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Sample records for organic food market

  1. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  2. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  3. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  4. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple-based food marketed in Catalonia and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Piqué, Ester; Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Lapuente, Joaquin de; Llobet, Joan Maria

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, consumption of organic foods has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless, safety of organic foods is still unclear, and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly present in rotten apples and apple-based products. The aim of this study is to analyse the content of patulin in apple juices and purees derived from organic and conventional production systems, in order to assess the risk to consumers, particularly in children. A total of 93 apple-based products marketed in Catalonia were analysed, 49 of which were derived from conventional and 44 from organic farming. The results showed higher incidence of positive samples and higher concentration of patulin in organic apple purees when comparing with conventional ones. In the case of juices, significant differences were found between conventional and organic samples, but applying a multivariate analysis the type of agriculture did not seem to have a relevant contribution to patulin occurrence, being cloudiness the main factor involved. The estimated daily intake of patulin for infants and young children (0-3 years old), children (4-18 years old) and adults (19-66 years old), were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 μg/kg bw in all scenarios considered. PMID:23900007

  5. Certified organic vegetable production for market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelines provide general provisions and processes for obtaining and maintaining organic certification, but did not specify best management practices for crop...

  6. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  7. Nutrition Marketing on Children's Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...

  8. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  9. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices. PMID:26626921

  10. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  11. Physiology of food spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Roller, S

    1999-09-15

    A thorough understanding of the physiological responses of microorganisms to stresses imposed during food preservation is essential if novel combination systems based on mild food processing procedures are to be developed effectively. The influences of intrinsic characteristics as well as external factors such as water activity, temperature, preservatives, composition of the gaseous atmosphere, etc. on the stress response of microorganisms are discussed. The interaction of spoilage organisms with each other as well as with food pathogens and the ultimate consequences for food safety and quality are also explored in this review. PMID:10488850

  12. The Organic Foods System: Its Discursive Achievements and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, David M.; Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    Taking the emergence of the organic foods system as a case study, the authors aim to demonstrate both how the discursive richness of the organic foods system offers a challenge to the traditional operations of the market and how activity systems theory as understood in English studies can productively be tied to and enriched by theories of social…

  13. [Current issues regarding organic food].

    PubMed

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T

    2005-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life. PMID:16610189

  14. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  15. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  16. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  17. India creates social marketing organization.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    India, in a major policy shift toward reversible birth controls methods, will form a new organization to promote private sector contraceptive sales. The government, through a recently signed agreement with the Agency for International Development (AID), plans to establish a private nonprofit Contraceptive Marketing Organization (CMO) in fiscal year 1984. This momentous move marks a full circle return to a 1969 proposal by AID and Ford Foundation consultants. Funded at about $500 million over a 7 year period, the CMO will function as a semi-autonomous entity run by a board of governors representing government and such public and public sectors as health, communications, management, manufacturing, marketing, advertising, and market research. According to the agreement called the India Family Planning Communications and Marketing Plan, the CMO's activities will cover procurement and distribution of condoms, oral contraceptives (OCs), and other yet to be determined contraceptive methods. Of the $500 million in funds, the government of India has pledged 2/3, AID roughly $50 million in grants and loans, with the balance expected from such sources as the UN Fund for Population Activities. The CMO's goal is a marked increase in contraceptive use by married couples of reproductive age from the current 6% rate to 20% by 1990. As of 1982, India has 122 million such couples, with 1% purchasing commercial products, 2% buying Nirodh Marketing Program condoms and 3% relying on free government contraceptives. Besides creating the CMO, the India/AID pact outlines intensified public sector family planning promotions and activities. Some Indian health experts believe the government's decision to expand social marketing's role rests with a significant decade long decline in the popularity of such permanent birth control measures as vasectomy and tubal ligation. PMID:12313308

  18. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  19. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  20. Food marketing on popular children's web sites: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvy, Lisa M; Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that food marketing was a contributor to childhood obesity in the United States. One recommendation of the IOM committee was for research on newer marketing venues, such as Internet Web sites. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to answer the IOM's call by examining food marketing on popular children's Web sites. Ten Web sites were selected based on market research conducted by KidSay, which identified favorite sites of children aged 8 to 11 years during February 2005. Using a standardized coding form, these sites were examined page by page for the existence, type, and features of food marketing. Web sites were compared using chi2 analyses. Although food marketing was not pervasive on the majority of the sites, seven of the 10 Web sites contained food marketing. The products marketed were primarily candy, cereal, quick serve restaurants, and snacks. Candystand.com, a food product site, contained a significantly greater amount of food marketing than the other popular children's Web sites. Because the foods marketed to children are not consistent with a healthful diet, nutrition professionals should consider joining advocacy groups to pressure industry to reduce online food marketing directed at youth. PMID:18375231

  1. New strategies to improve food marketing to children.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2013-09-01

    Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children. PMID:24019372

  2. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  3. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  4. Organ donation: a significant marketing challenge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Roberta N

