics, and conformational flexibility to supramolecular polymer properties in solutions of discrete polymers, in networks, and at interfaces, are described. Molecule-to-material relationships are established through methods reminiscent of classic physical organic chemistry. PMID:17279638

  8. An Experiment in Forensic Chemistry: The Breathalyzer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmer, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a simple experiment done in a quantitative analysis course that illustrates the chemistry of the breath alcohol test. Discusses the development and use of the Breathalyzer. Outlines the experimental procedure, along with the appropriate calculations and discussion of the results. (TW)

  9. A Pre-Vacation Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy; McSweeny, Jean

    1973-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment appropriate for the day before Christmas vacation. Students prepare candy canes by following a recipe written in chemical terms. This illustrates that food is composed of chemicals and that the processes involved in cooking are chemical and physical changes. (JR)

  10. Solid/gas heterogeneous chemistry of organic compounds related to comets, Titan and Mars, through experiments in the laboratory and in Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, H.; Amino/Process Team

    Solar UV radiation is a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution towards complex organic structures but it can also photodissociate the most elaborate molecules Thus Solar UV can erase the organic traces of past life on the surface of planets like Mars or it can influence the production of extended sources in comets AMINO PROCESS and UV-olution are three experiments selected to be flown on the EXPOSE facility on the International Space Station or on the BIOPAN facility during the next FOTON M3 space capsule mission The goal of our experiments is to improve our knowledge of the chemical nature and evolution of organic molecules involved in extraterrestrial environments with astrobiological implications Similar experiments implemented in space so far were carried out in vented cells exposed to solar UVs For the first time sealed exposition cells will be used which will allow us to study chemical evolution in the gaseous phase as well as heterogeneous processes degradation of solid compounds and release of gaseous fragments Three kinds of experiments will be carried out The first ones deal with comets and are related to the Rosetta mission the second ones deal with Titan and are related to the Cassini-Huygens mission while the third ones are related to the search for life-related organic compounds on Mars Concerning comets we plan to study the photodegradation of high molecular weight organic compounds which might be responsible for the wide range of organics polyoxymethylene hexamethylenetetramine HCN polymers and carbon suboxide

  11. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 16: Aromatic Chemistry Effect of Substituents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

  12. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 15: Benzene, Aromaticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

  13. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 10: Alkenes-Reactions 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series

  14. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 10: Alkenes-Reactions 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

  15. Synthesis-Spectroscopy Roadmap Problems: Discovering Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Laurie L.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemistry problems that interrelate and integrate synthesis with spectroscopy are presented. These synthesis-spectroscopy roadmap (SSR) problems uniquely engage second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students in the personal discovery of organic chemistry. SSR problems counter the memorize-or-bust strategy that many students tend to

  16. Synthesis-Spectroscopy Roadmap Problems: Discovering Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Laurie L.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemistry problems that interrelate and integrate synthesis with spectroscopy are presented. These synthesis-spectroscopy roadmap (SSR) problems uniquely engage second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students in the personal discovery of organic chemistry. SSR problems counter the memorize-or-bust strategy that many students tend to…

  17. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 11: Stereochemistry 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

  18. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 6: Stereochemistry 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series…

  19. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 6: Stereochemistry 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The entire series

  20. Students' Perceptions and Learning Experiences of Tertiary Level Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    There is evidence to suggest that first-year chemistry learning experiences may discourage students from studying further chemistry courses. This paper reports on an investigation on the influence of first year learning experiences in two first year chemistry courses on students' chemistry enrollment choices. Students enrolled in first year…

  1. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  3. Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

  4. Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching organic chemistry. In this book, the diverse field of organic chemistry modules is introduced. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified…

  5. Organic chemistry in the oceans of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.

    On Titan, most of the organics present in the atmosphere must condense in the lower stratosphere and be solid near the surface, except methane, ethane, propane, propene and 1-butene which must be liquid and could form oceans containing large fractions of dissolved N2. Chemical evolution on Titan must have followed a way very different from the terrestrial one, involving physical chemical processes in a cryogenic apolar solvent mainly composed of CH4-C2H6-N2, in place of organic chemistry in water. Systematic study of the volumic mass and solubility of organics in such a cryogenic mixture of various compositions, at 94K, is presented, using thermodynamic modelling. The results suggest that the oceans of Titan could be free of any "icebergs" of organic compounds. These oceans could be very rich in dissolved organics, with relatively high concentrations, in the range 1 - 10-6M. In addition, the concentration of several of the organic solutes should be constant, buffered by a bottom layer of the corresponding compound in the solid phase.

  6. On the nature of interstellar organic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    1997-01-01

    A theory for the origin of all organic molecules observed in regions of massive and low-mass star formation, as well as in dark molecular clouds is described. On dust grains, single atom addition reactions and stability of the intermediate radicals, mechanisms similar to those believed to form the organic component of the Murchison meteorite, lead to a very limited number of mantle compositions depending upon the degree of hydrogenation. The key step in the theory is the formation of the formyl radical by H atom addition (by quantum tunnelling) to CO. Subsequent H atom additions lead to formaldehyde and methanol, as previously suggested; C, N, and O atoms can also undergo additions to HCO. For increasing hydrogenation, the mantle types include one in which there is little contribution from formyl-initiated chemistry; one in which an acetylenic chain develops through C atom additions; and others where the acetylenic chain is increasingly hydrogenated to form aldehydes and alcohols. Following evaporation of grain mantles, such as occurs in protostellar hot cores, these molecules can form new organics, for example, by alkyl cation transfer from alcohols. In dark clouds, different mantles lead to different gas phase organics. This scenario accounts naturally for the formation of many interstellar organics for which none presently exists, predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, indicates the presence of many new organic molecules and why several others are not observed.

  7. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Steve; Engelke, Ray; Manner, Virginia; Chellappa, Raja; Yoo, Choong - Shik

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  8. Piaget and Organic Chemistry: Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry through Learning Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, R. Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Describes the application of the Piaget-based learning cycle technique for teaching an introductory organic chemistry course. Explains the step-by-step process used to convert a lecture course into a discussion-based active learning course. A learning cycle provides students with concrete material and aids them in understanding abstract concepts…

  9. Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijian Liu

    2006-12-12

    Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N {sigma}-bond addition of amides and S-N {sigma}-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions. The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF. Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.

  10. Vial OrganicTM-Organic Chemistry Labs for High School and Junior College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Thomas J.; Meszaros, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Vial Organic is the most economical, safe, and time-effective method of performing organic chemistry experiments. Activities are carried out in low-cost, sealed vials. Vial Organic is extremely safe because only micro quantities of reactants are used, reactants are contained in tightly sealed vials, and only water baths are used for temperature control. Vial Organic laboratory activities are easily performed within one 50-minute class period. When heat is required, a simple hot-water bath is prepared from a beaker of water and an inexpensive immersion heater. The low cost, ease of use, and relatively short time requirement will allow organic chemistry to be experienced by more students with less confusion and intimidation.

  11. Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainer, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Melissa G.

    2013-01-01

    Earth’s atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of prebiotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer – if formed – would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere. PMID:24143126

  13. Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Melissa G

    2013-08-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of prebiotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere. PMID:24143126

  14. Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge. wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  15. Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The sub-strate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic region, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  16. Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

  17. Organic Chemistry as an A-Level Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, B. S.; Parsonage, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Compares results in organic chemistry during the first year in a polytechnic school with a separate survey of sixth-form achievement. The findings are discussed in terms of the implications for post-A-level chemistry, the debate on chemical nomenclature, and the application of Piagetian concepts to chemistry courses. (Author/CP)

  18. Benchmarking Problems Used in Second Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of the problem types used in college-level general chemistry examinations have been reported in this Journal and were first reported in the "Journal of Chemical Education" in 1924. This study extends the findings from general chemistry to the problems of four college-level organic chemistry courses. Three problem typologies were…

  19. Benchmarking Problems Used in Second Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of the problem types used in college-level general chemistry examinations have been reported in this Journal and were first reported in the "Journal of Chemical Education" in 1924. This study extends the findings from general chemistry to the problems of four college-level organic chemistry courses. Three problem typologies were

  20. QM/MM investigations of organic chemistry oriented questions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar strategy. PMID:22392477

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  2. Caring for the Environment While Teaching Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Santos, Elvira; Cruz Gavilan Garcia, Irma; Florencia Lejarazo Gomez, Eva

    2004-02-01

    In laboratory experiments it is common for students to acquire knowledge and develop the basic abilities needed to solve different types of problems related to synthesis and analysis. The students are so interested in this objective that they do not generally pay any attention to the wastes generated during their lab experiments. It is well known that experiments usually generate small quantities of a large variety of wastes. Nevertheless, the complexity of the wastes generated in the laboratories of educational institutions is large. Thus, detailed studies of their treatment should be undertaken. In North American and European universities the problem has been solved by sending these wastes to specialized companies that treat and dispose of them; however, in Mexico, such alternatives are not available owing to the high cost for waste disposal. Therefore, the Organic Chemistry Department of the Chemistry School at the National Autonomous University of Mexico has started a project concerned with the management and treatment of wastes generated during experimental lab sessions. In the United States and Europe, students do not generally treat their wastes. Therefore, it would be convenient to include this treatment as part of the educational aspects in organic experiments in all parts of the world to develop an environmentally conscience culture among them.

  3. Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul

    This book is one in the series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  4. Organic chemistry. Nanomole-scale high-throughput chemistry for the synthesis of complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Buitrago Santanilla, Alexander; Regalado, Erik L; Pereira, Tony; Shevlin, Michael; Bateman, Kevin; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Schneeweis, Jonathan; Berritt, Simon; Shi, Zhi-Cai; Nantermet, Philippe; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Welch, Christopher J; Vachal, Petr; Davies, Ian W; Cernak, Tim; Dreher, Spencer D

    2015-01-01

    At the forefront of new synthetic endeavors, such as drug discovery or natural product synthesis, large quantities of material are rarely available and timelines are tight. A miniaturized automation platform enabling high-throughput experimentation for synthetic route scouting to identify conditions for preparative reaction scale-up would be a transformative advance. Because automated, miniaturized chemistry is difficult to carry out in the presence of solids or volatile organic solvents, most of the synthetic "toolkit" cannot be readily miniaturized. Using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions as a test case, we developed automation-friendly reactions to run in dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature. This advance enabled us to couple the robotics used in biotechnology with emerging mass spectrometry-based high-throughput analysis techniques. More than 1500 chemistry experiments were carried out in less than a day, using as little as 0.02 milligrams of material per reaction. PMID:25554781

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Calixarene Tetraethers: An Exercise in Supramolecular Chemistry for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbert, Stefan L.; Hoh, Bradley D.; Dulak, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment for an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry lab, students tetraalkylate tertbutylcalix[4]arene, a bowl-shaped macrocyclic oligophenol, and examine the supramolecular chemistry of the tetraether product by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Complexation with a sodium ion reduces the conformational…

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Calixarene Tetraethers: An Exercise in Supramolecular Chemistry for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbert, Stefan L.; Hoh, Bradley D.; Dulak, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment for an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry lab, students tetraalkylate tertbutylcalix[4]arene, a bowl-shaped macrocyclic oligophenol, and examine the supramolecular chemistry of the tetraether product by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Complexation with a sodium ion reduces the conformational

  7. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method

  8. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  9. Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…

  10. Students' Understanding of Alkyl Halide Reactions in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is

  11. Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

  12. Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their

  13. Students' Understanding of Alkyl Halide Reactions in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is…

  14. Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by

  15. Promoting Chemistry Learning through Undergraduate Work Experience in the Chemistry Lab: A Practical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Hiring undergraduate lab assistants in chemistry departments is common in college. However, few studies have focused on promoting undergraduate chemistry learning and thinking skills through this work experience in chemistry teaching laboratories. This article discusses the strategy we implemented in the lab assistant program. The

  16. Promoting Chemistry Learning through Undergraduate Work Experience in the Chemistry Lab: A Practical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Hiring undergraduate lab assistants in chemistry departments is common in college. However, few studies have focused on promoting undergraduate chemistry learning and thinking skills through this work experience in chemistry teaching laboratories. This article discusses the strategy we implemented in the lab assistant program. The…

  17. Mass spectrometry. [in organic ion and biorganic chemistry and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Cox, R. E.; Derrick, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the present status of mass spectrometry in the light of pertinent recent publications spanning the period from December 1971 to January 1974. Following an initial survey of techniques, instruments, and computer applications, a sharp distinction is made between the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions and analytical applications in biorganic chemistry and medicine. The emphasis is on the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions at the expense of inorganic, organometallic, and surface ion chemistry. Biochemistry and medicine are chosen because of their contemporary importance and because of the stupendous contributions of mass spectroscopy to these fields in the past two years. In the review of gas-phase organic ion chemistry, special attention is given to studies making significant contributions to the understanding of ion chemistry.

