Science.gov

Sample records for organic compound removal

  1. AERATION TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim report presents general information on the use of aeration to remove volatile organic compounds from drinking water for public health reasons. The report illustrates the types of aerators, shows where they are being used, presents a means of estimating aeration perfor...

  2. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Kamaruddin, Henky D.

    1993-12-28

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  3. Remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with membrane separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Weng, Huan-xin; Chen, Huan-lin; Gao, Cong-jie

    2002-04-01

    Membrane separation, a new technology for removing VOCs including pervaporation, vapor permeation, membrane contactor, and membrane bioreactor was presented. Comparing with traditional techniques, these special techniques are an efficient and energy-saving technology. Vapor permeation can be applied to recovery of organic solvents from exhaust streams. Membrane contactor could be used for removing or recovering VOCs from air or wastewater. Pervaporation and vapor permeation are viable methods for removing VOCs from wastewater to yield a VOC concentrate which could either be destroyed by conventional means, or be recycled for reuse. PMID:12046285

  4. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  5. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Reynolds, John G.

    2006-12-12

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  7. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. PMID:24658107

  8. Efficiency of conventional drinking-water-treatment processes in removal of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Gibs, J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of water and sediment from a conventional drinking-water-treatment (DWT) plant were analyzed for 113 organic compounds (OCs) that included pharmaceuticals, detergent degradates, flame retardants and plasticizers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances and flavorants, pesticides and an insect repellent, and plant and animal steroids. 45 of these compounds were detected in samples of source water and 34 were detected in samples of settled sludge and (or) filter-backwash sediments. The average percent removal of these compounds was calculated from their average concentration in time-composited water samples collected after clarification, disinfection (chlorination), and granular-activated-carbon (GAC) filtration. In general, GAC filtration accounted for 53% of the removal of these compounds from the aqueous phase; disinfection accounted for 32%, and clarification accounted for 15%. The effectiveness of these treatments varied widely within and among classes of compounds; some hydrophobic compounds were strongly oxidized by free chlorine, and some hydrophilic compounds were partly removed through adsorption processes. The detection of 21 of the compounds in 1 or more samples of finished water, and of 3 to 13 compounds in every finished-water sample, indicates substantial but incomplete degradation or removal of OCs through the conventional DWT process used at this plant. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from wastewater was studied. hell-and-tube heat-exchanger type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluene,...

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater was studied. A shell-and-tube heat-exchange type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluen...

  11. Simultaneous removal of inorganic and organic compounds in wastewater by freshwater green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Jie; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Fu-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for 7 days to investigate the simultaneous removal of various organic and inorganic contaminants including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), metals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and estrogenic activity in wastewater by four freshwater green microalgae species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris. After treatment for 7 days, 76.7-92.3% of TN, and 67.5-82.2% of TP were removed by these four algae species. The removal of metals from wastewater by the four algae species varied among the metal species. These four algae species could remove most of the metals efficiently (>40% removal), but showed low efficiencies in removing Pb, Ni and Co. The four algae species were also found to be efficient in removing most of the selected organic compounds with >50% removal, and the estrogenic activity with removal efficiencies ranging from 46.2 to 81.1% from the wastewater. Therefore, algae could be harnessed to simultaneously remove various contaminants in wastewater. PMID:24953257

  12. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Larsen, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest-host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1. PMID:25550739

  13. Removal of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds via Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Short Review and Prospect.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Lu, Yanfeng; Niu, Ruiyuan; Xu, Lifeng; Cao, Junji; Lee, Shuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Inhalation of VOCs can cause irritation, difficulty breathing, and nausea, and damage the central nervous system as well as other organs. Formaldehyde is a particularly important VOC as it is even a carcinogen. Removal of VOCs is thus critical to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Photocatalytic oxidation has demonstrated feasibility to remove toxic VOCs and formaldehyde from indoor environments. The technique is highly-chemical stable, inexpensive, non-toxic, and capable of removing a wide variety of organics under light irradiation. In this paper, we review and summarize the traditional air cleaning methods and current photocatalytic oxidation approaches in both of VOCs and formaldehyde degradation in indoor environments. Influencing factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deactivation and reactivations of the photocatalyst are discussed. Aspects of the application of the photocatalytic technique to improve the IAQ are suggested. PMID:26742024

  14. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  15. Removal of volatile organic compounds in the confined space using atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Toyoura, T.; Matsui, M.; Kishimoto, T.

    2013-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated as hazardous pollutants. Thus, the control of VOCs in the atmosphere is one of the most important environmental problems. Removal of VOCs has been generally carried out by conventional methods such as absorption, adsorption and incineration. There are some researches on development of removal system using atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas. In this study, the plasma process is applied to removal of VOCs in the confined space such as an underwater vehicle because of low operating temperature and compact system. A copper wire is helically wound outside a glass tube, and a tungsten rod is inserted inside the glass tube. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced inside the glass tube by a high-voltage bipolar power supply for the removal of VOC. The DBD plasma decomposed hexane with the initial concentration of 30 ppm diluted by nitrogen, air and humid air. As the result, the removal efficiency of hexane diluted by nitrogen, air and humid air was 15%, 45% and 80%, respectively. Thus, it is considered that O and OH radicals are effective for removal of hexane. Optimization of the electrodes and the applied voltage waveforms for the enhancement of removal efficiency and the reduction of second products such as ozone will be investigated.

  16. Biodegradation technology for volatile organic compound removal from airstreams. Phase 1: Performance verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1992-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air pollutants are emitted in significant quantities from wastewater treatment plants (POTWs, or publicly owned treatment works). However, the concentrations are low, presenting a challenge for emissions control. Laboratory and field studies verified the potential application of microbial packed bed systems (biofilters) for the removal of VOCs from off-gases resulting from wastewater treatment. The contractor built a pilot scale biofilter designed to treat about 200 cfm of air, consisting of a reactor chamber, gas intake system, humidification chamber, a gas flow measurement system, and a filter bed. The filter medium consisted of compost obtained from a POTW, with perlite and crushed oyster shells added. The biofilter was installed at a headworks for incoming sewage at a POTW. After an acclimation period of several days, appreciable removal of VOCs was observed. In the field, removals of benzene, toluene, and hydrogen sulfide were generally over 90 percent. However, removals of chlorinated compounds were varied, and generally were below 40 percent of the inlet concentrations. Hydrogen sulfide removal was consistently greater than 99 percent, and the resulting odors were not unpleasant.

  17. Assessment of volatile organic compound removal by indoor plants--a novel experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Müller, Renate; Svensmark, Bo; Pedersen, Jakob Skov; Christensen, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Indoor plants can remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air. The majority of knowledge comes from laboratory studies where results cannot directly be transferred to real-life settings. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental test system to assess VOC removal by indoor plants which allows for an improved real-life simulation. Parameters such as relative humidity, air exchange rate and VOC concentration are controlled and can be varied to simulate different real-life settings. For example, toluene diffusion through a needle gave concentrations in the range of 0.10-2.35 μg/L with deviations from theoretical values of 3.2-10.5%. Overall, the system proved to be functional for the assessment of VOC removal by indoor plants with Hedera helix reaching a toluene removal rate of up to 66.5 μg/m(2)/h. The mode of toluene exposure (semi-dynamic or dynamic) had a significant influence on the removal rate obtained by H. helix. PMID:24638833

  18. Microbial removal of wastewater organic compounds as a function of input concentration in soil columns.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, S R; Tomson, M B; Wilson, J T; Ward, C H

    1984-01-01

    The fate of six organic compounds during rapid infiltration of primary wastewater through soil columns was studied. Feed solutions were prepared which contained all six compounds in individual concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 micrograms/liter and were applied to separate soil columns on a flooding-drying schedule. Feed solutions and column effluents were analyzed for the compounds by XAD resin (Rohm and Haas Co.) extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during each of three successive inundation cycles. Breakthrough profiles of o-phenylphenol were relatively consistent during the test, with fractional breakthrough (mass output/mass input) being independent of input concentration. Consistent profiles were also observed for 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole, although fractional breakthroughs were higher at lower input concentrations, indicating that removal processes were operating less efficiently at these levels. The behavior of p-dichlorobenzene was similar to that of 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole after the first inundation cycle, with the exception that increased fractional breakthroughs were observed at the highest input concentration as well. Microbial adaptation was evident for benzophenone, 2-methylnaphthalene, and p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol, as indicated by increased removal efficiencies during successive inundation cycles, especially at the higher input concentrations. Column effluent concentrations of the latter two compounds were independent of input concentrations during the final stage of the test. Microbial activity and adaptation were confirmed for several of the compounds by using isotopes and measuring the extent of mineralization in batch tests with soil from one of the columns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6508302

  19. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. PMID:27309772

  20. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  1. Organic silicon compounds anf hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas by mineral and adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds and hydrogen sulfide , as their burning has damaging effects on utilities and humans; organic silicon compounds and hydrogen sulfide can be found in biogas produced from biomass wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product,such as cosmetics, detergents and paints.Siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Ajhar et al., 2010); aim of the present work is to find a single practical andeconomic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both hydrogen sulfide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleoneet al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing both hydrogen sulphide and volatile siloxane (Decamethycyclopentasiloxane or D5) in a nitrogen stream,typically 25-300 ppm D5 over N2, through an clay minerals, Fe oxides and Silica; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best silica shows an adsorption capacity of 0.2 g D5 per gram of silica. The next thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests.The capacity results depend on D5 and hydrogen sulphide concentrations. A regenerative silica process is then carried out byheating the silica bed up to 200 ° C and flushing out the adsorbed D5 and hydrogen sulphide samples in a nitrogen stream in athree step heating procedure up to 200 ° C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cyclingthe samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles.

  2. Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Coal by the Thermophilic Organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    PubMed Central

    Kargi, Fikret; Robinson, James M.

    1982-01-01

    The thermophilic, reduced-sulfur, iron-oxidizing bacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used for the removal of sulfur compounds from coal. The inclusion of complex nutrients such as yeast extract and peptone, and chemical oxidizing agents, 0.01 M FeCl3 into leaching medium, reduced the rate and the extent of sulfur removal from coal. The rate of sulfur removal by S. acidocaldarius was strongly dependent on the sulfur content of the coal and on the total external surface area of coal particles. Approximately 96% of inorganic sulfur was removed from a 5% slurry of coal which had an initial total sulfur content of 4% and an inorganic (pyritic S and sulfate) sulfur content of 2.1%. This resulted in removal of 50% of initial total sulfur present in coal. PMID:16346112

  3. Temporal variation, regional sources, and removal processes of volatile organic compounds in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Rachel S.

    This dissertation describes three research projects with the common objective of characterizing the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on air quality in New England using measurements made over multiple years (2002-2008) and from different sampling locations. The specific objectives include identifying sources (direct emission or secondary production), quantifying mixing ratios, and characterizing the chemical (i.e., oxidation, photolysis) and physical (i.e., transport, mixing) processes which regulate the distributions of VOCs in the troposphere over southeastern New Hampshire. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the seasonal and interannual variability of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), selected halocarbons, and alkyl nitrates using measurements from canister samples collected at Thompson Farm in Durham, NH throughout January 2004-February 2008. Several anthropogenic and biogenic sources of NMHCs and halocarbons were identified based on correlations with tracer compounds and comparisons with source signatures. Additionally, evidence for the dry deposition of alkyl nitrates of night was observed which is a previously unaccounted for removal mechanism. Analysis of alkyl nitrate/parent hydrocarbon ratios, measurements made onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study, and canister samples collected throughout the Great Bay estuary in August 2003 are presented to assess the relative contributions of anthropogenic and marine sources of alkyl nitrates. The research described in Chapter 4 used measurements of VOCs made at an inland (Thompson Farm) and an offshore (Appledore Island) site to identify evidence of chlorine initiated oxidation of VOCs, estimate chlorine atom (Cl) concentrations during two summers and for different transport sectors, and assess the potential influence of chlorine chemistry on the oxidative capacity of the troposphere over coastal New Hampshire. Comparable Cl concentrations were estimated using a novel

  4. COST ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON VERSUS PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR REMOVING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cost comparison has been conducted of 1 m3/s indoor air cleaners using granular activated carbon (GAC) vs. photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) for treating a steady-state inlet volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of 0.3 mg/m3. The commercial GAC unit was costed assuming t...

  5. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF WASTEWATER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS A FUNCTION OF INPUT CONCENTRATION IN SOIL COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of six organic compounds during rapid infiltration of primary wastewater through soil columns was studied. Breakthrough profiles of o-phenylphenol were relatively consistent during the test, with fractional breakthrough (mass output/mass input) being independent of input...

  6. MODELING OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A resistance-in-series model was used to study the pervaporation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-water mixtures. Permeation experiments were carried out for four membranes: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyether-block-polyamides (PEBA), polyurethane (PUR) and sil...

  7. An Evaluation of Technology to Remove Problematic Organic Compounds from the International Space Station Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John; Michalek, William; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gazda, Daniel; Carter, Layne

    2014-01-01

    Since activation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) in November of 2008, there have been three events in which the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) in the product water has increased to approximately 3 mg/L and has subsequently recovered. Analysis of the product water in 2010 identified the primary component of the TOC as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). An investigation into the fate of DMSD in the WPA ultimately determined that replacement of both Multifiltration (MF) Beds is the solution to recovering product water quality. The MF Beds were designed to ensure that ionic breakthrough occurs before organic breakthrough. However, DMSD saturated both MF Beds in the series, requiring removal and replacement of both MF Beds with significant life remaining. Analysis of the MF Beds determined that the adsorbent was not effectively removing DMSD, trimethylsilanol, various polydimethylsiloxanes, or dimethylsulfone. Coupled with the fact that the current adsorbent is now obsolete, the authors evaluated various media to identify a replacement adsorbent as well as media with greater capacity for these problematic organic contaminants. This paper provides the results and recommendations of this collaborative study.

  8. Sample water removal method in volatile organic compound analysis based on diffusion through poly(vinyl fluoride) film.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra; Guillot, Jean-Michel

    2006-09-15

    The humidity caught during air sampling or sample storage causes various problems during volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and gives unreliable results. In this study, water vapour diffusion capacities through poly(vinyl fluoride) Tedlar, fluoroethylene propylene Teflon and Flex foil film were compared. A new approach to humidity removal has been tested for moderately polluted atmospheres. This approach consists in using the water vapour diffusion property of Tedlar film to remove humidity from bag samples containing a mixture of ten VOCs at 500 ppbv each in a 70% relative humidity atmosphere. The sampling bags were placed in a chamber flushed by a dry air stream at less than 5% relative humidity. After a few hours in the chamber, the samples in the Tedlar bags were dry (relative humidity <5%) and did not show significant VOC loss. This sample water removal (SWR) method is especially interesting as a pretreatment before air sampling on water sensitive adsorbents. PMID:16828784

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  10. Organic compound destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for plasma incinerator off-gases using an electrically heated secondary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C.G.; Babko-Malyi, S.; Battleson, D.M.; Olstad, S.J.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a series pilot-scale plasma incineration tests of simulated mixed wastes at the MSE Technology Applications, Inc. technology development test facility in Butte, MT. One of the objectives of the test series was to assess the ability of an electrically heated afterburner to destroy organic compounds that may be present in the off-gases resulting from plasma incineration of mixed wastes. The anticipated benefit of an electrically heated afterburner was to decrease total off-gas volume by 50% or more, relative to fossil fuel-fired afterburners. For the present test series, feeds of interest to the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) were processed in a plasma centrifugal furnace while metering selected organic compounds upstream of the electrically heated afterburner. The plasma furnace was equipped with a transferred-mode torch and was operated under oxidizing conditions. Feeds consisted of various mixtures of soil, plastics, portland cement, silicate fines, diesel fuel, and scrap metals. Benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were selected for injection as simulates of organics likely to be present in DOE mixed wastes, and because of their relative rankings on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) thermal stability index. The organic compounds were injected into the off-gas system at a nominal concentration of 2,000 ppmv. The afterburner outlet gas stream was periodically sampled, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the electrically heated afterburner, at operating temperatures of 1,800--1,980 F (982--1,082 C), organic compound destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were found to be > 99.99%.

  11. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds by ozone and granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, B.; Ball, G.W.

    1996-11-01

    Most groundwater supplies in the western U.S. are relatively low in dissolved organic matter, are generally free of bacteria, and are platable to their consumers. In areas of western Nevada, certain groundwaters are near active geothermal areas, which can produce sulfurous types of tastes and odors (T&Os) in the water. Other water quality characteristics can consist of either relatively low or highly mineralized waters, variations in pH, and temperatures ranging from those slightly above normal groundwaters to pressurized steam. Watersource Consulting Engineers (WCE) and Shepherd Laboratories (SL) conducted an engineering study of a high-capacity well for a local northwestern Nevada utility. WCE`s original task had been to design pumping and storage facilities for the well, in addition to evaluating basic treatment. Originally, WCE anticipated designing facilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and reduce color, primarily with chlorination and aeration. SL was requested to evaluate existing water quality and eventually conduct bench-scale testing of several treatment processes. As the study proceeded, the original goals were modified when it became evident that water quality conditions required more extensive evaluation. The study was done in several stages, reflecting the information gained during each stage. The final recommended design criteria included treatment for improving water quality relative to T&O, color, total organic carbon (TOC), and, to a limited extent, fluoride. The water quality goals adopted by the utility encompassed primary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for regulatory compliance and secondary MCLs for aesthetically pleasing water. The treatment processes evaluated and recommended in this study were designed primarily to improve the aesthetic qualities of color, taste, and odor. Fluoride reduction was evaluated but was not included in the final design requirements, except for the overall reduction provided by the recommended process.

  12. Groundwater cleanup by in-situ sparging. VIII. Effect of air channeling on dissolved volatile organic compounds removal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.J.; Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M. )

    1994-12-01

    A mathematical model for removal of dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated aquifers by in-situ air sparging is described. The model assumes that the sparging air moves through persistent channels in the aquifer, and that VOC transport to the sparging air is by diffusion/dispersion and air-induced circulation of the water in the vicinity of the sparging well. The dependence of model results on the parameters of the model is explored. The use of pulsed air flow in sparging as a means to increase VOC transport by dispersion is suggested. An extension and modification of the Sellers-Schreiber preliminary screening model for in-situ air sparging is also described. The revised model includes an improved method for calculating bubble residence times in the aquifer, and also permits the modeling of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal.

  13. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  14. Simultaneous removal of organic compounds and heavy metals from soils by electrokinetic remediation with a modified cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Maturi, Kranti; Reddy, Krishna R

    2006-05-01

    Thousands of sites are contaminated with both heavy metals and organic compounds and these sites pose a major threat to public health and the environment. Previous studies have shown that electrokinetic remediation has potential to remove heavy metals and organic compounds when they exist individually in low permeability soils. This paper presents the feasibility of using cyclodextrins in electrokinetic remediation for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from low permeability soils. Kaolin was selected as a model low permeability soil and it was spiked with phenanthrene as well as nickel at concentrations of 500 mg kg-1 each to simulate typical mixed field contamination. Bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted using hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) at low (1%) and high (10%) concentrations and using deionized water in control test. A periodic voltage gradient of 2VDC cm-1 (with 5 d on and 2 d off) was applied to all the tests, and 0.01 M NaOH was added during the experiments to maintain neutral pH conditions at anode. In all tests, nickel migrated as Ni2+ ions towards the cathode and most of it was precipitated as Ni(OH)2 within the soil close to the cathode due to high pH condition generated by electrolysis reaction. The solubility of phenanthrene in the flushing solution and the amount of electroosmotic flow controlled the migration and removal of phenanthrene in all the tests. Even though high flow was generated in tests using deionized water and 1% HPCD, migration and removal of phenanthrene was low due to low solubility of phenanthrene in these solutions. The test with 10% HPCD solution showed higher solubility of phenanthrene which caused it migrate towards the cathode, but further migration and removal was retarded due to reduced electric current and electroosmotic flow. Approximately one pore volume of flushing resulted in approximately 50% removal of phenanthrene from the soil near the

  15. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD

  16. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  17. Removal of organic compounds from water by using a gold nanoparticle-poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanocomposite foam.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2011-06-20

    A low density, highly compressible, porous foam of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) incorporated with Au nanoparticles (10-50 nm) has been synthesized by using a single-step process with water as a medium. It exhibits high swelling ability (≈600%) against benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)-a property that has been exploited in the removal of oil spills from water. It is resistant to harsh chemical environments. It is also effective against odorous sulfur containing contaminants such as thioanisole. It works repeatedly and efficiently over many cycles. The regeneration of the foam is rather simple: heating in air to 300 °C for short time brings back its original activity. The fascinating properties of Au nanoparticles could be mingled with those of PDMS to provide a sustainable and practical solution for water treatment. It is also demonstrated to work effectively for deodorizing garlic extract with a promise as a food packaging material. PMID:21567977

  18. Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams by making use of a microwave plasma burner with reverse vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji H.; Ma, Suk H.; Cho, Chang H.; Hong, Yong C.; Ahn, Jae Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma burner for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted air streams. This study focused on the destruction of the VOCs in the high flow rate polluted streams required for industrial use. Plasma flames were sustained by injecting liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is composed of CH4, into the microwave plasma torch. With its high temperature and high density of atomic oxygen, the microwave torch attained nearly complete combustion of LNG, thereby providing a large-volume, high-temperature plasma flame. The plasma flame was applied to reactors in which the polluted streams were in one of two vortex flows: a conventional vortex reactor (CVR) or a reverse vortex reactor (RVR). The RVR, using a plasma power of 2 kW and an LNG flow of 20 liters per minute achieved a destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of 98% for an air flow rate of 5 Nm3/min polluted with 550 pm of VOCs.. For the same experimental parameters, the CVR provided a DRE of 90.2%. We expect that this decontamination system will prove effective in purifying contaminated air at high flow rates.

  19. Application of hydrophobic silica based aerogels and xerogels for removal of toxic organic compounds from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Perdigoto, M L N; Martins, R C; Rocha, N; Quina, M J; Gando-Ferreira, L; Patrício, R; Durães, L

    2012-08-15

    This work is devoted to the application of hydrophobic silica based aerogels and xerogels for the removal of three toxic organic compounds from aqueous solutions. These materials were tested and characterized regarding their morphology, particle size distribution, surface area and porous structure. The equilibrium tests were carried out at different adsorbate concentrations and the experimental data were correlated by means of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich in most cases. The maximum adsorption capacity by Langmuir model was observed for the adsorption of benzene onto aerogel (192.31 mg/g), though the most promising results were obtained for toluene adsorption due to the greater adsorption energy involved. Comparing these results with other reported results, the hydrophobic silica based aerogels/xerogels were found to exhibit a remarkable performance for the removal of benzene and toluene. In addition, the regeneration of previously saturated aerogel/toluene was also investigated by using an ozonation process. The adsorption/regeneration tests with ozone oxidation showed that the aerogel might be regenerated, nevertheless the materials lost their hydrophobicity and thus different methods should be evaluated in forthcoming investigations. PMID:22633575

  20. Removal of volatile organic compounds at extreme shock-loading using a scaled-up pilot rotating drum biofilter.

    PubMed

    Sawvel, Russell A; Kim, Byung; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-11-01

    A pilot-scale rotating drum biofilter (RDB), which is a novel biofilter design that offers flexible flow-through configurations, was used to treat complex and variable volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, including shock loadings, emanating from paint drying operations at an Army ammunition plant. The RDB was seeded with municipal wastewater activated sludge. Removal efficiencies up to 86% and an elimination capacity of 5.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) hr(-1) were achieved at a filter-medium contact time of 60 sec. Efficiency increased at higher temperatures that promote higher biological activity, and decreased at lower pH, which dropped down to pH 5.5 possibly as a result of carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acid production and ammonia consumption during VOC degradation. In comparison, other studies have shown that a bench-scale RDB could achieve a removal efficiency of 95% and elimination capacity of 331 g COD m(-3) hr(-1). Sustainable performance of the pilot-scale RDB was challenged by the intermittent nature of painting operations, which typically resulted in 3-day long shutdown periods when bacteria were not fed. This challenge was overcome by adding sucrose (2 g/L weekly) as an auxiliary substrate to sustain metabolic activity during shutdown periods. PMID:19044156

  1. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  2. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carolyn; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-08-30

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  3. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  4. Tricrystalline TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity and durability for removing volatile organic compounds from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunyang; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    It is important to develop efficient and economic techniques for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. Heterogeneous TiO2-based semiconductors are a promising technology for achieving this goal. Anatase/brookite/rutile tricrystalline TiO2 with mesoporous structure was synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal route in the presence of HNO3. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in air under UV light illumination. The results show that tricrystalline TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity and durability toward gaseous toluene than bicrystalline TiO2, due to the synergistic effects of high surface area, uniform mesoporous structure and junctions among mixed phases. The tricrystalline TiO2 prepared at RHNO3=0.8, containing 80.7% anatase, 15.6% brookite and 3.7% rutile, exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, about 3.85-fold higher than that of P25. The high activity did not significantly degrade even after five reuse cycles. In conclusion, it is expected that our study regarding gas-phase degradation of toluene over tricrystalline TiO2 will enrich the chemistry of the TiO2-based materials as photocatalysts for environmental remediation and stimulate further research interest on this intriguing topic. PMID:26040745

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Perez, Georgette; Carretier, Emilie; Lesage, Nicolas; Moulin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (toluene-propylene-butadiene) from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS)/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10-4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry. PMID:24957498

  6. The effects of magnetic field on the removal of organic compounds and metals by coagulation and flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangduen, C.; Nathaporn, A.; Kitiphatmontree, M.

    2006-09-01

    The effects of magnetic field (MF) were studied using surface water from the Pra Ram IX reservoir. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was improved by exposure of untreated water to MF for up to 5 hours duration. MF was found to alter the physico-chemical properties of some involved substances. Optimum DOC removal (15-20%) was observed after 30-40 minutes of exposure. Flocculation was also improved in the presence of MF. The removal of DOC, iron, heavy metals (As, Zn) was the best with an optimum ferric chloride dosage of 50 mg/L and exposure to 0.35Tesla magnetic field for 30 min. However, Ca removal was not affected by this treatment.

  7. Role of biodegradation in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds with different bulk organic matter characteristics through managed aquifer recharge: batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Amy, Gary L

    2011-10-15

    Natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration have been recognized as providing effective barriers in the multi-barrier approach for attenuation of organic micropollutants for safe drinking water supply. In this study, the role of biodegradation in the removal of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during soil passage was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the removal of 13 selected PhACs from different water sources with respect to different sources of biodegradable organic matter. Neutral PhACs (phenacetine, paracetamol, and caffeine) and acidic PhACs (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, bezafibrate, and naproxen) were removed with efficiencies greater than 88% from different organic matter water matrices during batch studies (hydraulic retention time (HRT): 60 days). Column experiments were then performed to differentiate between biodegradation and sorption with regard to the removal of selected PhACs. In column studies, removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs (e.g., analgesics) decreased under conditions of limited biodegradable carbon. The removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs were found to be less than 21% under abiotic conditions. These observations were attributed to sorption under abiotic conditions established by a biocide (20 mM sodium azide), which suppresses microbial activity/biodegradation. However, under biotic conditions, the removal efficiencies of these acidic PhACs were found to be greater than 59%. This is mainly attributed to biodegradation. Moreover, the average removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (polar) neutral PhACs (paracetamol, pentoxifylline, and caffeine) with low octanol/water partition coefficients (log Kow less than 1) were low (11%) under abiotic conditions. However, under biotic conditions, removal efficiencies of the neutral PhACs were greater than 98%. In contrast, carbamazepine persisted and was not easily removed under either biotic or abiotic conditions. This study indicates that biodegradation

  8. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was performed with the overall objectives of obtaining relevant design parameters and capital and operating costs of both adsorption and various aeration techniques for the removal of specific organic contaminants from the City of Glen Cove's drinking water ...

  9. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters. PMID:22988627

  10. Removal of phenolic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Nam-Koong, W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research was an evaluation of the removal rates of phenolic compounds in soil. Seventeen phenolic compounds with similar structure were chosen. Relative toxicity of phenolic compounds also was determined by the Microtox{sup TM} System to evaluate the relationship between the toxicity of the phenolic compounds and removal rate. The amount of ATP in the soil was measured by a Lumac/3M biocounter to evaluate any effect of phenolic compounds on the soil microbial activity. Preferential removal of phenolic compounds occurred in mixtures. The presence of phenol and/or o-cresol reduced the removal rate of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Reapplications of the phenolic compounds did not change the removal rate of the compounds. There was good correlation between the relative toxicity of phenolic compounds and zero order removal rates. The less toxic phenolic compounds were removed more rapidly. No lag phase was observed for the removal of phenolic compounds when the compounds were applied to soil below the toxic level. Phenolic compounds had a significant effect on soil microbial activity based on ATP measurement. The increase in soil ATP was related to a rapid removal of phenol. A gradual decrease in soil ATP was observed with the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  11. Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-06-15

    The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

  12. Biofiltration of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Malhautier, Luc; Khammar, Nadia; Bayle, Sandrine; Fanlo, Jean-Louis

    2005-07-01

    The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated airstreams has become a major air pollution concern. Improvement of the biofiltration process commonly used for the removal of odorous compounds has led to a better control of key parameters, enabling the application of biofiltration to be extended also to the removal of VOCs. Moreover, biofiltration, which is based on the ability of micro-organisms to degrade a large variety of compounds, proves to be economical and environmentally viable. In a biofilter, the waste gas is forced to rise through a layer of packed porous material. Thus, pollutants contained in the gaseous effluent are oxidised or converted into biomass by the action of microorganisms previously fixed on the packing material. The biofiltration process is then based on two principal phenomena: (1) transfer of contaminants from the air to the water phase or support medium, (2) bioconversion of pollutants to biomass, metabolic end-products, or carbon dioxide and water. The diversity of biofiltration mechanisms and their interaction with the microflora mean that the biofilter is defined as a complex and structured ecosystem. As a result, in addition to operating conditions, research into the microbial ecology of biofilters is required in order better to optimise the management of such biological treatment systems. PMID:15803311

  13. ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cleaner coating removal technologies are developing rapidly to meet a variety of industrial needs to replace solvent strippers having toxic properties. his guide describes cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce waste in coating removal operations. nformation is presented...