    2007-01-01

    Unlike most health care markets, the organ donation market is one where patients are the marketers, prospective donors are the customers, and no payment is allowed in the exchange process. The assumption that altruistic behavior by donors would satisfy the need for organs has proven woefully untrue. As a result, those needing organs have resorted to relying on unwilling or impoverished donors, to having to promote themselves on websites which have achieved success for only small numbers of patients, or to waiting for organs which they may never receive. This remains a still unsolved marketing challenge. PMID:19042535

  5. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. PMID:25504570

  6. Organizing for Better School Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the…

  7. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  8. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk. PMID:15203456

  9. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  10. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

  11. Marketing-oriented organizations: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Stensrud, R; Arrington, B

    1988-03-01

    Organizations can be oriented toward marketing from a production, product, sales, or marketing perspective. Strategies, structures, and cultures, which reflect a company's basic orientation, must be integrated to ensure that marketing efforts communicate a clear corporate position. In a study of 31 hospitals, the Center for Health Services Education Research, St. Louis University, found that no hospital's organization fit neatly into a single category. For example, a hospital may have some service lines that were marketing oriented while other lines were production oriented. The majority of hospitals, however, were product oriented, focusing on productivity and financial performance rather than on market factors. The most effective sales orientation was observed in the for-profits. Their selling efforts, however, tended to be internally focused, with product development activities divorced from the planning and marketing functions. Only the for-profit hospitals showed the beginning of a marketing orientation. Developing a marketing orientation, especially in line divisions, requires a careful, well-orchestrated effort and the presence of several key factors: Access to capital and an emphasis on long-range planning and strategic spending The availability of hospital-specific market research. Key distribution channels. Talented middle managers. Up-to-date systems and structures equipped to serve new values and strategies. Leaders capable of communicating to the organization a vision of its role in the community. PMID:10302251

  12. Careers in Organic Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  13. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... organic food is one that is grown without: pesticides fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge ... the hot sun is cheaper but requires more pesticides and chemical fertilizers to grow. Cage-Free or ...

  14. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. PMID:22858428

  15. Marketing of Food in the Grocery Store Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goals/hypothesis: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or any marketing using health or nutrition information beyond minimum requirements) is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat (approx. 20% daily value), sodium (...

  16. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  17. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced. PMID:21566563

  18. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health. PMID:21477631

  19. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML. PMID:26406785

  20. Labeling to manage marketing of GM foods.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart; Phillips, Peter W B

    2003-09-01

    Biotechnology has the potential to introduce new food safety risks, liabilities and benefits, and although privately managed supply chains (involving proactive management of the production of branded products) are effective at providing, managing and communicating adequate information about products with well understood risks, products with uncertain risks pose a greater challenge. The demand for increased product information regarding genetically modified content, in particular, places new constraints on food supply chains, frequently resulting in communication failures. Here we assess and reject mandatory labeling as an appropriate response. PMID:12948671

  1. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods. PMID:17537540

  2. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  3. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept. PMID:24979876

  4. Your Personal Guide to Marketing a Nonprofit Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    In recent years, many nonprofit organizations have begun to use marketing principles, partly because of the more competitive environment. This guide to marketing such an organization consists of four sections. Section 1, "Understanding Marketing," includes "Your Part in the Marketing Process" and "What is Marketing? Why Should You Do It?" Section…

  5. A commercial market for organs? Why not?

    PubMed

    Manga, Pranlal

    1987-10-01

    Manga examines the issues surrounding controversial proposals to commercialize organ procurement as a means of reducing the shortage of organs for transplantation. He begins by attempting to define the term "commercialization." Then he discusses the ethical issues of a market approach to organ procurement: the exploitation of the poor, especially in the Third World; the potential negative effect on voluntary donation; the right to dispose of a body or its parts as private property; the question of justice in access to organs; the quality of purchased organs; and the overall social implications of a policy that allows or even encourages the buying and selling of a desperately-needed medical resource. Manga next considers alternative solutions to increasing the supply of organs, and recommends a strategy that could alleviate the organ shortage without resorting to commercialization. PMID:11651906

  6. The Spaces and Ethics of Organic Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nick; Cloke, Paul; Barnett, Clive; Malpass, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Initial assessments of the potential for organic food systems have offered an optimistic interpretation of the progressive political and ethical characteristics involved. This positive gloss has prompted a stream of critique emphasising the need to explore the ambiguities and disconnections inherent therein. In this paper, we consider the case of…

  7. The application of post-market monitoring to novel foods.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, P; Howlett, J; Boeing, H; Cockburn, A; Constable, A; Davi, A; de Jong, N; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Robertson, C; Wal, J M; Samuels, F