  18. Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Mary, Ed.; Ryan, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This laboratory manual introduces the idea of Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Instructional samples are included to help teachers integrate green chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. Each laboratory includes: (1) a…

  19. Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

  20. Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1990-04-01

    The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

  1. Modeling the Explicit Chemistry of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Madronich, Sasha

    2015-12-09

    The atmospheric burden of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) remains one of the most important yet uncertain aspects of the radiative forcing of climate. This grant focused on improving our quantitative understanding of SOA formation and evolution, by developing, applying, and improving a highly detailed model of atmospheric organic chemistry, the Generation of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) model. Eleven (11) publications have resulted from this grant.

  2. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  3. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  4. A perspective on physical organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Platz, Matthew S

    2014-03-21

    A perspective on the development of mechanistic carbene chemistry is presented. The author will point out questions that have been answered, and a next generation of questions will be proposed. PMID:24571434

  5. A Perspective on Physical Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A perspective on the development of mechanistic carbene chemistry is presented. The author will point out questions that have been answered, and a next generation of questions will be proposed. PMID:24571434

  6. Automated Combinatorial Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Christopher J.; Hanne, Larry F.

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment has been developed in which students each synthesize a combinatorial library of 48 hydrazones with the aid of a liquid-handling robot. Each product is then subjected to a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay to assess its antibacterial activity. Students gain experience working with automation and at the…

  7. Automated Combinatorial Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Christopher J.; Hanne, Larry F.

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment has been developed in which students each synthesize a combinatorial library of 48 hydrazones with the aid of a liquid-handling robot. Each product is then subjected to a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay to assess its antibacterial activity. Students gain experience working with automation and at the

  8. Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential

  9. Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential…

  10. Improving Student Performance in Organic Chemistry: Help Seeking Behaviors and Prior Chemistry Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail; Rabin, Laura A.; Brodale, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Organic Chemistry is perceived to be one of the most challenging of undergraduate science courses, and attrition from this course may impact decisions about pursuing a professional or academic career in the biomedical and related sciences. Research suggests that chemistry students who are strategic help seekers may outperform those students who…

  11. Organic First: A Biology-Friendly Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, I. David

    2005-01-01

    In this essay, the author describes to biologists the advantages of organic-first curriculum, on the assumption that few biologists are regular readers of "Journal of Chemistry Education" and therefore are probably unaware of the method for integrating chemistry and biology curricula. The author begins with the assumption that the majority of…

  12. Contextualized Chemistry Education: The American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, A. Truman

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a survey of context-based chemistry education in the United States. It begins with a very brief overview of twentieth-century chemistry texts and teaching methods, followed by a short description of a pioneering secondary school text. The major emphasis is on post-secondary instruction and the central case study is provided by…

  13. Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkeson, T. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay in Florida, USA. An ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to the aquatic habitat and food web of the bay. Seagrass decline is linked to excess of plant-stimulating forms of nitrogen to the bay, promoting algae growth, which shades out light needed to sustain seagrasses. One element of the TBEP is a private-local-state, multi-agency Nitrogen Management Consortium that seeks to limit nitrogen loading to the Bay to the 1992-1994 average. Present estimates suggest atmospheric deposition comprises ~ 30% of the nitrogen budget of the Bay. This estimate was based, however, on limited ambient monitoring data and simple models, typical of such national estuary program efforts nationwide. In the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Florida DEP joined with TBEP to increase the intensity, sophistication and spatial scope of monitoring and modeling and provide better information on air quality in the Tampa Bay area. The result will be improved estimates of the effects of local and regional emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the Bay and the benefits to be gained from implementation of emissions reduction strategies.

  14. Searching the Chemistry Files for Synthetic Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antony, Arthur

    1978-01-01

    Examines a number of searches dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds which the author performed on CA CONDENSATES and CASIA data bases (on DIALOG) at the request of users. Results show that a combined use provides the users with a more satisfying result even if the larger output contains some undesired citations. (JD)

  15. Development and Formative Evaluation of Computer Simulated College Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavin, Claudia S.; Cavin, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes the design, preparation, and initial evaluation of a set of computer-simulated chemistry experiments. The experiments entailed the use of an atomic emission spectroscope and a single-beam visible absorption spectrophometer. (Author/IRT)

  16. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  17. Improvements to the Characterization of Organic Nitrogen Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  18. A Novel Philosophy for a First Course in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Melvin S.

    1982-01-01

    Focusing on research is suggested as an approach for teaching organic chemistry for nonmajors. Topics of saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons are used as examples to illustrate the approach. (SK)

  19. The Application of Physical Organic Chemistry to Biochemical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Presents the synthesis of the science of enzymology from application of the concepts of physical organic chemistry from a historical perspective. Summarizes enzyme and coenzyme mechanisms elucidated prior to 1963. (JM)

  20. CARBINOLAMINES AND GEMINAL DIOLS IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic chemistry textbooks generally treat geminal diols as curiosities-exceptions to the stability of the C=O double bond. However, most aldehydes of environmental significance, to wit, trichloroethanal (chloral), methanala (formaldehyde), ethanal (acetaldehyde), and propanal ...

  1. Teaching A-Level Organic Chemistry Mechanisms: Some Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryles, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Identified are some of the problems experienced by students when learning about organic chemistry reaction mechanisms. Strategies are suggested which may be used by students to facilitate understanding of these mechanisms. (KR)

  2. Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

  3. Academia–Industry Symbiosis in Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial “sponsoring” is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry’s point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry’s desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply “pure science” research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the “real world” at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an opportunity for a symbiosis. This type of partnership is challenging but can be a win–win situation if both parties agree on some general guidelines, including clearly defined goals and deliverables, biweekly meetings to track research progress, and quarterly or annual meetings to recognize overarching, common objectives. This Account summarizes our personal experience concerning collaborations with various industrial groups and the way it impacted the research programs for both sides in a symbiotic fashion. PMID:25702529

  4. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an opportunity for a symbiosis. This type of partnership is challenging but can be a win-win situation if both parties agree on some general guidelines, including clearly defined goals and deliverables, biweekly meetings to track research progress, and quarterly or annual meetings to recognize overarching, common objectives. This Account summarizes our personal experience concerning collaborations with various industrial groups and the way it impacted the research programs for both sides in a symbiotic fashion. PMID:25702529

  5. Topic Sequence and Emphasis Variability of Selected Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Justin B.

    2010-01-01

    Textbook choice has a significant effect upon course success. Among the factors that influence this decision, two of the most important are material organization and emphasis. This paper examines the sequencing of 19 organic chemistry topics, 21 concepts and skills, and 7 biological topics within nine of the currently available organic textbooks.…

  6. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry

  7. A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

    2008-01-01

    The Robinson annulation is a topic of importance in the second-year organic curriculum. A one-pot, enantioselective Robinson annulation is described. The experiment is completed in two lab periods and is geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a one-pot enantioselective Robinson…

  8. An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Facile Hydrogenation of Methyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kenneth J.; Zuspan, Kimberly; Berry, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenation of alkenes is an important reaction in the synthesis of organic molecules. In this experiment, students conduct a high-yield microscale hydrogenation reaction of methyl "trans"-cinnamate using a readily available, safe, and convenient hydrogen source. The conditions are similar to those seen in an organic chemistry textbook for an…

  9. An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Facile Hydrogenation of Methyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kenneth J.; Zuspan, Kimberly; Berry, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenation of alkenes is an important reaction in the synthesis of organic molecules. In this experiment, students conduct a high-yield microscale hydrogenation reaction of methyl "trans"-cinnamate using a readily available, safe, and convenient hydrogen source. The conditions are similar to those seen in an organic chemistry textbook for an

  10. A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

    2008-01-01

    The Robinson annulation is a topic of importance in the second-year organic curriculum. A one-pot, enantioselective Robinson annulation is described. The experiment is completed in two lab periods and is geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a one-pot enantioselective Robinson

  11. Photolysis of 4-Phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one: An Undergraduate Experiment in Free Radical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rick C.; Ma, Sha

    1988-01-01

    Describes a photochemistry experiment designed to introduce photochemical techniques and experience free radical chemistry. Selects Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy for the analysis. This activity is suggested for use in an upper level undergraduate organic course. (MVL)

  12. Positive Impacts Using POGIL in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    A student-centered learning technique, process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), has been developed as a pedagogical technique that facilitates collaborative and cooperative learning in the chemistry classroom. With the use of this technique, students enhance their higher-order thinking skills and process skills synergistically. In

  13. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  14. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a

  15. Generation, Isolation, and Characterization of a Stable Enol from Grignard Addition to a Bis-Ester: A Microscale Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Olivier J. C.; Ostrom, Kyle F.; Dalke, Brent J.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described that introduces students to the concept of temperature-dependent stability of the tetrahedral intermediate in an acyl-transfer reaction. The process involves the determination of the structure of an alpha-ketoester and its corresponding remarkably stable enol ester to suggest a mechanism for the formation of the products.

  16. Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess-Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G.

    2005-01-01

    Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation is an experiment that provides an avenue to the introduction of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in organic chemistry curriculum as a diagnostic tool for examination of the results of a familiar reaction, and absolute configuration. From the experiment, students increased their understanding of CD theory and…

  17. The Use of Computer-Based Chemistry Lessons in the Organic Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegers, Karl E.; Smith, Stanley G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents computer assisted instruction (CAI) applications involving prelab simulations of organic chemistry experiments in advance of performing the actual experiments. Tables present the PLATO lessons used in the laboratory; and a comparison of average times for students to complete laboratories with and without the PLATO system. (CS)

  18. Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess-Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G.

    2005-01-01

    Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation is an experiment that provides an avenue to the introduction of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in organic chemistry curriculum as a diagnostic tool for examination of the results of a familiar reaction, and absolute configuration. From the experiment, students increased their understanding of CD theory and

  19. Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

    2004-07-01

    Green chemistry principles and practices have been infused in the chemistry curriculum at the University of Scranton, including courses in general, organic, and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, environmental, polymer, industrial, and advanced organic chemistry, and chemical toxicology. Web-based green chemistry teaching modules have been developed for each of these courses. We describe the principles underlying green chemistry and methods of introducing these concepts into the curriculum with an example of incorporating green chemistry into the undergraduate lecture and laboratory organic sequence. See Featured Molecules .

  20. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  1. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps

  2. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  3. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as

  4. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  5. Remote-controlled experiments with cloud chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilton, Ryan A.; Bourne, Richard A.; Amara, Zacharias; Horvath, Raphael; Jin, Jing; Scully, Michael J.; Streng, Emilia; Tang, Samantha L. Y.; Summers, Peter A.; Wang, Jiawei; Pérez, Eduardo; Asfaw, Nigist; Aydos, Guilherme L. P.; Dupont, Jairton; Comak, Gurbuz; George, Michael W.; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Developing cleaner chemical processes often involves sophisticated flow-chemistry equipment that is not available in many economically developing countries. For reactions where it is the data that are important rather than the physical product, the networking of chemists across the internet to allow remote experimentation offers a viable solution to this problem.