  14. Removal of organic compounds from water via cloud-point extraction with permethyl hydroxypropyl-[beta]-cyclodextrin

    SciTech Connect

    Warner-Schmid, D.; Hoshi, Suwaru; Armstrong, D.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants are known to undergo phase separations at elevated temperatures. This phenomenon is known as clouding,' and the temperature at which it occurs is refereed to as the cloud point. Permethylhydroxypropyl-[beta]-cyclodextrin (PMHP-[beta]-CD) was synthesized and aqueous solutions containing it were found to undergo similar cloud-point behavior. Factors that affect the phase separation of PMHP-[beta]-CD were investigated. Subsequently, the cloud-point extractions of several aromatic compounds (i.e., acetanilide, aniline, 2,2[prime]-dihydroxybiphenyl, N-methylaniline, 2-naphthol, o-nitroaniline, m-nitroaniline, p-nitroaniline, nitrobenzene, o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, 4-phenazophenol, 3-phenylphenol, and 2-phenylbenzimidazole) from dilute aqueous solution were evaluated. Although the extraction efficiency of the compounds varied, most can be quantitatively extracted if sufficient PMHP-[beta]-CD is used. For those few compounds that are not extracted (e.g., o-nitroacetanilide), the cloud-point procedure may be an effective one-step isolation or purification method. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from wastewater using polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu; Lai, Edward P C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of particles of molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymers (MIP and NIP) as a wastewater treatment method for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). MIP and NIP remove EDCs through adsorption and therefore do not result in the formation of partially degraded products. The results show that both MIP and NIP particles are effective for removal of EDCs, and NIP have the advantage of not being as compound-specific as the MIP and hence can remove a diverse range of compounds including 17-β-estradiol (E2), atrazine, bisphenol A, and diethylstilbestrol. Removal of E2 from wastewater was also tested to determine the effectiveness of NIP in the presence of interfering substances and natural organic matter. Removal of E2 from wastewater samples was high and increased with increasing NIP. NIP represent an effective way of removing a wide variety of EDCs from wastewater. PMID:26744949

  16. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  17. Performance evaluation using a three compartment mass balance for the removal of volatile organic compounds in pilot scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Eva M; Reiche, Nils; Kuschk, Peter; Borsdorf, Helko; Kaestner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    To perform a general assessment of treatment efficiency, a mass balance study was undertaken for two types of constructed wetlands (CWs), planted gravel filters and plant root mat systems, for treating VOC (benzene; MTBE) polluted groundwater under field conditions. Contaminant fate was investigated in the respective water, plant, and atmosphere compartments by determining water and atmospheric contaminant loads and calculating contaminant plant uptake, thereby allowing for an extended efficiency assessment of CWs. Highest total VOC removal was achieved during summer, being pronounced for benzene compared to MTBE. According to the experimental results and the calculations generated by the balancing model, degradation in the rhizosphere and plant uptake accounted for the main benzene removal processes, of 76% and 13% for the gravel bed CW and 83% and 11% for the root mat system. Volatilization flux of benzene and MTBE was low (<5%) for the gravel bed CW, while in the root mat system direct contact of aqueous and gaseous phases favored total MTBE volatilization (24%). With this applied approach, we present detailed contaminant mass balances that allow for conclusive quantitative estimation of contaminant elimination and distribution processes (e.g., total, surface, and phytovolatilization, plant uptake, rhizodegradation) in CWs under field conditions. PMID:21848285

  18. Graphene nanosheets as novel adsorbents in adsorption, preconcentration and removal of gases, organic compounds and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yu, Lin-Yan; Yang, Hua; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Jiao, Fei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high adsorption capacities, carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, activated carbons, fullerene and graphene are widely used as the currently most promising functional materials. Since its discovery in 2004, graphene has exhibited great potential in many technological fields, such as energy storage materials, supercapacitors, resonators, quantum dots, solar cells, electronics, and sensors. The large theoretical specific surface area of graphene nanosheets (2630 m(2)·g(-1)) makes them excellent candidates for adsorption technologies. Further, graphene nanosheets could be used as substrates for decorating the surfaces of nanoparticles, and the corresponding nanocomposites could be applied as novel adsorbents for the removal of low concentrated contaminants from aqueous solutions. Therefore, graphene nanosheets will challenge the current existing adsorbents, including other types of carbon-based nanomaterials. PMID:25244035

  19. On the performance of FAU and MFI zeolites for the adsorptive removal of a series of volatile organic compounds from air using molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Calero, S; Gómez-Álvarez, P

    2015-10-21

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions can cause serious risk to human health and the environment. In this work, we used Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of industrially important zeolites for the adsorption-based removal of a number of common air pollutants, particularly small saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons: propane, butane, propene, and 1-butene. We focused on the cage-like FAU and channel-like MFI zeolites. The adsorption isotherms of the multicomponent N2/O2/Ar/VOC mixtures at real concentrations and room temperature reveal a considerable influence of the host topology and pore dimensions. While the adsorption of the VOCs from the mixture in FAU is almost negligible, it is remarkable in MFI. The adsorption selectivity of each VOC over the air compounds exhibits a maximum at about 10(6)-10(7) Pa, and then decreases to virtually zero due to entropic effects. This behaviour for selectivity is maintained regardless of the chain length and the presence of double bonds in the VOC, but the values are indeed affected. Also, we examined the selectivity at 10(7) Pa for a number of other widely used zeolites, with pore features ensuring the diffusion of the adsorbates. Apart from MFI, we also found the channel-like MEL and MTW zeolite candidates for the targeted air decontamination. PMID:26392021

  20. Effect of vegetation removal and water table drawdown on the non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in boreal peatland microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Åsmund; Räty, Sanna; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Holopainen, Toini; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important in the global atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks to global warming are uncertain. Global warming is expected to trigger vegetation changes and water table drawdown in boreal peatlands, such changes have only been investigated on isoprene emission but never on other BVOCs. We aimed at distinguishing the BVOCs released from vascular plants, mosses and peat in hummocks (dry microsites) and hollows (wet microsites) of boreal peatland microcosms maintained in growth chambers. We also assessed the effect of water table drawdown (-20 cm) on the BVOC emissions in hollow microcosms. BVOC emissions were measured from peat samples underneath the moss surface after the 7-week-long experiment to investigate whether the potential effects of vegetation and water table drawdown were shown. BVOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber method, collected on adsorbent and analyzed with GC-MS. In hummock microcosms, vascular plants increased the monoterpene emissions compared with the treatment where all above-ground vegetation was removed while no effect was detected on the sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) and other VOCs. Peat layer from underneath the surface with intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. In hollow microcosms, intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. Water table drawdown decreased monoterpene and other VOC emissions. Specific compounds could be closely associated to the natural/lowered water tables. Peat layer from underneath the surface of hollows with intact vegetation had the highest emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and ORVOCs whereas water table drawdown decreased those emissions. The results suggest that global warming would change the BVOC emission mixtures from boreal peatlands following changes in vegetation composition and water table drawdown.

  1. Six-phase soil heating for enhanced removal of contaminants: Volatile organic compounds in non-arid soils integrated demonstration, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Bergsman, T.M.; Caley, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    In November 1993, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel conducted a demonstration of six-phase soil heating (SPSH) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was part of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration being conducted near the M-Area operations at the SRS, along a corridor that once contained a process sewer leading to the M-Area seepage basin. In the early 1980s, this sewer line was discovered to be leaking process wastes into the subsurface and contributing to groundwater contamination in the vicinity of M-Area seepage basin. Although use of the sewer line has been discontinued, the slow release of chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) from the heterogeneous vadose zone soil continues to be a source of potential groundwater contamination. A significant portion of the VOCs at the demonstration site are retained in low-permeability clay zones. Previous studies have shown that the rate of conventional SVE remediation of the SRS clays is quite slow. The permeability of the clay is of order 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}, which makes this a particularly difficult interval to remediate. Thus, the challenge for SPSH is to effectively remediate this clay zone by accelerating the removal of TCE and PCE.

  2. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  3. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  4. Organic Compounds in Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Clemett. Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hoerz, Fredrich

    2011-01-01

    The successful return of the STARDUST spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild-2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N-rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivities suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C N). While organic species in the STARDUST samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N-containing species in comets has astrobiological implications since comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

  5. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. PMID:27276233

  6. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  7. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  8. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  9. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T

  10. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.; Muedas, C.A.; Ferguson, R.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes improvement in a Group IIb photosensitized vapor phase dimerization of an organic compound in which a gaseous mixture of a Group IIB metal and the organic compound is irradiated in a reaction zone with a photosensitizing amount of radiant energy. The improvement comprises: a continuous stream of the gaseous mixture is passed as a vapor phase in a single pass through the reaction zone at a temperature at which the thus-produced dimer condenses immediately upon the formation thereof; the starting gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen and two ethylenically unsaturated compounds selected from the group consisting of alkenes of at least six carbon atoms, unsaturated nitriles, unsaturated epoxides, unsaturated silanes, unsaturated amines, unsaturated phosphines, and fluorinated alkenes; the gaseous mixture comprises nitrous oxide and the organic compound is a saturated compound with C-H bond strengths greater than 100 kcal/mol or a mixture of the saturated compound and an alkene; or the starting gaseous comprises an activating amount of hydrogen and the dimerization is a dehydrodimerization or cross-dimerization of a saturated hydrocarbon.

  11. Evaluation of the treatment performance of lab-scaled vertical flow constructed wetlands in removal of organic compounds, color and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the treatment performance of vertical flow intermittent feeding constructed wetland (VFCW) in removal of organic pollution, nutrients and color in azo-dye containing wastewater. The systems consisted of PVC reactors, some filling materials such as gravel, sand and zeolite and wetland plants including Typha angustifolia and Canna indica. The average treatment efficiency of the systems for COD, color, sulphate, NH4-N, and PO4-P were in the range of 57-63%, 94-99%, 44-48%, 39-44%, and 84-88%, respectively among the VFCW reactors. It is concluded that VFCW reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of dye-rich wastewater, especially for the removal of color and in the reduction of COD. Biofilm formation and cleavage of azo bonds could be observed by SEM and FTIR results, respectively. Almost similar NH4-N and PO4-P removal were obtained in all reactors by using same amount of zeolite media. PMID:26248021

  12. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  13. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND WATER BY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field studies are underway to determine the effectiveness of activated carbon for removing volatile organic compounds from ground water. For fifteen C1 through C6 compounds being considered for possible regulatory action, the adsorption isotherm capacity ranges fro...

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds in Uremia

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Luzia; Slodzinski, Rafael; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although “uremic fetor” has long been felt to be diagnostic of renal failure, the compounds exhaled in uremia remain largely unknown so far. The present work investigates whether breath analysis by ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of volatile organic compounds retained in uremia. Methods Breath analysis was performed in 28 adults with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 26 adults with chronic renal failure corresponding to an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 28 adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after a hemodialysis session. Breath analysis was performed by ion mobility spectrometryafter gas-chromatographic preseparation. Identification of the compounds of interest was performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Breath analyses revealed significant differences in the spectra of patients with and without renal failure. Thirteen compounds were chosen for further evaluation. Some compounds including hydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonia accumulated with decreasing renal function and were eliminated by dialysis. The concentrations of these compounds allowed a significant differentiation between healthy, chronic renal failure with an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min, and ESRD (p<0.05 each). Other compounds including 4-heptanal, 4-heptanone, and 2-heptanone preferentially or exclusively occurred in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion Impairment of renal function induces a characteristic fingerprint of volatile compounds in the breath. The technique of ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of lipophilic uremic retention molecules. PMID:23049998

  17. SOLUBLE ORGANIC NITROGEN CHARACTERISTICS AND REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses sources, concentrations, characteristics and methods for removal of Soluble Organic Nitrogen (SON) in wastewater. Removal by various physical, chemical and biological processes are described and molecular weight distribution is characterized. A significant p...

  18. REMOVAL BY COAGULATION OF TRACE ORGANICS FROM MISSISSIPPI RIVER WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the study alum and ferric sulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing four low-molecular-weight organic compounds - C14-labeled octanoic acid, salicylic acid, phenol, and benzoic acid - from Mississippi River water and from water samples free of natural organic ...

  19. Nonoxidative removal of organics in the activated sludge process

    PubMed Central

    Modin, Oskar; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie; Hermansson, Malte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activated sludge process is commonly used to treat wastewater by aerobic oxidation of organic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water. However, several nonoxidative mechanisms can also contribute to removal of organics. Sorption onto activated sludge can remove a large fraction of the colloidal and particulate wastewater organics. Intracellular storage of, e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), triacylglycerides (TAG), or wax esters can convert wastewater organics into precursors for high-value products. Recently, several environmental, economic, and technological drivers have stimulated research on nonoxidative removal of organics for wastewater treatment. In this paper, we review these nonoxidative removal mechanisms as well as the existing and emerging process configurations that make use of them for wastewater treatment. Better utilization of nonoxidative processes in activated sludge could reduce the wasteful aerobic oxidation of organic compounds and lead to more resource-efficient wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27453679

  20. Removal of trace organic micropollutants by drinking water biological filters.

    PubMed

    Zearley, Thomas L; Summers, R Scott

    2012-09-01

    The long-term removal of 34 trace organic micropollutants (<1 μg L(-1)) was evaluated and modeled in drinking water biological filters with sand media from a full-scale plant. The micropollutants included pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products, some of which are endocrine disrupting chemicals, and represent a wide range of uses, chemical structures, adsorbabilities, and biodegradabilities. Micropollutant removal ranged from no measurable removal (<15%) for 13 compounds to removal below the detection limit and followed one of four trends over the one year study period: steady state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, or no removal (recalcitrant). Removals for all 19 nonrecalcitrant compounds followed first-order kinetics when at steady state with increased removal at longer empty bed contact times (EBCT). Rate constants were calculated, 0.02-0.37 min(-1), and used in a pseudo-first-order rate model with the EBCT to predict removals in laboratory biofilters at a different EBCT and influent conditions. Drinking water biofiltration has the potential to be an effective process for the control of many trace organic contaminants and a pseudo-first-order model can serve as an appropriate method for approximating performance. PMID:22881485

  1. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  2. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  3. Removal of trace organics by anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Monsalvo, Victor M; McDonald, James A; Khan, Stuart J; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The biological removal of 38 trace organics (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, personal care products and pesticides) was studied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). This work presents complete information on the different removal mechanisms involved in the removal of trace organics in this process. In particular, it is focused on advanced characterization of the relative amount of TO accumulated within the fouling layers formed on the membranes. The results show that only 9 out of 38 compounds were removed by more than 90% while 23 compounds were removed by less than 50%. These compounds are therefore removed in an AnMBR biologically and partially adsorbed and retained by flocs and the deposition developed on the membranes, respectively. A total amount of 288 mg of trace organics was retained per m(2) of membrane, which were distributed along the different fouling layers. Among the trace organics analyzed, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estrone, octylphenol and bisphenol A were the most retained by the fouling layers. Among the fouling layers deposited on the membranes, the non-readily detachable layer has been identified as the main barrier for trace organics. PMID:24321247

  4. Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by Pump-and-Treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2011-01-01

    Pump and Treat (P&T) remediation is the primary technique used to contain and remove trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products cis 1-2,dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. Three methods were used to determine the masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed from groundwater by the P&T system since it became fully operational in 1996. Method 1, is based on the flow volume and concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater that entered the P&T building as influent. Method 2 is based on withdrawal volume from each active recovery well and the concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in the water samples from each well. Method 3 compares the maximum monthly amount of TCE, cDCE, and VC from Method 1 and Method 2. The greater of the two values is selected to represent the masses of TCE, cDCE and VC removed from groundwater each month. Previously published P&T monthly reports used Method 1 to determine the mass of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed. The reports state that 8,666 pounds (lbs) of TCE, 13,689 lbs of cDCE, and 2,455 lbs of VC were removed by the P&T system during 1996-2010. By using Method 2, the mass removed was determined to be 8,985 lbs of TCE, 17,801 lbs of cDCE, and 3,056 lbs of VC removed, and Method 3, resulted in 10,602 lbs of TCE, 21,029 lbs of cDCE, and 3,496 lbs of VC removed. To determine the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater, the individual masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC (determined using Methods 1, 2, and 3) were converted to numbers of moles, summed, and converted to pounds of original TCE. By using the molar conversion the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater by Methods 1, 2, and 3 was 32,381 lbs, 39,535 lbs, and 46,452 lbs, respectively, during 1996-2010. P&T monthly reports state that 24,805 lbs of summed TCE, cDCE, and VC were removed from groundwater. The simple summing method underestimates the mass of original TCE removed by the P&T system.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PREVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. I. SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1996, a pilot-scale demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process for removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from soils was conducted at Hill Air Force Base in Layton, Utah. Five thousand gallons of the extracted DNAP...

  6. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Gregory D.; Moore, Glenn A.; Stone, Mark L.; Reagen, William K.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

  7. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  8. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic matter on fixed surfaces and airborne particles. Analyses indicate that equilibrium partitioning is achieved faster for particles than for typical indoor surfaces; indeed, for a strongly sorbing SVOC and a thick sorptive reservoir, equilibrium partitioning is never achieved. Mass-balance considerations are used to develop physical-science-based models that connect source- and sink-rates to airborne concentrations for commonly encountered situations, such as the application of a pesticide or the emission of a plasticizer or flame retardant from its host material. Calculations suggest that many SVOCs have long indoor persistence, even after the primary source is removed. If the only removal mechanism is ventilation, moderately sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 10) may persist indoors for hundreds to thousands of hours, while strongly sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 12) may persist for years. The paper concludes by applying the newly developed framework to explore exposure pathways of building occupants to indoor SVOCs. Accumulation of SVOCs as a consequence of direct air-to-human transport is shown to be potentially large, with a maximum indoor-air processing rate of 10-20 m 3/h for SVOC uptake by human skin, hair and clothing. Levels on human skin calculated with a simple model of direct air-to-skin transfer agree remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients.

  9. Treatment System for Removing Halogenated Compounds from Contaminated Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Yestrebsky, Cherie L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A treatment system and a method for removal of at least one halogenated compound, such as PCBs, found in contaminated systems are provided. The treatment system includes a polymer blanket for receiving at least one non-polar solvent. The halogenated compound permeates into or through a wall of the polymer blanket where it is solubilized with at least one non-polar solvent received by said polymer blanket forming a halogenated solvent mixture. This treatment system and method provides for the in situ removal of halogenated compounds from the contaminated system. In one embodiment, the halogenated solvent mixture is subjected to subsequent processes which destroy and/or degrade the halogenated compound.

  10. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  11. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  12. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1984-04-06

    The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

  13. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in nitrifying-denitrifying plants.

    PubMed

    Suárez, S; Ramil, M; Omil, F; Lema, J M

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of nine pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) of different diagnostic groups is studied during a nitrifying-denitrifying process in an activated sludge system. The compounds selected cover a wide range of frequently used substances such as anti-epileptics (carbamazepine), tranquillisers (diazepam), anti-depressants (fluoxetine and citalopram), anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac) and estrogens (estradiol and ethinylestradiol). The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of acclimation of biomass on the removal rates of these compounds, either by maintaining a high sludge retention time or at long-term operation. The removal rates achieved for nitrogen and carbon in the experimental unit exceed 90% and were not affected by the addition of PhACs. Carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac were only removed to a small extent. On the other hand, higher removal rates have been observed for naproxen and ibuprofen (68% and 82%), respectively. PMID:16312946

  14. Removal of organic contaminants by RO and NF membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Yeomin; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of organic and inorganic compounds were examined for six reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and two nanofiltration (NF) membranes that are commercially available. A batch stirred-cell was employed to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for solutions at various concentrations and different pH conditions. The results show that for ionic solutes the degree of separation is influenced mainly by electrostatic exclusion, while for organic solutes the removal depends mainly upon the solute radius and molecular structure. In order to provide a better understanding of rejection mechanisms for the RO and NF membranes, the ratio of solute radius (r(i,s)) to effective membrane pore radius (r(p)) was employed to compare rejections. An empirical relation for the dependence of the rejection of organic compounds on the ratio r(i,s)/r(p) is presented. The rejection for organic compounds is over 75% when r(i,s)/r(p) is greater than 0.8. In addition, the rejection of organic compounds is examined using the extended Nernst-Planck equation coupled with a steric hindrance model. The transport of organic solutes is controlled mainly by diffusion for the compounds that have a high r(i,s)/r(p) ratio, while convection is dominant for compounds that have a small r(i,s)/r(p) ratio. c2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic compounds in concrete from demolition works.

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H; Trygg, J

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to verify the effect of physically removing the outer surface of contaminated concrete on total contents and on potential mobility of pollutants by means of leaching tests. Reclaimed concrete from 3 industrial sites in Sweden were included: A tar impregnated military storage, a military tar track-depot, as well as concrete constructions used for disposing of pesticide production surplus and residues. Solid materials and leachates from batch and column leaching tests were analysed for metals, Cl, F, SO4, DOC and contents of suspected organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH, and pesticides/substances for pesticide production such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols, respectively). In case of PAH contaminated concrete, results indicate that removing 1 or 5 mm of the surface lead to total concentrations below the Swedish guidelines for recycling of aggregates and soil in groundwork constructions. 3 out of 4 concrete samples contaminated with pesticides fulfilled Swedish guidelines for contaminated soil. Results from batch and column leaching tests indicated, however, that concentrations above environmental quality standards for certain PAH and phenoxy acids, respectively, might occur at site when the crushed concrete is recycled in groundwork constructions. As leaching tests engaged in the study deviated from leaching test standards with a limited number of samples, the potential impact of the leaching tests' equipment on measured PAH and pesticide leachate concentrations has to be evaluated in future work. PMID:26164853

  16. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-01-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  17. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-03-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  18. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  19. Changes in organic sulfur compounds in coal macerals during liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Joseph, J.T.; Fisher, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Environmentally sound use of coal for energy production involves effective sulfur removal from the feed coal and/or coal-derived products. Physical cleaning of coal is effective in removing substantial quantities of inorganic sulfur compounds such a pyrite. However, removal of organic sulfur by physical means has not been extremely successful. It is likely that only chemical methods will be useful in substantial removal of organic sulfur. A thorough knowledge of the chemistry of organic sulfur in coal will be valuable in attempts to remove organic sulfur from coal or its liquefaction or pyrolysis products by chemical methods. Since different coal macerals have different liquefaction reactivities, the analysis of sulfur functionalities on separated macerals is deemed to be more meaningful than studying the whole coal. Liquefaction behavior and organic sulfur speciation of the macerals separated from Lewiston-Stockton coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, APCS-7) by XPS, XANES, and HRMS has been previously described. This paper describes the preliminary speciation of sulfur compounds in the asphaltene fraction of the liquefaction products from these macerals.

  20. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  1. Solvent extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds from porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, V.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method of reducing the level of hexachlorinated organic compounds selected from hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, or mixtures thereof to a non-hazardous level in a solid, porous DERAKANE vinyl ester resin, which has been previously used as the material of construction of a cell to produce chlorine, which vinyl ester resin was in contact with chlorine during chlorine manufacture is descried which comprises: (a) contacting the hexachlorinated compound-containing porous vinyl ester resin with an extraction solvent wherein the extraction solvent is selected from chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethane, methyl chloroform, tetrachloroethane, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, or mixtures thereof, at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the absorbed hexachlorinated organic compound; and (b) separating the hexachlorianated organic compound-containing extraction solvent and vinyl ester resin.

  2. Challenges and solutions for biofiltration of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; He, Huijun; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Yu, Guanlong

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the environment highly probably result in ecological and health risks. Many biotechnologies for waste gases containing hydrophobic VOCs have been developed in recent years. However, these biological processes usually exhibit poor removal performances for hydrophobic VOCs due to the low bioavailability. This review presents an overview of enhanced removal of hydrophobic VOCs in biofilters. Mechanisms and problems relevant to the biological removal of hydrophobic VOCs are reviewed, and then solutions including the addition of surfactants, application of fungal biocatalysts, biofiltration with pretreatment, innovative bioreactors and utilization of hydrophilic compounds are discussed in detail. Future research needs are also proposed. This review provides new insights into hydrophobic VOC removal by biofiltration. PMID:27374790

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  9. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  10. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  11. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  12. Bibliography of work on the photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D.M.

    1994-05-01

    This is a bibliography of information in the open literature on work that has been done to date on the photocatalytic oxidation of compounds, principally organic compounds. The goal of the listing is removing hazardous oompounds from water or air. It contains lists of substances and literature citations. The bibliography includes information obtained through the middle of 1993 and some selected references for the balance of that year.

  13. Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

  14. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...

  15. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  16. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  18. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

  19. Enhanced removal of aqueous BPA model compounds using Metalloligs.

    PubMed

    Franz, Douglas M; Martin, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    A model compound, 4-(t-butyl)phenol, was used as a substitute for BPA (bisphenol acetone or Bisphenol A) a material used for the production of a large volume of common plastics. Unfortunately, BPA is suspected to have estrogenic properties, and there is a suspicion that even small amounts can have a deleterious effect against humans, especially female infants. The model compound has some similarities to BPA, but lacks some of the serious properties of BPA dust. Since other workers have demonstrated the capability of removing BPA from plastics by extraction with saline or alcohol, we studied whether Octolig, a polyethylenediimine supported on silica gel, or transition metal derivatives of Octolig could be used to remove concentrations for model compounds from aqueous solution. Octolig gave modest results 20%, the manganese (II) and iron (III) derivatives gave poor results, Cuprilig was an improvement over those two Metalloligs, but the cobalt(II) derivative was able to remove up to 56% of the model compound. Two methods were studied, batch and column chromatography. Under the conditions used in this study, the batch method was superior. PMID:24279622

  20. Removal rates of dissolved munitions compounds in seawater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Vlahos, Penny; Tobias, Craig; Ballentine, Mark; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Cooper, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    The historical exposure of coastal marine systems to munitions compounds is of significant concern due to the global distribution of impacted sites and known toxicological effects of nitroaromatics. In order to identify specific coastal regions where persistence of these chemicals should be of concern, it is necessary to experimentally observe their behavior under a variety of realistic oceanographic conditions. Here, we conduct a mesocosm scale pulse addition experiment to document the behavior of two commonly used explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in simulated marine systems containing water and sediments collected from Long Island Sound, CT. The addition of sediments and sediment grain-size had a major influence on the loss rates of all compounds detected. RDX and reduced TNT products were removed from seawater only in the presence of sediment, and TNT degraded significantly faster in the presence of sediment. Both compounds were removed from the system faster with decreasing grain-size. Based on these findings and a thorough review of the literature, we hypothesize that in addition to bacterial abundance and nutrient availability, TNT removal rates in coastal marine waters may be controlled by sorption and rapid surface-mediated bacterial transformation, while RDX removal rates are controlled by diffusion into sedimentary anoxic regions and subsequent anaerobic bacterial breakdown. A comparison of published removal rates of RDX and TNT highlights the extreme variability in measured degradation rates and identifies physicochemical variables that covary with the breakdown of these munitions compounds. PMID:23623038

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  2. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, S. F. S.; Pang, K. D.; Cutts, J. A.; Ajello, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet-stimulated catalytic oxidation is proposed as a mechanism for the destruction of organic compounds on Mars. The process involves the presence of gaseous oxygen, UV radiation, and a catalyst (titanium dioxide), and all three of these have been found to be present in the Martian environment. Therefore it seems plausible that UV-stimulated oxidation of organics is responsible for degrading organic molecules into inorganic end products.

  3. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  4. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  5. Multiple microbial activities for volatile organic compounds reduction by biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Civilini, Marcello

    2006-07-01

    In the northeast of Italy, high volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions originate from small-medium companies producing furniture. In these conditions it is difficult to propose a single, efficient, and economic system to reduce pollution. Among the various choices, the biofiltration method could be a good solution, because microbial populations possess multiple VOC degradation potentials used to oxidize these compounds to CO2. Starting from the air emissions of a typical industrial wood-painting plant, a series of experiments studied in vitro microbial degradation of each individual VOC. Isolated strains were then added to a laboratory-scale biofiltration apparatus filled with an organic matrix, and the different VOC behavior demonstrated the potential of single and/or synergic microbial removal actions. When a single substrate was fed, the removal efficiency of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated reactor was 1.1, 1.17, and 0.33 g m(-3) hr(-1), respectively, for xylene, toluene, and ethoxy propyl acetate. A VOC mixture composed of butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, diacetin alcohol, ethoxy propanol acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, and xylene was then fed into a 2-m(3) reactor treating 100 m3 hr(-1) of contaminated air. The reactor was filled with the same mixture of organic matrix, enriched with all of the isolated strains together. During reactor study, different VOC loading rates were used, and the behavior was evaluated continuously. After a short acclimation period, the removal efficiency was > 65% at VOC load of 150-200 g m(-3) hr(-1). Quantification of removal efficiencies and VOC speciation confirmed the relationship among removal efficiencies, compound biodegradability, and the dynamic transport of each mixture component within the organic matrix. Samples of the fixed bed were withdrawn at different intervals and the heterogeneous microbial community evaluated for both total and differential compound counts. PMID:16878585

  6. Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  7. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    SciTech Connect

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more.

  8. Nonaqueous battery with organic compound cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaji, A.; Yamaki, J.

    1981-02-17

    A battery embodying this invention comprises: an anode including an anode-active material formed of one metal selected from the Group IA metals or preferably lithium metal; a cathode including a cathode-active material formed of metal or metal-free organic compounds having a phthalocyanine function or organic compounds having a porphin function; and an electrolyte prepared from a material which is chemically stable to the cathode and anode materials and permits the migration of the ion of the anode metal to the cathode for electrochemical reaction with the cathode-active material.

  9. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    SciTech Connect

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG`s and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline.

  10. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  11. Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W.

    1995-12-31

    Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

  12. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K.

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  13. Removal of organic magnesium in coccolithophore calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Ameijeiras, S.; Lebrato, M.; Stoll, H. M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D.; Méndez-Vicente, A.; Sett, S.; Müller, M. N.; Oschlies, A.; Schulz, K. G.

    2012-07-01

    Coccolithophore calcite refers to the plates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by the calcifying phytoplankton, coccolithophores. The empirical study of the elemental composition has a great potential in the development of paleoproxies. However, the difficulties to separate coccolithophore carbonates from organic phases hamper the investigation of coccoliths magnesium to calcium ratios (Mg/Ca) in biogeochemical studies. Magnesium (Mg) is found in organic molecules in the cells at concentrations up to 400 times higher than in inorganically precipitated calcite in present-day seawater. The aim of this study was to optimize a reliable procedure for organic Mg removal from coccolithophore samples to ensure reproducibility in measurements of inorganic Mg in calcite. Two baseline methods comprising organic matter oxidations with (1) bleach and (2) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were tested on synthetic pellets, prepared by mixing reagent grade CaCO3 with organic matter from the non-calcifying marine algae Chlorella autotrophica and measured with an ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer). Our results show that treatments with a reductive solution [using hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl + NH4OH)] followed by three consecutive oxidations (using H2O2) yielded the best cleaning efficiencies, removing >99% of organic Mg in 24 h. P/Ca and Fe/Ca were used as indicators for organic contamination in the treated material. The optimized protocol was tested in dried coccolithophore pellets from batch cultures of Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Mg/Ca of treated coccolithophores were 0.151 ± 0.018, 0.220 ± 0.040, and 0.064 ± 0.023 mmol/mol, respectively. Comparison with Mg/Ca literature coccolith values, suggests a tight dependence on modern seawater Mg/Ca, which changes as a consequence of different seawater origins (<10%). The reliable determination of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, and the low levels of organic contamination

  14. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  15. Selective removal of organics for water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. The feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space habitat humidity condensates was demonstrated. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. The electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water reclamation applications are described. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are also described. The design of a novel electrochemical system that incorporates a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte is presented based on parametric test data and current fuel cell technology.

  16. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

  17. Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.