    2008-01-01

    The role of post-market monitoring (PMM) in the safety assessment of novel foods is critically discussed in order to derive guidelines as to in which situations the application of PMM might be warranted. Available data sources on food consumption and health status, and the methodologies for generating such data are reviewed. The paper suggests improvements to make them more applicable for PMM purposes. It is concluded that any PMM programme must be a hypothesis-driven scientific exercise. PMM can have a role as a complement to, but not as a replacement for, a comprehensive pre-market safety assessment. Its use may be appropriate to confirm that product use is as predicted in the pre-market assessment; to provide reassurance that effects observed in the pre-market assessment occur with no greater frequency or intensity in the post-market phase than anticipated; and to investigate the significance of any adverse effects reported by consumers after market-launch. However PMM is insufficiently powerful to test the hypothesis that any effects seen in the pre-market assessment are absent in the post-market phase. Current methodologies place limitations on what PMM can achieve. PMM should only be used when triggered by or when the focus is on specific evidence-based questions. PMID:17950974

  8. Food marketing to children in the context of a marketing maelstrom.

    PubMed

    Linn, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the United States, yet US children are targeted as never before with marketing for foods high in sugar, fat, salt, and calories. Food marketing to children is highly sophisticated, increasingly well-funded, and takes place within the context of a barrage of other kinds of child-targeted marketing. The proliferation and sophistication of electronic media, the escalation of marketing in schools, changing families, and a political climate that favors deregulation have allowed marketers unprecedented access to children, including babies and toddlers. The notion--promulgated by the food industry--that parents can "just say no" to requests for highly marketed snacks and junk food is simplistic at best and cynical at worst. Instead of being viewed as a familial problem, the current marketing maelstrom should be viewed as a societal issue and addressed as such. Restriction of advertising to children is common in industrial democracies other than the United States--and is just one of many corrective actions that could be taken by our governments. PMID:15683072

  9. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... Requirements § 422.2268 Standards for MA organization marketing. In conducting marketing activities, MA... mislead or confuse Medicare beneficiaries, or misrepresent the MA organization. The MA organization...

  10. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... Requirements § 422.2268 Standards for MA organization marketing. In conducting marketing activities, MA... mislead or confuse Medicare beneficiaries, or misrepresent the MA organization. The MA organization...

  11. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... Requirements § 422.2268 Standards for MA organization marketing. In conducting marketing activities, MA... mislead or confuse Medicare beneficiaries, or misrepresent the MA organization. The MA organization...

  12. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  13. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  14. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  15. A market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food.

    PubMed

    Schoof, R A; Yost, L J; Eickhoff, J; Crecelius, E A; Cragin, D W; Meacher, D M; Menzel, D B

    1999-08-01

    Dietary arsenic intake estimates based on surveys of total arsenic concentrations appear to be dominated by intake of the relatively non-toxic, organic arsenic forms found in seafood. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in food have not been not well characterized. Accurate dietary intake estimates for inorganic arsenic are needed to support studies of arsenic's status as an essential nutrient, and to establish background levels of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In the market basket survey reported here, 40 commodities anticipated to provide at least 90% of dietary inorganic arsenic intake were identified. Four samples of each commodity were collected. Total arsenic was analysed using an NaOH digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Separate aliquots were analysed for arsenic species using an HCl digestion and hydride atomic absorption spectroscopy. Consistent with earlier studies, total arsenic concentrations (all concentrations reported as elemental arsenic per tissue wet weight) were highest in the seafoods sampled (ranging from 160 ng/g in freshwater fish to 2360 ng/g in saltwater fish). In contrast, average inorganic arsenic in seafood ranged from less than 1 ng/g to 2 ng/g. The highest inorganic arsenic values were found in raw rice (74 ng/g), followed by flour (11 ng/g), grape juice (9 ng/g) and cooked spinach (6 ng/g). Thus, grains and produce are expected to be significant contributors to dietary inorganic arsenic intake. PMID:10506007

  16. Digital marketing of unhealthy foods to Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues. PMID:25769977

  17. Cummings Memorial Lecture - 1975. The market basket: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Deichman, W B

    1975-06-01

    The world food crisis is as critical today as when it was debated at the 1974 World Food Conference in Rome. Since the United States and Canada-and to a lesser extent, Australia and New Zealand-lead in the production of corn, wheat and soybeans, the North American "bread basket" has become the "market basket" of the world. For welfare, economic, and political reasons, our energies, resources, and deliberations must be expanded toward optimum production of wholesome food products. I do not recommend that we permit food additives in "questionably" safe or excessive concentrations in our agricultural products. I do recommend, however, that tolerance limits for food additives be established based on a comprehensive review of all contributing factors-the world food crisis and the rational interpretation of both positive and negative animal data as they relate to man. As Dr. Herbert Stokinger put it so aptly: "Avoid the establishment of unnecessarily severe standards." 2. Funds for research and teaching of food and nutrition should be greatly increased, so that all who can read and write may be made aware of the daily dietary requirements for the maintenance of good health. 3. Unsubstantiated scare tactics in publications of the scientific and lay press can only lead to well-intended but often emotionally-inspired restrictions, ordinances, and laws. Such decisions are likely to either under- or over-define the requirements and standards for food additives and other chemicals which are important to the well-being of the populace. PMID:779439

  18. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... § 422.2268 Standards for MA organization marketing. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 54634, Sept. 1, 2011. In conducting marketing activities, MA organizations may not— (a) Provide cash or...