  6. Using Popular Nonfiction in Organic Chemistry: Teaching More than Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Assigning a popular nonfiction book as a supplemental text in organic chemistry can help students learn valuable skills. An analysis of student feedback on assignments related to a nonfiction book in two different organic courses revealed that students applied the information from the book, improved their communication skills, and were more…

  7. Saying What You Mean: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2008-01-01

    Organic reactions in introductory organic chemistry courses are most commonly taught with a mechanism-based approach to the understanding of molecular reactivity. However, the effectiveness of the popular curved arrow representation to describe reaction mechanisms is often compromised by the overuse of shortcuts and obscure notation. The

  8. Undergraduate Oral Examinations in a University Organic Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Andrew P.; Lautens, Mark; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the successful implementation of an oral examination format in the organic chemistry curriculum at the University of Toronto. Oral examinations are used to replace traditional written midterm examinations in several courses. In an introductory organic class, each student is allotted 15 min to individually discuss one…

  9. Saying What You Mean: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2008-01-01

    Organic reactions in introductory organic chemistry courses are most commonly taught with a mechanism-based approach to the understanding of molecular reactivity. However, the effectiveness of the popular curved arrow representation to describe reaction mechanisms is often compromised by the overuse of shortcuts and obscure notation. The…

  10. Undergraduate Oral Examinations in a University Organic Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Andrew P.; Lautens, Mark; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the successful implementation of an oral examination format in the organic chemistry curriculum at the University of Toronto. Oral examinations are used to replace traditional written midterm examinations in several courses. In an introductory organic class, each student is allotted 15 min to individually discuss one

  11. Using Popular Nonfiction in Organic Chemistry: Teaching More than Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Assigning a popular nonfiction book as a supplemental text in organic chemistry can help students learn valuable skills. An analysis of student feedback on assignments related to a nonfiction book in two different organic courses revealed that students applied the information from the book, improved their communication skills, and were more

  12. A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havanki, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic

  13. Students' understanding of alkyl halide reactions in undergraduate organic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is studied in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, establishing a robust understanding of the concepts and reactions related to them can be beneficial in assuring students' success in organic chemistry courses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate and describe students' understanding of alkyl halide reactions in an undergraduate organic chemistry course. Participants were interviewed using a think-aloud protocol in which they were given a set of exercises dealing with reactions and mechanisms of alkyl halide molecules in order to shed light on the students' understanding of these reactions and elucidate any gaps in understanding and incorrect warrants that may be present. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative inquiry approaches. In general, the findings from this study show that the students exhibited gaps in understanding and incorrect warrants dealing with: (1) classifying substances as bases and/or nucleophiles, (2) assessing the basic or nucleophilic strength of substances, (3) accurately describing the electron movement of the steps that take place during alkyl halide reaction mechanisms, and (4) assessing the viability of their proposed reactive intermediates and breakage of covalent bonds. In addition, implications for teaching and future research are proposed.

  14. An investigation of student understanding in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutsch, John Leo, Jr.

    Laboratory activities in organic chemistry involve a mixture of sophisticated logic and empirical observation that requires the integration of mechanistic thought, laboratory technique, and problem-solving skills. In an effort to understand how students develop the thought processes and problem-solving skills necessary for laboratory work in organic chemistry, student understanding of how the interaction between a reaction system (reactants or starting material(s), reagent(s), and/or solvent), experimental variables (pH, temperature, concentrations, etc), provides a result of interest (yield, selectivity, purity, etc.) for an experiment performed in the organic chemistry laboratory was investigated through the collection of responses to questions posed on pre-laboratory quizzes followed by in-depth interviews during which student volunteers discussed their responses along with their experiences in the laboratory. The conceptual change theory of learning which assumes new conceptions are understood, judged, acquired, or rejected in a conceptual context was used as a theoretical paradigm to examine students responses to questions posed on pre-laboratory quizzes and transcripts of the interviews with student volunteers. Students were found to not have developed a mechanistic understanding of how the interaction between a reaction system (reactants or starting material(s), reagent(s), and/or solvent), experimental variables (pH, temperature, concentrations, etc), provides a result of interest (yield, selectivity, purity, etc.) for an experiment performed in the organic chemistry laboratory. However, students' prior exposure to and understanding of chemical concepts was found to simultaneously assist and hinder in their development of a partial mechanistic understanding of how a reaction system (reactants or starting material(s), reagent(s), and/or solvent), experimental variables (pH, temperature, concentrations, etc), interact to provide a result of interest (yield, selectivity, purity, etc.). Even though students were able to develop a partial mechanistic understanding, they still did not understand the rationale behind chemical or physical manipulation performed in the organic chemistry laboratory or how either may be applied to other experiments. Therefore, experiments performed in the organic chemistry laboratory became activities in which students gave little thought to what they were doing resulting in little meaningful learning, unsafe practices, and an unpleasant experience that demotivated students. To address this deficiency, instructors need to create an environment where students are allowed to develop an understanding of the role of reagents and reaction conditions in an experiment in order to acquire the knowledge and skills that permits them to develop a deep mechanistic understanding of how organic chemistry reactions are implemented in the organic chemistry laboratory.

  15. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  16. A Photolithography Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Adora M.; Corder, Gregory W.; Devore, Thomas C.; Augustine, Brian H.

    2003-02-01

    Photolithography is the primary means of pattern transfer used in the production of a multitude of microfabricated devices, including integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, and optoelectronic devices. The underlying photochemical process inherent to lithography is an attractive model system to introduce photochemistry, reaction kinetics, polymer chemistry, and materials science to a broader audience in a general chemistry laboratory setting. We report a second-semester general chemistry experiment in which students design and produce a photomask to pattern a silicon wafer using optical lithography. In addition to substrate patterning, students examine the reaction kinetics of the photobleaching process of the photoresist system using a UV vis spectrometer operating in the kinetics mode. Both experiments introduce lower-division students to a technologically important industrial chemistry process and aid in understanding the topics of polymer chemistry and photochemistry.

  17. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  18. Chemistry under Your Skin? Experiments with Tattoo Inks for Secondary School Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Marc; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a set of easy, hands-on experiments that inquire into and differentiate among tattoo inks of varying quality. A classroom scenario is described for integrating these experiments into secondary school chemistry classes. Initial experiences from the classroom are also presented.

  19. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  20. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    PubMed

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation. PMID:26816372

  1. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  2. Organic chemistry: No double bond left behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlah, David

    2016-03-01

    Alkenyl halides are some of the most useful building blocks for synthesizing small organic molecules. A catalyst has now allowed their direct preparation from widely available alkenes using the cross-metathesis reaction. See Article p.459

  3. ORGANIC N-CHLORAMINES: CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of aqueous solutions of organic N-chloramines, suspected of contaminating chlorinated water, has been studied. Two factors influence the decomposition of solutions of N-chloropiperidine and N-chlorodiethylamine: a spontaneous decomposition and photodecomposition. Si...

  4. Organic chemistry in the ionosphere of the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, N.; Fleury, B.; Vettier, L.

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of life on the Early Earth during the Archean has required a prior complex organic chemistry providing the prerequisite bricks of life. The origin of the organic matter and its evolution on the early Earth is far from being understood. Several hypotheses are investigated, possibly complementary, which can be divided in two main categories: the endogenous and the exogenous sources. In this work we have been interested in the contribution of a specific endogenous source: the organic chemistry occurring in the ionosphere of the early Earth. At these high altitudes, the VUV contribution of the young sun was important, involving an efficient production of reactive species. Here we address the issue whether this chemistry can lead to the production of larger molecules with a prebiotic interest in spite of the competitive lysing effect of the harsh irradiation at these altitudes.

  5. Experiments in Chemistry: A Model Science Software Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Diana; Tinker, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Describes "Experiments in Chemistry," in which experiments are performed using software and hardware interfaced to the Apple microcomputer's game paddle port. Experiments include temperature, pH electrode, and EMF (cell potential determinations, oxidation-reduction titrations, and precipitation titrations) investigations. (JN)

  6. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J.; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  7. Blackboard Experience of a Chemistry Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Ann

    2000-06-01

    During the twenty years that I have been teaching, I have always made my class notes, practice problems, review sheets, and homemade audiotapes available for my students at the reserve desk in the library. I also placed a variety of commercial chemistry tutorials in the computer lab. I feel that this is the bare minimum in the way of help for the nontraditional students at the community college. Each time we get a new text or even a new edition of a text, I revise the materials for the library.

  8. View from My Classroom: Introductory Organic Chemistry with Instrumental Analysis: A Third Year High School Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebermann, John, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school chemistry course that exposes students to a wide variety of modern, realistic instrumental techniques. The laboratory syllabus for the course (which uses the textbook "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd) is included. (JN)

  9. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type…

  10. Advanced Undergraduate Experiments in Thermoanalytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, J. O.; Magee, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments using the techniques of thermal analysis and thermometric titrimetry. Defines thermal analysis and several recent branches of the technique. Notes most of the experiments use simple equipment and standard laboratory techniques. (MVL)

  11. Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

  12. Two Multipurpose Thermochemical Experiments for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, R. A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two experiments designed to provide concepts on the difference between heat and temperature and also bond energy. Investigates both a neutralization experiment and a ligation experiment. Notes inexpensive chemicals are used along with simple equipment. Discusses the sharing of lab results for a single class value. (MVL)

  13. Engaging Organic Chemistry Students Using ChemDraw for iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Layne A.; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drawing structures, mechanisms, and syntheses is a vital part of success in organic chemistry courses. ChemDraw for iPad has been used to increase classroom experiences in the preparation of high quality chemical drawings. The embedded Flick-to-Share allows for simple, real-time exchange of ChemDraw documents. ChemDraw for iPad also allows…

  14. Borohydride Reduction of Estrone: Demonstration of Diastereoselectivity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc

    2008-01-01

    This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Chiral hindered ketones such as estrone, undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly diastereoselective manner. The diastereomeric estradiols produced in the reaction can be analyzed and…

  15. A Guided Inquiry Liquid/Liquid Extractions Laboratory for Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raydo, Margaret L.; Church, Megan S.; Taylor, Zane W.; Taylor, Christopher E.; Danowitz, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A guided inquiry laboratory experiment for teaching liquid/liquid extractions to first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students is described. This laboratory is particularly useful for introductory students as the analytes that are separated are highly colored dye molecules. This allows students to track into which phase each analyte

  16. The Implementation of a Service-Learning Component in an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Sarah R.; Sewry, Joyce D.; Bromley, Candice L.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Hlengwa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    avenues for the implementation of service-learning into their curricula. A second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment, in which the undergraduate students make azo dyes, can provide a vehicle for a service-learning module in which university undergraduate

  17. A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

  18. The Implementation of a Service-Learning Component in an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Sarah R.; Sewry, Joyce D.; Bromley, Candice L.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Hlengwa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    avenues for the implementation of service-learning into their curricula. A second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment, in which the undergraduate students make azo dyes, can provide a vehicle for a service-learning module in which university undergraduate…

  19. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  20. Borohydride Reduction of Estrone: Demonstration of Diastereoselectivity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc

    2008-01-01

    This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Chiral hindered ketones such as estrone, undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly diastereoselective manner. The diastereomeric estradiols produced in the reaction can be analyzed and

  1. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  2. A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd

    2008-01-01

    We developed an alternative electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory. The experiment is an electrophilic iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesic, using environmentally friendly reagents--sodium iodide and household bleach. Further, we designed the lab as a guided-inquiry…

  3. A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd

    2008-01-01

    We developed an alternative electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory. The experiment is an electrophilic iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesic, using environmentally friendly reagents--sodium iodide and household bleach. Further, we designed the lab as a guided-inquiry

  4. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and

  5. Engaging Organic Chemistry Students Using ChemDraw for iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Layne A.; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drawing structures, mechanisms, and syntheses is a vital part of success in organic chemistry courses. ChemDraw for iPad has been used to increase classroom experiences in the preparation of high quality chemical drawings. The embedded Flick-to-Share allows for simple, real-time exchange of ChemDraw documents. ChemDraw for iPad also allows

  6. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite

  7. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

  8. A Guided Inquiry Liquid/Liquid Extractions Laboratory for Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raydo, Margaret L.; Church, Megan S.; Taylor, Zane W.; Taylor, Christopher E.; Danowitz, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A guided inquiry laboratory experiment for teaching liquid/liquid extractions to first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students is described. This laboratory is particularly useful for introductory students as the analytes that are separated are highly colored dye molecules. This allows students to track into which phase each analyte…

  9. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible

  10. Predicted versus Actual Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry and Implications for Student Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Performance as measured by grades in the first and second semesters of organic chemistry was predicted using pre-college measures (SAT scores, high school rank, validation exams) and college measures (general chemistry GPA, overall college GPA prior to beginning organic chemistry, first-semester organic chemistry GPA). Data indicate that overall…

  11. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry

  12. Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

  13. Solvated Electrons in Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilich, Predrag-Peter; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Atkins, Adam D.; Mell, Geoffrey J.; Flaherty, Timothy J.; Bruck, Martin J.; Goodrich, Heather A.; Hefel, Aaron L.; Juranic, Nenad; Seleem, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A novel experiment is described in which solvated electrons in liquid ammonia reduce a benzyl alcohol carbon without affecting the aromatic ring. The reductive activity of solvated electrons can be partially or completely quenched through the addition of electron scavengers to the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of these scavengers was found…

  14. Solvated Electrons in Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilich, Predrag-Peter; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Atkins, Adam D.; Mell, Geoffrey J.; Flaherty, Timothy J.; Bruck, Martin J.; Goodrich, Heather A.; Hefel, Aaron L.; Juranic, Nenad; Seleem, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A novel experiment is described in which solvated electrons in liquid ammonia reduce a benzyl alcohol carbon without affecting the aromatic ring. The reductive activity of solvated electrons can be partially or completely quenched through the addition of electron scavengers to the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of these scavengers was found

  15. Piaget and Organic Chemistry: Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry through Learning Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, R. Daniel

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the first application of the Piaget-based learning cycle technique (Atkin & Karplus, Sci. Teach. 1962, 29, 45-51) to an introductory organic chemistry course. It also presents the step-by-step process used to convert a lecture course into a discussion-based active learning course. The course is taught in a series of learning cycles. A learning cycle is a three phase process that provides opportunities for students to explore new material and work with an instructor to recognize logical patterns in data, and devise and test hypotheses. In this application, the first phase, exploration, involves out-of-class student evaluation of data in attempts to identify significant trends and develop hypotheses that might explain the trends in terms of fundamental scientific principles. In the second phase, concept invention, the students and instructor work together in-class to evaluate student hypotheses and find concepts that work best in explaining the data. The third phase, application, is an out-of-class application of the concept to new situations. The development of learning cycles from lecture notes is presented as an 8 step procedure. The process involves revaluation and restructuring of the course material to maintain a continuity of concept development according to the instructor's logic, dividing topics into individual concepts or techniques, and refocusing the presentation in terms of large numbers of examples that can serve as data for students in their exploration and application activities. A sample learning cycle and suggestions for ways of limited implementation of learning cycles into existing courses are also provided.