    2008-12-01

    Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is

  18. Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

  19. Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry; Forrest, Stephen R.; Mutolo, Kristin L.; Mayo, Elizabeth; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-07-05

    An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

  20. Climate impacts of biogenic organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Kamalika; Gordon, Hamish; Almeida, Joao; Rap, Alex; Scott, Catherine; Pringle, Kirsty; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Currently the most uncertain driver of climate change, impact of anthropogenic aerosols on earth's radiative balance depends significantly on estimates of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), representation of the pre-industrial atmosphere among others. Nearly 90% of aerosols in the tropics are organic in nature of which a major part comes from biogenic sources. About 45% of the CCN in the atmosphere are formed in-situ via nucleation. Understanding the role of biogenic organic compounds in particle formation and their subsequent growth is hence imperative in order to quantify the climate impact of aerosols. The CLOUD experiment at CERN, which measures particle formation and growth rates in a uniquely clean chamber under atmospherically relevant conditions, found evidence of a nucleation mechanism involving only biogenic organic compounds. This mechanism significantly changes our pre-industrial estimates. The experimental results have been parameterized and included in a global aerosol microphysics model, GLOMAP, to quantify the impact of pure biogenic nucleation on CCN formation and their climatic impact. Further the treatment of secondary organic compounds in GLOMAP has been improved and the sensitivity of our estimates of radiative forcing to the same has been evaluated.

  1. Removal of organic contaminants from lithographic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, Wayne M.

    One of the critical issues still facing the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into mainstream manufacturing for integrated circuit (IC) production is cleanliness. EUV photons at 13.5 nm are easily absorbed by many species, including dust, thin-film layers, and other debris present in the path of the photons. Carrying out EUVL inside a vacuum helps reduce the amount of photon loss for illumination, however contamination in the sys- tem is unavoidable, especially due to carbon growth on the multilayer mirror collectors and to soft defects in the form of organic contamination on the mask. Traditional cleaning methods employ the use of wet chemicals to etch contamination off of a surface, however this is limited in the sub-micron range of contaminant particles due to lack of transport of sufficient liquid chemical to the surface in order to achieve satisfactory particle removal. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the photomask must be particle free at inspection below 30 nm. However, when analyzing the ability of traditional methods to meet the cleaning needs set forth by the ITRS, these methods fall short and often add more contamination to the surface targeted for cleaning. With that in mind, a new cleaning method is being developed to supplant these traditional methods. Preliminary research into a plasma-based method to clean organic contaminants from lithographic materials constructed an experimental device that demonstrated the removal of both polystyrene latex nanoparticles (representing hydrocarbon contamination) in the range of 30 nm to 500 nm, as well as the removal of 30 nm carbon film layers on silicon wafers. This research, called the Plasma-Assisted Cleaning by Metastable Atomic Neutralization (PACMAN) process is being developed with semiconductor manufacturing cleaning in mind. A model of the helium metastable density within the processing chamber has been developed in addition to

  2. Late stage trifluoromethylthiolation strategies for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Barata-Vallejo, Sebastian; Bonesi, Sergio; Postigo, Al

    2016-07-26

    Substitution by the CF3S group allows for an increase in lipophilicity and electron-withdrawing properties along with an improvement in the bioavailability of medicinal targets; consequently, the late stage introduction of CF3S moieties into medicinal scaffolds is a sought-after strategy in synthetic organic chemistry. Different newly-developed electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents are used to effect the trifluoromethylthiolation of (hetero)aromatic compounds, aliphatic compounds (alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl substrates), the trifluoromethylthiolation at the α- and β-carbonyl positions, and heteroatoms (N- and S-). Such reactions can involve homolytic substitutions, or functional-group substitutions (ipso). Addition reactions of electrophilic reagents to double and triple bonds followed by ring-cyclizations will be shown to yield relevant CF3S-substituted heteroaromatic compounds with relevant pharmacological action. PMID:27354317

  3. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Organic compounds in star forming regions.

    PubMed

    Kochina, O; Wiebe, D

    2014-09-01

    The influence of complex dust composition on the general chemical evolution of a prestellar core and the content of complex organic compounds is studied. It is shown that various component groups respond differently to the presence of a small dust population. At early stages the difference is determined primarily by changes in the balance of photo processes due to effective absorption of ultraviolet photons by small dust grains of the second population and collisional reactions with dust particles. At later stages differences are also caused by the growing dominance of additional reaction channels related to surface organic synthesis. PMID:25515345

  5. Metabolic Reactions among Organic Sulfur Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, M.; Rogers, K.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. Numerous authors have addressed the energy available from a variety of inorganic sulfur redox pairs. Less attention has been paid, however, to the energy required or gained from metabolic reactions among organic sulfur compounds. Work in this area has focused on the oxidation of alkyl sulfide or disulfide to thiol and formaldehyde, e.g. (CH3)2S + H2O yields CH3SH + HCHO + H2, eventually resulting in the formation of CO2 and SO4(-2). It is also found that reactions among thiols and disulfides may help control redox disequilibria between the cytoplasm and the periplasm. Building on our earlier efforts for thiols, we have compiled and estimated thermodynamic properties for alkyl sulfides. We are investigating metabolic reactions among various sulfur compounds in a variety of extreme environments, ranging from sea floor hydrothermal systems to organic-rich sludge. Using thermodynamic data and the revised HKF equation of state, along with constraints imposed by the geochemical environments sulfur-metabolizing organisms inhabit, we are able to calculate the amount of energy available to these organisms.

  6. Compositional space boundaries for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Marshall, Alan G; Hsu, Chang Samuel

    2012-04-01

    An upper elemental compositional boundary for fossil hydrocarbons has previously been established as double-bond equivalents (i.e., DBE = rings plus double bonds) not exceeding 90% of the number of carbons. For heteroatom-containing fossil compounds, the 90% rule still applies if each N atom is counted as a C atom. The 90% rule eliminates more than 10% of the possible elemental compositions at a given mass for fossil database molecules. However, some synthetic compounds can fall outside the upper boundary defined for naturally occurring compounds. Their inclusion defines an "absolute" upper boundary as DBE (rings plus double bonds to carbon) equal to carbon number plus one, and applies to all organic compounds including fullerenes and other molecules containing no hydrogen. Finally, the DBE definition can fail for molecules with particular atomic valences. Therefore, we also present a generalized DBE definition that includes atomic valence to enable calculation of the correct total number of rings, double bonds, and triple bonds for heteroatom-containing compounds. PMID:22376063

  7. The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon--a review.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Luis F; Charles, Philippe; Glucina, Karl; Morlay, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides a review of recent scientific research on the removal by activated carbon (AC) in drinking water (DW) treatment of 1) two classes of currently unregulated trace level contaminants with potential chronic toxicity-pharmaceutically activate compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); 2) cyanobacterial toxins (CyBTs), which are a group of highly toxic and regulated compounds (as microcystin-LR); and 3) the above mentioned compounds by the hybrid system powdered AC/membrane filtration. The influence of solute and AC properties, as well as the competitive effect from background natural organic matter on the adsorption of such trace contaminants, are also considered. In addition, a number of adsorption isotherm parameters reported for PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs are presented herein. AC adsorption has proven to be an effective removal process for such trace contaminants without generating transformation products. This process appears to be a crucial step in order to minimize PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs in finished DW, hence calling for further studies on AC adsorption removal of these compounds. Finally, a priority chart of PhACs and EDCs warranting further study for the removal by AC adsorption is proposed based on the compounds' structural characteristics and their low removal by AC compared to the other compounds. PMID:22885596

  8. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, Ugo; Baltensperger, Urs; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Klein, Felix; Rossi, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from biogenic volatile organic compounds are important for new particle formation and early particle growth (e.g., Ehn et al., 2014). The formation mechanism has extensively been studied for biogenic precursors like alpha-pinene and was shown to proceed through an initial reaction with either OH radicals or ozone followed by radical propagation in a mechanism that involves O2 attack and hydrogen abstraction (Crounse et al., 2013). While the same processes can be expected for anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOC), few studies have investigated these so far. Here we present the formation of HOMs from a variety of aromatic compounds after reaction with OH. All the compounds analyzed show HOM formation. AVOC could therefore play an important role in new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas. References Crounse, J.D. et al., Autoxidation of organic compounds in the atmosphere. J. Phys.Chem. Lett. 4, 3513-3520 (2013). Ehn, M., et al. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol, Nature 506, 476-479 (2014).

  9. Self assembly properties of primitive organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    A central event in the origin of life was the self-assembly of amphiphilic, lipid-like compounds into closed microenvironments. If a primitive macromolecular replicating system could be encapsulated within a vesicular membrane, the components of the system would share the same microenvironment, and the result would be a step toward true cellular function. The goal of our research has been to determine what amphiphilic molecules might plausibly have been available on the early Earth to participate in the formation of such boundary structures. To this end, we have investigated primitive organic mixtures present in carbonaceous meteorites such as the Murchison meteorite, which contains 1-2 percent of its mass in the form of organic carbon compounds. It is likely that such compounds contributed to the inventory of organic carbon on the prebiotic earth, and were available to participate in chemical evolution leading to the emergence of the first cellular life forms. We found that Murchison components extracted into non-polar solvent systems are surface active, a clear indication of amphiphilic character. One acidic fraction self-assembles into vesicular membranes that provide permeability barriers to polar solutes. Other evidence indicates that the membranes are bimolecular layers similar to those formed by contemporary membrane lipids. We conclude that bilayer membrane formation by primitive amphiphiles on the early Earth is feasible. However, only a minor fraction of acidic amphiphiles assembles into bilayers, and the resulting membranes require narrowly defined conditions of pH and ionic composition to be stable. It seems unlikely, therefore, that meteoritic infall was a direct source of membrane amphiphiles. Instead, the hydrocarbon components and their derivatives more probably would provide an organic stock available for chemical evolution. Our current research is directed at possible reactions which would generate substantial quantities of membranogenic

  10. The Atmospheric Fate of Organic Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borduas, Nadine

    Organic nitrogen compounds are present in our atmosphere from biogenic and anthropogenic sources and have impacts on air quality and climate. Due to recent advances in instrumentation, these compounds are being detected in the gas and particle phases, raising questions as to their source, processing and sinks in the environment. With their recently identified role as contributors to aerosol formation and growth, their novel large scale use as solvents in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and their emissions from cigarette smoke, it is now important to address the gaps in our understanding of the fate of organic nitrogen. Experimentally and theoretically, I studied the chemical atmospheric fate of specific organic nitrogen compounds in the amine, amide and isocyanate families, yielding information that can be used in chemical transport models to assess the fate of this emerging class of atmospheric molecules. I performed kinetic laboratory studies in a smog chamber to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for reaction with the hydroxyl radical of monoethanolamine, nicotine, and five different amides. I employed online-mass spectrometry techniques to quantify the oxidation products. I found that amines react quickly with OH radicals with lifetimes of a few hours under sunlit conditions, producing amides as oxidation products. My studies on amides revealed that they have much longer lifetimes in the atmosphere, ranging from a few hours to a week. Photo-oxidation of amides produces isocyanates and I investigated these mechanisms in detail using ab initio calculations. Furthermore, I experimentally measured isocyanic acid's Henry's Law constant as well as its hydrolysis rate constants to better understand its sinks in the atmosphere. Finally, I re-examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of organic nitrogen molecules for improved model parameterizations.

  11. A novel compound cleaning solution for benzotriazole removal after copper CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhangbing, Gu; Yuling, Liu; Baohong, Gao; Chenwei, Wang; Haiwen, Deng

    2015-10-01

    After the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, the copper surface is contaminated by a mass of particles (e.g. silica) and organic residues (e.g. benzotriazole), which could do great harm to the integrated circuit, so post-CMP cleaning is essential. In particular, benzotriazole (BTA) forms a layer of Cu-BTA film with copper on the surface, which leads to a hydrophobic surface of copper. So an effective cleaning solution is needed to remove BTA from the copper surface. In this work, a new compound cleaning solution is designed to solve two major problems caused by BTA: one is removing BTA and the other is copper surface corrosion that is caused by the cleaning solution. The cleaning solution is formed of alkaline chelating agent (FA/O II type), which is used to remove BTA, and a surfactant (FA/O I type), which is used as a corrosion inhibitor. BTA removal is characterized by contact angle measurements and electrochemical techniques. The inhibiting corrosion ability of the surfactant is also characterized by electrochemical techniques. The proposed compound cleaning solution shows advantages in removing BTA without corroding the copper surface. Project supported by the Special Project Items No.2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan, China (Nos. 2009ZX02308-003, 2014ZX02301003-007).

  12. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  13. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to <2m above ground level. Emissions at leaf scale are well documented and widely presented, and are not discussed here. Instead we describe some details of recent research on rhizosphere bVOCs, and bVOCs associated with pollination of flowers. Although bVOC emissions from soil surfaces are small, bVOCs are exuded by roots of some plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the

  14. A method of isolating organic compounds present in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calder, G. V.; Fritz, J.; Junk, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Water sample is passed through a column containing macroreticular resin, which absorbs only nonionic organic compounds. These compounds are selectively separated using aqueous eluents of varying pH, or completely exuded with small amount of an organic eluent.

  15. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  16. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  17. Bromide removal by hydrotalcite-like compounds in a continuous system.

    PubMed

    Echigo, S; Itoh, S; Kuwahara, M

    2007-01-01

    Bromide ion removal from a real water matrix by hydrortalcite-like compounds (HTCs) was attempted in a column reactor to control the formation of brominated disinfection by-products in drinking water treatment process. The performance of HTCs was found to be comparable to a commercially available ion exchange resin for relatively low alkalinity water. Also, it was deduced that HTCs are better than ion exchange resins for high sulfate water because of their unique ion selectivity. In addition, the ion exchange reactions by HTCs were faster than a commercially available resin. Thus, HTCs are expected to provide similar performance to organic resins without the concern about secondary contamination (i.e., elution of organic compounds from resins). PMID:18057649

  18. Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćapraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Coşkun, M.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Nişantaşı, 34365, İstanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Kağıthane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Kağıthane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of

  19. Determination of biological removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants in coal gasification waste water.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qinhong; Tabassum, Salma; Yu, Guangxin; Chu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Coal gasification waste water treatment needed a sustainable and affordable plan to eliminate the organic contaminants in order to lower the potential environmental and human health risk. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic intermittent system carried out 66 operational cycles together for the treatment of coal gasification waste water and the removal capacity of each organic pollutant. Contaminants included phenols, carboxylic acids, long-chain hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds, wherein the relative content of phenol is up to 57.86%. The long-term removal of 77 organic contaminants was evaluated at different hydraulic retention time (anaerobic24 h + aerobic48 h and anaerobic48 h +aerobic48 h). Contaminant removal ranged from no measurable removal to near-complete removal with effluent concentrations below the detection limit. Contaminant removals followed one of four trends: steady-state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, and no removal. Organic degradation and transformation in the reaction were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technology. PMID:25951900

  20. IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

    1960-10-11

    A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

  1. Computational assessment of organic photovoltaic candidate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borunda, Mario; Dai, Shuo; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are emerging as a possible renewable alternative to petroleum based resources and are needed to meet our growing demand for energy. Although not as efficient as silicon based cells, OPV cells have as an advantage that their manufacturing cost is potentially lower. The Harvard Clean Energy Project, using a cheminformatic approach of pattern recognition and machine learning strategies, has ranked a molecular library of more than 2.6 million candidate compounds based on their performance as possible OPV materials. Here, we present a ranking of the top 1000 molecules for use as photovoltaic materials based on their optical absorption properties obtained via time-dependent density functional theory. This computational search has revealed the molecular motifs shared by the set of most promising molecules.

  2. Alkaline dechlorination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The vast majority of contaminated sites in the United States and abroad are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroethane (TCA), and chloroform. These VOCs are mobile and persistent in the subsurface and present serious health risks at trace concentrations. The goal of this project was to develop a new chemical treatment system that can rapidly and effectively degrade chlorinated VOCs. The system is based on our preliminary findings that strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) can absorb and degrade TCE. The main objectives of this study were to determine the reaction rates between chlorinated VOCs, particularly TCE, and strong alkalis, to elucidate the reaction mechanisms and by-products, to optimize the chemical reactions under various experimental conditions, and to develop a laboratory bench- scale alkaline destruction column that can be used to destroy vapor- phase TCE.

  3. Extraction of organic compounds from solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    Pyridine, benzene, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and n-methylpyrrolidone have been compared for the extraction of polycyclic organic materials (POMs) from urban air, diesel, and stack particulate samples. Both sonic and Soxhlet techniques have been examined for both natural environmental particulates and particulates spiked with selected POMs. The extraction results vary for different polycyclic compounds adsorbed on different solid matrices, so no single solvent or extraction technique could be unambiguously recommended. However, comparative average results for 14 compounds spiked onto fly ash at 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 ..mu..g/g showed pyridine to have 1.5 times more extraction efficiency than benzene. These and other reported results suggest that pyridine deserves more attention as an extractant for particulate samples. In separate tests, recoveries of POMs from fly ash were not improved by deactivation with aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide, thiocyanate and carbonate, and sodium nitrite prior to the extraction. 39 references, 5 tables.

  4. Organic compounds in meteorites and their origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayatsu, R.; Anders, E.

    1981-01-01

    The current investigation represents an extensively updated version of a review conducted by Anders et al. (1973). The investigation takes into account the literature through mid-1980. It is pointed out that Type 1 carbonaceous chondrites (C1) contain 6% of their cosmic complement of carbon, mainly in the form of organic matter. Most authors now agree that this material represents primitive prebiotic matter. The principal questions remaining are what abiotic processes formed the organic matter, and to what extent these processes took place in locales other than the solar nebula, such as interstellar clouds or meteorite parent bodes. The problem is approached in three stages. It is attempted to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation from the clues contained in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is determined on the basis of thermodynamic calculations. Model experiments on the condensation of carbon are performed, and the synthesized compounds are compared with those actually found in meteorites.

  5. Occurrence and Removal of Organic Micropollutants in Landfill Leachates Treated by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Oturan, Nihal; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Zhang, Hui; Mazeas, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-10-20

    In recent years, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be an effective alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds from water. This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant organic matter (micropollutants, humic substances, etc.) present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. A mixture of eight landfill leachates has been studied by the electro-Fenton process using a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt cathode or by the anodic oxidation process with a BDD anode. These processes exhibit great oxidation ability due to the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), a highly powerful oxidizing species. Both electrochemical processes were shown to be efficient in the removal of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) from landfill leachates. Regarding the electro-Fenton process, the replacement of the classical anode Pt by the anode BDD allows better performance in terms of dissolved TOC removal. The occurrence and removal yield of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 15 volatile organic compounds, 7 alkylphenols, 7 polychlorobiphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate were also investigated. Both electrochemical processes allow one to reach a quasicomplete removal (about 98%) of these organic micropollutants. PMID:26378656

  6. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  7. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  8. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC LIQUIDS

    DOEpatents

    Vavalides, S.P.

    1959-08-25

    A process is described for recovering small quantities of uranium from organic liquids such as hydrocarbon oils. halogen-substituted hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The organic liquid is contacted with a comminuted alkaline earth hydroxide, calcium hydroxide particularly, and the resulting uranium-bearing solid is separated from the liquid by filtration. Uranium may then be recovered from the solid by means of dissolution in nitric acid and conventional extraction with an organic solvent such as tributyl phosphate.

  9. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ahmaruzzaman

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampa, M. H. O.; Duarte, C. L.; Rela, P. R.; Somessari, E. S. R.; Silveira, C. G.; Azevedo, A. L.

    1998-06-01

    Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not effecient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater pilot plant to study organic compounds degradation. The samples were irradiated with and without air mixture by different doses. Irradiation treatment efficiency was evaluated by the Cromatography Gas Analyses of the samples before and after irradiation. The studied organic compounds were: phenol, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, benzene, toluene and xilene. A degradation superior to 80% was achieved for the majority of the compounds with air addition and 2kGy delivered dose condition. For the samples that were irradiated without air addition the degradation was higher.

  11. Trace organic compounds in rain—II. Gas scavenging of neutral organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligocki, Mary P.; Leuenberger, Christian; Pankow, James F.

    Concurrent rain and air sampling was conducted for seven rain events in Portland, Oregon during February through to April of 1984. Concentration data are presented for a number of neutral organic compounds for both the rain-dissolved phase and the atmospheric gas phase. The ambient temperature averaged 8°C. Measured gas scavenging ratios ranged from 3 for tetrachloroethene to 10 5 for dibutylphthalate, and were generally 3-6 times higher than those calculated from Henry's Law constant ( H) values at 25°C taken from the literature. This discrepancy was due to the inappropriateness of applying 25°C H data at 5-10°C. Indeed, excellent agreement between the measured and predicted gas scavenging ratios was found for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for which temperature-dependent H data were available. These results demonstrate that equilibrium between rain and the atmospheric gas phase is attained for non-reactive neutral organic compounds.

  12. Aqueous adsorption and removal of organic contaminants by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Zhao, Xiu-Hui; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Qiaoqin; Yu, Lin-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Organic contaminants have become one of the most serious environmental problems, and the removal of organic contaminants (e.g., dyes, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals/drugs) and common industrial organic wastes (e.g., phenols and aromatic amines) from aqueous solutions is of special concern because they are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gradually applied to the removal of organic contaminants from wastewater through adsorption processes. This paper reviews recent progress (145 studies published from 2010 to 2013) in the application of CNTs and their composites for the removal of toxic organic pollutants from contaminated water. The paper discusses removal efficiencies and adsorption mechanisms as well as thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. CNTs are predicted to have considerable prospects for wider application to wastewater treatment in the future. PMID:24657369

  13. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FORM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....

  14. Dehalogenation of chlorinated organic compounds by strong alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1997-10-01

    Chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are the most prevalent contaminants found in soil and ground water, and pose serious health risks even at trace concentrations. This research reports a new chemical treatment technique for rapid degradation of TCE in strong alkaline solutions. Batch kinetic reactions between TCE and NaOH indicate that TCE can be rapidly and completely dechlorinated in NaOH at elevated temperatures. The reaction can be described by a pseudo-first-order rate kinetics with an estimated activation energy of {approximately}85 kJ/mol. The half-lives for TCE degradation in 2M NaOH at 40, 60, 80, and 100 C were approximately 347, 48.8, 4.0, and 2.4 min, respectively. The reaction end-products are primarily Cl{sup {minus}} anions and Na-glycollate, both of which are nonhazardous. This treatment technique is applicable for degrading other halogenated organic compounds wherein a nucleophilic substitution or elimination is the major reaction mechanism or pathway. Potential applications of this technology include the removal and destruction of vapor-phase chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gases when soil vapor extraction or air-stripping techniques are used for remediating VOC-contaminated soils and ground water. A bench-scale alkaline destruction module was tested, and results indicated that {approximately}90% of TCE was destroyed when TCE vapor (10 mg/L) was passed through a destruction column with a retention time of {approximately}1 min at 95 C.

  15. Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

  16. Removal of volatile and semivolatile organic contamination from soil by air and steam flushing.

    PubMed

    Sleep, B E; McClure, P D

    2001-07-01

    A soil core, obtained from a contaminated field site, contaminated with a mixture of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) was subjected to air and steam flushing. Removal rates of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were monitored during flushing. Air flushing removed a significant portion of the VOC present in the soil, but a significant decline in removal rate occurred due to decreasing VOC concentrations in the soil gas phase. Application of steam flushing after air flushing produced a significant increase in contaminant removal rate for the first 4 to 5 pore volumes of steam condensate. Subsequently, contaminant concentrations decreased slowly with additional pore volumes of steam flushing. The passage of a steam volume corresponding to 11 pore volumes of steam condensate reduced the total VOC concentration in the soil gas (at 20 degrees C) by a factor of 20 to 0.07 mg/l. The corresponding total SVOC concentration in the condensate declined from 11 to 3 mg/l. Declines in contaminant removal rates during both air and steam flushing indicated rate-limited removal consistent with the persistence of a residual organic phase, rate-limited desorption, or channeling. Pressure gradients were much higher for steam flushing than for air flushing. The magnitude of the pressure gradients encountered during steam flushing for this soil indicates that, in addition to rate-limited contaminant removal, the soil permeability (2.1 x 10(-9) cm2) would be a limiting factor in the effectiveness of steam flushing. PMID:11475159

  17. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g−1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g−1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g−1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π–π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g−1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L−1, which increased to 245 mg g−1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L−1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  18. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-07-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g-1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g-1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g-1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π-π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g-1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L-1, which increased to 245 mg g-1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L-1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles.

  19. Soil amino compound and carbohydrate contents influenced by organic amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino compounds (i. e. amino acids and sugars), and carbohydrates are labile organic components and contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and quality. Animal manure and other organic soil amendments are rich in both amino compounds and carbohydrates, hence organic soil amendments might af...

  20. Volatile organic compound remedial action project

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. Bacterial and spontaneous dehalogenation of organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Omori, T; Alexander, M

    1978-01-01

    Only 3 of more than 500 soil enrichments contained organisms able to use 1,9-dichlorononane as a sole carbon source. One isolate, a strain of Pseudomonas, grew on the compound and released much of the halogen as chloride. Resting cells dehalogenated 1,9-dichlorononane aerobically but not anaerobically. Pseudomonas sp. grew on and resting cells dehalogenated 1,6-dichlorohexane, 1,5-dichloroheptane, 2-bromoheptanoate, and 1-chloro-, 1-bromo-, and 1-iodoheptane, but the bacterium cometabolized but did not grow on 3-chloropropionate. p-Methylbenzyl alcohol, chloride, and p-methylbenzoate were formed when resting cells were incubated with alpha-chloro-p-xylene; the first two products were also formed in the absence of the bacteria. Similarly, o- and m-methylbenzyl alcohols were generated from the corresponding chlorinated xylenes in the presence or absence of Pseudomonas sp. The formation of m- and p-chlorobenzoic acid from m- and p-chlorobenzyl chloride proceeded only in the presence of the cells, but p-chlorobenzyl alcohol was generated from p-chlorobenzyl chloride even in the absence of the bacterium. These results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of dehalogenation. PMID:637547

  2. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2002-06-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  3. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  4. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, Edward J.; Hollstein, Elmer J.

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  5. Investigation of membrane fouling in ultrafiltration using model organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kweon, J H; Lawler, D F

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to be the worst foulant in the membrane processes, but the complexities of NOM make it difficult to determine its effects on membrane fouling. Therefore, simple organic compounds (surrogates for NOM) were used in this research to investigate the fouling mechanisms in ultrafiltration. Previous research on NOM components in membrane processes indicated that polysaccharides formed an important part of the fouling cake. Three polysaccharides (dextran, alginic acid, and polygalacturonic acid) and a smaller carbohydrate (tannic acid) were evaluated for their removal in softening (the treatment process in the City of Austin). Two polysaccharides (dextran and alginic acid) were selected and further investigated for their effects on membrane fouling. The two raw organic waters (4 mg/L C) showed quite different patterns of flux decline indicating different fouling mechanisms. Softening pretreatment was effective to reduce flux decline of both waters. The SEM images of the fouled membrane clearly showed the shapes of deposited foulants. The high resolution results of the XPS spectra showed substantially different spectra of carbon, C(1s), in the membrane fouled by two raw organic waters. The XPS was beneficial in determining the relative composition of each fouling material on the membrane surface. PMID:16003967

  6. Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M.J.; Aubry, J.M.; Lallier, J.P.; Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand{close_quote}s parameter, {delta}{sub H}, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET{sub (30)}, ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

  8. Anomalous but massive removal of two organic dye pollutants simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Zhilei; Zhang, Qian; Chu, Paul K; Komarneni, Sridhar; Lv, Fengzhu

    2016-11-15

    A one-pot method to remove two organic dye contaminants and alkali simultaneously from alkaline wastewater was developed by forming Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH). Using this process, not only alkali but also methyl orange (MO), an anionic contaminant was totally removed from wastewater. In addition, cationic contaminant, methylene blue (MB) was also removed effectively while maintaining the high removal efficiency of MO. The removal efficiency of MO was almost 100% and the pH of the treated wastewater decreased from 12 to 7.38. The charge-limited removal process, molecular arrangement of the contaminants in LDHs, and the anomalous removal mechanism were analyzed experimentally and through simulation. After MO accumulated in the interlayers of LDH by electrostatic interaction, MB entered and trapped by hydrophobic interaction. PMID:27399147

  9. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  10. FISSION PRODUCT REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    The decontamination of organic solvents from fission products and in particular the treatment of solvents that were used for the extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from aqueous acid solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium are treated. The process broadly comprises heating manganese carbonate in air to a temperature of between 300 and 500 deg C whereby manganese dioxide is formed; mixing the manganese dioxide with the fission product-containing organic solvent to be treated whereby the fission products are precipitated on the manganese dioxide; and separating the fission product-containing manganese dioxide from the solvent.

  11. Changes in organic sulfur compounds in coal macerals during liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Joseph, J.T.; Fisher, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    Several general trends were observed in reactivity patterns of sulfur compounds in macerals. Sulfur is reduced in the asphaltene fraction compared to initial maceral. Aliphatics are removed and polycyclic aromatic compounds are both stable and probably formed under these conditions. Molecules containing two sulfur atoms are formed. The preasphaltenes are now being analyzed by DEIHRMS.

  12. Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Barron, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis is reported of the organic composition of produced water samples from typical shale gas wells in the Marcellus (PA), Eagle Ford (TX), and Barnett (NM) formations. The quality of shale gas produced (and frac flowback) waters is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. The metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mineral elements are expected depending on the reservoir geology and salts used in hydraulic fracturing; however, significant levels of other transition metals and heavier main group elements are observed. The presence of scaling elements (Ca and Ba) is related to the pH of the water rather than total dissolved solids (TDS). Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the chloroform extracts of the produced water samples, a plethora of organic compounds were identified. In each water sample, the majority of organics are saturated (aliphatic), and only a small fraction comes under aromatic, resin, and asphaltene categories. Unlike coalbed methane produced water it appears that shale oil/gas produced water does not contain significant quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons reducing the potential health hazard. Marcellus and Barnett produced waters contain predominantly C6-C16 hydrocarbons, while the Eagle Ford produced water shows the highest concentration in the C17-C30 range. The structures of the saturated hydrocarbons identified generally follows the trend of linear > branched > cyclic. Heterocyclic compounds are identified with the largest fraction being fatty alcohols, esters, and ethers. However, the presence of various fatty acid phthalate esters in the Barnett and Marcellus produced waters can be related to their use in drilling fluids and breaker additives

  13. REMOVAL OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM WOOD PRESERVING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies were undertaken to develop economically feasible technologies for the treatment of wastewaters from wood preserving operations. Of prime concern was the removal of phenol and its chlorinated derivatives, in particular, pentachlorophenol. Screeni...

  14. DESIGN FOR TOTAL ORGANICS REMOVAL AT CINCINNATI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The industrial Ohio River is the source water for Cincinnati Water Work's (CWW) California surface water treatment plant. s is true for many industrial rivers, a large number of organic contaminants can be found in trace concentrations in the Ohio River. any Cincinnati citizens a...