  19. Food policy in the Canadian North: Is there a role for country food markets?

    PubMed

    Ford, James D; Macdonald, Joanna Petrasek; Huet, Catherine; Statham, Sara; MacRury, Allison

    2016-03-01

    Food insecurity is widely reported to be at a crisis level in the Inuit territory of Nunavut, Canada. Various policies, programs, and initiatives have been proposed to tackle the problem, with increasing interest in developing a system of country food markets (CFMs) similar to Greenland. We examine if CFMs offer a feasible, sustainable, and effective model for strengthening food systems in Nunavut, examining the model of Greenland and drawing on semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 45). The Greenland experience indicates that CFMs can provide access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food on a regular basis, and can diversify locally available foods. These benefits are transferable to Nunavut, although knowledge gaps, regulatory and institutional conditions, and concerns over how CFMs might affect the cultural basis of food systems, underlies apprehension over their development in the territory. We conclude that Nunavut is not currently in the position to develop CFMs, but the role of such markets in potentially strengthening food systems should not be discounted. Future development would need to solicit community input on CFMs, resolve regulatory issues around wildlife management and harvesting, and study how future risks would affect sustainability and effectiveness. PMID:26829007

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food. PMID:26373269

  1. Food marketing to children in India: comparative review of regulatory strategies across the world.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Dudeja, Puja

    2014-11-01

    Food marketing directed to children is an issue of concern in the present day society. Revolution in food industry, increasing globalization and boom in information technology has introduced various types of food products and the way they are placed in front of likely consumers. This has resulted in rising trend of obesity and switch from communicable to non-communicable diseases, which is not cost effective for nation as a whole. Multinational companies have targeted children as a naïve audience to boost their sales. In-ethical practice of misleading claims in the advertisements is instrumental in many cases. Food marketing to children has been assumed a public health threat since times of yore. World Health Organization has resolutions and recommendations on this subject. Member countries, including India are a signatory to this declaration. However, much needs to be done to counter these multinational food giants. Regulations and policies need to be enforced at national and institutional levels. Parents must be educated; schools and social organizations to be made proactive on this aspect. PMID:24854368

  2. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. PMID:22227280

  3. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  4. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers. PMID:27178878

  5. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  6. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  7. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422

  8. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  9. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications. PMID:26432955

  10. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Rule Concerning Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR 35456 (Aug. 28, 1989). \\4... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May 13... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal...

  11. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing representatives, or CMS. (j) Use providers or provider groups to distribute printed information... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing...

  12. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  13. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%. PMID:22397265

  14. 2-Isopropylthioxanthone (2-ITX) in food and food packaging materials on the German market.

    PubMed

    Rothenbacher, T; Baumann, M; Fügel, D

    2007-04-01

    To elucidate the occurrence of the photo-initiator, 2-isopropylthioxanthone (2-ITX), more than 100 food products on the German market, packed in cartons, plastic cups and foils, were investigated. For this, a rapid method to detect 2-ITX in food packaging materials was established. In case of positive findings, the accompanying foodstuffs were analysed in a subsequent step using different extraction methods, depending on the fat content of the food. Determination of the photo-initiator was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD/FLD). Recoveries ranged between 94 and 106% for non-fatty (RSD foods (RSD

  15. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  16. Food references and marketing to children in Australian magazines: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the content and extent of food references and marketing within popular children's magazines in Australia. Sixteen popular Australian children's magazines were selected, as determined by readership and circulation data. Back copies of each magazine were purchased for publications released between January and December 2006 (n = 76). Each magazine was assessed for food references on the basis of 23 food categories and 7 food-referencing types and as either branded or non-branded food references. There were a high number of overall food references within the children's magazines, with the majority of these being for unhealthy food products (63.7% unhealthy versus 36.3% healthy foods, p < 0.001). The food groups with the highest proportion of branded food references, and therefore paid marketing, were ice cream and iced confection (85.6% branded references), fast food restaurant meals (83.4%), high-sugar drinks (78.9%) and snack foods (73.4%). Of all magazines, those targeting males and children aged 7-12 years had the highest proportion of unhealthy food references (78.1 and 69.8% unhealthy food references, respectively). Food references within children's magazines are common and skewed towards unhealthy foods. Children's high magazine readership rates and a lack of advertising and product placement regulations for magazines in Australia make this media an attractive target for food marketers. The timely establishment of food marketing regulations within magazines are recommended to prevent further expansion of food marketing in this area. PMID:17923469

  17. Strategies to Improve Marketing and Promotion of Foods and Beverages at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing often appears throughout schools in the form of posters, vending machine fronts, in-school television advertisements, school newspapers, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards. Many foods marketed in schools are of poor nutritional quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of…

  18. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  19. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  20. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  1. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  2. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  3. Accountable Care Organizations in California: Market Forces at Work?