  16. Student Response to a Partial Inversion of an Organic Chemistry Course for Non-Chemistry Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Kathleen S.; Brookes, David T.

    2015-01-01

    We report the student response to a two-year transformation of a one-semester organic chemistry course for nonchemistry majors. The transformed course adopted a peer led team learning approach and incorporated case studies. Student attitudes toward the course transformation were assessed throughout the semester, and adjustments to the methods were…

  17. Implementing a Student-Designed Green Chemistry Laboratory Project in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Schaller, Chris P.; McIntee, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    A multiweek organic chemistry laboratory project is described that emphasizes sustainable practices in experimental design. An emphasis on student-driven development of the project is meant to mirror the independent nature of research. Students propose environmentally friendly modifications of several reactions. With instructor feedback, students…

  18. Alternative Conceptions of Organic Chemistry Topics among Fourth Year Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Hardy, Rebecca C.; Gwaltney, Kevin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the conceptual understanding for a series of fundamental organic concepts by fourth year chemistry students from a midsize, southeastern, state university. Student volunteers (n = 19) participated in semi-structured interviews using a think aloud protocol. The interview questions were eleven multiple choice questions selected…

  19. Student Response to a Partial Inversion of an Organic Chemistry Course for Non-Chemistry Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Kathleen S.; Brookes, David T.

    2015-01-01

    We report the student response to a two-year transformation of a one-semester organic chemistry course for nonchemistry majors. The transformed course adopted a peer led team learning approach and incorporated case studies. Student attitudes toward the course transformation were assessed throughout the semester, and adjustments to the methods were

  20. Does Mechanistic Thinking Improve Student Success in Organic Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the curved-arrow notation to depict electron flow during mechanistic processes is one of the most important representational conventions in the organic chemistry curriculum. Our previous research documented a disturbing trend: when asked to predict the products of a series of reactions, many students do not spontaneously engage in…

  1. A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havanki, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic…

  2. A Simple Mnemonic for Tautomerization Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Chad E.

    2010-01-01

    The familiar word OREO (as in the cookie) is presented as a simple mnemonic for remembering the basic steps of the classical tautomerization mechanisms in organic chemistry. For acid-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton on, resonance, proton off. For base-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton off, resonance, proton on.…

  3. Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",…

  4. Telling It like It Is: Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2010-01-01

    In this article I support and extend the ideas presented by J. Brent Friesen in his article "Saying What You Mean; Teaching Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry" ("JCE" November, 2008). I emphasize "telling the truth" about proton transfers. The truth is that in aqueous acid most reactions are subject to "specific" acid catalysis: the only kinetically…

  5. How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules. Suggests that some students completing what is typically their second year of college-level chemistry still possess misconceptions about hydrogen bonds. (Contains 21 references.) (ASK)

  6. Omar Yaghi on Chemistry and Metal Organic Frameworks

    ScienceCinema

    Omar Yaghi

    2013-06-24

    In this edited version of the hour long talk, Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, sat down in conversation with Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, on July 11th, 2012 to discuss his fascination with the hidden world of chemistry and his work on Metal Organic Frameworks.

  7. Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",

  8. Non-Mathematical Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Bodner, George M.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in problem-solving ability among organic chemistry graduate students and faculty were studied within the domain of problems that involved the determination of the structure of a molecule from the molecular formula of the compound and a combination of IR and [to the first power]H NMR spectra. The participants' performance on these tasks…

  9. Learning Organic Chemistry through a Study of Semiochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija

    2011-01-01

    The topics of nature, for example semiochemicals, are motivating topics, which can be used to teach organic chemistry at high school level. The history, classifications, a few important applications of semiochemicals, and an semiochemical that can be synthesized in the laboratory are presented. The laboratory synthesis is carried out through the…

  10. Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle was designed to teach about amino acids and functional groups to the students of undergraduate organic chemistry students. The puzzles focus on helping the student learn the name, 3-letter code and 1-letter code of common amino acids and functional groups.

  11. Patterns in Organometallic Chemistry with Application in Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey; Labinger, Jay A.

    1980-01-01

    Of interest in this discussion of organometallic complexes are stoichiometric or catalytic reagents for organic synthesis in the complex transformations observed during synthesis for transition metal organometallic complexes. Detailed are general reaction types from which the chemistry or many transition metal organometallic complexes can be…

  12. TECHNETIUM CHEMISTRY IN HLW: ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPLEXANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technetium complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remo...

  13. Integrating Symmetry in Stereochemical Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of students--two that…

  14. The Role of Spatial Ability and Achievement in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Jeffrey R.; Bodner, George M.

    This study investigated the role that spatial ability has in achievement in organic chemistry. Spatial ability was defined as containing two subfactors--spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Spatial visualization is the ability to mentally manipulate pictorially presented stimuli; involved in the processes of manipulation are the…

  15. Omar Yaghi on Chemistry and Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Omar Yaghi

    2012-07-23

    In this edited version of the hour long talk, Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, sat down in conversation with Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, on July 11th, 2012 to discuss his fascination with the hidden world of chemistry and his work on Metal Organic Frameworks.

  16. Does Mechanistic Thinking Improve Student Success in Organic Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the curved-arrow notation to depict electron flow during mechanistic processes is one of the most important representational conventions in the organic chemistry curriculum. Our previous research documented a disturbing trend: when asked to predict the products of a series of reactions, many students do not spontaneously engage in

  17. Learning Organic Chemistry through a Study of Semiochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija

    2011-01-01

    The topics of nature, for example semiochemicals, are motivating topics, which can be used to teach organic chemistry at high school level. The history, classifications, a few important applications of semiochemicals, and an semiochemical that can be synthesized in the laboratory are presented. The laboratory synthesis is carried out through the

  18. A Noncompetitive Introductory Organic Chemistry Course for Premedical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vournakis, John N.

    1974-01-01

    Two objectives of the course are the removal of student-student competition replacing it with student-content involvement, and the improvement of the level of understanding of organic chemistry. These objectives are approached through a modified Keller plan with a series of study guides and quizzes as the core material. (GS)

  19. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.

    PubMed

    Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2014-01-14

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

  20. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

  1. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki–Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a “green” alcohol solvent. The experiment employs heterocyclic substrates, which are important pharmaceutical building blocks. Thus, this laboratory procedure exposes students to a variety of contemporary topics in organic chemistry, including transition metal-catalyzed cross-couplings, green chemistry, and the importance of heterocycles in drug discovery, none of which are well represented in typical undergraduate organic chemistry curricula. The experimental protocol uses commercially available reagents and is useful in both organic and inorganic instructional laboratories. PMID:25774064

  2. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing of Aqueous Iron: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Stuart, Dean; Gray, H. Neil

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory experiment to illustrate the use of spectroelectrochemical techniques for determination of aqueous iron. The experiment described in this article is applicable to an undergraduate laboratory course in analytical chemistry. Students are asked to fabricate spectroelectrochemical sensors, make electrochemical and optical…

  3. Some Experiments in Sulfur-Nitrogen Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banister, Arthur J.; Smith, Nigel R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly surveys the main structural types of sulfur-nitrogen compounds, and describes syntheses, suitable as undergraduate experiments, which illustrate four of the five types of cyclic species. Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of results for these experiments are provided. (Author/JN)

  4. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  5. Statistical Analysis Experiment for Freshman Chemistry Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment dissolving zinc from galvanized nails in which data can be gathered very quickly for statistical analysis. The data have sufficient significant figures and the experiment yields a nice distribution of random errors. Freshman students can gain an appreciation of the relationships between random error, number of…

  6. Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Clyde E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

  7. Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Clyde E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.

  8. [Lipases in catalytic reactions of organic chemistry].

    PubMed

    Bezborodov, A M; Zagustina, N A

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of enzymatic catalysis in lipase-catalyzed reactions of organic synthesis are discussed in the review. The data on modern methods of protein engineering and enzyme modification allowing a broader range of used substrates are briefly summarized. The application of lipase in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals containing no inactive enantiomers and in the synthesis of secondary alcohol enantiomers and optically active amides is demonstrated. The subject of lipase involvement in the C-C bond formation in the Michael reaction is discussed. Data on the enzymatic synthesis of construction materials--polyesters, siloxanes, etc.--are presented. Examples demonstrating the application of lipase enzymatic catalysis in industry are given. PMID:25707112

  9. A Statistical Evaluation: Peer-led Team Learning in an Organic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Kenneth S.; Robinson, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Reports the status of peer-led learning, also known as Workshop Chemistry. This National Science Foundation (NSF) systemic-reform initiative focuses on general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. (DDR)

  10. Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

    2011-01-01

    With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis

  11. Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

    2011-01-01

    With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis…

  12. Organic Chemistry in Action! Developing an Intervention Program for Introductory Organic Chemistry to Improve Learners' Understanding, Interest, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The main areas of difficulty experienced by those teaching and learning organic chemistry at high school and introductory university level in Ireland have been identified, and the findings support previous studies in Ireland and globally. Using these findings and insights from chemistry education research (CER), the Organic Chemistry in Action!…

  13. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  14. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  15. The Importance of Undergraduate General and Organic Chemistry to the Study of Biochemistry in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates chemistry topics necessary to facilitate the study of biochemistry in U.S. medical schools. Lists topics considered especially important and topics considered especially unimportant in general chemistry and organic chemistry. Suggests that in teaching undergraduate general or organic chemistry, the topics categorized as exceptionally…

  16. Chemistry and Flatulence: An Introductory Enzyme Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardee, John R.; Montgomery, Tina M.; Jones, Wray H.

    2000-04-01

    An inexpensive introductory-level enzyme experiment was developed using raffinose family sugars extracted from green split peas as a substrate and the enzymes alpha-galactosidase and sucrase found in Beano. The reaction studied was the hydrolysis of raffinose family sugars to galactose, glucose, and fructose, and the reaction rate was determined using a retail glucometer to measure the concentration of glucose. Results are given on the effect of substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, temperature, and heavy metals on enzyme activity.

  17. A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havanki, Katherine L.

    This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic chemistry notation was proposed that accounts for the movement of the eyes across the chemical equation (get next); the search of a chemical structure for key features (search); the encoding of features to create an internal representation (encoding and access lexicon); the assignments of relationships among features in the same molecule (intramolecular relationship) and between molecules (intermolecular relationship); and a check of the internal representation for inconsistencies (reaction wrap-up). Two studies were conducted in this investigation. The first study assessed the validity and ability of the Complexity Rubric for Organic Chemistry Notation to quantify visual complexity of structural formulas. A three-part investigation examined the content of the rubric, its capacity to measure visual complexity, and its ability to predict visual complexity as perceived by novices. The results suggest that the rubric differentiates structural formulas with high visual complexity from those with medium-low visual complexity. A follow-up study examined the effect of prior knowledge on the encoding of organic formulas and suggests that knowledge from domains outside chemistry plays a role in the perceived complexity of structural formulas. In the second study, eye tracking methodology was used to validate the proposed process model for the comprehension of organic chemistry notation and examine factors that affect these processes. Eight instructors and 19 students were eye tracked while reading five high/low complexity pairs of organic chemistry equations for comprehension. The frequency, duration, and sequence of participants' eye fixations were examined. The results provide evidence for each stage of the proposed process model and suggest that visual complexity of the equation, as measured by the rubric, significantly affects the viewing patterns of participants. Expertise of the participant was also shown to play a significant role in viewing patterns. The effects of working memory capacity and spatial ability were shown to be less consistent and may be topic dependent.