  15. Nitrated Secondary Organic Tracer Compounds in Biomass Burning Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Y.; Böge, O.; Gräfe, R.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Natural and human-initiated biomass burning releases large amounts of gases and particles into the atmosphere, impacting climate, environment and affecting public health. Several hundreds of compounds are emitted from biomass burning and these compounds largely originate from the pyrolysis of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Some of compounds are known to be specific to biomass burning and widely recognized as tracer compounds that can be used to identify the presence of biomass burning PM. Detailed chemical analysis of biomass burning influenced PM samples often reveals the presence compounds that correlated well with levoglucosan, a known biomass burning tracer compound. In particular, nitrated aromatic compounds correlated very well with levoglucosan, indicating that biomass burning as a source for this class of compounds. In the present study, we present evidence for the presence of biomass burning originating secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) compounds in biomass burning influenced ambient PM. These BSOA compounds are typically nitrated aromatic compounds that are produced in the oxidation of precursor compounds in the presence of NOx. The precursor identification was performed from a series of aerosol chamber experiments. m-Cresol, which is emitted from biomass burning at significant levels, is found to be a major precursor compounds for nitrated BSOA compounds found in the ambient PM. We estimate that the total concentrations of these compounds in the ambient PM are comparable to biogenic SOA compounds in winter months, indicating the BSOA contributes important amounts to the regional organic aerosol loading.

  16. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Dah Y.

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  17. UV/Ozone Cleaning For Organics Removal On Silicon Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafonte, Leo; Chiu, Rafael

    1984-06-01

    The feasibility for using a combination of ultraviolet light and ozone - UV/Ozone Cleaning - for organics removal and photoresist residue cleaning from silicon semiconductor wafers was investigated. The process generates a highly oxidative atmosphere that is specific for removing trace organic residues. Product of the reactions are carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, stable inorganic materials such as oxide coatings remain unaffected. UV/Ozone exposure of silicon causes formation of a thin layer of silicon oxide that tends to retard further oxidation of the silicon. Based on the expected photochemistry o," this process, specific enhancements to accelerate the cleaning rates were tested. The enhancements involved the use of both gas phase and liquio phase additives, and comparative rates of removal were determined. The technique was tested on several photoresists, potential organic residues, and common solvent systems. The photoresists studies were primarily positive resists and were tested at several levels of ion implantation. The results of the testing suggests that the highest potential applications of UV/Ozone Cleaning in the processing of semiconductor wafers include: a) Removal of solvent residues and process contaminants. b) A pre-process step to insure cleanliness by removal of residual organic or airborne organic contaminants. c) As a post-process step to insure cleanliness or to remove trace organics.

  18. Kinetics of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Ramus, Ksenia; Poerschmann, Juergen; Georgi, Anett

    2011-12-01

    This study presents a new experimental technique for measuring rates of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic substances. The method is based on a fast solid-phase extraction of the freely dissolved fraction of a solute when the solution is flushed through a polymer-coated capillary. The extraction interferes with the solute-DOM sorption equilibrium and drives the desorption process. Solutes which remain sorbed to DOM pass through the extraction capillary and can be analyzed afterward. This technique allows a time resolution for the desorption kinetics from subseconds up to minutes. It is applicable to the study of interaction kinetics between a wide variety of hydrophobic solutes and polyelectrolytes. Due to its simplicity it is accessible for many environmental laboratories. The time-resolved in-tube solid-phase microextraction (TR-IT-SPME) was applied to two humic acids and a surfactant as sorbents together with pyrene, phenanthrene and 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane as solutes. The results give evidence for a two-phase desorption kinetics: a fast desorption step with a half-life of less than 1 s and a slow desorption step with a half-life of more than 1 min. For aliphatic solutes, the fast-desorbing fraction largely dominates, whereas for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, the slowly desorbing, stronger-bound fraction is also important. PMID:22035249

  19. Secondary organic aerosol from biogenic volatile organic compound mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, Meagan L.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

    2011-04-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the ozonolysis of a Siberian fir needle oil (SFNO), a Canadian fir needle oil (CFNO), and several SOA precursor mixtures containing reactive and non-reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. The use of precursor mixtures more completely describes the atmosphere where many VOCs exist. The addition of non-reactive VOCs such as bornyl acetate, camphene, and borneol had very little to no effect on SOA yields. The oxidation of VOC mixtures with VOC mass percentages similar to the SFNO produced SOA yields that became more similar to the SOA yield from SFNO as the complexity and concentration of VOCs within the mixture became more similar to overall SFNO composition. The SOA yield produced by the oxidation of CFNO was within the error of the SOA yield produced by the oxidation of SFNO at a similar VOC concentration. The SOA yields from SFNO were modeled using the volatility basis set (VBS), which predicts the SOA yields for a given mass concentration of mixtures containing similar VOCs.

  20. High Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollert, Michelle; Buchard, Sebrina; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation participate in oxidative reactions, affecting the tropospheric ozone concentration and the lifetimes of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Also, they affect the formation of secondary organic aerosols. BVOCs thus provide a strong link between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the climate. Global models of BVOC emissions have assumed minimal emissions from the high latitudes due to low temperatures, short growing seasons and sparse vegetation cover. However, measurements from this region of the world are lacking and emissions from the High Arctic have not been published yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the first estimates for BVOC emissions from the High Arctic. Hereby, we wish to add new knowledge to the understanding of global BVOC emissions. Measurements were conducted in NE Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' W) in four vegetation communities in the study area. These four vegetation communities were dominated by Cassiope tetragona, Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum and Kobresia myosuroides/Dryas octopetela/Salix arctica, respectively. Emissions were measured by enclosure technique and collection of volatiles into adsorbent cartridges in August 2009. The volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following thermal desorption. Isoprene showed highest emissions in S. arctica-dominated heath, where it was the dominant single BVOC. However, isoprene emission decreased below detection limit in the end of August when the temperature was at or below 10°C. According to a principal component analysis, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions were especially associated with C. tetragona-dominated heath. Especially S. arctica and C. tetragona dominated heaths showed distinct patterns of emitted BVOCs. Emissions of BVOC from the studied high arctic heaths were clearly lower than the emissions observed previously in subarctic heaths with more dense vegetation

  1. Aqueous phase removal of nitrogen from nitrogen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of compounds containing nitrogen present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the types of nitrogen compounds present in a waste stream, (2) determining the concentrations of nitrogen compounds, (3) balancing oxidized and reduced form of nitrogen by adding a reactant, and (4) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 300.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., thereby resulting in less harmful nitrogen and oxygen gas, hydroxides, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.

  2. Rapid removal of dilute lead from water by pyroaurite-like compound.

    PubMed

    Seida, Y; Nakano, Y; Nakamura, Y

    2001-07-01

    Rapid removal of dissolved dilute lead (Pb) by pyroaurite-like compound Mg(x)Fe(y)(OH)2(x+y) (CO3(2-))y/2 x mH2O; anionic clay: one of layered double hydroxides) from water was studied through batch and column experiments. The Pb-removal property of the compound was evaluated as a function of concentration of Pb in the treated solution, space velocity (Sv) of the solution in the column packed with the compound, pH of the solution and contaminated humic substance. The compound showed a highly effective Pb-removal property that was comparable to the other conventional adsorbents. The Pb was removed rapidly by the column packed with the compound over the wide range of the Sv. The buffering pH function of the compound contributed to the Pb removal producing weak-alkali atmosphere. The contamination of humic substance in the treated solution reduced the Pb removal largely depending on its amount. The effectiveness of the compound for the rapid Pb removal was confirmed through a series of experiments. PMID:11394766

  3. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  4. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  5. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  6. SEPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM ORGANIC FLUORO COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Libby, W.F.

    1958-10-01

    A method is presented for removing perfiuoroorganic compounds such as C/ sub 7/F/sub 16/ from UF/sub 6/. The physical and chemical properties of the perfluoro compounds are such as to render their removal from UF/sub 6/ difficulty by conventional techniques. The mixture containing UF/sub 6/ and the perfluoro compounds is pyrolyzed in an inert container at high temperature and pressure. The properties of the products obtained by pyrolysis differ from the properties of UF/sub 6/ to a sufficient degree to render their separation possible by ordinary methods.

  7. Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

  8. Removal of bromide and natural organic matter by anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Susan; Singer, Philip C

    2010-04-01

    Bromide removal by anion exchange was explored for various water qualities, process configurations, and resin characteristics. Simulated natural waters containing different amounts of natural organic matter (NOM), bicarbonate, chloride, and bromide were treated with a polyacrylate-based magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin on a batch basis to evaluate the effectiveness of the resin for removal of bromide. While bromide removal was achieved to some degree, alkalinity (bicarbonate), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride were shown to inhibit bromide removal in waters with bromide concentrations of 100 and 300 microg/L. Water was also treated using a two-stage batch MIEX process. Two-stage treatment resulted in only a slight improvement in bromide removal compared to single-stage treatment, presumably due to competition with the high concentration of chloride which is present along with bromide in natural waters. In view of the relatively poor bromide removal results for the MIEX resin, a limited set of experiments was performed using polystyrene resins. DOC and bromide removal were compared by treating model waters with MIEX and two polystyrene resins, Ionac A-641 and Amberlite IRA910. The two polystyrene resins were seen to be more effective for bromide removal, while the MIEX resin was more effective at removing DOC. PMID:20045170

  9. Effect of influent aeration on removal of organic matter from coffee processing wastewater in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Maike; Matos, Antonio Teixeira; Abreu, Edgar Carneiro; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Borges, Alisson Carraro

    2013-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of aeration and vegetation on the removal of organic matter in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) treated in 4 constructed wetlands (CWs), characterized as follows: (i) ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivated system operating with an aerated influent; (ii) non-cultivated system operating with an aerated influent, (iii) ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent; and (iv) non-cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. The lowest average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiencies of 87, 84 and 73%, respectively, were obtained in the ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. However, ryegrass cultivation did not influence the removal efficiency of organic matter. Artificial aeration of the CPW, prior to its injection in the CW, did not improve the removal efficiencies of organic matter. On other hand it did contribute to increase the instantaneous rate at which the maximum COD removal efficiency was reached. Although aeration did not result in greater organic matter removal efficiencies, it is important to consider the benefits of aeration on the removal of the other compounds. PMID:23892132

  10. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M.; Scala, F.R.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  11. Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Prasertkulsak, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Itonaga, T; Yamamoto, K

    2016-05-01

    Pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h for the treatment of hospital wastewater. The removals of eleven pharmaceutical compounds in MBR operated at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level were investigated during which nitrification degree was differed. The results experiments revealed the importance of immediate adsorption onto the colloidal particles in supernatant of MBR sludge and subsequently removed by membrane filtration for the recalcitrant pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, the removals through biodegradation during short HRT were also found significant for some compounds. DGGE profile revealed the development of pharmaceutical degrading microorganisms in MBR. PMID:26852096

  12. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  13. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood. PMID:27165533

  14. Biocatalytic removal of organic sulfur from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, D.A.; Kilbane, J.J. II

    1994-09-09

    The objective is to characterize more completely the biochemical ability of the bacterium, Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8, to cleave carbon-sulfur bonds with emphasis on data that will allow the development of a practical coal biodesulfurization process. Another approach for increasing the desulfurization activity of the IGTS8 cultures is to produce strains genetically that have higher activity. The goal of this part of research is to achieve strain improvement by introducing a stronger promoter using genetic engineering techniques. The promoter regulates the transcription of the genes for the desulfurization enzymes, and a stronger promoter, would up-regulate the expression of these genes, resulting in cells with higher desulfurization activity. Promoter probe vectors are used to identify and isolate promoters from a DNA library of the experimental organism. The major accomplishments have been to obtain high biodesulfurization activity in nonaqueous, media, especially using freeze-dried cells, and to have isolated strong promoters from R. rhodochrous IGTS8 which will be used to engineer the organism to produce strains with higher biocatalytic activity.

  15. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

  16. Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds

    DOEpatents

    Minderhoud, Johannes Kornelis [Amsterdam, NL; Nelson, Richard Gene [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-22

    A method includes producing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a gas stream. At least a portion of the liquid stream is provided to a hydrotreating unit. At least a portion of selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions in the liquid stream are removed to produce a hydrotreated liquid stream by hydrotreating at least a portion of the liquid stream at conditions sufficient to remove the selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions.

  17. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen analytical methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in drinking water are described in detail. ix of the methods are for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and certain disinfection byproducts and these methods were cited in the Federal Register...

  18. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  19. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  1. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  3. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  4. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  5. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  7. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  8. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  10. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  15. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  17. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  18. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  20. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  1. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  2. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  4. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  5. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  7. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  8. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  9. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  11. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  12. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  13. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  14. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  15. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  16. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  17. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  20. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  2. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  3. A Systematic Presentation of Organic Phosphorus and Sulfur Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, James B.

    1985-01-01

    Because the names, interrelations, and oxidation levels of the organic compounds of phosphorus and sulfur tend to confuse students, a simple way to organize these compounds has been developed. The system consists of grouping them by oxidation state and extent of carbon substitution. (JN)

  4. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  5. Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in

  6. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward

  7. Oxidation of AOX and organic compounds in pharmaceutical wastewater in RSM-optimized-Fenton system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yawei; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies in pharmaceutical wastewater treated by Fenton process under response surface methodology (RSM) optimized conditions were studied. High regression coefficient value R(2) (R(2) = 0.9680, 0.9040 for AOX and TOC removal efficiency, respectively) and low value coefficient of variation (2.21%, 2.04% for AOX and TOC, respectively) of the quadratic model indicated that the model was accurate in predicting the experimental results. The desirability function was used to optimize AOX and TOC removal efficiencies simultaneously. The optimal pH, Fe(2+) concentration, molar ratio of H2O2/Fe(2+) and reaction time were found to be 3.3, 19.05 mM, 20.16 and 2.2 h, respectively, and 91.78% AOX and 75.01% TOC were removed under these conditions, which was validated. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) results revealed that 28 out of 33 kinds of organic compounds, including 11 kinds of AOX were completely removed by the Fenton process while one new AOX compound, 4,5,6,7-tetrachlorophthalide, was produced which was the result of the carbonyl of 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-1,3-isobenzofurandione being attacked in the Fenton reaction. These results indicated that analysis of organics was important since new AOX compounds could be produced in Fenton process despite the value of AOX decreasing. PMID:27115846

  8. Selective removal of organics for water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan

    1989-01-01

    Electrolysis has been investigated as a means of purifying waste water. The feasibility of the direct electrochemical oxidation of urea has been demonstrated. Urea levels were reduced from 1200 ppm to 1 ppm forming the basis for a new approach to urine purification where the only consumable is electrical energy. Preliminary estimates of the energy requirements are 270 W/hr per liter of urine. Urea oxidation rates of around 350 mg urea/hr/m2 were observed. It is anticipated that a 1 m2 geometric area of electrode could treat urine for a crew of several persons. The low levels of organic contaminants resulting from this treatment indicate that the approach may have an impact as a post treatment process. Experiments are planned to investigate this later possibility.

  9. Removal of phytotoxic compounds from torrefied grass fibres by plant-beneficial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Trifonova, Radoslava; Postma, Joeke; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Ketelaars, Jan J M H; van Elsas, Jan-Dirk

    2008-10-01

    We aimed to select microorganisms colonizing torrefied grass fibres (TGF) and simultaneously reducing the phytotoxicity which appeared after heat treatment of the fibres. Eighty-eight bacterial strains and one fungus, previously isolated from a sequential enrichment experiment on torrefied fibres and extracts, were tested separately for their capacity to decrease phytotoxicity. Eleven of the bacterial strains and the fungus significantly reduced phytotoxicity. These organisms were checked for their ability to grow on agar containing phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 2-furalaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and furan-2-methanol as sole carbon sources. The fungus F/TGF15 and the bacterial strain 66/TGF15 were able to grow on all six compounds. Strains 15/TGE5, 23/TGE5, 43/TGE20, 56/TGF10 and 95/TGF15 grew on two to four compounds, and strain 72/TGF15 only on one compound. Strains 31/TGE5, 34/TGE5, 48/TGE20 and 70/TGF15 did not grow on any of the single toxic compounds. GC analyses of torrefied grass extracts (TGE) determined which compounds were removed by the microorganisms. F/TGF15 was the only isolate depleting phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-dihydrofuranone and pyrrole-2,5-dione-3-ethyl-4-methyl. Strains 15/TGE5, 23/TGE5, 31/TGE5 and 56/TGF10, and the fungus depleted 2-furalaldehyde, 2-furan-carboxaldehyde-5-methyl, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and benzaldehyde-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy. These promising candidates for colonizing and simultaneously reducing the phytotoxicity of TGF were affiliated with Pseudomonas putida, Serratia plymuthica, Pseudomonas corrugata, Methylobacterium radiotolerans and Coniochaeta ligniaria. PMID:18537835

  10. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of scientific information has shown that man-made industrial chemicals and pesticides may interfere with the normal functioning of human and wildlife endocrine systems. These agents are referred to collectively as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and they are ...

  11. Fate of alkylphenolic compounds during activated sludge treatment: impact of loading and organic composition.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan J; Bagnall, John P; Soares, Ana; Koh, Yoong K K; Chiu, Tze Y; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N; Cartmell, Elise

    2011-01-01

    The impact of loading and organic composition on the fate of alkylphenolic compounds in the activated sludge plant (ASP) has been studied. Three ASP designs comprising carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification treatment were examined to demonstrate the impact of increasing levels of process complexity and to incorporate a spectrum of loading conditions. Based on mass balance, overall biodegradation efficiencies for nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), short chain carboxylates (NP(1-3)EC) and nonylphenol (NP) were 37%, 59%, and 27% for the carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification ASP, respectively. The presence of a rich community of ammonia oxidizing bacteria does not necessarily facilitate effective alkylphenolic compound degradation. However, a clear correlation between alkylphenolic compound loading and long chain ethoxylate compound biodegradation was determined at the three ASPs, indicating that at higher initial alkylphenolic compound concentrations (or load), greater ethoxylate biotransformation can occur. In addition, the impact of settled sewage organic composition on alkylphenolic compound removal was evaluated. A correlation between the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to alkylphenolic compound concentration and biomass activity was determined, demonstrating the inhibiting effect of bulk organic matter on alkylphenol polyethoxylate transformation activity. At all three ASPs the biodegradation pathway proposed involves the preferential biodegradation of the amphiphilic ethoxylated compounds, after which the preferential attack of the lipophilic akylphenol moiety occurs. The extent of ethoxylate biodegradation is driven by the initial alkylphenolic compound concentration and the proportion of COD constituted by the alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) and their metabolites relative to the bulk organic concentration of the sewage composed of proteins, acids, fats

  12. Removal of arsenic compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  13. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  14. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  15. Extended structures and physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2011-07-19

    The ability of uranium to undergo nuclear fission has been exploited primarily to manufacture nuclear weapons and to generate nuclear power. Outside of its nuclear physics, uranium also exhibits rich chemistry, and it forms various compounds with other elements. Among the uranium-bearing compounds, those with a uranium oxidation state of +6 are most common and a particular structural unit, uranyl UO(2)(2+) is usually involved in these hexavalent uranium compounds. Apart from forming solids with inorganic ions, the uranyl unit also bonds to organic molecules to generate uranyl-organic coordination materials. If appropriate reaction conditions are employed, uranyl-organic extended structures (1-D chains, 2-D layers, and 3-D frameworks) can be obtained. Research on uranyl-organic compounds with extended structures allows for the exploration of their rich structural chemistry, and such studies also point to potential applications such as in materials that could facilitate nuclear waste disposal. In this Account, we describe the structural features of uranyl-organic compounds and efforts to synthesize uranyl-organic compounds with desired structures. We address strategies to construct 3-D uranyl-organic frameworks through rational selection of organic ligands and the incorporation of heteroatoms. The UO(2)(2+) species with inactive U═O double bonds usually form bipyramidal polyhedral structures with ligands coordinated at the equatorial positions, and these polyhedra act as primary building units (PBUs) for the construction of uranyl-organic compounds. The geometry of the uranyl ions and the steric arrangements and functionalities of organic ligands can be exploited in the the design of uranyl--organic extended structures, We also focus on the investigation of the promising physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds. Uranyl-organic materials with an extended structure may exhibit attractive properties, such as photoluminescence, photocatalysis

  16. Organic Compounds in Circumstellar and Interstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  17. Organic compounds in circumstellar and interstellar environments.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth. PMID:25720971

  18. Phosphatase hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatases are diverse groups of enzymes that deserve special attention because of the significant roles they play in mineralizing organic phosphorus (P) into inorganic available form. For getting more insight on the enzymatically hydrolysis of organic P, in this work, we compared the catalytic pa...

  19. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  20. Measurement and removal of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Dorn, P.B.; Means, J.C.; Jenkins, K.D.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Public concern regarding the presence of persistent, bioconcentratable compounds in fish and shellfish has led the petroleum industry to investigate methods for the measurement of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents. Research has focused on developing methods to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons directly in the effluent and in bivalves exposed to refinery effluents in the field and in the laboratory. Results from a multi-refinery study in the San Francisco Bay Area using selective ion monitoring GC/MS-MS indicated that alkylated and non-substituted 2--3 ring PAHs are rarely present in refinery effluents at concentrations greater than 100 ng/L. Higher MW PAHs were rarely detected. PAHs did not substantially bioconcentrate in bivalves exposed in the laboratory to refinery effluent and reference sea water. Total PAHs were generally less than 50 {mu}g/g in the effluent-exposed bivalves. A comparison of the waste water treatment facilities at each refinery suggest that biological treatment already required by existing regulations is sufficient to reduce PAH concentrations to these low levels.

  1. Brassica napus hairy roots and rhizobacteria for phenolic compounds removal.

    PubMed

    González, Paola S; Ontañon, Ornella M; Armendariz, Ana L; Talano, Melina A; Paisio, Cintia E; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Phenolic compounds are contaminants frequently found in water and soils. In the last years, some technologies such as phytoremediation have emerged to remediate contaminated sites. Plants alone are unable to completely degrade some pollutants; therefore, their association with rhizospheric bacteria has been proposed to increase phytoremediation potential, an approach called rhizoremediation. In this work, the ability of two rhizobacteria, Burkholderia kururiensis KP 23 and Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402, to tolerate and degrade phenolic compounds was evaluated. Both microorganisms were capable of tolerating high concentrations of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), guaiacol, or pentachlorophenol (PCP), and degrading different concentrations of phenol and 2,4-DCP. Association of these bacterial strains with B. napus hairy roots, as model plant system, showed that the presence of both rhizospheric microorganisms, along with B. napus hairy roots, enhanced phenol degradation compared to B. napus hairy roots alone. These findings are interesting for future applications of these strains in phenol rhizoremediation processes, with whole plants, providing an efficient, economic, and sustainable remediation technology. PMID:22961561

  2. Integrating organic micropollutant removal into tertiary filtration: Combining PAC adsorption with advanced phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Direct addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to a deep-bed filter was investigated at pilot-scale as a single advanced treatment stage for simultaneous removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and phosphorus from secondary effluent. PAC doses of 10-50 mg/L were assessed with regard to their impacts on filter performance and removal of 15 selected OMPs over a period of 18 months. The PAC was effectively retained by the filter and had no negative effect on filter head loss. Filter runtime until particle breakthrough depended mainly on coagulant dose and did not decrease significantly due to the additional PAC load. Removal of suspended solids and phosphorus by coagulation was effective independent of the PAC dose. A PAC dose of 35 mg/L PAC was suitable to remove well-adsorbing OMPs (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac) by >80% and medium adsorbing OMPs (e.g. primidone, sulfamethoxazole) by 50-80%. Median removals were 50-80% for well-adsorbing and 30-50% for medium adsorbing OMPs with 20 mg/L PAC. Abatement of all OMPs was low (<50%) with 10 mg/L PAC, possibly because of the high effluent organic matter content (median dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 11.2 mg/L). In addition to adsorptive removal, relevant concentration decreases of certain OMPs (e.g. 4-formylaminoantipyrine) were attributed to biological transformation in the filter. Adsorption onto accumulating PAC in the top layer of the filter bed led to improved OMP adsorption with increasing filter runtime. The comparison of OMP removal in the pilot filter with laboratory adsorption tests demonstrates that batch test results can be applied to estimate adsorptive OMP removal in real applications. PMID:26210030

  3. Kinetics of model high molecular weight organic compounds biodegradation in soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fox, Peter; Makam, Roshan

    2011-10-01

    Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) is a process where treated wastewater is purified during transport through unsaturated and saturated zones. Easily biodegradable compounds are rapidly removed in the unsaturated zone and the residual organic carbon is comprised of primarily high molecular weight compounds. This research focuses on flow in the saturated zone where flow conditions are predictable and high molecular weight compounds are degraded. Flow through the saturated zone was investigated with 4 reactors packed with 2 different particle sizes and operated at 4 different flow rates. The objective was to evaluate the kinetics of transformation for high molecular weight organics during SAT. Dextran was used as a model compound to eliminate the complexity associated with studying a mixture of high molecular weight organics. The hydrolysis products of dextran are easily degradable sugars. Batch experiments with media taken from the reactors were used to determine the distribution of microbial activity in the reactors. Zero-order kinetics were observed for the removal of dextran in batch experiments which is consistent with hydrolysis of high molecular weight organics where extracellular enzymes limit the substrate utilization rate. Biomass and microbial activity measurements demonstrated that the biomass was independent of position in the reactors. A Monod based substrate/biomass growth kinetic model predicted the performance of dextran removal in the reactors. The rate limiting step appears to be hydrolysis and the overall rate was not affected by surface area even though greater biomass accumulation occurred as the surface area decreased. PMID:21723581

  4. BIODEGRADABILITY STUDIES WITH ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANT COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninty-six organic priority pollutants (from EPA Effluent Guidelines Consent Decree) were studied to determine the extent and rate of microbial degradation and the acclimation periods needed for substrate biooxidation. The pollutants have been classified into groups with character...

  5. Tracing the limits of organic micropollutant removal in biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Falås, Per; Wick, Arne; Castronovo, Sandro; Habermacher, Jonathan; Ternes, Thomas A; Joss, Adriano

    2016-05-15

    Removal of organic micropollutants was investigated in 15 diverse biological reactors through short and long-term experiments. Short-term batch experiments were performed with activated sludge from three parallel sequencing batch reactors (25, 40, and 80 d solid retention time, SRT) fed with synthetic wastewater without micropollutants for one year. Despite the minimal micropollutant exposure, the synthetic wastewater sludges were able to degrade several micropollutants present in municipal wastewater. The degradation occurred immediately after spiking (1-5 μg/L), showed no strong or systematic correlation to the sludge age, and proceeded at rates comparable to those of municipal wastewater sludges. Thus, the results from the batch experiments indicate that degradation of organic micropollutants in biological wastewater treatment is quite insensitive to SRT increases from 25 to 80 days, and not necessarily induced by exposure to micropollutants. Long-term experiments with municipal wastewater were performed to assess the potential for extended biological micropollutant removal under different redox conditions and substrate concentrations (carbon and nitrogen). A total of 31 organic micropollutants were monitored through influent-effluent sampling of twelve municipal wastewater reactors. In accordance with the results from the sludges grown on synthetic wastewater, several compounds such as bezafibrate, atenolol and acyclovir were significantly removed in the activated sludge processes fed with municipal wastewater. Complementary removal of two compounds, diuron and diclofenac, was achieved in an oxic biofilm treatment. A few aerobically persistent micropollutants such as venlafaxine, diatrizoate and tramadol were removed under anaerobic conditions, but a large number of micropollutants persisted in all biological treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that certain improvements in biological micropollutant removal can be achieved by combining different

  6. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  7. Effects of aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste part I: Distribution of Sr, Cs, and Tc onto 18 absorbers from an irradiated, organic-containing leachate simulant for Hanford Tank 101-SY

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions. In this investigation, we measured the effect of some aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the sorption of strontium, cesium, and technetium onto 18 absorbers that offer high sorption of strontium from organic-free solutions. For our test solution we used a leachate from a simulated slurry for Hanford Tank 101-SY that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and then was gamma-irradiated to 34 Mrads. We measured distribution coefficients (Kds) for each element/absorber combination for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. To facilitate comparisons, we include Kd values for these same element/absorber combinations from three organic-free simulant solutions. The Kd values for strontium sorption from the simulant that contained the degraded organics usually decreased by large factors, whereas the Kd values for cesium and technetium sorption were relatively unaffected.

  8. Removing perchlorate from samples to facilitate organics detection by pyrolitic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kiparski, Guntram R.; Parker, David R.; Tsapin, Alexandre I.

    2013-07-01

    Thermal volatilization or pyrolysis of solid samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TV-GC-MS) or other downstream analyses has proven robustness and has been adopted for the extraction of organic compounds for their detection in planetary lander science missions (e.g., Viking Lander GC-MS, Phoenix TEGA, MSL SAM, and the future ExoMars MOMA). Pyrolysis to extract organic compounds from soil has limitations when oxidants co-occur in the analyzed sample unless the desired end product is CO2. Pyrolysis of such soils may result in oxidation of organics to CO2 during heating, and thus make organics characterization difficult, if not impossible. Analytical investigations seeking to identify organics in martian soils containing oxidants could benefit from the deployment of technologies that remove known and putative oxidants prior to thermal volatilization. We conducted a series of experiments in order to determine if a polymeric anion exchange resin, commonly used for removing the perchlorate anion from contaminated municipal water supplies, could sustain its substantial perchlorate removal capability while keeping organic compounds intact for downstream detection. We demonstrated that this resin can strongly bind perchlorate from aqueous solution while simultaneously leaving amino acids substantially unaltered. The perchlorate-binding resin could be easily adopted as a pre-treatment for martian soil extracts to create analytical systems with improved organics characterization capabilities compatible with existing TV-GC-MS systems. We propose this strategy to aid detection and characterization of putative martian organics co-situated with perchlorate at sampling sites.

  9. Enantiomeric and Isotopic Analysis of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. The Murchison and Murray meteorites contain numerous compounds of interest in the study of early solar system organic chemistry and organic compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. These include: amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, and polyols. This talk will focus on the enantiomeric and isotopic analysis of individual meteoritic compounds - primarily polyol acids. The analyses will determine if, in addition to certain amino acids from Murchison, another potentially important class of prebiotic compounds also contains enantiomeric excesses, i.e., excesses that could have contributed to the current homochirality of life. Preliminary enantiomeric and isotopic (C- 13) measurements of Murchison glyceric acid show that it is indeed extraterrestrial. C-13 and D isotope analysis of meteoritic sugar alcohols (glycerol, threitol, ribitol, etc.) has shown that they are also indigenous to the meteorite.