    PubMed

    Whaley, Christopher; Frech, H E; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs), one of the most recent and promising health care delivery innovations, encourage care coordination among providers. While ACOs hold promise for decreasing costs by reducing unnecessary procedures, improving resource use as a result of economies of scale and scope, ACOs also raise concerns about provider market power. This study examines the market-level competition factors that are associated with ACO participation and the number of ACOs. Using data from California, we find that higher levels of preexisting managed care leads to higher ACO entry and enrollment growth, while hospital concentration leads to fewer ACOs and lower enrollment. We find interesting results for physician market power - markets with concentrated physician markets have a smaller share of individuals in commercial ACOs but a larger number of commercial ACO organizations. This finding implies smaller ACOs in these markets. PMID:26124301

  4. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life. PMID:10282295

  5. Study Abroad Programs in Business: Planning, Organizing, and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakori, Ahmad; Dotson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on study abroad programs as a means of increasing the intercultural understanding of U.S. business students. Offers guidelines for planning, organizing, and marketing such programs. (Author/JOW)

  6. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US

    PubMed Central

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies. PMID:15171786

  7. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-02-10

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies. PMID:15171786

  8. How to Market Training Within Your Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Chip

    1977-01-01

    To be successful, human resource development (HRD) managers must be marketers as well as trainers and performance engineers. The approach described in this article includes several components necessary to influence the outcomes of HRD decisions made by persons in higher positions. (Editor)

  9. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable “win-win” adjustments to help consumers eat better. PMID:23035805

  10. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable "win-win" adjustments to help consumers eat better. PMID:23035805

  11. Marketing whole grain breads in Canada via food labels.

    PubMed

    Sumanac, Dunja; Mendelson, Rena; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-03-01

    A recommendation for increased whole grain consumption was released in Canada in 2007 to promote adequate intakes of fibre and magnesium. Since then, a proliferation of 'whole grain' claims on food packaging has been observed, but whole grain labelling is voluntary and unregulated in Canada. Through a detailed survey of bread sold in three supermarkets, this study examined how the presence of front-of-package reference to whole grain relates to (i) the presence and nature of whole grain ingredients, (ii) nutrient content, and (iii) price of the product. Twenty-one percent of breads bore a reference to whole grain on the front-of-package and the front-of-package reference to whole grain was a better predictor of fibre content than any information that could be gleaned from the ingredient list. On average, breads with a whole grain reference were higher in fibre and magnesium and lower in sodium. Mean price did not differ by presence of a whole grain reference, but breads with whole grain labelling were less likely to be low in price. Voluntary nutrition labelling may be targeting a discrete market of health-conscious consumers who are willing to pay premium prices for more healthful options. PMID:23178749

  12. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. PMID:22504401

  13. A "Queen of Hearts" trial of organ markets: why Scheper-Hughes's objections to markets in human organs fail.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S

    2007-04-01

    Nancy Scheper-Hughes is one of the most prominent critics of markets in human organs. Unfortunately, Scheper-Hughes rejects the view that markets should be used to solve the current (and chronic) shortage of transplant organs without engaging with the arguments in favour of them. Scheper-Hughes's rejection of such markets is of especial concern, given her influence over their future, for she holds, among other positions, the status of an adviser to the World Health Organization (Geneva) on issues related to global transplantation. Given her influence, it is important that Scheper-Hughes's moral condemnation of markets in human organs be subject to critical assessment. Such critical assessment, however, has not generally been forthcoming. A careful examination of Scheper-Hughes's anti-market stance shows that it is based on serious mischaracterisations of both the pro-market position and the medical and economic realities that underlie it. In this paper, the author will expose and correct these mischaracterisations and, in so doing, show that her objections to markets in human organs are unfounded. PMID:17400616

  14. The economics and ethics of markets for human organs.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, federal legislation outlawing payment for human organs for transplantation was adopted after only cursory discussion of the underlying policy issues. More considered analysis suggests that this prohibition may be overly broad. It appears possible to design suitably regulated market-type approaches to the acquisition and allocation of cadaveric organs (and perhaps of organs from living donors as well) that will be neither unduly offensive to ethical sensibilities nor easily abused and that may yield significant improvements over the existing system of organ procurement, which presents important ethical and practical problems of its own. Moreover, whatever ultimate judgment we reach concerning the merits of markets for transplantable organs, analysis of the sources of the initial moral resistance to the commercialization that lies behind measures such as the 1984 legislation offers insights into the respective roles of market and nonmarket institutions in general. PMID:2654282