  18. Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business…

  19. Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  1. Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

  2. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  3. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer

  4. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

  5. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of

  6. UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhabanandana, Salag

    This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

  7. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Ace: Latest Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2011-06-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination low earth orbit gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 Cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 750--4400 cm-1 that measures the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored using the extinction of solar radiation by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. Although now in its eighth year, the ACE-FTS is still operating nominally. An short introduction and overview of the ACE mission will be presented (see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca for more information and reprints of published papers). Science results discussed will include the observation of organic molecules associated with air pollution, greenhouse gases (including CO_2) and aerosols. ACE retrievals are dependent on line parameters and absorption cross sections measured in the laboratory; the talk will highlight the spectroscopic aspects of the ACE mission including the need for non-Voigt lineshape functions.

  8. A Forty Year Odyssey in Metallo-Organic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2015-07-17

    In this invited Perspective, I provide a personal account highlighting several of my group's research contributions in metallo-organic chemistry over the past 40 years. Our early work focused primarily in stoichiometric structure/reactivity of transition metal-organic compounds and their use in organic synthesis. More recent efforts have centered on the discovery and development of new metal-catalyzed organic reactions via reactive metal-organic intermediates. The major research findings that are described here include (1) propargyl-cobalt complexes as electrophilic agents for C-C and C-Nu coupling; (2) the activation of carbon dioxide by metal complexes; (3) metal-promoted C-H nitrogenation reactions; (4) oxo-metal catalyzed deoxygenation reactions; and (5) catalyst discovery via dynamic templating with substrate- and transition-state analogues. PMID:26035082

  9. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  10. Mixed-Methods Study of Online and Written Organic Chemistry Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Kinza; Martinez, Nylvia; Romero, Juan; Schubel, Skyler; Janowicz, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Connect for organic chemistry is an online learning tool that gives students the opportunity to learn about all aspects of organic chemistry through the ease of the digital world. This research project consisted of two fundamental questions. The first was to discover whether there was a difference in undergraduate organic chemistry content…

  11. Mixed-Methods Study of Online and Written Organic Chemistry Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Kinza; Martinez, Nylvia; Romero, Juan; Schubel, Skyler; Janowicz, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Connect for organic chemistry is an online learning tool that gives students the opportunity to learn about all aspects of organic chemistry through the ease of the digital world. This research project consisted of two fundamental questions. The first was to discover whether there was a difference in undergraduate organic chemistry content

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kuan, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

  13. Recent Discoveries and Future Challenges in Atmospheric Organic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Glasius, Marianne; Goldstein, Allen H

    2016-03-15

    Earth's atmosphere contains a multitude of organic compounds, which differ by orders of magnitude regarding fundamental properties such as volatility, reactivity, and propensity to form cloud droplets, affecting their impact on global climate and human health. Despite recent major research efforts and advances, there are still substantial gaps in understanding of atmospheric organic chemistry, hampering efforts to understand, model, and mitigate environmental problems such as aerosol formation in both polluted urban and more pristine regions. The analytical toolbox available for chemists to study atmospheric organic components has expanded considerably during the past decade, opening new windows into speciation, time resolution and detection of reactive and semivolatile compounds at low concentrations. This has provided unprecedented opportunities, but also unveiled new scientific challenges. Specific groundbreaking examples include the role of epoxides in aerosol formation especially from isoprene, the importance of highly oxidized, reactive organics in air-surface processes (whether atmosphere-biosphere exchange or aerosols), as well as the extent of interactions of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and the resulting impact on atmospheric organic chemistry. PMID:26862779

  14. NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

  15. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date. PMID:23548024

  16. Planetary Organic Chemistry and the Origins of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Steven A.; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myung-Jung; Ricardo, Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemistry on a planetary scale is likely to have transformed carbon dioxide and reduced carbon species delivered to an accreting Earth. According to various models for the origin of life on Earth, biological molecules that jump-started Darwinian evolution arose via this planetary chemistry. The grandest of these models assumes that ribonucleic acid (RNA) arose prebiotically, together with components for compartments that held it and a primitive metabolism that nourished it. Unfortunately, it has been challenging to identify possible prebiotic chemistry that might have created RNA. Organic molecules, given energy, have a well-known propensity to form multiple products, sometimes referred to collectively as “tar” or “tholin.” These mixtures appear to be unsuited to support Darwinian processes, and certainly have never been observed to spontaneously yield a homochiral genetic polymer. To date, proposed solutions to this challenge either involve too much direct human intervention to satisfy many in the community, or generate molecules that are unreactive “dead ends” under standard conditions of temperature and pressure. Carbohydrates, organic species having carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a ratio of 1:2:1 and an aldehyde or ketone group, conspicuously embody this challenge. They are components of RNA and their reactivity can support both interesting spontaneous chemistry as part of a “carbohydrate world,” but they also easily form mixtures, polymers and tars. We describe here the latest thoughts on how on this challenge, focusing on how it might be resolved using minerals containing borate, silicate, and molybdate, inter alia. PMID:20504964

  17. Integration of Video-Based Demonstrations to Prepare Students for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Scaggs, Jonathan; Sheffield, Colin; McDougal, Owen M.

    2015-08-01

    Consistent, high-quality introductions to organic chemistry laboratory techniques effectively and efficiently support student learning in the organic chemistry laboratory. In this work, we developed and deployed a series of instructional videos to communicate core laboratory techniques and concepts. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested the videos in five traditional laboratory experiments by integrating them with the standard pre-laboratory student preparation presentations and instructor demonstrations. We assessed the influence of the videos on student laboratory knowledge and performance, using sections of students who did not view the videos as the control. Our analysis of pre-quizzes revealed the control group had equivalent scores to the treatment group, while the post-quiz results show consistently greater learning gains for the treatment group. Additionally, the students who watched the videos as part of their pre-laboratory instruction completed their experiments in less time.

  18. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    PubMed

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration. PMID:26148149

  19. Tropospheric chemistry of internally mixed sea salt and organic particles: Surprising reactivity of NaCl with weak organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, Pascal; Shutthanandan, Janani

    2012-08-01

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected onboard the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and in particular hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles, may result in formation of organic salts that will modify the acidity, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aged particles.

  20. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

    2012-08-03

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  1. Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder

  2. Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder…

  3. Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners' Experiences in High School Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Annette; Smith, K. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences of Spanish-speaking English language learners in high school chemistry courses, focusing largely on experiences in learning the English language, experiences learning chemistry, and experiences learning chemistry in the English language. The findings illustrate the cognitive processes the students undertake

  4. Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners' Experiences in High School Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Annette; Smith, K. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences of Spanish-speaking English language learners in high school chemistry courses, focusing largely on experiences in learning the English language, experiences learning chemistry, and experiences learning chemistry in the English language. The findings illustrate the cognitive processes the students undertake…

  5. The chemistry of cyborgs--interfacing technical devices with organisms.

    PubMed

    Giselbrecht, Stefan; Rapp, Bastian E; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2013-12-23

    The term "cyborg" refers to a cybernetic organism, which characterizes the chimera of a living organism and a machine. Owing to the widespread application of intracorporeal medical devices, cyborgs are no longer exclusively a subject of science fiction novels, but technically they already exist in our society. In this review, we briefly summarize the development of modern prosthetics and the evolution of brain-machine interfaces, and discuss the latest technical developments of implantable devices, in particular, biocompatible integrated electronics and microfluidics used for communication and control of living organisms. Recent examples of animal cyborgs and their relevance to fundamental and applied biomedical research and bioethics in this novel and exciting field at the crossroads of chemistry, biomedicine, and the engineering sciences are presented. PMID:24288270

  6. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  7. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The

  8. Biocatalysis in organic chemistry and biotechnology: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Reetz, Manfred T

    2013-08-28

    Enzymes as catalysts in synthetic organic chemistry gained importance in the latter half of the 20th century, but nevertheless suffered from two major limitations. First, many enzymes were not accessible in large enough quantities for practical applications. The advent of recombinant DNA technology changed this dramatically in the late 1970s. Second, many enzymes showed a narrow substrate scope, often poor stereo- and/or regioselectivity and/or insufficient stability under operating conditions. With the development of directed evolution beginning in the 1990s and continuing to the present day, all of these problems can be addressed and generally solved. The present Perspective focuses on these and other developments which have popularized enzymes as part of the toolkit of synthetic organic chemists and biotechnologists. Included is a discussion of the scope and limitation of cascade reactions using enzyme mixtures in vitro and of metabolic engineering of pathways in cells as factories for the production of simple compounds such as biofuels and complex natural products. Future trends and problems are also highlighted, as is the discussion concerning biocatalysis versus nonbiological catalysis in synthetic organic chemistry. This Perspective does not constitute a comprehensive review, and therefore the author apologizes to those researchers whose work is not specifically treated here. PMID:23930719

  9. Directed evolution of aldolases for exploitation in synthetic organic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Amanda; Berry, Alan; Nelson, Adam

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the directed evolution of aldolases with synthetically useful properties. Directed evolution has been used to address a number of limitations associated with the use of wild-type aldolases as catalysts in synthetic organic chemistry. The generation of aldolase enzymes with a modified or expanded substrate repertoire is described. Particular emphasis is placed on the directed evolution of aldolases with modified stereochemical properties: such enzymes can be useful catalysts in the stereoselective synthesis of biologically active small molecules. The review also describes some of the fundamental insights into mechanistic enzymology that directed evolution can provide. PMID:18230325

  10. Modules for Introducing Organometallic Reactions: A Bridge between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic reactions have become increasingly important in the synthesis of organic molecules. A new approach has been developed to introduce organometallic chemistry, along with organic and inorganic chemistry, at the foundational level. This change highlights applications of organometallic chemistry that have dramatically…

  11. Modules for Introducing Organometallic Reactions: A Bridge between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic reactions have become increasingly important in the synthesis of organic molecules. A new approach has been developed to introduce organometallic chemistry, along with organic and inorganic chemistry, at the foundational level. This change highlights applications of organometallic chemistry that have dramatically

  12. Molecular Images in Organic Chemistry: Assessment of Understanding in Aromaticity, Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Shielding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Hermanson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    When students take General Chemistry there are substantially fewer molecular images than they will encounter in Organic Chemistry. The molecular images Organic Chemistry students see in their textbooks are ones that use dashes and wedges to represent 2D and semi 3D views, ball and spoke, ball and wire, and structural formulas, to name just a few.…

  13. Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

  14. Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, Snia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mourio, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R.

    2000-02-01

    Agronomy students generally lack interest in chemistry. The objective of this work was to modify the analytical chemistry curriculum to increase student interest. Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses. Evaluation of several chemical and physicochemical parameters of samples demonstrated in a clear way the application of the theoretical and practical concepts of chemistry.

  15. Interstellar Ice Chemistry: From Water to Complex Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberg, Karin I.; Fayolle, E.; Linnartz, H.; van Dishoeck, E.; Fillion, J.; Bertin, M.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular cloud cores, protostellar envelopes and protoplanetary disk midplanes are all characterized by freeze-out of atoms and molecules (other than H and H2) onto interstellar dust grains. On the grain surface, atom addition reactions, especially hydrogenation, are efficient and H2O forms readily from O, CH3OH from CO etc. The result is an icy mantle typically dominated by H2O, but also rich in CO2, CO, NH3, CH3OH and CH4. These ices are further processed through interactions with radiation, electrons and energetic particles. Because of the efficiency of the freeze-out process, and the complex chemistry that succeeds it, these icy grain mantles constitute a major reservoir of volatiles during star formation and are also the source of much of the chemical evolution observed in star forming regions. Laboratory experiments allow us to explore how molecules and radicals desorb, dissociate, diffuse and react in ices when exposed to different sources of energy. Changes in ice composition and structure is constrained using infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By comparing ice desorption, segregation, and chemistry efficiencies under different experimental conditions, we can characterize the basic ice processes, e.g. diffusion of different species, that underpin the observable changes in ice composition and structure. This information can then be used to predict the interstellar ice chemical evolution. I will review some of the key laboratory discoveries on ice chemistry during the past few years and how they have been used to predict and interpret astronomical observations of ice bands and gas-phase molecules associated with ice evaporation. These include measurements of thermal diffusion in and evaporation from ice mixtures, non-thermal diffusion efficiencies (including the recent results on frequency resolved UV photodesorption), and the expected temperature dependencies of the complex ice chemistry regulated by radical formation and diffusion. Based on these examples I will argue that the combination of laboratory experiments and observations is crucial to formulate and to test hypotheses on key processes that regulate the interstellar ice chemistry.