  10. Modeling the enhanced removal of emerging organic contaminants during MAR through a reactive barrier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Artificial recharge of reclaimed water is often proposed as a way of increasing water resources while improving quality. However, it is also feared that recalcitrant organic contaminants (i.e., those that are not completely removed during wastewater treatment) may reach the aquifer. Specifically, emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) have been increasingly detected in surface and ground waters and are becoming a worldwide problem. Most EOCs exhibit higher concentrations in reclaimed water used for artificial recharge than in produced groundwater, indicating that these compounds are retained and/or degraded during infiltration. Removal may be the result of sorption, which depends on organic matter and inorganic surfaces contained in the sediments, and degradation, which depends on redox conditions (some EOCs are preferentially removed under specific redox conditions). To enhance removal and retention processes, we designed a reactive barrier, which consists of compost, sand, clay and is covered by iron oxide. The role of compost is to favor sorption of neutral compounds and to release easily degradable organic carbon, so as to generate diverse redox condition, thus increasing the range of degraded EOCs. The role of iron oxides and clay is to favor sorption of anionic and cationic compounds, respectively. The barrier has been tested in the field proving its ability in promoting diverse redox conditions and indeed improving EOCs removal. However, experimental data do not allow separating sorption from degradation. To do so, we have built a flow and transport model representing the infiltration system and the aquifer beneath. The model has been calibrated against head data, collected during three years that include recharge and natural flow periods, and concentration, collected during a conservative tracer test. The calibrated model was then used to predict the fate of EOCs using sorption and half-lives from the literature. Results confirm that retention and degradation

  11. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, Anu; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-09-15

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amount of NOM has been observed over the past 10-20 years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i) negative effect on water quality by causing colour, taste and odor problems, (ii) increased coagulant and disinfectant doses (which in turn results in increased sludge volumes and production of harmful disinfection by-products), (iii) promoted biological growth in distribution system, and (iv) increased levels of complexed heavy metals and adsorbed organic pollutants. NOM can be removed from drinking water by several treatment options, of which the most common and economically feasible processes are considered to be coagulation and flocculation followed by sedimentation/flotation and sand filtration. Most of the NOM can be removed by coagulation, although, the hydrophobic fraction and high molar mass compounds of NOM are removed more efficiently than hydrophilic fraction and the low molar mass compounds. Thus, enhanced and/or optimized coagulation, as well as new process alternatives for the better removal of NOM by coagulation process has been suggested. In the present work, an overview of the recent research dealing with coagulation and flocculation in the removal of NOM from drinking water is presented. PMID:20633865

  12. Pharmaceutically active compounds: Their removal during slow sand filtration and their impact on slow sand filtration bacterial removal.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Yoneyama, Bunnie; Kirs, Marek; Kisand, Veljo; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-15

    Slow sand filtration (SSF) has been widely used as a means of providing potable water due to its efficacy, low cost, and minimal maintenance. Advances in analytical instrumentation have revealed the occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in surface water as well as in groundwater. It is unclear if the presence of these compounds in the feed water can interfere with the performances of an SSF unit. The aim of this work was to examine i) the ability of two SSF units to remove six PhACs (caffeine, carbamazepine, 17-β estradiol [E2], estrone [E1], gemfibrozil, and phenazone), and ii) the impact of these PhACs on the removal of bacteria by two SSF units. The presence of PhACs in feed water for SSF can occur in surface waters impacted by wastewater or leakage from sewers and septic tanks, as well as in developing countries where unregulated use and improper disposal are prevalent. Two pilot-scale SSF units were used during the study. Unit B1 was fed with stream water with 1% of primary effluent added, while unit B2 was fed with stream water alone. Although limited removal (<10%) of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and phenazone occurred, the complete removal of caffeine, and the partial removal (11-92%) of E2 and E1 were observed in the two SSF units. The results of this study suggest that the occurrence of the selected PhACs, probably estrogens and caffeine, in the feed water at 50 μg L(-1) affected the ability of the schmutzdecke to remove total coliform and Escherichia coli. The bacterial removal achieved within the schmutzdecke dropped from 95% to less than 20% by the end of the study. This decrease in removal may be related to the change in the microbial community within the schmutzdecke. A diverse microbial community, including Bacteroidetes and several classes of Proteobacteria, was replaced by a microbial community in which Gammaproteobacteria was the predominant phylum (99%). Despite the low removal achieved within the schmutzdecke, removal of

  13. Synthesis of fluorinated organic compounds using oxygen difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Oxygen difluoride synthesis is a much simpler, higher-yield procedure than reactions originally followed to synthesize various fluorinated organic compounds. Extreme care is taken in working with oxygen difluoride as its reactions present severe explosion hazard.

  14. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

  15. COMPACT, CONTINUOUS MONITORING FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved methods for onsite measurement of multiple volatile organic compounds are needed for process control, monitoring, and remediation. This Phase I SBIR project sets forth an optical measurement method that meets these needs. The proposed approach provides an instantaneous m...

  16. ODOR AND IRRITATION EFFECTS OF A VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MIXTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds elicits a variety ofsymptoms, many of which are thought to be mediated by the olfactoryand trigeminal systems. his report describes evidence indicatingthat perceived odor intensity diminishes during prolonged exposure,whearas irritatin...

  17. MEASUREMENT OF VAPOR PHASE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AT HIGH CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory, industrial, chemical, or other waste products may have constituents that evolve volatile organic compounds (VOCS) at very high concentrations. hese could pose human health risks during handling, storage, and disposal of the waste through inhalation, dermal exposure, o...

  18. IMPROVEMENT IN AIR TOXICS METHODS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative and customized monitoring methods for air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being developed for applications in exposure and trends monitoring. This task addresses the following applications of specific interest:

    o Contributions to EPA Regional Monit...

  19. SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...

  20. ESTIMATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computer program SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) has been under development for several years to estimate physical properties and chemical reactivity parameters of organic compounds strictly from molecular structure. SPARC uses computational algorithms...

  1. Passive remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using barometric pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Looney, B.B.; Dilek, C.A.E.; Riha, B.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is to demonstrate new subsurface characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. The interbedded clay and sand layers at the Integrated Demonstration Site (IDS) are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Characterization studies show that the bulk of the contamination is located in the approximately 40 m thick vadose zone. The most successful strategy for removing contaminants of this type from this environment is vapor extraction alone or in combination with other methods such as air sparging or enhanced bioremediation. Preliminary work at the IDS has indicated that natural pressure differences between surface and subsurface air caused by surface barometric fluctuations can produce enough gas flow to make barometric pumping a viable method for subsurface remediation. Air flow and pressure were measured in wells that are across three stratigraphic intervals in the vadose zone` The subsurface pressures were correlated to surface pressure fluctuations but were damped and lagging in phase corresponding to depth and stratum permeability. Piezometer wells screened at lower elevations exhibited a greater phase lag and damping than wells screened at higher elevations where the pressure wave from barometric fluctuations passes through a smaller number of low permeable layers. The phase lag between surface and subsurface pressures results in significant fluxes through these wells. The resultant air flows through the subsurface impacts CVOC fate and transport. With the appropriate controls (e.g. solenoid valves) a naturally driven vapor extraction system can be implemented requiring negligible operating costs yet capable of a large CVOC removal rate (as much as 1--2 kg/day in each well at the IDS).

  2. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been...

  3. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been...

  4. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been...

  5. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been...

  6. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been...

  7. INDOOR AIR QUALITY DATA BASE FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the compilation of a data base for concentrations of organic compounds measured indoors. ased on a review of the literature from 1979 through 1990, the data base contains information on over 220 compounds ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 446. he ...

  8. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED IN DEARS PASSIVE SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in personal exposures, indoors and outdoors of participant's residences, and at a central community site during the DEARS summer 2004 monitoring season. The list of VOCs focused on compounds typically associated with ...

  9. Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The air consent agreement between EPA and large animal feeding operations (AFO) is designed to determine at what level compounds are being emitted from these facilities. However, the methodology used for quantifying total non-methane hydrocarbons and speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) n...

  10. Predicting the emission of volatile organic compounds from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...

  11. DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compound...

  12. Bioelectrochemical treatment of table olive brine processing wastewater for biogas production and phenolic compounds removal.

    PubMed

    Marone, A; Carmona-Martínez, A A; Sire, Y; Meudec, E; Steyer, J P; Bernet, N; Trably, E

    2016-09-01

    Industry of table olives is widely distributed over the Mediterranean countries and generates large volumes of processing wastewaters (TOPWs). TOPWs contain high levels of organic matter, salt, and phenolic compounds that are recalcitrant to microbial degradation. This work aims to evaluate the potential of bioelectrochemical systems to simultaneously treat real TOPWs and recover energy. The experiments were performed in potentiostatically-controlled single-chamber systems fed with real TOPW and using a moderate halophilic consortium as biocatalyst. In conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment, ie. where no potential was applied, no CH4 was produced. In comparison, Bio-Electrochemical Systems (BES) showed a maximum CH4 yield of 701 ± 13 NmL CH4·LTOPW(-1) under a current density of 7.1 ± 0.4 A m(-2) and with a coulombic efficiency of 30%. Interestingly, up to 80% of the phenolic compounds found in the raw TOPW (i.e. hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) were removed. A new theoretical degradation pathway was proposed after identification of the metabolic by-products. Consistently, microbial community analysis at the anode revealed a clear and specific enrichment in anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) from the genera Desulfuromonas and Geoalkalibacter, supporting the key role of these electroactive microorganisms. As a conclusion, bioelectrochemical systems represent a promising bioprocess alternative for the treatment and energy recovery of recalcitrant TOPWs. PMID:27208920

  13. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because ground water is a source of potable water for millions of people, an economical means of removing volatile organic contaminants is essential. Laboratory, pilot-scale and full-scale studies are being carried out in the United States of America to determine the effect of va...

  14. PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

  15. Shock Modifications of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.

    1998-01-01

    Impacts among asteroidal objects would have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. To begin filling a knowledge gap on the shock metamorphism of organic compounds, we are studying the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach is to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in the matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to simulated hypervelocity impacts by firing them into targets at various pressures. The mixtures are then analyzed to determine the amount of each compound that survives as well as to determine if new compounds are being synthesized. The initial compounds added to the matrix (with the exception of thiosulfate). The sulfonic acids were chosen in part because they are relatively abundant in Murchison, relatively stable, and because they and the phosphonic acids are the first well-characterized homologous series of organic sulfur and phosphorus compounds identified in an extraterrestrial material. Experimental procedures were more fully described in the original proposal. A 20 mm gun, with its barrel extending into a vacuum chamber (10(exp -2) torr), was used to launch the projectile containing the sample at approx. 1.6 km/sec (3,600 mi/hr) into the target material. Maximum pressure of impact depend on target/projectile materials. The target was sufficiently thin to assure minimum pressure decay over the total sample thickness.

  16. Molecular and Enantiomeric Analysis of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2003-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in carbon. Much of this carbon is in the form of soluble organic compounds. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorites with respect to organic chemistry. Their content of organic compounds has led to an initial understanding of early solar system organic chemistry as well as what compounds may have played a role in the origin of life (Cronin and Chang, 1993). Reported compounds include: amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and polyols. This talk will focus on the molecular and enantiomeric analysis of individual meteoritic compounds: polyol acids; and a newly identified class of meteorite compounds, keto acids, i.e., acetoacetic acid, levulinic acid, etc. Keto acids (including pyruvic) are critically important in all contemporary organisms. They are key intermediates in metabolism and processes such as the citric acid cycle. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we identified individual meteoritic keto acids after derivatization to one or more of the following forms: isopropyl ester (ISP), trimethyIsiIy1 (TMS), tert-butyldimethylsilyl (BDMS). Ongoing analyses will determine if, in addition to certain amino acids from Murchison (Cronin and Pizzarello, 1997), other potentially important prebiotic compounds also contain enantiomeric excesses, i.e., excesses that could have contributed to the current homochirality of life.

  17. Green Technology for the Removal of Chloro-Organics from Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) for the removal of chloro-organic compounds from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The surface area of the HSSF-CW unit was 5.25 m² and was planted with Colocasia esculenta. The wastewater was characterized for different chloro-organic compounds, that is, adsorbable organic halides (AOX), chlorophenolics, and chlorinated resin and fatty acids (cRFAs). Under a hydraulic retention time of 5.9 days, the average AOX, chlorophenolics, and cRFA removal from wastewater was 87, 87, and 93%, respectively. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil material. The mass balance studies show that a significant fraction of chlorophenolics and cRFA was degraded in the constructed wetland system. Modeling studies were carried out to estimate the first-order area-based removal rate constants (k) for chemical oxygen demand removal. The HSSF-CW was found to be an effective treatment technology for the remediation of pulp and paper mill wastewater. PMID:26163503

  18. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  19. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  20. Elimination of volatile organic compounds by biofiltration: a review.

    PubMed

    Nikiema, Josiane; Dastous, Paul-André; Heitz, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are pollutants that are responsible for the formation of the tropospheric ozone, one of the precursors of smog. VOCs are emitted by various industries including chemical plants, pulp and paper mills, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, electronics and agri-food industries. Some VOCs cause odor pollution while many of them are harmful to environment and human or animal health. For the removal of VOCs, biofiltration, a biological process, has proved to be reliable when properly operated. This process has therefore been widely applied in Europe and North America. The main advantages associated with the use of biofiltration are related to its set-up, maintenance, and operating costs which are usually lower than those related to other VOCs control technologies and because it is less harmful for the environment than conventional processes like incineration. In the present paper, the main parameters (type, moisture, pH, and temperature of filter bed, microbial population, nutrients concentrations, and VOCs' inlet load) to be controlled during the biofiltration are identified and described in detail. The main phenomena involved in biofiltration are also discussed. For improving the efficiency of VOC control biotechnology, new techniques are now proposed that include the use of membranes, biphasic reactors, UV photolysis, and many others. PMID:18351227

  1. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.

  2. Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria-Rueda, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity, and (3) test the model response to variable organic loads in a pilot-scale plant. Removal of DOM by the biofilm was quantified in continuous-flow water hyacinth tanks at ten concentrations ranging from 45 to 330 g COD m {sup {minus}3} . Total DOM removal in the denitrifying, acetate-based experimental system was measured and partitioned into two fractions associated with the activity of biofilm and suspended bacteria. Calculated DOM removal by the biofilm was adjusted for the release of organic compounds by debris decomposition. Values of DOM removal were used to calculate oxygen transfer rates from the water hyacinth roots. A model of DOM removal in water hyacinth lagoons was formulated. The model, composed of four differential equations, was solved at steady-state conditions and the validity of its simulation results was tested in pilot-scale tanks. Hydraulic detection times ranging from 2 to 28 days were evaluated using biofilm density and concentrations of DOM and particulate organics as monitoring parameters of the model response. The observed decrease of suspended bacterial biomass along the tank was correctly simulated by the model, but predictions of effluent concentrations were not always consistent. Predicted values of biofilm bacterial mass were similar to those measured in the tanks, except when large algal populations were present in the film.

  3. Trace organics removal using three membrane bioreactor configurations: MBR, IFAS-MBR and MBMBR.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, T; Alonso, E; Santos, J L; Rodríguez, C; Gómez, M A; Malfeito, J J

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen pharmaceutically active compounds and 22 other trace organic pollutants were analysed regularly in the influent and permeate from a semi-real plant treating municipal wastewater. The plant was operated during 29 months with different configurations which basically differed in the type of biomass present in the system. These processes were the integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane bioreactor (IFAS-MBR), which combined suspended and attached biomass, the moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) (only attached biomass) and the MBR (only suspended biomass). Moreover, removal rates were compared to those of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operating nearby with conventional activated sludge treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) was used after the pilot plant to improve removal rates. The highest elimination was found for the IFAS-MBR, especially for hormones (100% removal); this was attributed to the presence of biofilm, which may lead to different conditions (aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic) along its profile, which increases the degradation possibilities, and also to a higher sludge age of the biofilm, which allows complete acclimation to the contaminants. Operating conditions played an important role, high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge retention time (SRT) being necessary to achieve these high removal rates. Although pharmaceuticals and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates showed high removal rates (65-100%), nonylphenols and phthalate could only be removed to 10-30%. RO significantly increased removal rates to 88% mean removal rate. PMID:25768224

  4. Evaluation of control strategies for volatile organic compounds in indoor air (journal article)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Debler, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses research which evaluates the application of adsorption techniques to the control of indoor organic vapors. The adsorption on activated carbon of three compounds representing three classes of organic species was studied at 30 C in the concentration range zero to 200 ppb using a microbalance. The three were benzene (aromatic), acetaldehyde (oxygenated aliphatic), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (halogenated aliphatic). Three sorbents (a wood base carbon, a coal base carbon, and a coconut shell base carbon) were examined. Uptakes for all the compounds on all the carbons were low (on the order of 10 to the minus 7th power gmol/g carbon). Simulation of a packed bed of carbon indicated that carbon adsorption may not be practical for continuous removal, but may be applicable to sudden releases (e.g., spills). Potential alternatives to activated carbon adsorption are discussed. Potentially toxic organic vapors are emitted from a wide variety of building materials, consumer products, and human activities. Control of indoor organic vapors generally involves removing the source and/or increasing the ventilation rate. The ubiquitous nature of sources of organic vapors generally makes source removal impractical. Increased ventilation causes increased energy usage with its resultant economic penalties. Therefore, practical removal methods are needed.

  5. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

  6. The Effect of Golden Pothos in Reducing the Level of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ursprung, Matthew; Amiri, Azita; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Golden Pothos on indoor air quality was studied against a simulated spacecraft trace contaminant load model, consistent with the International Space Station (ISS), containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. Previous research provides inconclusive results on the efficacy of plant VOC removal which this projects seeks to rectify through a better experimental design. This work develops a passive system for removing common VOC's from spacecraft and household indoor air and decreasing the necessity for active cabin trace contaminant removal systems.

  7. Adsorption combined with ultrafiltration to remove organic matter from seawater.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Chatkaew; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

    2011-12-01

    Organic fouling and biofouling are the major severe types of fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in seawater (SW) desalination. Low pressure membrane filtration such as ultrafiltration (UF) has been developed as a pre-treatment before reverse osmosis. However, UF alone may not be an effective enough pre-treatment because of the existence of low-molecular weight dissolved organic matter in seawater. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to study a hybrid process, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption/UF, with real seawater and to evaluate its performance in terms of organic matter removal and membrane fouling. The effect of different PAC types and concentrations is evaluated. Stream-activated wood-based PAC addition increased marine organic matter removal by up to 70% in some conditions. Moreover, coupling PAC adsorption with UF decreased UF membrane fouling and the fouling occurring during short-term UF was totally reversible. It can be concluded that the hybrid PAC adsorption/UF process performed in crossflow filtration mode is a relevant pre-treatment process before RO desalination, allowing organic matter removal of 75% and showing no flux decline for short-term experiments. PMID:21996607

  8. Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties making them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution VOCs in the environment is necessary. The U.S. Geological Survey selected 55 VOCs for study. This report reviews the characteristics of the various process that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

  9. Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-07-01

    Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

  10. Prevention of marine biofouling using natural compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, E; Boyd, K G; Burgess, J G

    2000-01-01

    All surfaces that are submerged in the sea rapidly become covered by a biofilm. This process, called biofouling, has substantial economic consequences. Paints containing tri-butyl-tin (TBT) and copper compounds are used to protect marine structures by reducing biofouling. However, these compounds have damaging effects on the marine environment, as they are not biodegradable. It has been noted that many seaweeds and invertebrates found in the sea are not covered by a mature biofilm. This is due to the release of compounds into the surrounding seawater that deter the settlement of fouling organisms. In addition, seaweeds and invertebrates have bacteria on their surfaces that produce compounds to deter settling organisms. The production of compounds by bacteria and their living hosts work in concert to protect the hosts' surfaces. All of these compounds can be collected so they may be natural alternatives to TBT and copper compounds. However, the benefits associated with the use of bacteria as sources of these compounds means that bacteria are the organisms of choice for obtaining natural products for antifouling coatings. PMID:11193296

  11. Dissolution, Cyclodextrin-Enhanced Solubilization, and Mass Removal of an Ideal Multicomponent Organic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling were conducted to examine the influence of a hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution on the dissolution of single- and three-component organic liquids. The results of batch experiments showed that HPCD-enhanced solubilization of the organic-liquid mixtures was ideal (describable using Raoult’s Law), and that solubilization-enhancement factors were independent of mixture composition. Addition of the HPCD solution to columns containing residual saturations of the organic liquid enhanced the dissolution and removal of all three compounds in the mixture. The results of the column experiments and multicomponent rate-limited dissolution modeling suggest that solubilization was ideal for both water and cyclodextrin flushing. Concomitantly, the mass-flux reduction versus mass removal behavior was ideal for all experiments. Mass transfer was increased for HPCD solubilization relative to the water flushing due to solubility and concentration-gradient enhancement. Organic-liquid composition did not significantly impact mass transfer coefficients, and fractional mass removal behavior during HPCD solubilization was nearly identical for each compound whether present as a single component or in a mixture. Additionally, mass transfer coefficients for aqueous and HPCD solubilization for single and multicomponent mixtures were not statistically different upon normalizing by the solubility enhancement factor. PMID:19233508

  12. Photoemission properties of organic chain compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonačić Lošić, Ž.; Bjeliš, A.; Županović, P.

    2009-03-01

    In this work we extend our previous considerations of the spectral properties of quasi-one-dimensional bands using the G0W0 approximation with the three-dimensional long-range Coulomb electron-electron interaction for the calculation of the one-particle spectral function to TTF-TCNQ. Represented in the model with two one-dimensional electron bands per donor and acceptor chains this compound has a dispersive low-energy collective mode due to the strong coupling between the plasmon and the dipolar mode, together with the mode at energies order of magnitude higher. Since the dispersion of the first mode spreads through the whole low-energy range from zero up to its longitudinal value, it is responsible for the absence of the low-energy quasi-particle and the appearance of broad dispersion at these energies, while the wide structure at higher energies is due to the dispersion of the second mode. Obtained spectral properties are in qualitative agreement with the ARPES data for TTF-TCNQ.

  13. An individualistic approach to routine cadaver organ removal.

    PubMed

    Peters, D A

    1988-09-01

    Consenting to the taking of one's organs after death is a moral duty--the duty to consent--which derives from a more general moral duty--the duty to attempt an easy rescue of an endangered person. These two duties can be justified within the framework of factual and value beliefs associated with the general intellectual orientation called "individualism," which informs the liberal democratic tradition in the spirit of John Locke. Individualists value personal liberty and would accept these two duties on the ground that personal liberty is likely to be better protected and advanced in a society that abides by them than in a society that does not. The same reasoning justifies a social policy of routine removal of cadaver organs. Individualists would find it prudent to give up their right to be buried whole and adopt a policy of routine removal of cadaver organs, with organs distributed according to some principle of fair allocation. Since they recognize that their own organs will be of no use to them after death, giving up their right to be buried whole will not be viewed as a significant sacrifice of personal liberty. Some people of basic individualistic sympathies may, however, embrace additional special values that favor their being buried whole. To accommodate such persons, two compromises on a policy of routine taking of cadaver organs are possible: Allow these persons to "opt out" of the system by signing a legally binding document prohibiting the taking of their organs after death, or require everyone to state on their driver's licenses a positive or negative decision concerning organ removal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10288934

  14. Mechanisms of Decomposition of Organic Compounds by Water Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narengerile; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2011-08-01

    The decomposition of acetone, methanol, and ethanol by water plasmas at atmospheric pressure has been investigated using a direct current (DC) discharge. At torch powers of 910-1050 W and organic compound concentrations of 1-10 mol %, the decomposition rate of methanol was over 99.99%, while those of acetone and/or ethanol was 96-99%. The concentrations of H2 obtained were 65-71% in the effluent gas and the removal efficiencies of 90-95% for total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved in liquid effluent for any compounds by pyrolysis. Over 50 wt % carbon in acetone or ethanol fed as the plasma supporting gas was transformed into soot, while the soot formation was negligible during methanol decomposition. On the basis of the experimental results, the mechanisms of decomposition of organic compounds in water plasmas were proposed and the mechanism of soot formation was clarified for the first time.

  15. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment. PMID:25690682

  16. Temporal stability of polar organic compounds in stainless steel canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, B.; Jayanty, R.K.M.; Peterson, M.R. ); Evans, G.F. )

    1992-04-01

    Because of considerable interest at US EPA for the collection of polar organic compounds in stainless steel canisters, particularly for the Toxic Air Monitoring Site (TAMS) study, the stability of 10 selected polar organics in canisters was investigated and the results are described in this paper. The polar organic compounds selected for this stability study were: methanol, acetone, isoprene, acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, t-butyl methyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and ethyl acrylate. Two nonpolar compounds, methyl chloroform and toluene, shown to be stable in previous work were included in the stability study as controls. The compounds were loaded in unpolished and Summa-polished canisters at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels under dry and humid conditions. The canister samples were analyzed on Days 0, 1, 3, 4, 14, and 31 after loading. The experimental procedures and stability results are summarized briefly.

  17. Characterizations of organic compounds in diesel exhaust particulates.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaehyun; Lim, Cheolsoo; Kim, Sangkyun; Hong, Jihyung

    2015-08-01

    To characterize how the speed and load of a medium-duty diesel engine affected the organic compounds in diesel particle matter (PM) below 1 μm, four driving conditions were examined. At all four driving conditions, concentration of identifiable organic compounds in PM ultrafine (34-94 nm) and accumulation (94-1000 nm) modes ranged from 2.9 to 5.7 μg/m(3) and 9.5 to 16.4 μg/m(3), respectively. As a function of driving conditions, the non-oxygen-containing organics exhibited a reversed concentration trend to the oxygen-containing organics. The identified organic compounds were classified into eleven classes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, alcohols, ethers, nitrogen-containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. At all driving conditions, alkane class consistently showed the highest concentration (8.3 to 18.0 μg/m(3)) followed by carboxylic acid, esters, ketones and alcohols. Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified with a total concentration ranging from 37.9 to 174.8 ng/m(3). In addition, nine nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (NPACs) were identified with a total concentration ranging from 7.0 to 10.3 ng/m(3). The most abundant PAH (phenanthrene) and NPACs (7,8-benzoquinoline and 3-nitrophenanthrene) comprise a similar molecular (3 aromatic-ring) structure under the highest engine speed and engine load. PMID:26257360

  18. Device for removing foreign objects from anatomic organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device is disclosed for removing foreign objects from anatomic organs such as the ear canal or throat. It has a housing shaped like a flashlight, an electrical power source such as a battery or AC power from a wall socket, and a tip extending from the housing. The tip has at least one wire loop made from a shape-memory-effect alloy, such as Nitinol, switchably connected to the electrical power source such that when electric current flows through the wire loop the wire loop heats up and returns to a previously programmed shape such as a curet or tweezers so as to facilitate removal of the foreign object.

  19. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J.; Hoffman, M.R.; Gorelick, S.

    1997-01-01

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  20. Method for removing magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys with engineered scavenger compound

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using an engineered scanvenger compound. In particular, the invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using the engineered scanvenger compound (ESC) lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2). The removal of magnesium from the aluminum-magnesium alloys is performed at about 600-750 C in a molten salt bath of KCl or KCl-MgCl2 using lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2) as the engineered scavenger compound (ESC). Electrode deposition of magnesium from the loaded ESC onto a stainless steel electrode is accomplished in a second step, and provides a clean magnesium electrode deposit for recycling. The second step also prepares the ESC for reuse.

  1. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CYCLODEXTRIN-CLAY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational and experimental techniques are combined in order to better understand interactions involving organic compounds and cyclodextrin (CD)-clay systems. CD-clay systems may have great potential in the containment of organic contaminants in the environment. This study w...

  2. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  3. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  4. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  5. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  6. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  7. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  8. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  9. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  10. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  11. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  12. Leveraging the beneficial compounds of organic and pasture milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much discussion has arisen over the possible benefits of organic food, including milk. Organic milk comes from cows that are on pasture during the growing season, and would be expected to contain some compounds that are not found in animals receiving conventional feed, or at higher concentrations. ...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

  14. Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure and Properties of Organic Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate senior high school students' difficulties predicting the existence of hydrogen bridge bonds between organic molecules, investigate students' difficulties predicting the relative boiling points of simple organic compounds, and develop test questions that enable teachers to quickly get information about…

  15. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  16. Microbially mediated removal of organic sulfur from coal: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a microbial coal cleaning process capable of removing a significant fraction of the organic sulfur from coal by optimization of desulfurization using CB1, development of additional microorganisms capable of removing other organic sulfur forms from coal, and to evaluate combined desulfurization using CB1 and CBX to decrease organic sulfur in coal. Optimization studies defined more precisely the conditions required to achieve maximum desulfurization of coal by CB1. No significant differences in desulfurization were noted when coal was ground in a dry mill or in a stirred (wet) ball mill. Desulfurization increased with decreasing particle size. Solids loadings were not found to be limiting when the optimal particle size, retention time and microorganism-to-coal dose were used. The minimum retention time and microbe-to-coal ratios resulting in maximum sulfur removal were determined. A second microorganism, CB2, was selected and characterized. CB2 is capable of removing sulfur from the aryl sulfide model compound, diphenyl sulfide (DPS). Combining the activity of CB1 and CB2 for desulfurization of coals was investigated. The sulfur removing activity(ies) for each microbe was (were) determined to reside in the chromosomal DNA rather than in extrachromosomal, plasmid DNA. Simultaneous growth of the microorganisms for treatment of coal, simultaneous treatment of coal using microbes grown separately, and sequential treatment of coal were investigated. 11 refs., 13 figs., 57 tabs.

  17. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  18. A Broad Spectrum Catalytic System for Removal of Toxic Organics from Water by Deep Oxidation - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ayusman

    2000-12-01

    A most pressing need for the DOE environmental management program is the removal of toxic organic compounds present in groundwater and soil at specific DOE sites. While several remediation procedures have been proposed, they suffer from one or more drawbacks. The objective of the present research was to develop new catalytic procedures for the removal of toxic organic compounds from the environment through their deep oxidation to harmless products. In water, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the deep oxidation of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds by dioxygen at 80-90 C in the presence of carbon monoxide or dihydrogen. Several classes of organic compounds were examined: benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, nitro and halo organics, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds. In every case, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 hour period. For substrates susceptible to hydrogenation, the conversions were generally high with dihydrogen than with carbon monoxide. It is clear from the results obtained that we have discovered an exceptionally versatile catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organic compounds in water. This system possesses several attractive features not found simultaneously in other reported systems. These are (a) the ability to directly utilize dioxygen as the oxidant, (b) the ability to carry out the deep oxidation of a particularly wide range of functional organics, and (c) the ease of recovery of the catalyst by simple filtration.

  19. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  20. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  1. Investigating the removal of some pharmaceutical compounds in hospital wastewater treatment plants operating in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Qarni, Hamed; Collier, Philip; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Akunna, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of 12 pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, erythromycin, cyclophosphamide, paracetamol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, caffeine, clarithromycin, lidocaine, sulfamethoxazole and N-acetylsulfamethoxazol (NACS)) were investigated in the influents and effluents of two hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. The majority of the target analytes were detected in the influent samples apart from bezafibrate, cyclophosphamide, and erythromycin. Caffeine and paracetamol were detected in the influent at particularly high concentrations up to 75 and 12 ug/L, respectively. High removal efficiencies of the pharmaceutical compounds were observed in both HWWTPs, with greater than 90 % removal on average. Paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole, NACS, ciprofloxacin, and caffeine were eliminated by between >95 and >99 % on average. Atenolol, carbamazepine, and clarithromycin were eliminated by >86 % on average. Of particular interest were the high removal efficiencies of carbamazepine and antibiotics that were achieved by the HWWTPs; these compounds have been reported to be relatively recalcitrant to biological treatment and are generally only partially removed. Elevated temperatures and high levels of sunlight were considered to be the main factors that enhanced the removal of these compounds. PMID:26996911

  2. Thermal decomposition studies of halogenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.V.; Kumaran, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    Thermal decomposition results for CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}Cl, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}Cl, CFCl{sub 3}, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 3}Cl, CF{sub 2}HCl, CF{sub 3}I, CH{sub 3}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}I, and CCl{sub 2}O are presented. The results were obtained by shock tube techniques coupled with optical spectroscopic detection of transient species formed from dissociation. The method is illustrated with the CH{sub 3}I (+ Kr) {yields} CH{sub 3} + I (+ Kr) reaction where decomposition was monitored using I-atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS). Modern unimolecular rate theoretical analysis has been carried out on the present cases, and the conclusions from these calculations are discussed. Lastly, the possible destruction of halo-organics by incineration is considered and some implications are discussed.