  15. Public moralities and markets in organs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2014-06-01

    Schweda and Schicktanz argue that the debate over the ethics of using financial incentives to procure human transplant organs rests on socioempirical premises that need to be critically assessed. They contend that once this is achieved a completely new perspective on the debate should be adopted, with organ donation being viewed primarily as a reciprocal social interaction between donor and recipient. This paper challenges this conclusion, arguing that rather than supporting a new perspective on the debate over the commercial procurement of organs, the observations of Schweda and Schicktanz support the view that human organs should be commercialized. PMID:24776980

  16. Proposal for a future delivery market for transplant organs.

    PubMed

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A R

    1986-01-01

    Improvements in surgical procedures and immunosuppressive practices have greatly increased the range and success rate of organ transplants. Unfortunately, supply does not meet demand, and demand is increasing. This paper documents the current level of unsatisfied demand for several transplantable organs, and argues that the extant system of altruistic organ donation is unlikely ever to provide adequate supply because of lack of incentives to donate and the ambiguity surrounding property rights over transplantable organs. A greater reliance on markets would help attenuate these problems. However, unorganized private spot markets for human organs are likely to be both inefficient and inequitable, and are perceived as morally offensive. A feasible alternative is an organized, publicly operated future delivery market, wherein an individual can contract, for valuable consideration, with a government agency for delivery of a specific organ upon death. The implementation of such a market would encounter difficult (but not intractable) problems such as price determination, the selection of a medium of exchange, and contractual issues, particularly the role of minors in such a system. Finally, it is argued that such a market is superior to the much-discussed compulsory expropriation alternative. PMID:3794265

  17. New Media but Same Old Tricks: Food Marketing to Children in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Freeman, Becky; Jenkin, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    'New media' refers to digital technologies, which offer unmatched opportunities for food companies to engage with young people. This paper explores the emergence of food marketing using new media, the potential impact of this marketing on young people, and current and potential policy responses to limit exposure to these promotions. Foremost in any informed policy discussion is the need for robust evidence to demonstrate the need for intervention. In this case, such evidence relates to the extent of children's exposures to commercial food promotions via new media, and the nature of these promotions. Approaches to, and challenges of, collecting and assessing these data are discussed. There is accumulating evidence that food marketing on new media is increasing and influences children's food preferences and choices. The impact of integrated campaigns, which reinforce commercial messages across multiple platforms, and of new media, which engage personally with potential consumers, is likely to be greater than that of traditional marketing. PMID:26627088

  18. A legal market in organs: the problem of exploitation.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the objection to a commercial market in living donor organs for transplantation on the ground that such a market would be exploitative of the vendors. It examines a key challenge to that objection, to the effect that denying poor people the option to sell an organ is to withhold from them the best that a bad situation has to offer. The article casts serious doubt on this attempt at justifying an organ market, and its philosophical underpinning. Drawing, in part, from the catalogued consequences of a thriving kidney market in some parts of India, it is argued that the justification relies on conditions which are extremely unlikely to obtain, even in a regulated donor market: that organ selling meaningfully improves the material situation of the organ vendor. Far from being axiomatic, both logic and the extant empirical evidence point towards the unlikelihood of such an upshot. Finally, the article considers a few conventional counter-arguments in favour of a permissive stance on organ sales. PMID:23001920

  19. An overview of the functional food market: from marketing issues and commercial players to future demand from life in space.

    PubMed

    Vergari, Francesca; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Basile, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being of their consumer. Among participants in space science and missions, recognition of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements is growing for their potential in reducing health risks and to improve health quality and eating habits during long-term flights and missions. In 2008 the entire functional foods market was worth over an estimated US $80 billion, with the US holding a majority share in the nutraceuticals market (35%) followed byJapan (25%) and with the ever-growing European market, currently estimated at US$8 billion. India and China are the two major countries known for their production of traditional functional food products and nutraceuticals, but other South-East Asian countries and Gulf nations are developing potential markets. PMID:21520721

  20. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  1. Concentration of bisphenol A in highly consumed canned foods on the U.S. market.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Gregory O; Ackerman, Luke K; Begley, Timothy H

    2011-07-13

    Metal food and drink cans are commonly coated with epoxy films made from phenolic polymers produced from bisphenol A (BPA). It is well established that residual BPA monomer migrates into can contents during processing and storage. While a number of studies have reported BPA concentrations in foods from foreign markets and specialty foods on the U.S. market, very few peer-reviewed data for the BPA concentrations in canned food from the U.S. market were available. This study quantified BPA concentrations in 78 canned and two frozen food products from the U.S. market using an adaptation of a previously reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The tested products represented 16 different food types that are from the can food classifications that constitute approximately 65% of U.S. canned food sales and canned food consumption. BPA was detected in 71 of the 78 canned food samples but was not detected in either of the two frozen food samples. Detectable BPA concentrations across all foods ranged from 2.6 to 730 ng/g. Large variations in BPA concentrations were found between different products of the same food type and between different lots of the same product. Given the large concentration ranges, the only distinguishable trend was that fruits and tuna showed the lowest BPA concentrations. Experiments with fortified frozen vegetables and brine solutions, as well as higher BPA concentrations in canned food solids over liquid portions, clearly indicated that BPA partitions into the solid portion of foods. PMID:21598963