  16. Quantum chemistry simulation on quantum computers: theories and experiments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dawei; Xu, Boruo; Xu, Nanyang; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng

    2012-07-14

    It has been claimed that quantum computers can mimic quantum systems efficiently in the polynomial scale. Traditionally, those simulations are carried out numerically on classical computers, which are inevitably confronted with the exponential growth of required resources, with the increasing size of quantum systems. Quantum computers avoid this problem, and thus provide a possible solution for large quantum systems. In this paper, we first discuss the ideas of quantum simulation, the background of quantum simulators, their categories, and the development in both theories and experiments. We then present a brief introduction to quantum chemistry evaluated via classical computers followed by typical procedures of quantum simulation towards quantum chemistry. Reviewed are not only theoretical proposals but also proof-of-principle experimental implementations, via a small quantum computer, which include the evaluation of the static molecular eigenenergy and the simulation of chemical reaction dynamics. Although the experimental development is still behind the theory, we give prospects and suggestions for future experiments. We anticipate that in the near future quantum simulation will become a powerful tool for quantum chemistry over classical computations. PMID:22652702

  17. Analysis of the Effect of Sequencing Lecture and Laboratory Instruction on Student Learning and Motivation Towards Learning Chemistry in an Organic Chemistry Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhira, Deblina

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic chemistry concepts in the laboratory can positively affect student performance, learning new chemistry concepts and building motivation towards learning chemistry in the lecture. In this study, quantitative methods were employed to assess differences in student performance, learning, and motivation in an organic chemistry

  18. Invitation to Organic Chemistry (by A. William Johnson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Reviewed By Richard

    2000-04-01

    The book is directed at the one-semester organic course taught at most colleges and universities. Students in these classes are typically enrolled in agricultural, environmental, forestry, and health-related programs and need a basic level of understanding of organic chemistry principles for their chosen occupations (whether they realize it or not!). Oftentimes this class is taught without a lab and it represents the first and only time that organic principles are presented to these students. The text is divided into functional group-based chapters, as are most texts. However, Johnson believes in providing information on a "just-in-time" basis. For example, Chapter 1 (Carbon Compounds: Bonding and Structure) presents sp3 carbon hydridization and reserves complete discussion of sp2 and sp hybridization for Chapters 6 and 7. At this point the student has been exposed to the conformational aspects of cyclohexanes (Chapter 2), enantiomers (briefly, Chapter 3), and carbohydrates (Chapter 4). This format can be difficult to get used to. Discussing molecular shape in Chapter 1 without full knowledge of the hybridization and bond angles of double and triple bonds seems incomplete. However, on the plus side of such an approach, leaving out a lot of the "stuff I have to memorize" allows more room for the presentation of "real-life" materials such as carbohydrates, a subject of tremendous importance to the students enrolled in one-semester organic classes. Too often this material, along with nucleic acids, fats, and proteins, is given only cursory mention, if any at all. This is unfortunate. The chemistry of these compounds is precisely what should be emphasized to this audience!

  19. CHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN TWO STREAMS DRAINING FORESTED WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration, major fractions, and contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) to stream chemistry were examined in two paired streams draining upland catchments in eastern Maine. oncentrations of DOC in East and West Bear Brooks were 183 +/- 73 and 169 +/- 70 umol CL-1 (...

  20. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

    2003-05-01

    For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

  1. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  2. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D; Schilling, Katherine A; Loza, Christine L; Craven, Jill S; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-16

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process. PMID:23818634

  3. Organic Chemistry Students' Ideas about Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: The Role of Charges and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) used by practicing organic chemists. Faculty have identified an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles as one conceptual prerequisite to mastery of the EPF, but little is known about organic chemistry students' knowledge of nucleophiles…

  4. Impact of a Library Instruction Session on Bibliographies of Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromer, John

    2015-01-01

    Students in Chemistry 254: Organic Chemistry for Majors were required to write a paper about an organic name reaction. Before turning in this assignment, students had the option of attending a one-hour library instruction session covering SciFinder, sources for spectra, ACS Style, and print resources about organic name reactions. Twenty-five…

  5. Lesson Planner for Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry Videodisc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovell, Todd A.

    1995-09-01

    Lesson Planner is a Microsoft Excel (1) macro that generates barcodes for video included on the Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry videodisc (2). It allows instructors who do not have computer control capability for their videodisc player, but do have a barcode reader, to prepare customized lessons for use in the classroom or laboratory. There is no need to flip through pages in the documentation manual or photocopy pages of barcodes and physically cut and paste them to follow your lecture notes. Lesson Planner includes a complete list of the demonstrations and all sections and subsections included on the videodisc. You simply select the entire demos, sections, or subsections of demos you want to include in your presentation and add them to a lesson list with a mouse click. Lesson Planner generates a list of your selections with barcodes to access the correct video frames. Simply print a copy of the lesson on a laser printer and you are ready to go.

  6. Reactive Heterogeneous Chemistry on Organic Aerosols: Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatt, J.; Braban, C.; Broekhuizen, K.; Thornberry, T.; Thornton, J.

    2003-12-01

    Two sets of laboratory studies will be discussed to illustrate the impact that heterogeneous chemistry involving tropospheric organic aerosols may have on both the gas-phase composition of the atmosphere and the chemical nature of the particles themselves. In the first case, the reactive uptake coefficient for the hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on organic aerosols has been measured in an entrained aerosol flow tube coupled to a Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). The general observation is that the reaction on aqueous malonic acid aerosols behaves in an analogous manner to that on aqueous inorganic salts, i.e. the uptake coefficient shows a linear dependence on the particle water content up to 50% relative humidity (RH), at which point the effect saturates. In addition, there is evidence for the kinetics being dependent on both the size of the particles and the levels of dissolved nitrate. By contrast, the N2O5 hydrolysis kinetics on solid azelaic acid particles are too slow to be atmospherically significant, even at 85% RH. In the second case, the kinetics and product yields from the oxidation of liquid oleic acid by ozone have been studied in considerable detail, with emphasis on the quantification of gas-phase products (nonanal) by CIMS and water-soluble species by HPLC/Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (azelaic acid, nonanoic acid). The atmospheric importance of these results will be discussed, in particular with respect to the role of organic aerosol oxidation as a source of cloud condensation nuclei.

  7. Irradiated Benzene Ice Provides Clues to Meteoritic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael Patrick; Gerakines, Perry Alexander; Martin, Mildred G.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Peeters, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

  8. What Does the Acid Ionization Constant Tell You? An Organic Chemistry Student Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Many students find the transition from first-year general chemistry to second-year organic chemistry a daunting task. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is their lack of a solid understanding and appreciation of the importance of some basic concepts and principles from general chemistry that play an extremely critical role in…

  9. What Does the Acid Ionization Constant Tell You? An Organic Chemistry Student Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Many students find the transition from first-year general chemistry to second-year organic chemistry a daunting task. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is their lack of a solid understanding and appreciation of the importance of some basic concepts and principles from general chemistry that play an extremely critical role in

  10. Spatial ability and its role in organic chemistry: A study of four organic courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Jeffrey R.; Bodner, George M.

    The relationship between spatial ability and performance in organic chemistry was studied in four organic chemistry courses designed for students with a variety of majors including agriculture, biology, health sciences, pre-med, pre-vet, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, chemistry, and chemical engineering.Students with high spatial scores did significantly better on questions which required problem solving skills, such as completing a reaction or outlining a multi-step synthesis, and questions which required students to mentally manipulate two-dimensional representations of a molecule. Spatial ability was not significant, however, for questions which could be answered by rote memory or by the application of simple algorithms.Students who drew preliminary figures or extra figures when answering questions were more likely to get the correct answer. High spatial ability students were more likely to draw preliminary figures, even for questions that did not explicitly require these drawings. When questions required preliminary or extra figures, low spatial ability students were more likely to draw figures that were incorrect. Low spatial ability students were also more likely to draw structures that were lopsided, ill-proportioned, and nonsymmetric.The results of this study are interpreted in terms of a model which argues that high spatial ability students are better at the early stages of problem solving described as understanding the problem. A model is also discussed which explains why students who draw preliminary or extra figures for questions are more likely to get correct answers.

  11. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  12. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator

  13. Bringing Research into a First Semester Organic Chemistry Laboratory with the Multistep Synthesis of Carbohydrate-Based HIV Inhibitor Mimics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of incorporating research experiences into laboratory courses have been well documented, yet examples of research projects designed for the first semester introductory organic chemistry lab course are extremely rare. To address this deficiency, a Carbohydrate-Based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Inhibitor project consisting of a

  14. Bringing Research into a First Semester Organic Chemistry Laboratory with the Multistep Synthesis of Carbohydrate-Based HIV Inhibitor Mimics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of incorporating research experiences into laboratory courses have been well documented, yet examples of research projects designed for the first semester introductory organic chemistry lab course are extremely rare. To address this deficiency, a Carbohydrate-Based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Inhibitor project consisting of a…

  15. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry

  16. Development and Implementation of a Two-Semester Introductory Organic-Bioorganic Chemistry Sequence: Conclusions from the First Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goess, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    A two-semester second-year introductory organic chemistry sequence featuring one semester of accelerated organic chemistry followed by one semester of bioorganic chemistry is described. Assessment data collected over a six-year period reveal that such a course sequence can facilitate student mastery of fundamental organic chemistry in the first…

  17. Development and Implementation of a Two-Semester Introductory Organic-Bioorganic Chemistry Sequence: Conclusions from the First Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goess, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    A two-semester second-year introductory organic chemistry sequence featuring one semester of accelerated organic chemistry followed by one semester of bioorganic chemistry is described. Assessment data collected over a six-year period reveal that such a course sequence can facilitate student mastery of fundamental organic chemistry in the first

  18. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Homeyer, C. R.; Nault, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Pan, L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June 2012 and had the objectives of characterizing the effect of thunderstorms on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere and determining the chemical aging of upper troposphere (UT) convective outflow plumes. DC3 employed ground-based radars, lightning mapping arrays, and weather balloon soundings in conjunction with aircraft measurements sampling the composition of the inflow and outflow of a variety of thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, West Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the UT convective plume. The DC3 data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, and chemistry in the UT that is affected by the convection. In this presentation, we give an overview of the DC3 field campaign and highlight results from the campaign that are relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. These highlights include stratosphere-troposphere exchange in connection with thunderstorms, the 0-12 hour chemical aging and new particle formation in the UT outflow of a dissipating mesoscale convective system observed on June 21, 2012, and UT chemical aging in convective outflow as sampled the day after convection occurred and modeled in the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry model.

  19. Perception of the Relevance of Organic Chemistry in a German Pharmacy Students' Course.

    PubMed

    Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program. PMID:27170811

  20. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Penn, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were…

  1. Using Structure-Based Organic Chemistry Online Tutorials with Automated Correction for Student Practice and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Timothy P.; Hargaden, Gra´inne C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an open-access organic chemistry question bank for online tutorials and assessments at University College Cork and Dublin Institute of Technology. SOCOT (structure-based organic chemistry online tutorials) may be used to supplement traditional small-group tutorials, thereby allowing…

  2. Introducing Undergraduates to Research Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Organic Chemistry Miniproject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Deyvid G. M.; Rosa, Clarissa H.; Vargas, Bruna P.; Rosa, Diego S.; Silveira, Marcia V.; de Moura, Neusa F.; Rosa, Gilber R.

    2015-01-01

    A five-week miniproject is described for an upper-division experimental organic chemistry course. The activities include synthesis of a phenylboronic acid via a Grignard reaction and its use in a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Technical skills and concepts normally presented in practical organic chemistry courses are covered, including

  3. Introducing Undergraduates to Research Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Organic Chemistry Miniproject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Deyvid G. M.; Rosa, Clarissa H.; Vargas, Bruna P.; Rosa, Diego S.; Silveira, Ma´rcia V.; de Moura, Neusa F.; Rosa, Gilber R.

    2015-01-01

    A five-week miniproject is described for an upper-division experimental organic chemistry course. The activities include synthesis of a phenylboronic acid via a Grignard reaction and its use in a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Technical skills and concepts normally presented in practical organic chemistry courses are covered, including…

  4. Organic Chemistry and the Native Plants of the Sonoran Desert: Conversion of Jojoba Oil to Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daconta, Lisa V.; Minger, Timothy; Nedelkova, Valentina; Zikopoulos, John N.