  3. Use of Bromine and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-06-22

    Bromination is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using bromine and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular bromine in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of bromine, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid bromine carriers. This review outlines the use of bromine and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of bromine, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other brominating agents, and a few natural bromine sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as bromination, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. PMID:27199233

  4. Abatement of mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, J; Reddy, E Linga; Reddy, P Manoj Kumar; Ramaraju, B; Karvembu, R; Subrahmanyam, Ch

    2012-10-30

    Total oxidation of mixture of dilute volatile organic compounds was carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor with various transition metal oxide catalysts integrated in-plasma. The experimental results indicated the best removal efficiencies in the presence of metal oxide catalysts, especially MnO(x), whose activity was further improved with AgO(x) deposition. It was confirmed water vapor improves the efficiency of the plasma reactor, probably due to the formation of hydroxyl species, whereas, in situ decomposition of ozone on the catalyst surface may lead to nascent oxygen. It may be concluded that non-thermal plasma approach is beneficial for the removal of mixture of volatile organic compounds than individual VOCs, probably due to the formation of reactive intermediates like aldehydes, peroxides, etc. PMID:22975253

  5. Treatment of biorefractory organic compounds in wool scour effluent by hydroxyl radical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Wool scouring effluent that had been treated with chemical flocculation and aerobic biological treatment (Sirolan CFB effluent) was tertiary treated by hydroxyl radical oxidation to remove residual organic compounds. These compounds impart a high chemical oxygen demand of 500-3000 mg/L and dark colour. However, a H2O2/UV process was found to effectively treat the majority of residual compounds, with up to 75% COD, 85% total organic carbon, and 100% removal of colour (T(480 nm)) achieved. This was despite the effluent being strongly absorbing in the UV region, with a film thickness of 0.21 mm reducing T(254 nm) by 50%. Treatment was unaffected by pH over the range 3-9. H2O2/UV treatment increased the biodegradability of the effluent (5-day biochemical oxygen demand increased from < 10 to 86 mg/L), but a combined chemical and biological process did not increase maximum COD removal or overall process efficiency. The tertiary treated effluent had a final COD in the range 125-750 mg/L, equating to a total COD removal from raw wool scour effluent of approximately 97.5%. This degree of treatment is sufficient for discharge in many, but not all, circumstances. PMID:15276763

  6. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  7. Well-purging criteria for sampling purgeable organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The results indicate that 1) purgeable organic compound concentrations stabilized when three casing volume were purged in only 55% of the cases evaluated in this study, 2) purgeable organic compounds concentrations did not consistently follow the temporal variation of, nor stabilize at the same time as, the measure field characteristics, and 3) purging to achieve hydraulic equilibrium between casing and aquifer water consistently underestimated the time and casing volumes needed to achieve stable values of water-quality measurements in highly transmissive aquifers. The conclusion from these data is that none of the previously recommended criteria for purging a well can be applied reliably to collecting a "representative' sample of purgeable organic compounds. These results indicate that the criteria for purging a well prior to sampling for purgeable organic compounds must take into account other factors, such as the unique hydrogeologic characteristics of a site, the nature and extent of purgeable organic compounds present, and areal extent of the contamination, the well construction, and the sampling objectives of the investigation. -from Authors

  8. Short-pulse laser removal of organic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Craig T.

    2000-08-01

    A major problem in the regular maintenance of aerospace systems is the removal of paint and other protective coatings from surfaces without polluting the atmosphere or endangering workers. Recent research has demonstrated that many organic coatings can be removed from surfaces efficiently using short laser pulses without the use of any chemical agents. The lasers employed in this study were repetitively-pulsed neodymium YAG devices operating at 1064 nm (15 - 30 ns, 10 - 20 Hz). The efficiency of removal can be cast in terms of an effective heat of ablation, Q* (kJ of laser energy incident per g of paint removed), although, for short pulses, the mechanism of removal is believed to be dominated more by thermo- mechanical or shock effects than by photo-ablation. Q* data were collected as a function of pulse fluence for several paint types. For many paint types, there was a fairly sharp threshold fluence per pulse near 1 J/cm2, above which Q* values dropped to levels which were a factor of four lower than those observed for long- pulse or continuous laser ablation of paint. In this regime, the coating is removed in fairly large particles or, in the case of one paint, the entire thickness of the coating was removed over the exposed area in one pulse. Hardware for implementing short-pulse laser paint stripping in the field is under development and will be highlighted in the presentation. Practical paint stripping rates achieved using the prototype hardware are presented for several paint types.

  9. Volatile organic compounds in Gulf of Mexico sediments

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), concentrations and compositions were documented for estuarine, coastal, shelf, slope, and deep water sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. VOC were measured (detection limit >0.01 ppb) using a closed-loop stripping apparatus with gas chromatography (GC) and flame ionization, flame photometric, and mass spectrometric detectors. The five primary sources of Gulf of Mexico sediment VOC are: (1) planktonic and benthic fauna and flora; (2) terrestrial material from riverine and atmospheric deposition; (3) anthropogenic inputs: (4) upward migration of hydrocarbons; and (5) transport by bottom currents or slumping. Detected organo-sulfur compounds include alkylated sulfides, thiophene, alkylated thiophenes, and benzothiophenes. Benzothiophenes are petroleum related. Low molecular weight organo-sulfur compounds result from the biological oxidation of organic matter. A lack of organosulfur compounds in the reducing environment of the Orca Basin may result from a lack of free sulfides which are necessary for their production.

  10. Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Aizpuru, A; Malhautier, L; Roux, J C; Fanlo, J L

    2003-08-20

    The performance of a biofilter packed with Active Carbon (AC) was evaluated. The effluent (alcohol, ketones, esters, aromatic and chlorinated compounds) treated was a representative mixture of most common industrial emissions. To achieve a better knowledge of multicomponent adsorption mechanisms, and to underline the interest of inoculating AC, a control abiotic humidified filter had been operated in the same conditions as the biofilter. For a load of 110 g VOC m(-3) AC h(-1), after 55 days of operation, the removal efficiency was higher in the biotic than in the abiotic filter (85% vs 55%, respectively). Moreover, in the biofilter, at steady state, the elimination of all compounds was almost complete except for chlorinated compounds and p-xylene (removal efficiency of 25% and 64%, respectively). The microbial colonization of AC involved a decrease of the adsorption sites accessibility and enhanced the treatment of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) having a lower affinity for activated carbon. Moreover, while aromatic compounds and MIBK were eliminated along the overall height of the biofilter, pollutants with reduced affinity for AC, such as methanol, acetone, and halogenated compounds were only treated on the second half of the reactor. Thus, the affinity for activated carbon was an important parameter controlling the biodegradation process. Nevertheless, the use of AC as packing material in biofilters treating complex mixtures of VOCs is limited. Actually, similar removal efficiency could be reached, in the same conditions, for a biofilter packed with granular peat. Furthermore, for the biofilter packed with AC, the column height necessary to remove biodegradable compounds, with reduced affinity for the support, was important. PMID:12800142

  11. The Use of Modified Bentonite for Removal of Aromatic Organics from Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Gitipour; Bowers; Bodocsi

    1997-12-15

    This study investigates the clay-aromatic interactions with a view to the use of bentonite clay for binding benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX compounds) in contaminated soils. BTEX compounds are the most toxic aromatic constituents of gasoline present in many underground storage tanks. Modified (organophilic) and ordinary bentonites are used to remove these organics. The organophilic bentonites are prepared by replacing the exchangeable inorganic cations present in bentonite particles with a quaternary ammonium salt. Various clay-to-soil ratios were applied to determine the efficiency of the modified bentonite in enhancing the cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) of BTEX contaminated soils. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) tests were performed on soil samples to evaluate the leaching of the organics. In addition, X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted to assess the changes in the basal spacing of the clays as a result of their interaction with BTEX compounds. The findings of this study reveal that organophilic bentonite can act as a successful adsorbent for removing the aromatic organics from contaminated soil. Thus, this material is viable for enhancing the performance of cement-based S/S processes, as an adsorbent for petroleum spills, and for landfill liners and slurry walls. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. PMID:9792744

  12. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  13. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  14. Reaction Rates of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds with the Hydroxyl Radical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Philip Neal

    1995-01-01

    The atmosphere is the primary route of global dispersion of many semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. While the long-distance atmospheric transport of these compounds has been well established, the importance of chemical reactions that may occur while SOCs are in the atmosphere is largely unknown. For most semi-volatile organic compounds in the vapor phase, the most significant atmospheric reaction is likely to be attack by the hydroxyl radical (OH). The importance of this removal pathway, relative to other loss mechanisms from the atmosphere, is dependent on the reaction rate of a given semi-volatile organic compound with OH. A system was constructed and validated to measure the reaction rate of OH with semi-volatile organic compounds in the laboratory. The system featured a small, heated, quartz chamber with on-line detection of reactants by mass spectrometry. OH radicals were generated by the 254 nm photolysis of O _3 in the presence of H_2 O. The temperature dependent reaction rates of OH with 15 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), containing 0-5 chlorines, were measured. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes of PCBs due to OH-initiated reactions ranged from 2 days for biphenyl to 34 days for a pentachlorobiphenyl. Using an average of reaction rates extrapolated to atmospheric temperatures, the lifetime in the atmosphere for total PCBs due to OH reaction was calculated. A model for the vertical concentration gradient of PCBs in the troposphere was developed and used to calculate the flux (16 mug m^{-2} yr^{-1}) and total global flow (8,300 tonnes yr^{-1}) of PCBs removed from the atmosphere by OH-PCB reaction. This pathway is very large in comparison to any other known permanent PCB loss processes from the environment, such as deep ocean sediment burial (240 tonnes yr^ {-1}). The reaction of PCBs with OH may be the dominant removal mechanism of PCBs from the natural environment.

  15. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Ingrid J.; Black, Robert R.; Geron, Chris D.; Aurell, Johanna; Hays, Michael D.; Preston, William T.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOCs and SVOCs) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. The peat samples originated from two National Wildlife Refuges on the coastal plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (∼60%) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. In the fine particle mass (PM2.5), the following organic compound classes were dominant: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for the organic acids in PM2.5 including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12%) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed to 2-3% of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3% of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Total HAP VOC and particulate PAH emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions.

  16. GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil columns were investigated. Three compounds (naphthalene, phenanthrene and DDT) that spanned three orders of magnitude in water solubility were used. Instead of humic matter, mo...

  17. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  18. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  19. Composition, removal, redox, and metal complexation properties of dissolved organic nitrogen in composting leachates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Gao, Ru-Tai; Tan, Wen-Bing; Cui, Dong-Yu; Yuan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the composition, removal, redox, and metal complexation characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in composting leachates. Results showed that the leachate-derived DON comprised proteinaceous compounds and amines, and most of them were integrated into the fulvic- and humic-like substances. Neutral, basic, acidic, hydroxylic, aromatic, and sulfuric amino acids all were detected in the influent leachates. However, most of them were removed by the biological and physical processes, and only neutral amino acids were detected in the effluent. The DON was not the main contributor to the redox capability of the leachate dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, it exhibited a strong capability for metal complexation. The amines formed strong complexes with the metals Mo, Co, Cr, and Ni, while the proteinaceous matter interacted with the metals Cr and Ni. PMID:25282175

  20. Volatile metabolites in occupational exposure to organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Jäppinen, P; Kangas, J; Silakoski, L; Savolainen, H

    1993-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide in breath was determined by the gas chromatographic method in 14 persons exposed to organic reduced sulfur compounds in sulfate pulp mills. Dimethyl sulfide concentrations in breath (range 0.04-0.69 cm3/m3 were compared to the combined workplace concentrations of methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide. This method of analysis proved to be a practical noninvasive way to assess recent exposure, and therefore it should be applicable to workplaces contaminated with organic sulfur compounds in the pulp industry. PMID:8481097

  1. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of a pretreatment system for removing organics from produced water.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soondong; Sullivan, Enid J; Katz, Lynn E; Bowman, Robert S; Kinney, Kerry A

    2011-09-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. This "produced water" is characterized by saline water containing a variety of pollutants, including water soluble and immiscible organics and many inorganic species. To reuse produced water, removal of both the inorganic dissolved solids and organic compounds is necessary. In this research, the effectiveness of a pretreatment system consisting of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption followed by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of carboxylates and hazardous substances, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from saline-produced water. A laboratory-scale MBR, operated at a 9.6-hour hydraulic residence time, degraded 92% of the carboxylates present in synthetic produced water. When BTEX was introduced simultaneously to the MBR system with the carboxylates, the system achieved 80 to 95% removal of BTEX via biodegradation. These results suggest that simultaneous biodegradation of both BTEX and carboxylate constituents found in produced water is possible. A field test conducted at a produced water disposal facility in Farmington, New Mexico confirmed the laboratory-scale results for the MBR and demonstrated enhanced removal of BTEX using a treatment train consisting of SMZ columns followed by the MBR. While most of the BTEX constituents of the produced water adsorbed onto the SMZ adsorption system, approximately 95% of the BTEX that penetrated the SMZ and entered the MBR was biodegraded in the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (influent concentrations of 120 to 170 mg/L) ranged from 91 to 100%, and total organic carbon (influent concentrations as high as 580 mg/L) ranged from 74 to 92%, respectively. Organic removal in the MBR was accomplished at a low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. While the transmembrane pressure during the laboratory-scale tests was well-controlled, it rose

  3. Detection of Organic Compounds with Whole-Cell Bioluminescent Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Smartt, Abby; Ripp, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Natural and manmade organic chemicals are widely deposited across a diverse range of ecosystems including air, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediment, and marine environments. Some organic compounds, despite their industrial values, are toxic to living organisms and pose significant health risks to humans and wildlife. Detection and monitoring of these organic pollutants in environmental matrices therefore is of great interest and need for remediation and health risk assessment. Although these detections have traditionally been performed using analytical chemical approaches that offer highly sensitive and specific identification of target compounds, these methods require specialized equipment and trained operators, and fail to describe potential bioavailable effects on living organisms. Alternatively, the integration of bioluminescent systems into whole-cell bioreporters presents a new capacity for organic compound detection. These bioreporters are constructed by incorporating reporter genes into catabolic or signaling pathways that are present within living cells and emit a bioluminescent signal that can be detected upon exposure to target chemicals. Although relatively less specific compared to analytical methods, bioluminescent bioassays are more cost-effective, more rapid, can be scaled to higher throughput, and can be designed to report not only the presence but also the bioavailability of target substances. This chapter reviews available bacterial and eukaryotic whole-cell bioreporters for sensing organic pollutants and their applications in a variety of sample matrices. PMID:25084996

  4. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes < C20) were extracted through desorption of complex colloids stabilized as micelles in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water repellency was completely eliminated by hot water under high pressure. The molecular composition of HWSC can play a critical role in stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  5. Optimized removal of dissolved organic carbon and trace organic contaminants during combined ozonation and artificial groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Hübner, U; Miehe, U; Jekel, M

    2012-11-15

    Pilot scale experiments using an 8 g/h ozonation unit and a 1.4 m(2) slow sand filter have demonstrated that the combination of ozonation and artificial groundwater recharge is suitable for efficient reduction of bulk and trace organics. The biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the slow sand filter was enhanced from 22% without pre-treatment to 34% by pre-ozonation. In addition, realistic surface water concentrations of most investigated trace organic compounds (TrOCs) including carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, phenazone and metoprolol were reduced below the limits of quantification. Only a few TrOCs, e.g. primidone and benzotriazole, were not efficiently removed in both treatment steps and could be detected regularly in the filter effluent. For these compounds, enhanced treatment, such as advanced oxidation processes, needs to be considered. Testing for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity did not reveal any systematic adverse effects for human health. The formation of the by-product bromate from bromide was below the limit of the German drinking water directive of 10 μg/L. No removal of bromate was observed in the aerobic slow sand filter. Additional experiments with sand columns showed that operating a preceding bank filtration step to reduce DOC can reduce oxidant demand by approximately 20%. PMID:23014565

  6. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    PubMed

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564

  7. Removal of Biologically Active Organic Contaminants using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Banks, Michael A. (Inventor); Banks, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical devices that are to come into contact with living tissue, such as prosthetic and other implants for the human body and the containers used to store and transport them, are together cleaned of non-living, but biologically active organic materials, including endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and assembled into a hermetically sealed package without recontamination. This is achieved by cleaning both the device and package components together in an apparatus, which includes a hermetically sealed chamber, in which they are contacted with atomic oxygen which biocleans them, by oxidizing the biologically active organic materials. The apparatus also includes means for manipulating the device and container and hermetically sealing the cleaned device into the cleaned container to form the package. A calibrated witness coupon visually indicates whether or not the device and container have received enough exposure to the atomic oxygen to have removed the organic materials from their surfaces. Gamma radiation is then used to sterilize the device in the sealed container.

  8. Chemical reactions of organic compounds on clay surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Y; Soma, M

    1989-01-01

    Chemical reactions of organic compounds including pesticides at the interlayer and exterior surfaces of clay minerals and with soil organic matter are reviewed. Representative reactions under moderate conditions possibly occurring in natural soils are described. Attempts have been made to clarify the importance of the chemical nature of molecules, their structures and their functional groups, and the Brönsted or Lewis acidity of clay minerals. PMID:2533556

  9. The photostabililty of prebiotic organic compounds on cometary dusts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiagh, K.; Aleian, A.; Fray, N.; Cloix, M.; Cottin, H.

    2013-09-01

    A new methodology for measuring the photostability of organic compounds in extraterrestrial environments will be presented. It is based on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and "classical" laboratory photolysis experiments, as well as on quantitative measurements of the VUV/UV ( < 300 nm) absorption cross section spectra. We will discuss the complementarily and limits of each approach, and discuss the astrobiological relevance of such studies in the frame of the importation of organic matter to Earth via micrometeorites.

  10. Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporation of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B. Jr.

    2003-10-23

    After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate and off-gas streams with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI ESP model is constrained by available literature data.

  11. Regulatory off-gas analysis from the evaporation of Hanford simulated waste spiked with organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi H; Calloway, T Bond; Ferrara, Daro M; Choi, Alexander S; White, Thomas L; Gibson, Luther V; Burdette, Mark A

    2004-10-01

    After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, the remaining low-activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation before being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile, and pesticide compounds and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River National Laboratory. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds (<220 degrees C BP, >1 mm Hg vapor pressure) in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program (licensed by OLI Systems, Inc.) evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate, and off-gas streams, with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI Environmental Simulation Program model is constrained by available literature data. PMID:15540577

  12. Volatile organic compounds in polyethylene bags-A forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Borusiewicz, Rafał; Kowalski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    Polyethylene bags, though not recommended, are sometimes used in some countries as improvised packaging for items sent to be analysed for the presence of volatile organic compounds, namely ignitable liquids residues. Sometimes items made of polyethylene constitute the samples themselves. It is well known what kind of volatile organic compounds are produced as a result of polyethylene thermal decomposition, but there is a lack of information relating to if some volatile compounds are present in unheated/unburned items made of polyethylene in detectable amounts and, if so, what those compounds are. The aim of this presented research was to answer these questions. 28 different bags made of polyethylene, representing 9 brands, were purchased in local shops and analysed according to the procedure routinely used for fire debris. The results proved that in almost all bags a distinctive mixture of compounds is present, comprising of n-alkanes and n-alkenes with an even number of carbon atoms in their molecules. Some other compounds (e.g., limonene, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane) are also often present, but the presence of even n-alkanes and n-alkenes constitutes the most characteristic feature. PMID:27458996

  13. Key volatile organic compounds emitted from swine nursery house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. Q.; Choi, H. L.; Zhu, K.; Lee, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    This study was carried out to quantify the concentration and emission levels of key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - sulfides, indolics, phenolics and volatile fatty acids (VFA) - emitted from swine nursery house, and assess the effect of microclimate (including temperature, relative humidity and air speed) on the key odorous compounds. Samples were collected from the Experimental Farm of Seoul National University in Suwon, South Korea. And the collection took place for four seasons and the sampling time was fixed at 10:30 in the morning. The application of one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t analyses revealed that, most of the odorous compound concentrations, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), indole, p-cresol and all the volatile fatty acids were lowest during the summer ( P < 0.01). Meanwhile, negative correlations were observed between temperature and odorants, as well as air speed and odorants. A possible reason was that high ventilation transferred most of the odors out of the house during the summer. From the whole year data, non-linear multiple regressions were conducted and the equations were proposed depending upon the relationships between microclimate parameters and odorous compounds. The equations were applied in hope of easily calculating the concentrations of the odorous compounds in the commercial farms. The results obtained in this study should be used for reducing the volatile organic compounds by controlling microclimate parameters and also could be helpful in setting a guideline for good management practices in nursery house.

  14. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. PMID:25354334

  15. Anaerobic transformations of complex organic compounds in subsurface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, B.L. )

    1988-09-01

    This study was initiated following increased observations of man-made organic chemicals in groundwater. In the US, over 40% of the population depends on groundwater for drinking purposes. Soil is often the receptacle for organic chemicals, and there is a danger that they may reach the groundwater in a toxic form. Once contamination of the soil and vadose water has occurred, the compound may not be detected and/or degraded for decades. Limited, if any, information is available on the biotic-abiotic transformations of complex organic compounds in subsurface soils. The purpose of this study was to determine for each test compound (phenothiazine, 1-chloronaphthalene, 2-trifluoromethyl phenothiazine, 2-chloro-5 trifluoromethyl benzophenone and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime} tetrachlorobiphenyl) the following: (A) the soil sorption capacity for untreated subsurface soil, acid-treated, base-treated, mercuric chloride-treated, and calcium chloride treated subsurface soil; (B) transformation of the test compound in EPA soft water under anaerobic biotic and abiotic conditions; (C) transformation of the test compound in subsurface soils microcosms under anaerobic biotic and abiotic conditions; and (D) comparison of the results form the soil and water anaerobic biotic and abiotic studies.

  16. Magnetic pollen grains as sorbents for facile removal of organic pollutants in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Clark, Kristin K; Keller, Arturo A

    2011-10-30

    Plant materials have long been demonstrated to sorb organic compounds. However, there are no known reports about pollen grains acting as sorbents to remove hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated waters. We report a facile and effective method to remove HOCs from water using magnetized short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grains. We dispersed the magnetized pollen grains in two different water samples - deionized (DI) and natural storm water to mimic real environmental conditions likely to be encountered during treatment. The magnetized pollen grains were readily separated from the aqueous media via a magnetic field after adsorption of the HOCs. We measured the adsorption of five representative HOCs (acenaphthene, phenanthrene, atrazine, diuron, and lindane) onto magnetized ragweed pollen in different aqueous matrices. We demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of the magnetized ragweed pollen can be regenerated to a large extent for reuse as a sorbent. Our results also indicate that the magnetized pollen grains are as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing HOCs from both types of contaminated waters. The high HOC sorption of the ragweed pollen allows it to have potential remediation application in the field under realistic conditions. PMID:21871731

  17. Analysis of Organic Compounds in Mars Analog Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Demick, J.; Glavin, D. P.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of organic compounds that might be preserved in rocks, ices, or sedimentary layers on Mars would be a significant step toward resolving the question of the habitability and potential for life on that planet. The fact that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) did not detect organic compounds should not discourage further investigations since (a) an oxidizing environment in the near surface fines analyzed by Viking is likely to have destroyed many reduced carbon species; (b) there are classes of refractory or partially oxidized species such as carboxylic acids that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS; and (c) the Viking landing sites are not representative of Mars overall. These factors motivate the development of advanced in situ analytical protocols to carry out a comprehensive survey of organic compounds in martian regolith, ices, and rocks. We combine pyrolysis GCMS for analysis of volatile species, chemical derivatization for transformation of less volatile organics, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) for analysis of elements and more refractory, higher-mass organics. To evaluate this approach and enable a comparison with other measurement techniques we analyze organics in Mars simulant samples.

  18. Method for predicting photocatalytic oxidation rates of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melanie L; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2003-01-01

    In designing a photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) system for a given air pollution source, destruction rates for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are required. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic method of predicting PCO rate constants by correlating rate constants with physical-chemical characteristics of compounds. Accordingly, reaction rate constants were determined for destruction of volatile organics over a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst in a continuous mixed-batch reactor. It was found that PCO rate constants for alkanes and alkenes vary linearly with gas-phase ionization potential (IP) and with gas-phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constant. The correlations allow rates of destruction of compounds not tested in this research to be predicted based on physical-chemical characteristics. PMID:12568248

  19. Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Piccot, S.D.; Watson, J.J.; Jones, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. These classes represent general classes of VOC compounds that possess different chemical reactivities in the atmosphere. The inventory shows total global anthropogenic VOC emissions of about 110,000 Gg/yr, about 10% lower than global VOC inventories developed by other researchers. The study identifies the U.S. as the largest emitter (21% of the total global VOC), followed by the USSR, China, India, and Japan. Globally, fuel wood combustion and savanna burning were among the largest VOC emission sources, accounting for over 35% of the total global VOC emissions. The production and use of gasoline, refuse disposal activities, and organic chemical and rubber manufacturing were also found to be significant sources of global VOC emissions.

  20. Biotransformations of organic compounds mediated by cultures of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Parshikov, Igor A; Woodling, Kellie A; Sutherland, John B

    2015-09-01

    Many different organic compounds may be converted by microbial biotransformation to high-value products for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This review summarizes the use of strains of Aspergillus niger, a well-known filamentous fungus used in numerous biotechnological processes, for biochemical transformations of organic compounds. The substrates transformed include monocyclic, bicyclic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; azaarenes, epoxides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The types of reactions performed by A. niger, although not unique to this species, are extremely diverse. They include hydroxylation, oxidation of various functional groups, reduction of double bonds, demethylation, sulfation, epoxide hydrolysis, dechlorination, ring cleavage, and conjugation. Some of the products may be useful as new investigational drugs or chemical intermediates. PMID:26162670

  1. Amphiphobic Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes for Efficient Organic Aerosol Removal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shasha; Zhong, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yong; Xing, Weihong

    2016-04-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane is an extensively used air filter, but its oleophilicity leads to severe fouling of the membrane surface due to organic aerosol deposition. Herein, we report the fabrication of a new amphiphobic 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFDAE)-grafted ZnO@PTFE membrane with enhanced antifouling functionality and high removal efficiency. We use atomic-layer deposition (ALD) to uniformly coat a layer of nanosized ZnO particles onto porous PTFE matrix to increase surface area and then subsequently graft PFDAE with plasma. Consequently, the membrane surface showed both superhydrophobicity and oleophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) and an oil contact angle (OCA) of 150° and 125°, respectively. The membrane air permeation rate of 513 (m(3) m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) was lower than the pristine membrane rate of 550 (m(3) m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), which indicates the surface modification slightly decreased the membrane air permeation. Significantly, the filtration resistance of this amphiphobic membrane to the oil aerosol system was much lower than the initial one. Moreover, the filter exhibited exceptional organic aerosol removal efficiencies that were greater than 99.5%. These results make the amphiphobic PTFE membranes very promising for organic aerosol-laden air-filtration applications. PMID:27002786

  2. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), necessary reactants for photochemical smog formation, are emitted from numerous sources. Limited available data suggest that dairy farms emit VOCs with cattle feed, primarily silage, being the primary source. Process-based models of VOC transfer within and from si...

  3. Measuring Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are considered to be important precursors to smog and ozone production. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity, and air flow were cont...

  4. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  5. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MODEL (VERSION 1.8) (FOR MICROCOMPUTERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and costs of their control can be estimated by applying growth factors, emission constraints, control cost functions, and capacity retirement rates to the base line estimates of VOC emissions and industrial VOC source capacity...

  6. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

  7. The Survival of Meteorite Organic Compounds with Increasing Impact Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The majority of carbonaceous meteorites studied today are thought to originate in the asteroid belt. Impacts among asteroidal objects generate heat and pressure that may have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. Very little is known about the shock related chemical evolution of organic matter relevant to this stage of the cosmic history of biogenic elements and compounds. The present work continues our study of the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach was to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in a matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to a simulated hypervelocity impact. The molecular compositions of products were then analyzed to determine the degree of survival of the original compounds. Insofar as results associated with velocities < 8 km/sec may be relevant to impacts on planetary surfaces (e.g., oblique impacts, impacts on small outer planet satellites) or grain-grain collisions in the interstellar medium, then our experiments will be applicable to these environments as well.

  8. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  9. PHOTOTHERMAL DESTRUCTION OF THE VAPOR OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of thermal and photothermal destruction of the vapors of organic compounds were compared by conducting tests in a photothermal detoxification unit. enon are lamp was used as the irradiation source. he tests were conducted on trichlorethylene (TCE), 1,2-dichlorobenzene...

  10. VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) FUGITIVE EMISSION PREDICTIVE MODEL - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a mathematical model that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs on controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) fugitive emissions from chemical, petroleum, and other process units. The report also descr...

  11. MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS USING SMALL TEST CHAMBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic compounds emitted from a variety of indoor materials have been measured using small (166 L) environmental test chambers. The paper discusses: a) factors to be considered in small chamber testing; b) parameters to be controlled; c) the types of results obtained. The follow...

  12. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. ata do not appear for several days, during which sample integ...

  13. PHOTOTHERMAL DESTRUCTION OF THE VAPOR OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contamination of subsurface soil and groundwater by volatile organic compounds (VOCS) is a pervasive problem in the United States. n-situ soil vapor extraction (SVE) and ex-situ thermal desorption are the most adapted technologies for the remediation of contaminated soil whil...

  14. OXYGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUND CONCENTRATIONS NEAR A ROADWAY IN LITHUANIA, SSR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the period June 1 to June 9, 1989, aldehyde and other oxygenated organic compound concentrations were examined at sites 3, 10, and 80 meters northeast of the Vilnius-Kaunas highway in Lithuania, SSR by collecting 120 liter (1 L/min for 120 min) samples on 2,4-dinitrophenyl...

  15. MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

  16. Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy facilities in central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two central Califor...

  17. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

  18. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  19. DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation on the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compo...