  2. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 – by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries – to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  3. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  4. Biofuel-Food Market Interactions:A Review of Modeling Approaches and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Msangi, Siwa

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between biofuels and food markets remains a policy issue for a number of reasons. There is a continuing need to understand the role of biofuels in the recent spikes in global food prices. Also, there is an ongoing discussion of changes to biofuel policy as a means to cope with severe weather-induced crop losses. Lastly, there are potential interactions between food markets and advanced biofuels, although most of the latter are expected to be produced from non-food feedstocks. This study reviews the existing literature on the food market impacts of biofuels. Findings suggest that initial conclusions attributing most of the spike in global food prices between 2005 and 2008 to biofuels have been revised. Instead, a multitude of factors, in addition to biofuels, converged during the period. Quantitative estimates of the impacts of biofuels on food markets vary significantly due to differences in modeling approaches, geographical scope, and assumptions about a number of crucial factors. In addition, many studies do not adequately account for the effects of macroeconomic changes, adverse weather conditions and direct market interventions during the recent food price spikes when evaluating the role of biofuels.

  5. 75 FR 31430 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice Establishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Markets, 75 FR 23,759, as supplemented by Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... technical conference regarding frequency regulation in the organized wholesale power markets, as...

  6. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

  7. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  8. 78 FR 44574 - Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  9. 76 FR 55928 - Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  10. 77 FR 47652 - Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  11. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  12. Thinking Like a Whole Building: A Whole Foods Market New Construction Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.; McIntyre, M.; Scheib, J.

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  13. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P < 0.05) and premium offers (P < 0.001). During programs most popular with children, there were 3.3 non-core food advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children. PMID:18755740

  14. Food Marketing Expenditures Aimed at Youth Putting the Numbers in Context

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Fox, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC’s analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children’s meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12–16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. PMID:24050422

  15. Food marketing expenditures aimed at youth: putting the numbers in context.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Harris, Jennifer L; Fox, Tracy

    2013-10-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC's analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children's meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12-16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. PMID:24050422

  16. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper. PMID:24924413

  17. A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world. PMID:24433359

  18. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing. PMID:23154998

  19. Action needed to combat food and drink companies' social media marketing to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health. PMID:23657233

  20. Food for Thought: Building a High-Quality School Choice Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Although the for-profit retail and nonprofit education markets are not identical, many of the strategies used by reformers to improve markets for banking and food services could nonetheless benefit public education. As district and community leaders, charter school authorizers, and policymakers expand the marketplace of schools, they would be…

  1. Unpacking the Terms of Engagement with Local Food at the Farmers' Market: Insights from Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithers, John; Lamarche, Jeremy; Joseph, Alun E.

    2008-01-01

    Amidst much discussion of the values and venues of local food, the Farmers' Market (FM) has emerged as an important, but somewhat uncertain, site of engagement for producers, consumers and local food "champions". Despite the evident certainty of various operational rules, the FM should be seen as a complex and ambiguous space where (contingent)…

  2. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market. PMID:18582508

  3. The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

  4. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health. PMID:24479235

  5. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  6. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages. PMID:11066716

  7. Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Stewart; Lyons, Kristen; Lawrence, Geoffrey; Grice, Janet

    2004-10-01

    Path analysis of attitudinal, motivational, demographic and behavioural factors influencing food choice among Australian consumers who had consumed at least some organic food in the preceding 12 months showed that concern with the naturalness of food and the sensory and emotional experience of eating were the major determinants of increasing levels of organic consumption. Increasing consumption was also related to other 'green consumption' behaviours such as recycling and to lower levels of concern with convenience in the purchase and preparation of food. Most of these factors were, in turn, strongly affected by gender and the level of responsibility taken by respondents for food provisioning within their households, a responsibility dominated by women. Education had a slightly negative effect on the levels of concern for sensory and emotional appeal due to lower levels of education among women. Income, age, political and ecological values and willingness to pay a premium for safe and environmentally friendly foods all had extremely minor effects. PMID:15458800

  8. 75 FR 65942 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Transmitting Utilities, Order No. 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274... Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 4310 (Jan. 27,...

  9. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... discussed below. \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Order No. 741, 75 FR 65942 (Oct.... 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar. 14, 1997), FERC...

  10. 75 FR 30812 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Further Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Organized Wholesale Power Markets, 75 FR 23,759, as supplemented by Supplemental Notice of Technical... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... of Proposed Rulemaking on Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power...