    2015-01-01

    A new, general approach to the organic chemistry laboratory is introduced that is based on learning about organic chemistry techniques and research methods by exploring the natural products found in local native plants. As an example of this approach for the Sonoran desert region, the extraction of jojoba oil and its transesterification to…

  5. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Penn, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were

  6. Integration of Video-Based Demonstrations to Prepare Students for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Scaggs, Jonathan; Sheffield, Colin; McDougal, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent, high-quality introductions to organic chemistry laboratory techniques effectively and efficiently support student learning in the organic chemistry laboratory. In this work, we developed and deployed a series of instructional videos to communicate core laboratory techniques and concepts. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested the…

  7. Integration of Video-Based Demonstrations to Prepare Students for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Scaggs, Jonathan; Sheffield, Colin; McDougal, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent, high-quality introductions to organic chemistry laboratory techniques effectively and efficiently support student learning in the organic chemistry laboratory. In this work, we developed and deployed a series of instructional videos to communicate core laboratory techniques and concepts. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested the

  8. Organic Chemistry and the Native Plants of the Sonoran Desert: Conversion of Jojoba Oil to Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daconta, Lisa V.; Minger, Timothy; Nedelkova, Valentina; Zikopoulos, John N.

    2015-01-01

    A new, general approach to the organic chemistry laboratory is introduced that is based on learning about organic chemistry techniques and research methods by exploring the natural products found in local native plants. As an example of this approach for the Sonoran desert region, the extraction of jojoba oil and its transesterification to

  9. The Use of Computer-Based Instruction in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, George H.

    Thirty-two computer-based lesson modules in organic chemistry were developed at the University of Texas (Austin) over an 18-month period and evaluated in varying classroom situations for three semesters starting in the Fall of 1972. The modules were designed as supplements to the traditional organic chemistry course of the University. As such,…

  10. Using Structure-Based Organic Chemistry Online Tutorials with Automated Correction for Student Practice and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Timothy P.; Hargaden, Grainne C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an open-access organic chemistry question bank for online tutorials and assessments at University College Cork and Dublin Institute of Technology. SOCOT (structure-based organic chemistry online tutorials) may be used to supplement traditional small-group tutorials, thereby allowing

  11. Analysis of the Effect of Sequencing Lecture and Laboratory Instruction on Student Learning and Motivation Towards Learning Chemistry in an Organic Chemistry Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhira, Deblina

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic chemistry concepts in the laboratory can positively affect student performance, learning new chemistry concepts and building motivation towards learning chemistry in the lecture. In this study, quantitative methods were employed to assess differences in student performance, learning, and motivation in an organic chemistry…

  12. Organic Chemistry of the Cell: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Learning with a Focus on Reading, Analyzing, and Critiquing Primary Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Craig A.; Liotta, Louis J.

    2005-12-01

    A sophomore-level learning community entitled Organic Chemistry of the Cell has been designed that is comprised of two linked courses, Organic Chemistry I and Cell Biology, and an Integrative Seminar. The Integrative Seminar is grounded in the reading, critical analysis, and discussion of primary literature that ties together organic chemistry and cell biology. Each student takes on the roles of learner, facilitator, and research proposal writer throughout the semester. Students take an active role in their learning; student teams lead the class through an in-depth analysis of selected articles. This leadership role requires the students to understand and be familiar with the relevant background knowledge, the experiments conducted, the interpretation of data, and conclusions drawn from that data. The discussion leaders must also be able to organize and prioritize the information and their thoughts, and be able to clearly communicate to their classmates in an engaging manner. The seminar culminates with student teams developing research proposals that outline experiments addressing a specific area of interest on the boundary between organic chemistry and cell biology. The proposals are communicated in both written and oral forms allowing fellow students to evaluate and expand upon the proposed ideas.

  13. Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    McNeill, V Faye

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed. PMID:25609552

  14. The Influence of First-Year Chemistry Students' Learning Experiences on Their Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here examined factors that influence student tertiary level chemistry enrolment choices. Students enrolled in a first-year chemistry class were surveyed, using the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), three times throughout their academic year: at the start of the year (n=126), the end of the first…

  15. The Influence of First-Year Chemistry Students' Learning Experiences on Their Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here examined factors that influence student tertiary level chemistry enrolment choices. Students enrolled in a first-year chemistry class were surveyed, using the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), three times throughout their academic year: at the start of the year (n=126), the end of the first

  16. Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

    The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general chemistry grade was the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry. The importance of other independent variables in explaining organic chemistry achievement varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between independent variables and organic chemistry achievement than females. The report contains 19 tables detailing the statistical analyses. Suggestions for improved practice and further research are also included

  17. A context based approach using Green Chemistry/Bio-remediation principles to enhance interest and learning of organic chemistry in a high school AP chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tricia

    The ability of our planet to sustain life and heal itself is not as predictable as it used to be. Our need for educated future scientists who know what our planet needs, and can passionately apply that knowledge to find solutions should be at the heart of science education today. This study of learning organic chemistry through the lens of the environmental problem "What should be done with our food scraps?" explores student interest, and mastery of certain concepts in organic chemistry. This Green Chemistry/ Bio-remediation context-based teaching approach utilizes the Nature MillRTM, which is an indoor food waste composting machine, to learn about organic chemistry, and how this relates to landfill reduction possibilities, and resource production. During this unit students collected food waste from their cafeteria, and used the Nature MillRTM to convert food waste into compost. The use of these hands on activities, and group discussions in a context-based environment enhanced their interest in organic chemistry, and paper chromatography. According to a one-tailed paired T-test, the result show that this context-based approach is a significant way to increase both student interest and mastery of the content.

  18. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  19. A Collaborative, Wiki-Based Organic Chemistry Project Incorporating Free Chemistry Software on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael J.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, postsecondary instructors have recognized the potential of wikis to transform the way students learn in a collaborative environment. However, few instructors have embraced in-depth student use of chemistry software for the creation of interactive chemistry content on the Web. Using currently available software, students are able…

  20. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map II: Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey; Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    As a way to assist chemistry departments with programmatic assessment of undergraduate chemistry curricula, the ACS Examinations Institute is devising a map of the content taught throughout the undergraduate curriculum. The structure of the map is hierarchal, with large grain size at the top and more content detail as one moves "down"

  1. A Collaborative, Wiki-Based Organic Chemistry Project Incorporating Free Chemistry Software on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael J.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, postsecondary instructors have recognized the potential of wikis to transform the way students learn in a collaborative environment. However, few instructors have embraced in-depth student use of chemistry software for the creation of interactive chemistry content on the Web. Using currently available software, students are able

  2. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map II: Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey; Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    As a way to assist chemistry departments with programmatic assessment of undergraduate chemistry curricula, the ACS Examinations Institute is devising a map of the content taught throughout the undergraduate curriculum. The structure of the map is hierarchal, with large grain size at the top and more content detail as one moves "down"…

  3. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  4. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of

  5. Investigating Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry at Low Temperature with the Titan Haze Simulation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, E. M.; Salama, F.

    2012-12-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, possesses a dense atmosphere (1.5 bar at the surface) composed mainly of N2 and CH4. The solar radiation and electron bombardment from Saturn's magnetosphere induces a complex organic chemistry between these two constituents leading to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid aerosols. These aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere form the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. Since 2004, the instruments onboard the Cassini orbiter have produced large amounts of observational data, unraveling a chemistry much more complex than what was first expected, particularly in Titan's upper atmosphere. Neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules have been detected in the ionosphere of Titan, including benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3). The presence of these critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan's aerosols. The aim of the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment, developed at the NASA Ames COSmIC facility, is to study the chemical pathways that link the simple molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature (~150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Due to the short residence time of the gas in the plasma discharge, the THS experiment can be used to probe the first and intermediate steps of Titan's chemistry by injecting different gas mixtures in the plasma. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using two complementary techniques: Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Thin tholin deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and IR spectroscopy. Here we present the results of a systematic mass spectrometry study using N2-based, Ar-based and N2-CH4(90:10)-based mixtures with several hydrocarbon precursors to investigate specific pathways associated with the presence of these trace elements in Titan's atmosphere. These results show the uniqueness of the THS experiment to help understand the first and intermediate steps of Titan's atmospheric chemistry as well as specific chemical pathways leading to Titan's haze formation. We will also present the results of ex situ analyses performed on tholins produced in the THS experiment with different gas mixtures, and compare them to tholin films produced in a static photochemistry cell using VUV instead of plasma as the energy source for the chemistry. Acknowledgments This research is supported by NASA SMD (Planetary Atmospheres Program). E.S.O. acknowledges the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP) and thanks Claire L. Ricketts for the help and discussions with regard to the photochemistry cell. Finally, the authors acknowledge the technical support of R. Walker (NASA ARC).

  6. General Chemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology: An Experiment in Curricular Symbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman Schwartz, A.; Serie, Jan

    2001-11-01

    During the 1998-99 academic year, with the support of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we co-taught integrated courses in general chemistry and cell biology to 23 first-year students. The double course was organized around six units: I. Energetics: Harvesting (Bio)Chemical Energy; II. The Regulation of Biological Processes: Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium; III. Membranes and Electrochemical Gradients; IV. Acids and Bases and the Regulation of pH; V. Intracellular Compartments and Transport; and VI. Cellular Communication. The chemistry and biology were both taught in a manner meant to enhance understanding of these major themes and to emphasize the relationships between the two disciplines. Both of us were present for all class sessions and shared teaching responsibilities. The examinations, which corresponded to the units, also stressed the interdependence of biology and chemistry. The laboratory components were not integrated; rather the students were dispersed among laboratory sections shared with students from more traditional lecture sections. The paper reports on this experiment in curricular symbiosis, which proved to be a challenging and rewarding learning experience for both the students and us.

  7. The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

  8. Laboratory Simulations Of Titans Atmospheric Chemistry With The NASA Ames Titan Haze Simulation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

    2012-05-01

    Solar UV radiation and electron bombardment from Saturns magnetosphere dissociate nitrogen and methane in Titans atmosphere, leading to the production of heavier molecules and solid organic aerosols that contribute to the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. The detection of benzene and toluene, critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), in Titans ionosphere, by the Cassini INMS suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titans aerosols. The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment has been developed at NASA Ames Cosmic Simulation facility (COSmIC) to study the chemical pathways that link the simple molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN..) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titans atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic jet expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature ( 150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Different gas mixtures containing the first products of Titans N2-CH4 chemistry, but also much heavier molecules like PAHs or PANHs can be injected to study specific chemical reactions. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Thin tholin (Titan aerosol analogs) deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We present the results of mass spectrometry studies using different gas mixtures, and discuss their relevance for the study of specific pathways in Titans atmospheric chemistry. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by NASA PATM. E.S.O., C.S.C. and C.L.R acknowledge the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program. The authors acknowledge the collaboration of H. Imanaka, C. McKay and S. Lebonnois.

  9. Lunar carbon chemistry - Relations to and implications for terrestrial organic geochemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    Survey of the various ways in which studies of lunar carbon chemistry have beneficially affected terrestrial organic geochemistry. A lunar organic gas-analysis operating system is cited as the most important instrumental development in relation to terrestrial organic geochemistry. Improved methods of analysis and handling of organic samples are cited as another benefit derived from studies of lunar carbon chemistry. The problem of controlling contamination and minimizing organic vapors is considered, as well as the possibility of analyzing terrestrial samples by the techniques developed for lunar samples. A need for new methods of analyzing carbonaceous material which is insoluble in organic solvents is indicated.