  20. Residential exposure to volatile organic compounds and asthma.

    PubMed

    Dales, Robert; Raizenne, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We critically analysed the literature concerning exposure to volatile organic compounds and asthma. Observational studies have consistently found a relation between volatile organic compounds and indicators of asthma, such as symptoms, peak flows, and objectively measured bronchial reactivity. In contrast, interventional studies have generally failed to find a relation between exposure to residential levels of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds and asthma. One hypothesis to explain the discrepancy in findings between interventional and observational studies is that the effect size is small requiring relatively large numbers of study subjects, common in observational studies but often not feasible in interventional studies. Another hypothesis is that longer duration of exposure is important, a common circumstance in observational studies where the home environment is the exposure setting. In contrast, duration of exposure in interventional studies is usually of minutes-to-hours in a chamber. Finally, the observed association in observational studies could be confounded by a factor which is a determinant of asthma and is also associated with exposure to volatile organic compounds. PMID:15260458

  1. [Binding of Volatile Organic Compounds to Edible Biopolymers].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2016-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography was used to study the influence of the composition and structure of different edible polymers (polysaccharides, vegetable fibers, and animal protein gelatin) on the binding of essential oil components. The retention of volatile organic compounds on biopolymers was shown to depend on their molecule structure and the presence, type, and position of a functional group. The maximum extent of the binding was observed for nonpolar terpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and the minimum extent was observed for alcohols. The components of essential oils were adsorbed due mostly to hydrophobic interactions. It was shown that the composition and structure of a compound, its physico-chemical state, and the presence of functional groups influence the binding. Gum arabic and guar gum were found to bind nonpolar compounds to a maximum and minimum extent, respectively. It was demonstrated the minimum adsorption ability of locust bean gum with respect to all studied compounds. PMID:27266255

  2. Removal of organic debris from bovine dentin shavings.

    PubMed

    Kamburis, J J; Barker, T H; Barfield, R D; Eleazer, P D

    2003-09-01

    A common problem with root canal failures is chronic inflammation at the apex caused by overfilling of root canal materials. Dentin filings have been suggested as an apical plug to create a biocompatible barrier between the filling material and the periapical tissue. Unfortunately residual organic material, such as pulp remnants or bacteria, still may be part of the filings. Dentin filings removed from the tooth, cleaned, and then used to form a barrier might serve as an effective barrier. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods of cleaning dentin of organic debris. NaOCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 1% Triton X-100 were used to treat dentin shavings and were evaluated by a micro bicinchoninic acid protein analysis assay. Two series of experiments were performed. One compared the effect of temperature while using phosphate-buffered saline as a control and the second compared exposure times. The percentage of protein extracted from dentin samples increased with temperature. Sodium hypochlorite at room temperature extracted 24.6%, NaOCl at 37 degrees C extracted 26.9%, and NaOCl at 70 degrees C extracted 33.9%. Only NaOCl at 37 degrees C and 70 degrees C showed statistically significant differences from phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature with p-values of 0.028 and 0.019, respectively. The exposure time series showed a difference between a phosphate-buffered saline solution and 6.25% NaOCl. NaOCl removed approximately 90% of protein compared with 60% for the phosphate-buffered saline. A 10-min exposure to 70 degrees C 6.25% NaOCl may be an efficient means of removing organic material from dentin shavings. PMID:14503826

  3. Removal of BPA model compounds and related substances by means of column chromatography using Octolig®.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Rachael J; Li, Xiao; Martin, Dean F

    2012-01-01

    Octolig®, a polyethylenediimine ligand covalently attached to high-surface area silica gel, was used to study the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous samples by column chromatography. Model phenolic compounds of Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-isopropylphenol and 4-(t-butyl) phenol, were selected for this study due to their similarities in pKa and log P values. The percent removal of these compounds by Octolig® was 26 ± 2 and 22 ± 2, respectively. Furthermore, the three isomers of nitrophenol were investigated as well as additional phenolic compounds, such as amoxicillin and five phenolic dyes. These compounds have a pKa range of 2-10.2. The compounds that have pKa values less than 8.3 were able to be completely removed by Octolig®, yet compounds with pKa values of 8.3 and higher resulted in approximately 20-26% removal. PMID:22934990

  4. Membrane processes for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from water and wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Taheran, Mehrdad; Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Surampalli, R Y; Zhang, T C; Valero, J R

    2016-03-15

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), which find their way easily into the water sources, are emerging as a major concern for drinking water quality and aquatic species. Therefore, their removal from water sources is a priority from environmental point of view. During the past decade, different methods including membrane separation, adsorption systems and chemical transformation have been evaluated for removal of these compounds. This paper reviews different aspects of PhAC removal by using membrane separation processes, as they have been conventionally known to show high potential in the production of superior quality drinking and industrial water. In brief, osmosis membranes can efficiently remove almost all PhACs though its operational cost is relatively high and nanofiltration (NF) membranes are highly influenced by electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is difficult to predict due to the complex interaction of compounds with microorganisms. To improve the performance and robustness of membrane technology, it is suggested to combine membranes with other systems, such as activated carbon and enzymatic degradation. PMID:26789358

  5. Process for removing SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ compounds from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1989-02-14

    A process is described for removing SO/sub x/ compounds from a feed gas stream and producing a purified gas stream of reduced SO/sub x/ content, which process comprises: contacting a feed gas stream containing SO/sub x/ compounds; withdrawing from step (1) a liquid stream of spent absorbent containing the absorbed SO/sub x/ compounds; regenerating the spent absorbent back to a form active for absorbing SO/sub x/ compounds; separating the products of step (3) into a liquid stream containing a regenerated absorbent and a product gas stream containing H/sub 2/S; recycling at least some of the liquid stream containing regenerated absorbent; and recovering the purified gas stream of reduced SO/sub x/ content and the product gas stream containing H/sub 2/S.

  6. Analysis of organic compounds in returned comet nucleus samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for analysis of organic compounds in returned comet nucleus samples are described. Interstellar, chondritic and transitional organic components are discussed. Appropriate sampling procedures will be essential to the success of these analyses. It will be necessary to return samples that represent all the various regimes found in the nucleus, e.g., a complete core, volatile components (deep interior), and crustal components (surface minerals, rocks, processed organics such as macromolecular carbon and polymers). Furthermore, sampling, storage, return, and distribution of samples must be done under conditions that preclude contamination of the samples by terrestrial matter.

  7. Comparison between sequential and simultaneous application of activated carbon with membrane bioreactor for trace organic contaminant removal.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu H; Tung, Kuo-Lun

    2013-02-01

    The removal efficiency of 22 selected trace organic contaminants by sequential application of granular activated carbon (GAC) and simultaneous application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) with membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared in this study. Both sequential application of GAC following MBR treatment (MBR-GAC) and simultaneous application of PAC within MBR (PAC-MBR) achieved improved removal (over 95%) of seven hydrophilic and biologically persistent compounds, which were less efficiently removed by MBR-only treatment (negligible to 70%). However, gradual breakthrough of these compounds occurred over an extended operation period. Charged compounds, particularly, fenoprop and diclofenac, demonstrated the fastest breakthrough (complete and 50-70%, in MBR-GAC and PAC-MBR, respectively). Based on a simple comparison from the long-term performance stability and activated carbon usage points of view, PAC-MBR appears to be a better option than MBR-GAC treatment. PMID:23313687

  8. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: compounds, sources, and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission r...

  9. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Ryan, Joseph N; Barber, Larry B

    2011-09-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (K(om), L kg(-1)) for 17β-estradiol (10(2.5-2.8) L kg(-1)), 17α-ethynylestradiol (10(2.5-2.9) L kg(-1)), 4-nonylphenol (10(3.4-4.6) L kg(-1)), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (10(3.5-4.0) L kg(-1)), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (10(3.9-4.3) L kg(-1)). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for

  10. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Ryan, J.N.; Barber, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (K om, L kg-1) for 17??-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17??-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg -1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17??-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  11. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, Jeffrey H.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Barber, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (Kom, L kg-1) for 17β-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17α-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  12. Determination of fluorine in organic compounds: Microcombustion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, H.S.

    1951-01-01

    A reliable and widely applicable means of determining fluorine in organic compounds has long been needed. Increased interest in this field of research in recent years has intensified the need. Fluorine in organic combinations may be determined by combustion at 900?? C. in a quartz tube with a platinum catalyst, followed by an acid-base titration of the combustion products. Certain necessary precautions and known limitations are discussed in some detail. Milligram samples suffice, and the accuracy of the method is about that usually associated with the other halogen determinations. Use of this method has facilitated the work upon organic fluorine compounds in this laboratory and it should prove to be equally valuable to others.

  13. Multilayer adsorption of slightly soluble organic compounds from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aranovich, G.L.; Donohue, M.D.

    1996-03-25

    Adsorption isotherms are analyzed for slightly soluble organic components from water for a wide range of reduced concentrations. It is shown that the behavior of these systems can be modeled by an equation of the form a = Ac/[(1 + Bc)(1 {minus} c/c{sub 0}){sup d}] over the range of c/c{sub 0} from about 0.05 to 0.9. Here a is the adsorption amount, c is the concentration of organic compound in the water, c{sub 0} is a solubility limit for the organic compound, and A, B, and d are adjustable parameters. Comparison is made with experimental data for the adsorption of n-caproic acid, n-valeric acid, n-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, aniline, cyclohexanol, and phenol from aqueous solutions on carbon adsorbents.

  14. Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds - Final Report - 08/15/1997 - 02/14/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Stensel, H. David; Strand, Stuart E.

    2001-03-14

    The overall objective of this research was to determine if the shallow suspended growth reactor (SSGR) could provide sufficient treatment performance of organic and reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds, at 50 C to meet the EPA ''cluster rule'' regulatory limits. The biodegradation of a mixture of organic compounds that could be present in pulp and paper high volume low concentration gas streams was evaluated at 50 C in a bench-scale SSGR. The removal of methanol was followed in particular, and was mathematically modeled to evaluate the effect of process design and operating parameters on methanol removal. Additional tests were performed to obtain mass transfer and biodegradation kinetic parameters for the model. The acclimation of microbial populations capable of degrading TRS compounds from various seed sources was studied in batch reactors at 30 and 50 C. The degradation of TRS compounds in bench-scale SSGR was studied at 20-50 C. Also, the biodegradation kinetic and mass transfer coefficients for alpha-terpinene and gamma-terpinene were studied. Finally, a pilot plant was constructed and operated at Simpson pulp and paper mill in Tacoma, WA.

  15. Measurements of halogenated organic compounds near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauffler, S. M.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gilpin, T. M.; Vedder, J. F.; Solomon, S.; Lueb, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    The amount of organic chlorine and bromine entering the stratosphere have a direct influence on the magnitude of chlorine and bromine catalyzed ozone losses. Twelve organic chlorine species and five organic bromine species were measured from 12 samples collected near the tropopause between 23.8 deg N and 25.3 deg N during AASE 2. The average mixing ratios of total organic chlorine and total organic bromine were 3.50 +/- 0.06 ppbv and 21.1 +/- 0.8 pptv, respectively. CH3Cl represented 15.1% of the total organic chlorine, with CFC 11 (CCl3F) and CFC 12 (CCl2F2) accounting for 22.6% and 28.2%, respectively, with the remaining 34.1% primarily from CCl4, CH3CCl3, and CFC 113 (CCl2FCClF2). CH3Br represented 54% of the total organic bromine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mixing ratios of all but four of the individual compounds were within the range observed in low and mid-latitude mid-troposphere samples. The four compounds with significantly lower mixing ratios at the tropopause were CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, and CH3CCl3. The lower mixing ratios may be due to entrainment of southern hemisphere air during vertical transport in the tropical region and/or to exchange of air across the tropopause between the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  16. Measurements of Halogenated Organic Compounds near the Tropical Tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauffler, S. M.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gilpin, T. M.; Vedder, J. F.; Solomon, S.; Leub, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    The amount of organic chlorine and bromine entering the stratosphere have a direct influence on the magnitude of chlorine and bromine catalyzed ozone losses. Twelve organic chlorine species and five organic bromine species were measured from 12 samples collected near the tropopause between 23.8 deg N and 25.3 deg N during AASE 2. The average mixing ratios of total organic chlorine and total organic bromine were 3.50 +/- 0.06 ppbv and 21.1 +/- 0.8 pptv, respectively. CH3Cl represented 15.1% of the total organic chlorine, with CFC 11 (CCl3F) and CFC 12 (CCl2F2) accounting for 22.6% and 28.2%, respectively, with the remaining 34.1% primarily from CCl4, CH3CCl3, and CFC 113 (CCl2FCClF2). CH3Br represented 54% of the total organic bromine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mixing ratios of all but four of the individual compounds were within the range observed in low and mid-latitude midtroposphere samples. The four compounds with significantly lower mixing ratios at the tropopause were CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, and CH3CCl3. The lower mixing ratios may be due to entrainment of southern hemisphere air during vertical transport in the tropical region and/or to exchange of air across the tropopause between the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  17. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles. PMID:21121267

  18. New graphene fiber coating for volatile organic compounds analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Guo, XiaoXi; Wang, ShuLing; Wang, XueLan; Zhou, YanPing; Xu, Hui

    2014-10-15

    In the work, a novel graphene-based solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of trace amount of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. The graphene fiber coating was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal reduction reaction. The fiber with porous and wrinkled structure exhibited excellent extraction efficiency toward eight studied volatile organic compounds (two n-alkanes, five n-aldehydes and one aromatic compound). Meanwhile, remarkable thermal and mechanical stability, long lifespan and low cost were also obtained for the fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method provided low limits of detection (1.0-4.5ngL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (3.8-13.8%) and acceptable recoveries (93-122%). The method was applied successfully to the analysis of breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy individuals. The unique advantage of this approach includes simple setup, non-invasive analysis, cost-efficient and sufficient sensitivity. The proposed method supply us a new possibility to monitor volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath samples. PMID:25171504

  19. Detection of volatile organic compounds using porphyrin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, A D F; Brittle, S; Richardson, T H; Hutchinson, J; Hunter, C A

    2010-09-16

    Seven different porphyrin compounds have been investigated as colorimetric gas sensors for a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The porphyrins examined were the free base and Mg, Sn, Zn, Au, Co, and Mn derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3,4-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine. Chloroform solutions of these materials were prepared and changes in their absorption spectra induced by exposure to various organic compounds measured. The porphyrins that showed strong responses in solution were selected, and Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared and exposed to the corresponding analytes. This was done to determine whether they are useful materials for solid state thin film colorimetric vapor sensors. Porphyrins that readily coordinate extra ligands are shown to be suitable materials for colorimetric volatile organic compound detectors. However, porphyrins that already have bound axial ligands when synthesized only show a sensor response to those analytes that can substitute these axial ligands. The Co porphyrin displays a considerably larger response than the other porphyrins investigated which is attributed to a switch between Co(II) and Co(III) resulting in a large spectral change. PMID:20735119

  20. Wastewater disinfection and organic matter removal using ferrate (VI) oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Miranda, Jocelyn; Beltran, Margarita; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo; Torres, Luis G

    2009-09-01

    The use of iron in a +6 valence state, (Fe (VI), as FeO4(-2)) was tested as a novel alternative for wastewater disinfection and decontamination. The removal of organic matter (OM) and index microorganisms present in an effluent of a wastewater plant was determined using FeO4(-2) without any pH adjustment. It was observed that concentrations of FeO4(-2) ranging between 5 and 14 mg l(-1) inactivated up to 4-log of the index microorganisms (initial concentration c.a. 10(6) CFU/100 ml) and achieved OM removal up to almost 50%. The performance of FeO4(-2) was compared with OM oxidation and disinfection using hypochlorite. It was observed that hypochlorite was less effective in OM oxidation and coliform inactivation than ferrate. Results of this work suggest that FeO4(-2) could be an interesting oxidant able to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms in water with high OM content and readily oxidize organic matter without jeopardizing its efficiency on microorganism inactivation. PMID:19491501

  1. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  2. Group extraction of organic compounds present in liquid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, Vilhelm J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An extraction device is disclosed comprising a tube containing a substantially inert, chemically non-reactive packing material with a large surface area to volume ratio. A sample which consists of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid, is introduced into the tube. As the sample passes through the packing material it spreads over the material's large surface area to form a thin liquid film which is held on the packing material in a stationary state. A particular group or family of compounds is extractable from the sample by passing a particular solvent system consisting of a solvent and selected reagents through the packing material. The reagents cause optimum conditions to exist for the compounds of the particular family to pass through the phase boundary between the sample liquid and the solvent of the solvent system. Thus, the compounds of the particular family are separated from the sample liquid and become dissolved in the solvent of the solvent system. The particular family of compounds dissolved in the solvent, representing an extract, exits the tube together with the solvent through the tube's nozzle, while the rest of the sample remains on the packing material in a stationary state. Subsequently, a different solvent system may be passed through the packing material to extract another family of compounds from the remaining sample on the packing material.

  3. Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms - Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, L.; Engwall, M.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One method is dewatering and biodegradation of compounds in constructed wetlands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters after treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plants improve degradation and Phragmites australis is tolerant to xenobiotics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%. - Abstract: Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  4. Method for removing sulfur compounds from C/sub 6/ and lower alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Keyworth, D.A.

    1989-03-28

    A process is described for recovering a low sulfur content hydrocarbon fraction having a boiling point of n-hexane or less from a hydrocarbon stream containing hydrocarbons boiling at or below the boiling point of hexane and organic sulfur compounds comprising monosulfides boiling at or below the boiling point of n-hexane. It consists of contacting the hydrocarbon stream with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite for a time sufficient to convert a selected amount of monosulfide compounds present to compounds having boiling points above the boiling point of n-hexane, separating an aqueous phase and a hydrocarbon phase and fractionally distilling the hydrocarbon phase to recover a hydrocarbon fraction having a boiling point of n-hexane or less, and having a reduced amount of the organic sulfur compounds.

  5. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

  6. Removal of floating organic in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 restart plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.R.; Hanson, C.

    1994-10-03

    The decision whether or not to remove the organic layer from Waste Tank 241-C-103 was deferred until May, 1995. The following restart plan was prepared for removal of the organic if the decision is to remove the organic from the waste tank 241-C-103.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROPHOBIC IONOGENIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BETWEEN OCTANOL AND WATER: ORGANIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, or MgCl2) and pH. he compounds were pentachlorophenol 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-t...

  8. Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2008-07-07

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and

  9. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement. PMID:25792436

  10. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipy, J.; Mount, G.; Westberg, H.; Rumburg, B.

    2003-12-01

    Livestock operations in the United States are an escalating environmental concern. The increasing density of livestock within a farm results in an increased emission of odorous gases, which have gained considerable attention by the public in recent years (National Research Council (NRC), 2002). Odorous compounds such as ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were reported to have a major effect on the quality of life of local residents living near livestock facilities (NRC, 2002). There has been little data collected related to identification and quantification of gaseous compounds collected from open stall dairy operations in the United States. The research to be presented identifies and quantifies VOCs produced from a dairy operation that contribute to odor and other air quality problems. Many different VOCs were identified in the air downwind of an open lactating cow stall area and near a waste lagoon at the Washington State University dairy using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis techniques. Identified compounds were very diverse and included many alcohols, aldehydes, amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, a fixed gas, halogenated hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons, ketones, other nitrogen containing compounds, sulfur containing compounds, and terpenes. The VOCs directly associated with cattle waste were dependent on ambient temperature, with the highest emissions produced during the summer months. Low to moderate wind speeds were ideal for VOC collection. Concentrations of quantified compounds were mostly below odor detection thresholds found in the literature, however the combined odor magnitude of the large number of compounds detected was most likely above any minimum detection threshold.

  11. Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneit, B.R.T. |; Abas, M.R. bin |; Cass, G.R. |; Rogge, W.F. |; Mazurek, M.A.; Standley, L.J.; Hildemann, L.M.

    1995-08-01

    Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

  12. Removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater through adsorption on modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ben Hariz, Ichrak; Al Ayni, Foued; Monser, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater on a chemically modified activated carbon (MAC) was investigated. The modification technique (nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and thermal modification) enhanced the removal capacity of carbon and therefore decreases cost-effective removal of sulfide from refinery wastewater. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data were determined for sulfur removal from real refinery wastewater. The data were evaluated according to several adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. The Freundlich isotherm fitted well with the equilibrium data of sulfur on different adsorbents, whereas the kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. Insights of sulfide removal mechanisms indicated that the sorption was controlled through the intraparticle diffusion mechanism with a significant contribution of film diffusion. The MAC adsorbent was found to have an effective removal capacity of approximately 2.5 times that of non-modified carbon. Using different MAC, sulfides were eliminated with a removal capacity of 52 mg g(-1). Therefore, MAC can be utilized as an effective and less expensive adsorbent for the reduction of sulfur in refinery wastewater. PMID:25353943

  13. Transformations of 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, E J; McCarty, P L

    1983-01-01

    Several 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds present at low concentrations (less than 100 micrograms/liter) were degraded under methanogenic conditions in batch bacterial cultures and in a continuous-flow methanogenic fixed-film laboratory-scale column. Greater than 90% degradation was observed within a 2-day detention time under continuous-flow methanogenic conditions with acetate as a primary substrate. Carbon-14 measurements indicated that chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane were almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide, confirming removal by biooxidation. The initial step in the transformations of tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane to nonchlorinated end products appeared to be reductive dechlorination to trichloroethylene and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, respectively. Transformations of the brominated aliphatic compounds appear to be the result of both biological and chemical processes. The data suggest that transformations of halogenated aliphatic compounds can occur under methanogenic conditions in the environment. PMID:6859849

  14. Chloro-Organics in Papermill Effluent: Identification and Removal by Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd. Rahman, Rakmi; Zahrim, A. Y.; Abu Bakar, Azizah

    Effluents from paper mills are among major sources of aquatic pollution and may be toxic since they contain chlorinated phenolic compounds which are measured as adsorbable organic halides (AOX). In this work, removal of chlorophenol was investigated using a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a growth media. Wastewater for this study was obtained from treated effluent outlet of a papermill in Selangor. Treatment of the papermill secondary effluent shows that SBBR process, with a combination of adsorption and biodegradation, gave a good removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP), on average, about 70%. The growth kinetic parameters obtained were: YH = 0.6504 mg biomass/mg PCP, dH = 6.50x10-5 h-1, μh = 0.00315 h-1 and Ks = 5.82 mg PCP L-1. These show that the SBBR system is suitable to be operated at long SRTs.

  15. Simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remediation process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yuan; Huang, Xiang-Jun; Kao, Jimmy C M; Stabnikova, Olena

    2007-06-01

    Kaolins contaminated with heavy metals, Cu and Pb, and organic compounds, p-xylene and phenanthrene, were treated with an upward electrokinetic soil remediation (UESR) process. The effects of current density, cathode chamber flushing fluid, treatment duration, reactor size, and the type of contaminants under the vertical non-uniform electric field of UESR on the simultaneous removal of the heavy metals and organic contaminants were studied. The removal efficiencies of p-xylene and phenanthrene were higher in the experiments with cells of smaller diameter or larger height, and with distilled water flow in the cathode chamber. The removal efficiency of Cu and Pb were higher in the experiments with smaller diameter or shorter height cells and 0.01M HNO(3) solution as cathode chamber flow. In spite of different conditions for removal of heavy metals and organics, it is possible to use the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process for their simultaneous removal. Thus, in the experiments with duration of 6 days removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, p-xylene, Cu and Pb were 67%, 93%, 62% and 35%, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process. PMID:17110023

  16. Low temperature removal of inorganic sulfur compounds from mining process waters.

    PubMed

    Liljeqvist, Maria; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Saleh, Amang; Dopson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Process water and effluents from mining operations treating sulfide rich ores often contain considerable concentrations of metastable inorganic sulfur compounds such as thiosulfate and tetrathionate. These species may cause environmental problems if released to downstream recipients due to oxidation to sulfuric acid catalyzed by acidophilic microorganisms. Molecular phylogenic analysis of the tailings pond and recipient streams identified psychrotolerant and mesophilic inorganic sulfur compound oxidizing microorganisms. This suggested year round thiosalt oxidation occurs. Mining process waters may also contain inhibiting substances such as thiocyanate from cyanidation plants. However, toxicity experiments suggested their expected concentrations would not inhibit thiosalt oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3. A mixed culture from a permanently cold (4-6 °C) low pH environment was tested for thiosalt removal in a reactor design including a biogenerator and a main reactor containing a biofilm carrier. The biogenerator and main reactors were successively reduced in temperature to 5-6 °C when 43.8% of the chemical oxidation demand was removed. However, it was found that the oxidation of thiosulfate was not fully completed to sulfate since low residual concentrations of tetrathionate and trithionate were found in the discharge. This study has demonstrated the potential of using biotechnological solutions to remove inorganic sulfur compounds at 6°C and thus, reduce the impact of mining on the environment. PMID:21280027

  17. A comprehensive screen for volatile organic compounds in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M E

    2001-10-01

    A headspace gas chromatographic (GC) screen for common volatile organic compounds in biological fluids is reported. Common GC phases, DB-1 and DB-WAX, with split injection provide separation and identification of more than 40 compounds in a single 20-min run. In addition, this method easily accommodates quantitation. The screen detects commonly encountered volatile compounds at levels below 4 mg%. A control mixture, providing qualitative and semiquantitative information, is described. For comparison, elution of the volatiles on a specialty phase, DB-624, is reported. This method is an expansion and modification of a screen that had been used for more than 20 years. During its first year of use, the expanded screen has proven to be advantageous in routine forensic casework. PMID:11599614

  18. Metamaterial resonator arrays for organic and inorganic compound sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spada, Luigi; Bilotti, Filiberto; Vegni, Lucio

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metamaterial resonator operating in the terahertz frequency range is presented. By arranging the resonator in a planar array, it is possible to use the structure as a sensing device for organic and inorganic compounds. The sensor is designed to detect the presence of a biological compound by permittivity or absorption measurements. The presence of the biological matter modifies the effective permittivity and, thus, the resonant frequency significantly varies. In addition, biological compounds typically exhibit absorption characteristics that depend on the corresponding molecular structure. Therefore, it is necessary to illuminate the material selectively. We show that by employing the "selective" properties of the metamaterial resonator proposed, it is possible to enhance the sensing performances. The proposed design is suitable to sense the presence of healthy and malignant tissues, with possible applications in food and medical diagnostics. The operation of the sensing device has been demonstrated through proper full-wave simulations.

  19. Metamaterial resonator arrays for organic and inorganic compound sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spada, Luigi; Bilotti, Filiberto; Vegni, Lucio

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metamaterial resonator operating in the terahertz frequency range is presented. By arranging the resonator in a planar array, it is possible to use the structure as a sensing device for organic and inorganic compounds. The sensor is designed to detect the presence of a biological compound by permittivity or absorption measurements. The presence of the biological matter modifies the effective permittivity and, thus, the resonant frequency significantly varies. In addition, biological compounds typically exhibit absorption characteristics that depend on the corresponding molecular structure. Therefore, it is necessary to illuminate the material selectively. We show that by employing the "selective" properties of the metamaterial resonator proposed, it is possible to enhance the sensing performances. The proposed design is suitable to sense the presence of healthy and malignant tissues, with possible applications in food and medical diagnostics. The operation of the sensing device has been demonstrated through proper full-wave simulations.

  20. Removal of odorous compounds from poultry manure by microorganisms on perlite--bentonite carrier.

    PubMed

    Gutarowska, Beata; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Rajkowska, Aleksandra; Brycki, Bogumił

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted using poultry manure (PM) from a laying hen farm. Six strains of bacteria and one strain of yeast, selected on the base of the previous study, were investigated to evaluate their activity in the removal of odorous compounds from poultry manure: pure cultures of Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii LOCK 0272, Bacillus megaterium LOCK 0963, Pseudomonas sp. LOCK 0961, Psychrobacter faecalis LOCK 0965, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LOCK 0964, Streptomyces violaceoruber LOCK 0967, and Candida inconspicua LOCK 0272 were suspended in water solution and applied for PM deodorization. The most active strains in the removal of volatile odorous compounds (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, isobutyric acid) belonged to B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, L. mesenteroides, C. inconspicua, and P. faecalis. In the next series of experiments, a mixed culture of all tested strains was immobilized on a mineral carrier being a mixture of perlite and bentonite (20:80 by weight). That mixed culture applied for PM deodorization was particularly active against ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, which were removed from the exhaust gas by 20.8% and 17.5%, respectively. The experiments also showed that during deodorization the microorganisms could reduce the concentrations of proteins and amino acids in PM. In particular, the mixed culture was active against cysteine and methionine, which were removed from PM by around 45% within 24 h of deodorization. PMID:24768836

  1. Photocatalytic destruction of volatile organic compounds in water. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oluic, S.

    1991-12-10

    Ground water at the Anniston Army Depot in Anniston, Alabama has been found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Recent research has indicated that advanced oxidation processes, namely hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ultraviolet light radiation, can be successful in destroying these contaminants. In this process hydrogen peroxide is decomposed by ultraviolet radiation producing hydroxyl free radicals which in turn oxidize the organic compounds present. A series of batch tests and flow through experiments using this oxidation process was performed on a synthetic wastewater that closely duplicated contaminant concentration levels found at Anniston. These contaminants, 1,2 dichloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloromethane and benzene, were found readily destructed by the UV/H2O2 process both individually and in mixtures during batch testing and in flow-through experiments. All experimentation was performed utilizing a thin film reactor.

  2. Bibliography on contaminants and solubility of organic compounds in oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of a number of document citations is presented which contains information on contaminants in oxygen. Topics covered include contaminants and solubility of organic compounds in oxygen, reaction characteristics of organic compounds with oxygen, and sampling and detection limits of impurities. Each citation in the data bank contains many items of information about the document. Some of the items are title, author, abstract, corporate source, description of figures pertinent to hazards or safety, key references, and descriptors (keywords) by which the document can be retrieved. Each citation includes an evaluation of the technical contents as to being good/excellent, acceptable, or poor. The descriptors used to define the contents of the documents and subsequently used in the computerized search operations were developed for the cryogenic fluid safety by experts in the cryogenics field.

  3. Ozonation of hospital raw wastewaters for cytostatic compounds removal. Kinetic modelling and economic assessment of the process.

    PubMed

    Ferre-Aracil, J; Valcárcel, Y; Negreira, N; de Alda, M López; Barceló, D; Cardona, S C; Navarro-Laboulais, J

    2016-06-15

    The kinetics of the ozone consumption for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater has been analysed in order to determine the reaction rate coefficients between the ozone and the readily oxidisabled organic matter and cytostatic compounds. The wastewater from a medium size hospital was treated with ozone and peroxone methodologies, varying the ozone concentration, the reaction time and the hydrogen peroxide doses. The analysis shows that there are four cytostatic compounds, i.e. irinotecan, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and capecitabine, detected in the wastewaters and they are completely removed with reasonably short times after the ozone treatment. Considering the reactor geometry, the gas hydrodynamics, the mass transfer of ozone from gas to liquid and the reaction of all oxidisable compounds of the wastewater it is possible to determine the chemical ozone demand, COzD, of the sample as 256mgO3L(-1) and the kinetic rate coefficient with the dissolved organic matter as 8.4M(-1)s(-1). The kinetic rate coefficient between the ozone and the cyclophosphamide is in the order of 34.7M(-1)s(-1) and higher for the other cytostatics. The direct economic cost of the treatment was evaluated considering this reaction kinetics and it is below 0.3€/m(3) under given circumstances. PMID:26971211

  4. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

    1999-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C

  5. Measurement of organic compound emissions using small test chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses the measurement of organic emissions from a variety of indoor materials, using small (166 liter) environmental test chambers. The following materials were tested: adhesives, caulks, pressed wood products, floor waxes, paints, and solid insecticides. For each material, chamber concentration of organics has been determined for a range of environmental conditions (e.g., air exchange rate, temperature, and relative humidity). Various product loading ratios (area of sample/volume of chamber) have also been investigated. Emission rates for individual organic compounds, as well as total measured organics, were calculated. The effects of environmental variables on emission rates have been evaluated. Models are used to evaluate the effect of chamber walls and concentration on emission rates.