  10. Organic Carbamates in Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The carbamate group is a key structural motif in many approved drugs and prodrugs. There is an increasing use of carbamates in medicinal chemistry and many derivatives are specifically designed to make drug–target interactions through their carbamate moiety. In this Perspective, we present properties and stabilities of carbamates, reagents and chemical methodologies for the synthesis of carbamates, and recent applications of carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry. PMID:25565044

  11. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

  12. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ligation States of Myoglobin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there are numerous inorganic model systems that are readily presented as undergraduate laboratory experiments in bioinorganic chemistry, there are few examples that explore the inorganic chemistry of actual biological molecules. We present a laboratory experiment using the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin that can be easily incorporated…

  13. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ligation States of Myoglobin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there are numerous inorganic model systems that are readily presented as undergraduate laboratory experiments in bioinorganic chemistry, there are few examples that explore the inorganic chemistry of actual biological molecules. We present a laboratory experiment using the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin that can be easily incorporated

  14. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  15. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a

  16. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore

  17. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least

  18. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  19. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  20. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  1. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented

  2. Intuitive Judgments Govern Students' Answering Patterns in Multiple-Choice Exercises in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has revealed that students going through their undergraduate and graduate studies in organic chemistry have a fragmented conceptual knowledge of the subject. Rote memorization, rule-based reasoning, and heuristic strategies seem to strongly influence students' performances. There appears to be a gap between what we…

  3. The Tip of the Iceberg in Organic Chemistry Classes: How Do Students Deal with the Invisible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry education is one of the youngest research areas among all chemistry related research efforts, and its published scholarly work has become vibrant and diverse over the last 15 years. Research on problem-solving behavior, students' use of the arrow-pushing formalism, the investigation of students' conceptual knowledge and…

  4. Ethnically Diverse Students' Knowledge Structures in First-Semester Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry courses remain a challenge for many undergraduate students. In particular, first-semester organic chemistry has been labeled as a gatekeeper with high attrition rates, especially among students of color. Our study examines a key factor related to conceptual understanding in science and predictive of course outcomes-knowledge structures.…

  5. An Asymptotic Approach to the Development of a Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products. Some of the philosophical questions and practical decisions that have guided the greening of the organic chemistry laboratory at Hendrix College in…

  6. The Tip of the Iceberg in Organic Chemistry Classes: How Do Students Deal with the Invisible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry education is one of the youngest research areas among all chemistry related research efforts, and its published scholarly work has become vibrant and diverse over the last 15 years. Research on problem-solving behavior, students' use of the arrow-pushing formalism, the investigation of students' conceptual knowledge and

  7. Intuitive Judgments Govern Students' Answering Patterns in Multiple-Choice Exercises in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has revealed that students going through their undergraduate and graduate studies in organic chemistry have a fragmented conceptual knowledge of the subject. Rote memorization, rule-based reasoning, and heuristic strategies seem to strongly influence students' performances. There appears to be a gap between what we

  8. A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy of Spherical Top (Td) Molecules: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Thomas C.; Gallaher, Thomas N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which uses group theory to help interpret the infrared spectrum of a polyatomic molecule with Td symmetry (spherical tops). Topics covered in the experiment: background information and theory, experimental procedures, and typical student results. (JN)

  10. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  11. Integrating Chemical Information Instruction into the Chemistry Curriculum on Borrowed Time: A Multiyear Case Study of a Capstone Research Report for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Danielle L.; Dalal, Heather A.; Dawson, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    To develop information literacy skills in chemistry and biochemistry majors at a primarily undergraduate institution, a multiyear collaboration between chemistry faculty and librarians has resulted in the establishment of a semester-long capstone project for Organic Chemistry II. Information literacy skills were instilled via a progressive…

  12. The interfacial chemistry of organic materials on commercial glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Joy

    The hydrolytic stability of glass is dependent on its composition. Glasses are exposed to water during their processing and in many applications; therefore, their surface or interface with other materials must withstand hydrolytic attack. Multi-component silicate glasses are widely used but have been the least studied. In coatings-based applications, these glasses come in contact with organosilanes and organic molecules where the adsorption may be affected by surface water. For example, the influence of glass composition on the wet strength of a glass/polymer composite material is unclear, but it is presumed to be driven by the hydrolytic stability of the interfacial chemistry. Organosilanes are critical for increasing the performance of composite materials in humid environments but the precise manner by which the improvement occurs has not been verified. The current school of thought is that the application of silane coatings on a multi-component glass surface transforms the chemically heterogeneous surface into a homogenous and hydrolytically stable surface. In this study, multi-component silicate glass surfaces were silanized by both aqueous and non-aqueous methods. The effect of glass composition and surface hydration on silane coverage was quantified by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The monolayer-level adsorption results showed that the low-sodium content glasses had greater coverage than a high-sodium content glass in dry conditions in contrast to an equivalent coverage in wet conditions. The hydrolytically-stable coverage on multi-component silicate glass surfaces by both silanization methods was found to be sub-monolayer. A thin film model in conjunction with XPS and Infrared Spectroscopy was used to probe the interfacial region of a fiberglass insulation material containing a sodium-rich multi-component silicate glass and an acrylate resin binder. Upon the application of the aqueous binder, the leaching of sodium from the glass promoted the formation of sodium carboxylate salts that were found to be detrimental to the hydrolytic stability of the interfacial region. The silanization of the glass improved the hydrolytic stability of the interfacial region by the mitigation of sodium carboxylate salt formation. The lack of interfacial failure indicated that the adsorption of the silane molecules and their interactions with the resin binder were hydrolytically stable.

  13. The Determination of the Stereochemistry of Erythro-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-Ethanediol: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Alex T.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment designed to illustrate the power of nuclear magnetic reasonance spectroscopy in a determination of the configurations at centers of chirality of various isomers of acyclic systems. Provides a background discussion and experimental procedure. (JM)

  14. Improvements to the treatment of organic nitrogen chemistry & deposition in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  15. Improvements to the characterization of organic nitrogen chemistry and deposition in CMAQ (CMAS Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  16. Improvements to the characterization of organic nitrogen chemistry and deposition in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  17. Beilstein Without Tears: Education in the Use of the Literature of Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Patricia M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The use of Beilstein ("Handbuch der Organischen Chemie") in the early stages of a second-year, one semester course in organic chemistry is described. Student literature projects, evaluation, use of ancillary literature, and a sample search are included. (JN)

  18. Teaching a Modified Hendrickson, Cram, and Hammond Curriculum in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karty, Joel M.; Gooch, Gene; Bowman, B. Gray

    2007-01-01

    A modified Hendrickson, Cram and Hammond (HCH) curriculum was recently introduced in the study of organic chemistry. The approach focuses on the fundamentals and is found to have a lot of positive impact on the students.

  19. Simulations as real-time integration of information: "Covalence", an Organic Chemistry game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jason

    College-level Organic Chemistry classes can be overwhelming to their students. In addition to learning a relatively large amount of information, students have to learn to read multiple visual models and use them to understand subtle differences in the science. In making the puzzle game Covalence to address Organic Chemistry education, I decided to focus on three aspects of the subject's education -- Hidden information in the various visual models, the lack of integration of these representations into a 3D representation of Chemical phenomena, and an atom-based view of the molecules and how they contribute to the field's subtle issues. This paper discusses various traditional visual models taught in Organic Chemistry classes, devising a new visual model to bring out hidden information in these traditional models, and designing levels based on known reactions and their consequences, to illustrate Organic Chemistry's elegance and subtlety.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: A Rapid and Sustainable Route to Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of emerging MW-assisted chemistry techniques in conjunction with benign reaction media is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. This review summarizes recent developments in MW-assisted synthesis...

  1. Indoor chemistry. Ozone, volatile organic compounds, and carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Weschler, C.J. ); Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D. )

    1992-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured in a freshly carpeted 20-m[sup 3] stainless-steel room in both the absence and presence of ozone (ozone concentrations ranging from 30 to 50 ppb, with one experiment conducted at 400 ppb). Four different types of carpeting were exposed, and in each set of experiments, the room was ventilated at 1 air exchange/h. The gas-phase concentrations of selected carpet emissions (e.g., 4-phenylcyclohexene, 4-vinylcyclohexene, and styrene) significantly decreased in the presence of ozone. Conversely, the concentrations of other compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aldehydes with between 5 and 10 carbons) significantly increased. Furthermore, the total concentration of VOCs increased markedly in the presence of ozone. The additional VOCs appear to have been generated by reactions between ozone and relatively nonvolatile compounds associated with the carpets. These studies suggest that VOCs measured within a building at elevated ozone levels (>30 ppb) may differ from those measured at lower ozone levels (<10 ppb). 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. The Determination of Partial Specific Volume: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, S. F.; Serpentino, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a method for the accurate determination of partial specific volume of a protein. Method is simple enough to include in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory but requires patience and careful handling which provide good training in laboratory techniques. (SLH)

  3. Iron Analysis by Redox Titration. A General Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Samuel; DeVoe, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simplified redox method for total iron analysis suitable for execution in a three-hour laboratory period by general chemistry students. Discusses materials, procedures, analyses, and student performance. (CW)

  4. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  5. Motivational Beliefs and Learning Strategies in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Douglas Jay; Trujillo, Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Students enter college chemistry courses with different sources of motivation, appropriate or inappropriate assumptions about their probability of success and how to study. This study is theoretically aligned with self-regulated learning research. Clearly, academic performance is closely related to student motivational beliefs and learning

  6. Motivational Beliefs and Learning Strategies in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Douglas Jay; Trujillo, Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Students enter college chemistry courses with different sources of motivation, appropriate or inappropriate assumptions about their probability of success and how to study. This study is theoretically aligned with self-regulated learning research. Clearly, academic performance is closely related to student motivational beliefs and learning…

  7. Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scattergood, T. W.

    It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and the composition of model Titan aerosols. A list of work that still needs to be done is provided.

  8. Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and the composition of model Titan aerosols. A list of work that still needs to be done is provided.

  9. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Yee, L. D.; Schilling, K.; Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Zuend, A.; Ziemann, P. J.; Seinfeld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multi-generation gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a mid-experiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. The results of the current work have a number of implications for SOA models. While the dynamics of an aerosol size distribution reflects the mechanism of growth, we demonstrate here that it provides a key constraint in interpreting laboratory and ambient SOA formation. This work, although carried out specifically for the long chain alkane, dodecane, is expected to be widely applicable to other major classes of SOA precursors. SOA consists of a myriad of organic compounds containing various functional groups, which can generally undergo heterogeneous/multiphase reactions forming low-volatility products such as oligomers and other high molecular mass compounds. If particle-phase chemistry is indeed central to SOA growth in general, the size-resolved SOA formation is better described in terms of kinetically limited condensational growth, rather than solely by thermodynamic equilibrium partitioning.

  10. Development and Application of a Scoring Rubric for Evaluating Students' Experimental Skills in Organic Chemistry: An Instructional Guide for Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hui-Jung; She, Jui-Lin; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Tsai, Yeun-Min; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scoring rubric to assess students' manipulation skills and identify students' learning difficulties in conducting organic chemistry experiments. In constructing the scoring rubric, we first analyzed the skills needed in the experiment, then divided the skills into subskills, and finally…

  11. Incorporating Guided-Inquiry Learning into the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddis, Barbara A.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

    2007-01-01

    Guided-inquiry experiments also known as discovery-based experiments, which combine the pedagogical advantages of open-inquiry methods with the practical advantages of expository experiments, are described. Unlike open-inquiry or problem-based experiments, guided-inquiry experiments could be readily adapted to large laboratory sections and induces…

  12. Using the QCPE Holdings in Chemical Education: Molecular Models in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipkowitz, Kenny

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a successfully implemented laboratory experiment that compares the strengths and weaknesses of mechanical and computer models. The computer models used are available from the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange (QCPE) at a modest price. (JN)

  13. "Molecules-in-Medicine": Peer-Evaluated Presentations in a Fast-Paced Organic Chemistry Course for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadnikova, Ekaterina N.

    2013-01-01

    To accentuate the importance of organic chemistry in development of contemporary pharmaceuticals, a three-week unit entitled "Molecules-in-Medicine" was included in the curriculum of a comprehensive one-semester four-credit organic chemistry course. After a lecture on medicinal chemistry concepts and pharmaceutical practices, students…

  14. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  15. Using Language to Organize Academic Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Miriam T.

    The specific goal of language instruction at any level is to develop students' communicative abilities by increasing their awareness of necessary linguistic tools. The degree to which instructors in the English classroom are successful in attaining this specific goal is dependent on the ability of students to organize their experiences. College…

  16. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  17. Japanese Language Education for Science Students : Introductory Training through Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Kazuhiko

    This paper describes a course in Japanese language instruction for first year students in the Department of Applied Chemistry, Okayama University. The course is part of a guidance program and consists of (1) technical writing in Japanese for science students, (2) experimental report writing, and (3) project-based learning through chemistry experiments.

  18. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While

  19. His majesty's subjects: from laboratory to human experiment in pneumatic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Larry

    2009-09-20

    Experiments in pneumatic chemistry paved the way for medical innovation in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Thomas Beddoes and James Watt were instrumental in the spread of the use of new gas chemistry in pneumatic therapy, but they were far from alone. There was no shortage of experimental subjects, as the practice was quickly taken up by medics throughout Britain. PMID:20027745

  20. Filtrates & Residues: Hemoglobinometry--A Biochemistry Experiment that Utilizes the Principles of Transition Metal Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment dealing with hemoglobinometry that can apply to transition metal chemistry, colorimetry, and biochemistry. Provides a detailed description of the experimental procedure, including discussions of the preparation of the cyanide reagent, colorimetric measurements, and waste disposal and treatment. (TW)