  6. Organic Compounds in Martian Meteorites May Be Terrestrial Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jull, A. J. T.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, David McKay and coworkers reported evidence suggesting the possibility of fossils in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 (see PSRD article "Life on Mars"). This work has stimulated much discussion as to the nature and origin of organic material in ALH84001, another Martian meteorite, EET79001, and other Martian meteorites in general. My colleagues C. Courtney, D. A. Jeffrey, and J. W. Beck and I have been investigating the origin of the organic compounds by measuring the abundances of the isotopes of carbon (C) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Important clues to the origin of the organic material can be obtained from the amounts of 14C (frequently nicknamed radiocarbon) and the relative amounts of 13C and 12C. Our analyses indicate that at least 80% of the organic material in ALH84001 is from Earth, not Mars, casting doubt on the hypothesis the meteorite contains a record of fossil life on Mars.

  7. Selective adsorption for removal of nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon streams over carbon-based adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarri, Masoud S.

    desulfurization of model diesel fuel, which contains equimolar concentrations of nitrogen (i.e., quinoline and indole), sulfur (i.e., dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene), and aromatic compounds (naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and fluorene), was examined. The results revealed that when both nitrogen and sulfur compounds coexist in the fuel, the type and density of oxygen functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon are crucial for selective adsorption of nitrogen compounds but have negligible positive effects for sulfur removal. The adsorption of quinoline and indole is largely governed by specific interactions. There is enough evidence to support the importance of dipole--dipole and acid-base-specific interactions for the adsorption of both quinoline and indole. Modified carbon is a promising material for the efficient removal of the nitrogen compounds from light cycle oil (LCO). Adsorptive denitrogenation of LCO significantly improved the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) performance, especially for the removal of the refractory sulfur compounds such as 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene. An essential factor in applying activated carbon for adsorptive denitrogenation and desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon streams is regeneration after saturation. The regeneration method of the saturated adsorbents consisted of toluene washing followed by heating to remove the remaining toluene. The results show that the spent activated carbon can be regenerated to completely recover the adsorption capacity. The high capacity and selectivity of activated carbon for nitrogen compounds, along with their ability to be regenerated, indicate that activated carbon is a promising adsorbent for the deep denitrogenation of liquid hydrocarbon streams.

  8. Odor and irritation effects of a volatile organic compound mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hudnell, H.K.; Otto, O.D.; Mohave, L.; House, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds elicits a variety of symptoms, many of which are thought to be mediated by the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The report describes evidence indicating that perceived odor intensity diminishes during prolonged exposure, whereas irritation of the eyes and throat reaches an asymptotic level. Both odor and irritation appear to influence the assessment of air quality. Results of the study will be used in designing future indoor air studies related to sick building syndrome.

  9. Oceanic Emissions and Atmospheric Depositions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Beale, R.; Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect the tropospheric oxidative capacity due to their ubiquitous abundance and relatively high reactivity towards the hydroxyal radical. Over the ocean and away from terrestrial emission sources, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) make up a large fraction of VOCs as airmasses age and become more oxidized. In addition to being produced or destroyed in the marine atmosphere, OVOCs can also be emitted from or deposited to the surface ocean. Here we first present direct air-sea flux measurements of three of the most abundant OVOCs - methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde, by the eddy covariance technique from two cruises in the Atlantic: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The OVOC mixing ratios were quantified by a high resolution proton-reaction-transfer mass spectrometer with isotopically labeled standards and their air-sea (net) fluxes were derived from the eddy covariance technique. Net methanol flux was consistently from the atmosphere to the surface ocean, while acetone varied from supersaturation (emission) in the subtropics to undersaturation (deposition) in the higher latitudes of the North Atlantic. The net air-sea flux of acetaldehyde is near zero through out the Atlantic despite the apparent supersaturation of this compound in the surface ocean. Knowing the dissolved concentrations and in situ production rates of these compounds in seawater, we then estimate their bulk atmospheric depositions and oceanic emissions. Lastly, we summarize the state of knowledge on the air-sea transport of a number of organic gasses, and postulate the magnitude and environmental impact of total organic carbon transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  10. Sugar-Related Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G.; Kimmich, N.; Belisle, W.; Sarinana, J.; Brabham, K.; Garrel, L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sugars and related polyols are critical components of all organisms and may have been necessary for the origin of life. To date, this class of organic compounds had not been definitively identified in meteorites. This study was undertaken to determine if polyols were present in the early Solar System as constituents of carbonaceous meteorites. Results of analyses of the Murchison and Murray meteorites indicate that formaldehyde and sugar chemistry may be responsible for the presence of a variety of polyols. We conclude that polyols were present on the early Earth through delivery by asteroids and possibly comets.

  11. Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from poultry production are leading source of air quality problems. However, little is known about the speciation and levels of VOCs from poultry production. The objective of this study was the speciation of VOCs from a poultry facility using evacuated canisters and sorbent tubes. Samples were taken during active poultry production cycle and between production cycles. Levels of VOCs were highest in areas with birds and the compounds in those areas had a higher percentage of polar compounds (89%) compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons (2.2%). In areas without birds, levels of VOCs were 1/3 those with birds present and compounds had a higher total percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (25%). Of the VOCs quantified in this study, no single sampling method was capable of quantifying more than 55% of compounds and in several sections of the building each sampling method quantified less than 50% of the quantifiable VOCs. Key classes of chemicals quantified using evacuated canisters included both alcohols and ketones, while sorbent tube samples included volatile fatty acids and ketones. The top five compounds made up close to 70% of VOCs and included: 1) acetic acid (830.1 μg m -3); 2) 2,3-butanedione (680.6 μg m -3); 3) methanol (195.8 μg m -3); 4) acetone (104.6 μg m -3); and 5) ethanol (101.9 μg m -3). Location variations for top five compounds averaged 49.5% in each section of the building and averaged 87% for the entire building.

  12. Organic Compounds Complexify Transport in the Amargosa Desert—The Case for Phytotritiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Luo, W.; Andraski, B. J.; Baker, R. J.; Maples, S.; Mayers, C. J.; Young, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Civilian low-level radioactive waste containing organic compounds was disposed in 2- to 15-m deep unlined trenches in a 110-m deep unsaturated zone at the present-day USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site. Tritium represents the plurality of disposed activity. A plume of gas-phase contaminants surrounds the disposal area, with 60 distinct volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified to date. The distribution of tritiated water in the unsaturated zone surrounding the disposal area is highly enigmatic, with orders of magnitude separating observed levels from those predicted by multiphase models of mass and energy transport. Peaks of tritium and VOCs are coincidently located in sediments tens of meters below the root zone, suggesting abiotic stratigraphic control on lateral transport at depth. Surprisingly, the highest observed levels of tritium occur at a depth of about 1.5 m, the base of the creosote-bush plant-community root zone, where levels of waste-derived VOCs are low (approaching atmospheric levels). Bulk water-vapor samples from shallow and deep unsaturated-zone profile hot spots were trapped as water ice in cold fingers immersed in dry ice-isopropyl alcohol filled Dewar flasks, then melted and sequentially extracted by purge-and-trap VOC degassing followed by elution through activated carbon solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Analysis of tritium activities and mass spectrometer results indicate that over 98% of tritium activity at depth is present as water, whereas about 15% of basal root zone tritium activity is present as organic compounds trapped with the water. Of these, the less-volatile compound group removed by SPE accounted for about 85% of the organic tritium activity, with mass spectrometry identifying 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as the principal compound removed. This plant-produced fatty alcohol is ubiquitous in the root zone of creosote-bush communities and represents a family of hydroxyl-containing plant produced compounds that give the plants their

  13. QSAR models for removal rates of organic pollutants adsorbed by in situ formed manganese dioxide under acid condition.

    PubMed

    Su, Pingru; Zhu, Huicen; Shen, Zhemin

    2016-02-01

    Manganese dioxide formed in oxidation process by potassium permanganate exhibits promising adsorptive capacity which can be utilized to remove organic pollutants in wastewater. However, the structure variances of organic molecules lead to wide difference of adsorption efficiency. Therefore, it is of great significance to find a general relationship between removal rate of organic compounds and their quantum parameters. This study focused on building up quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models based on experimental removal rate (r(exp)) of 25 organic compounds and 17 quantum parameters of each organic compounds computed by Gaussian 09 and Material Studio 6.1. The recommended model is rpre = -0.502-7.742 f(+)x + 0.107 E HOMO + 0.959 q(H(+)) + 1.388 BOx. Both internal and external validations of the recommended model are satisfied, suggesting optimum stability and predictive ability. The definition of applicability domain and the Y-randomization test indicate all the prediction is reliable and no possibility of chance correlation. The recommended model contains four variables, which are closely related to adsorption mechanism. f(+)x reveals the degree of affinity for nucleophilic attack. E HOMO represents the difficulty of electron loss. q(H(+)) reflect the distribution of partial charge between carbon and hydrogen atom. BO x shows the stability of a molecule. PMID:26490942

  14. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  15. Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) From Photochemical Activity in Snow Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, G.; Ariya, P. A.

    2004-05-01

    The occurrence of VOCs in snow has been observed and can be related to anthropogenic emissions and biological activity. Photochemistry and microorganisms play a major role in the transformation of compounds in different compartments of the global ecosystem. Studies so far focused on the determination of single analytes or a class of compounds - mainly of anthropogenic origin (e.g. halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) - that were considered important with regard to health and environmental concerns. Broader studies that describe a range of different compounds with different functionalities are relatively rare, especially for those of biological origin. The presented study investigated the formation of VOCs in snow samples and their connection with microbiological activity. The main aim was to pre-concentrate, identify and quantify volatile organic compounds. Snow samples were collected in an urban environment (Montreal, Canada) with sterilized containers. Samples were transferred into a heated reaction flask, where the sample was melted. A two-trap system was employed for pre-concentration: The first trap was used for water removal. The second trap was used for the collection of expected analytes by removing volatiles from the circulating air. Circulation was maintained with a pump at atmospheric pressure. Adsorption to glass walls of the reaction flask was prevented with halocarbon wax coating. Different sterilization methods were employed to suppress microbiological activity in order to collect background data and identify compounds of biological origin. VOC concentration and compound identification was performed with gas chromatography and mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) by taking a sample with a gas-tight syringe through a septum-port. The sample was directly injected into the GC system. Compounds were identified by their respective mass spectra and included aldehydes and alcohols.

  16. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  17. Development of a new semi-volatile organic compound sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Sioutas, C.; Koutrakis, P.; Burton, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    A new sampler has been developed to sample semi-volatile organic compounds. The sampler utilizes the principle of virtual impactor to efficiently separate the particulate from the gas phases of organic compounds. The virtual impactor consists of a slit-shaped nozzle where the aerosol is accelerated, and another slit-shaped nozzle that collects the particulate phase of organics (plus a small and known fraction of the gas phase). The acceleration slit is 0.023 cm wide, the collection slit is 0.035 cm wide, and both slits are 11 cm long. The virtual impactor`s 50% cutpoint has been determined experimentally to be 0.12 {micro}m. In addition, interstage losses have been determined (in all configurations tested, particle losses ranged from 5--15%). The impactor`s sampling flow rate is 284 liters/minute, with a corresponding pressure drop of 100 inches H{sub 2}O. Higher or lower sampling flow rates can be achieved by increasing or decreasing the length of the slits. Tests for volatilization losses have been conducted by generating organic aerosols of known volatility, and comparing the impactor`s collection to that of a filter pack sampling in parallel. The experiments demonstrated negligible volatilization losses (< 5%) for the compounds tried. Particles are collected on a filter connected to the minor flow of the impactor, followed by a sorbent bed to collect material that volatilized from the particles. The organic gas phases is collected on a sorbent bed, connected to the major flow of the impactor.

  18. PARTITION EQUILIBRIA OF NONIONIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BETWEEN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Equilibrium isotherms for the simultaneous uptake of binary nonionic organic compounds from water on soil indicated no competitive effect between the two solutes. The observation supports the hypothesis that partition to the soil organic phase is the primary process for sorption ...

  19. Refractory Organic Compounds in Enceladus' Ice Grains and Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Khawaja, N.; Hsu, H. W.; Sekine, Y.; Shibuya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) generates time-of-flight mass spectra of individual grains impinging on the instruments target-plate. Following the analysis of salt rich ice grains emitted by Enceladus that indicated a salt-water ocean in contact with the moon's rocky core [1,2] a recent CDA analysis of nano-phase silica particles pointed at hydrothermal activity at the moon's rock/water interface [3]. The results imply temperatures above 80 - 90°C and alkaline pH values around 10 reminiscent of alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth like the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. In this context the compositional analysis of organic components in CDA mass spectra of the ejected ice grains is of particular relevance. A multitude of volatile organic species has already been identified in the gas component of the plume [4]. As expected, we find more complex organic molecules in ice grains than in the gas indicating aromatic species, amines, and carbonyl group species. The composition of organic-bearing ice grains displays a great diversity indicating a variety of different organic species in varying concentrations. Recent spatially resolved CDA in situ measurements inside Enceladus' plume indicate that these organic compounds are especially frequent in 'young' ice grains that have just been ejected by high velocity jets. We investigate the implications of our findings with respect to ice grain formation at the water surface and inside the icy vents. We constrain the generation of organic compounds at the rock/water interface in the light of hydrothermal activity and the potential for the formation of life precursor molecules in Enceladus' ocean. Ref:[1] Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098-1101 (2009). [2] Postberg et al., Nature 474, 620-622 (2011). [3]. Hsu, Postberg, Sekine et al., Nature, 519, 207-210 (2015). [4] Waite et al., Nature 460, 487-490 (2009).

  20. Capability of microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Raquel; Ferrer, Ivet; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep M

    2015-05-15

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 26 organic microcontaminants from urban wastewater was studied in two pilot high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs). The targeted compounds included pharmaceuticals and personal care products, fire retardants, surfactants, anticorrosive agents, pesticides and plasticizers, among others. The pilot plant, which was fed at a surface loading rate of 7-29 g of COD m(-2)d(-1), consisted of a homogenisation tank and two parallel lines, each one with a primary settler and an HRAP with a surface area of 1.5 m(2) and a volume of 0.5 m(3). The two HRAPs were operated with different HRTs (4 and 8 d). The removal efficiency ranged from negligible removal to more than 90% depending on the compound. Microcontaminant removal efficiencies were enhanced during the warm season, while the HRT effect on microcontaminant removal was only noticeable in the cold season. Our results suggest that biodegradation and photodegradation are the most important removal pathways, whereas volatilization and sorption were solely achieved for hydrophobic compounds (log Kow>4) with a moderately high Henry's law constant values (11-12 Pa m(-3)mol(-1)) such as musk fragrances. Whereas acetaminophen, ibuprofen and oxybenzone presented ecotoxicological hazard quotients (HQs) higher than 1 in the influent wastewater samples, the HQs for the effluent water samples were always below 1. PMID:25682515

  1. Development of adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Chung, S G; Hong, S W; Kim, D J; Lee, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a modified adsorbent, alginate complex beads, was prepared and applied to the removal of mixed contaminants from wastewater. The alginate complex beads were generated by the immobilization of powdered activated carbon and synthetic zeolites onto alginate gel beads, which were then dried at 110 °C for 20 h until the diameter had been reduced to 1 mm. This dry technique increased the hardness of the adsorbent to assure its durability and application. The adsorption onto the alginate complex beads of organic and inorganic compounds, as target contaminants, was investigated by performing both equilibrium and kinetic batch experiments. From the adsorption isotherms, according to the Langmuir equation, the alginate complex bead was capable of effectively removing benzene, toluene, zinc and cadmium. From kinetic batch experiments, the removal efficiencies of benzene, toluene, zinc and cadmium were found to be 66.5, 92.4, 74.1 and 76.7%, respectively, for initial solution concentrations of 100 mg L(-1). The results indicated that the adsorbent developed in this study has the potential to be a promising material for the removal of mixed pollutants from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater. PMID:22020474

  2. Characterisation of polar organic compounds in fog water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Gyula; Varga, Bálint; Gelencsér, András; Krivácsy, Zoltán; Molnár, Ágnes; Alsberg, Tomas; Persson, Linn; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Cristina Facchini, Maria

    In this paper the results of a systematic liquid chromatographic investigation are described to characterise water-soluble organic compounds in fog. A diode array detector is used to record the UV spectrum of the components during separation and a mass spectrometer is applied to obtain information on the ion masses of the constituents. The combination of UV and mass spectra reveal that the organic carbon content of fog water is distributed among a great number of acidic compounds which have polar functional groups and polyconjugated systems absorbing up to 500 nm. Due to the complexity of the organic fraction in fog water an unresolved hump of ions was recorded by the mass spectrometer from m/ z=100-600 the most intense peaks being detected around m/ z=200-250. Tannin and fulvic acid were also examined under the same conditions. In terms of complexity and ion distribution the mass spectrum of the organic fraction was similar to that of a fulvic acid reference material rather than to that of tannin.

  3. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

  4. Commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds under different driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Kun-Ho

    The driving conditions that were tested for the in-vehicle concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) included transport modes, fuel distributions, vehicle ventilation conditions, driving routes, commute seasons, car models, and driving periods. This study involved two sampling seasons (winter and summer). The in-auto/in-bus/fixed site ratio of the wintertime mean concentrations was about 6/3/1 for total VOCs and 8/3/1 for benzene. On the median, the in-auto/in-bus exposure ratio ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 for the morning commutes, and ranged from 2.4 to 4.5 for evening commutes, depending on the target compounds. The wintertime in-auto concentrations were significantly higher ( p<0.05), on the average 3-5 times higher, in a carbureted engine than in the three electronic fuel-injected cars. For the summertime in-auto concentrations of the target compounds except benzene, there were no significant differences between low and high ventilation conditions on the two urban routes. The urban in-auto benzene concentration was significantly higher ( p<0.05) under the low ventilation condition. For the rural commutes, the in-auto concentrations of all target compounds were significantly higher ( p<0.05) under the low ventilation condition. The in-auto VOC concentrations on the two urban routes did not differ significantly, and they were greater than the rural in-auto concentrations, with the differences being significant ( p<0.05) for all target compounds. The summertime in-auto concentrations of benzene and toluene were greater than the wintertime in-auto concentrations, with the difference being significant ( p<0.05), while the concentrations of the other target compounds were not significantly different between the two seasons. Neither car models nor driving periods influenced the in-auto VOC concentrations.

  5. Removal of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides from water by means of gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Utrilla, José; Daiem, Mahmoud M Abdel; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl; López-Peñalver, Jesús J; Velo-Gala, Inmaculada; Mota, Antonio J

    2016-11-01

    Gamma radiation has been used to induce the degradation of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides such as phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution, determining the dose constants, removal percentages, and radiation-chemical yields. The reaction rate constants of hydroxyl radical (HO), hydrated electron (eaq(-)) and hydrogen atom (H) with these pollutants were also obtained by means of competition kinetics, using 3-aminopyridine and atrazine as reference compounds. The results indicated that the elimination of these pollutants with gamma radiation mainly follows the oxidative pathway through reaction with HO radicals. The degradation by-products from the five pollutants were determined, detecting that the hydroxylation of the corresponding parent compounds was the main chemical process in the degradation of the pollutants. Moreover, a high decrease in the chemical oxygen demand has been observed for all pollutants. As expected, the degradation by-products generated by the irradiation of PA, BPA and DPA showed a lower toxicity than the parent compounds, however, in the case of 2,4-D and MCPA irradiation, interestingly, their by-products were more toxic than the corresponding original compounds. PMID:27366982

  6. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Phillips, Jana Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Physico-chemical sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on soil minerals is one of the major processes of organic carbon (OC) stabilization in soils, especially in deeper layers. The attachment of C on soil solids is related to the reactivity of the soil minerals and the chemistry of the sorbate functional groups, but the sorption studies conducted without controlling microbial activity may overestimate the sorption potential of soil. This study was conducted to examine the sorptive characteristics of a diverse functional groups of simple OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols) with and without biological degradative processes. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0-100 mg C L-1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 hrs and the sorption parameters were calculated by Langmuir model fitting. The amount of added compounds that remained in the solution phase was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic C (TOC) analysis. Soil sterilization was performed by -irradiation technique and experiments were repeated to determine the contribution of microbial degradation to apparent sorption. Overall, Ultisols did not show a marked preference for apparent sorption of any of the model compounds, as indicated by a narrower range of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) of 173-527 mg kg soil-1 across compounds. Mollisols exhibited a strong preference for apparent sorption of oxalic acid (Smax of 5290 mg kg soil-1) and sinapyl alcohol (Smax of 2031 mg kg soil-1) over the other compounds. The propensity for sorption of oxalic acid is mainly attributed to the precipitation of insoluble Ca-oxalate due to the calcareous nature of most Mollisol subsoils and its preference for sinapyl alcohol could be linked to the polymerization of this lignin monomer on 2:2 mineral dominated soils. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was in

  7. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho

  8. High exposures to organic solvents among graffiti removers.

    PubMed

    Anundi, H; Lind, M L; Friis, L; Itkes, N; Langworth, S; Edling, C

    1993-01-01

    The exposure to organic solvents among 12 graffiti removers was studied. Health effects were also assessed by structured interview and a symptom questionnaire. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of the day of air sampling. The concentrations of dichloromethane, glycol ethers, trimethylbenzenes and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone in the breathing zone of each worker were measured during one working day. The 8-h time-weighted average exposure to dichloromethane ranged from 18 to 1200 mg/m3. The Swedish Permissible Exposure Limit value for dichloromethane is 120 mg/m3. The air concentrations of glycol ethers, trimethylbenzenes and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone were low or not detectable. No exposure-related deviations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or hyaluronan or the urine concentrations of alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase were found. Irritative symptoms of the eyes and upper respiratory tract were more prevalent than in the general population. This study demonstrates that old knowledge about work hazards is not automatically transferred to new professions. Another aspect is that the public is also exposed as the job is performed during daytime in underground stations. At least for short periods, bystanders may be exposed to high concentrations of organic solvent vapours. People with predisposing conditions, e.g. asthmatics, may risk adverse reactions. PMID:8144235

  9. Emission of reactive terpene compounds from orange orchards and their removal by within-canopy processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Frattoni, Massimiliano; di Palo, Vincenzo; Valentini, Riccardo; Tirone, Giampiero; Seufert, Guenther; Bertin, Nadia; Hansen, Ute; Csiky, Olav; Lenz, Roman; Sharma, Meeta

    1999-04-01

    VOC emission from orange orchards was determined in the framework of two field campaigns aimed at assessing the contribution of vegetation emissions to tropospheric ozone formation in the Valencia Citrus belt. Branch emission from different varieties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus Clementi was dominated by β-caryophyllene during the summer period and by linalool during the blossoming season (April-May). Large emission of D-limonene from soil was also measured. Data collected with the enclosure technique were upscaled to determine canopy emission rates of terpene compounds. Values obtained were compared with fluxes measured by relaxed eddy accumulation. Substantial removal of β-caryophyllene and linalool was detected during transport from the canopy into the atmospheric boundary layer. While within-canopy removal of the sesquiterpene component was fully consistent with laboratory studies indicating the high reactivity of this compound with ozone, linalool losses were more difficult to explain. Although high canopy fluxes of acetone and acetaldehyde suggested linalool decomposition by gas-phase reactivity, removal by heterogeneous chemistry seems the more likely explanation for the observed losses.

  10. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.

    2016-09-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  11. Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties that make them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution of VOCs in the environment is necessary. The transport, behavior, and fate of VOCs in streams are determined by combinations of chemical, physical, and biological processes. These processes are volatilization, absorption, wet and dry deposition, microbial degradation, sorption, hydrolysis, aquatic photolysis, oxidation, chemical reaction, biocon-centration, advection, and dispersion. The relative importance of each of these processes depends on the characteristics of the VOC and the stream. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program selected 55 VOCs for study. This article reviews the characteristics of the various processes that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

  12. Analyses of volatile organic compounds from human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, M.; Wysocki, C.J.; Leyden, J.J.; Spielman, A.I.; Sun, X.; Preti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Human skin emits a variety of volatile metabolites, many of them odorous. Much previous work has focused upon chemical structure and biogenesis of metabolites produced in the axillae (underarms), which are a primary source of human body odour. Nonaxillary skin also harbours volatile metabolites, possibly with different biological origins than axillary odorants. Objectives To take inventory of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the upper back and forearm skin, and assess their relative quantitative variation across 25 healthy subjects. Methods Two complementary sampling techniques were used to obtain comprehensive VOC profiles, viz., solid-phase micro extraction and solvent extraction. Analyses were performed using both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Results Nearly 100 compounds were identified, some of which varied with age. The VOC profiles of the upper back and forearm within a subject were, for the most part, similar, although there were notable differences. Conclusions The natural variation in nonaxillary skin odorants described in this study provides a baseline of compounds we have identified from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Although complex, the profiles of volatile constituents suggest that the two body locations share a considerable number of compounds, but both quantitative and qualitative differences are present. In addition, quantitative changes due to ageing are also present. These data may provide future investigators of skin VOCs with a baseline against which any abnormalities can be viewed in searching for biomarkers of skin diseases. PMID:18637798

  13. Applying surrogates and indicators to assess removal efficiency of trace organic chemicals during chemical oxidation of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Eric R V; Drewes, Jörg E; Sedlak, David L; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A

    2009-08-15

    To respond to concerns associated with wastewater-derived contaminants water utilities are looking for new approaches for monitoring trace organic chemicals in conventional and advanced water treatment processes. This study examines the use of a combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds tailored to monitor the removal efficiency of advanced oxidation processes employed by treatment plants engaged in indirect potable water reuse programs. Potential surrogate parameters and indicator compounds, identified by reviewing previous publications and classified by their structural properties, were tested in pilot- and full-scale treatment systems. Dilantin, DEET, meprobamate, and iopromide are good indicators to assess optimized oxidation conditions while ozonating tertiary-treated wastewaters. UVA reduction, ozone byproduct formation, such as simple organic acids, and ozone exposure correlated with "sweet spot" compounds, where ozone exposure correlated with trace organic removal across five tertiary-treated wastewaters. Findings indicate that the proposed framework can serve as a conservative monitoring approach for advanced oxidation processes as well as other indirect potable reuse processes to ensure proper removal of identified and unidentified wastewater-derived organic contaminants, to detect failures in system performance, and is protective of public health. PMID:19746720

  14. The availability of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds to marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua-Sheng, Hong; Hai-Li, Wang; Bang-Qin, Huang

    1995-06-01

    The availability of three dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds as nutrient sources for experimental culture of three algae was studied. Results indicated that these compounds could be utilized by algae, and that dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was first to be uptaken when various forms of phosphorus (DIP and DOP) co-existed. Dicrateria zhanjiangensis' uptake of sodium glycerophosphate was faster than that of D-ribose-5-phosphate. The increase of sodium glycerophosphate had little effect on the maximum uptake rate( V max) of Chlorella sp., but increased the semisaturation constant( K s) remarkably; the photosynthesis rates(PR) of Dicrateria zhanjiangensis and Chlorella sp. were rarely affected by using various forms of phosphorus in the culture experiments. The possible DOP pathways utilized by algae are discussed.

  15. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulwant; Sandhu, G. K.; Lark, B. S.

    2004-05-01

    Molar extinction coefficients of aqueous solutions of some organic compounds, viz. formamide (CH_{3}NO), N-methylformamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO), NN-dimethylformamide (C_{3}H_{7}NO), NN-dimethylacetamide (C_{4}H_{9}NO), 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}), succinimide (C_{4}H_{5}NO_{2}) and solutions of acetamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO) and benzoic acid (C_{7}H_{6}O_{2}) in 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}) have been determined by narrow beam gamma-ray transmission method at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity rule earlier used for aqueous solution has been extended to non-aqueous (1,4-dioxane) solutions.

  16. Crystal stability and optical properties of organic chain compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupanovic, P.; Bjelis, A.; Barisic, S.

    1999-01-01

    The solution to the long-standing problem of the cohesion of organic chain compounds is proposed. We consider the tight-binding dielectric matrix with two electronic bands per chain, determine the corresponding hybridized collective modes, and show that three among them are considerably softened due to strong dipole-dipole and monopole-dipole interactions. By this we explain the unusual low-frequency optical activity of TTF-TCNQ, including the observed 10 meV anomaly. The softening of the modes also explains the cohesion of the mixed-stack lattice, the fractional charge transfer almost independent of the material, and the formation of the charged sheets in some compounds.

  17. Structure and function of vanadium compounds in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Rehder, D

    1992-01-01

    Vanadium has been recognized as a metal of biological importance only recently. In this mini-review, its main functions uncovered during the past few years are addressed. These encompass (i) the regulation of phosphate metabolizing enzymes (which is exemplified for the inhibition of ribonucleases by vanadate), (ii) the halogenation of organic compounds by vanadate-dependent non-heme peroxidases from seaweeds, (iii) the reductive protonation of nitrogen (nitrogen fixation) by alternative, i.e. vanadium-containing, nitrogenases from N2-fixing bacteria, (iv) vanadium sequestering by sea squirts (ascidians), and (v) amavadine, a low molecular weight complex of V(IV) accumulated in the fly agaric and related toadstools. The function of vanadium, while still illusive in ascidians and toadstools, begins to be understood in vanadium-enzyme interaction. Investigations into the structure and function of model compounds play an increasingly important role in elucidating the biological significance of vanadium. PMID:1392470

  18. Volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, V. A.; Zenkevich, I. G.; Ioffe, B. V.

    The procedure of sampling and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of air containing volatile emissions from living plants has been elaborated. The qualitative composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by 22 species of plants which are characteristic for Northern hemisphere forests has been studied. The emission rate of isoprene and terpenes for some of them has been determined. Terpene concentrations in coniferous forests of different regions of the U.S.S.R. have been also determined. The list of compounds identified includes more than 70 substances of different classes. Total terpene concentrations in the coniferous forests air usually vary from 3.5 to 35 μg -3. Strong influence of meteorological conditions on the emission rate and terpene concentrations in the air under the forest canopy has been noted.

  19. Performance of calcium peroxide for removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waste activated sludge and promotion of sludge solubilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai; Wang, Jie; Li, Yongmei

    2015-03-15

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation. Effects of initial pH and CaO2 dosage were investigated. The impacts of CaO2 treatment on sludge solubilization and anaerobic digestion were also evaluated. Specifically, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EDC degradation during CaO2 oxidation was tested. Effects of 6 metal ions contained in the sludge matrix on EDC degradation were also evaluated. The results showed that CaO2 treatment can be a promising technology for EDC removal and facilitating sludge reuse. The EDC removal efficiencies increased with the increase in CaO2 dosage. At CaO2 doses of more than 0.34 g per gram of total solid (g g(-1) TS), more than 50% of EDCs were removed in a wide pH range of 2-12. Higher removal efficiencies were achieved at initial pH values of 12 and 2. The products of EDCs during CaO2 oxidation had less estrogenic activity than the originals. Under the conditions of neutral pH and CaO2 dosage = 0.34 g g(-1) TS, the sludge solubilization can be improved by increasing the soluble total organic carbon (STOC) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction by 25% and 27% in 7 d, respectively; the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was enhanced by 96% in the 15 d following anaerobic digestion. The ROS released by CaO2 are the main factors contributing to EDC removal, among which, hydroxyl radicals (OH) play the most important role. Metal ions contained in the sludge matrix also affected EDC removal. For most cases, Fe, Cu, and Zn had positive effects; Mn and Ag had negative effects; and Mg had an insignificant effect on EDC removal. PMID:25613412

  20. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and <20% of compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment. PMID:24503280