  11. Overcoming challenges to effectiveness of mobile markets in US food deserts.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Lydia; Reznickova, Anna; Lohr, Luanne

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate whether mobile food markets may be effective in facilitating healthy food choices in food deserts. We investigate who does and does not use mobile food markets and why, and whether mobile markets have the potential to alter attitudes and food choices, and if so, how? We use a focus group study at four sites in the US to ask groups of mobile market shoppers and non-shoppers about their shopping, cooking, and eating attitudes and behaviors. We find that mobile market shoppers eat significantly more servings of fruits and vegetables, however, both shoppers and non-shoppers perceive fruits and vegetables as luxury items, and both groups lack knowledge about what is a serving and what is the recommended number of servings per day. Both groups identified the following needs for mobile markets to be more successful: increased awareness and advertising; affordability; improved convenience by offering more stops and hours, as well as greater variety of items for one-stop shopping; emphasis on value and service; and building trust within communities. PMID:24727100

  12. Persuasive techniques used in television advertisements to market foods to UK children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the nature and extent of use of persuasive marketing techniques in television advertisements (adverts) to promote foods to children. Popular UK commercial television channels broadcasting children's/family viewing were recorded for 2 days (6 am-10 pm) every month in 2008 and recordings were screened for adverts. Eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty eight adverts were for food and these were coded for peak/non-peak children's viewing time and representation of core (healthy)/non-core (unhealthy)/miscellaneous foods. The analysis assessed use of persuasive appeals, premium offers, promotional characters (brand equity and licensed characters), celebrity endorsers and website promotion in food adverts. Promotional characters, celebrity endorsers and premium offers were used more frequently to promote non-core than core foods, even on dedicated children's channels. Brand equity characters featured on a greater proportion of food adverts than licensed characters. A food brand website was promoted in a third of food adverts (websites are not covered by the statutory regulation on food advertising). This extensive analysis of television adverts demonstrated that the use of persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy foods was extensive in broadcasting popular with children despite regulations. Further studies should incorporate an analysis of the content of websites promoted during food adverts. PMID:22133361

  13. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  14. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  15. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  16. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  17. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. PMID:21527099

  18. New Directions in the Use of Virtual Reality for Food Shopping: Marketing and Education Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. PMID:21527099

  19. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  20. Bisphenol a in canned food products from canadian markets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana

    2010-06-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction followed by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food products. This method was used to analyze 78 canned food products for BPA. Concentrations of BPA in canned food products differed considerably among food types, but all were below the specific migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg set by the European Commission Directive for BPA in food or food simulants. Canned tuna products had the highest BPA concentrations in general, with mean and maximum values of 137 and 534 ng/g, respectively. BPA concentrations in the condensed soup products were considerably higher than those in the ready-to-serve soup products, with mean and maximum values of 105 and 189 ng/g, respectively, for the condensed soups and 15 and 34 ng/g, respectively, for the ready-to-serve soups. BPA concentrations in canned vegetable products were relatively low; about 60% of the products had BPA concentrations of less than 10 ng/g. Canned tomato paste products had lower BPA concentrations than did canned pure tomato products. The mean and maximum BPA concentrations were 1.1 and 2.1 ng/g, respectively, for tomato paste products and 9.3 and 23 ng/g, respectively, for the pure tomato products. PMID:20537264

  1. Effects of food marketing to kids: I'm lovin' it?

    PubMed

    Salinsky, Eileen

    2006-08-15

    This issue brief reviews key findings and recommendations from the Institute of Medicine study on food marketing and its effects on childhood obesity. The brief describes the childhood obesity epidemic, discusses key trends associated with rising childhood obesity rates, and considers the relative role of marketing practices on diet and obesity within the broader context of complex contributory factors. The brief also summarizes the current legal framework for regulating marketing directed at children;discusses voluntary, self-regulatory mechanisms; and highlights proposals to re-orient marketing practices to combat childhood obesity. PMID:16921671

  2. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  3. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  4. New dimension of slow food movement using supercritical fluid technology and methods to influence society by effective marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Ruhan Aşkın

    2016-07-01

    Although slow food movement is a well-known movement nowadays, in order to make it more widespread to the society, necessity to develop and to adapt new techniques has become inevitable for healthier consumption age. For this purpose, possibility of increased usage of healthy foods with addition of natural extracts using new techniques came out from relevant questionaries applied to people of different age groups. In this study, specific properties of supercritical carbon dioxide at distinct temperatures and water in subcritical conditions were used to obtain extracts rich in water-soluble organic compounds. Experiments were carried out at pressures of 10, 20, 30, and 40 MPa and temperatures ranging from 40 to 200 ℃ with and without modifier for 2 h of extraction time. The flow rate was kept at 4 and 1 ml/min for CO2 and water, respectively. The highest water-soluble organic compound recovery yield was 78.10%. Results were supported by marketing strategies to announce this new application and products to the society. Group of sample questions was prepared to investigate (a) frequency of staple food usage, (b) the brand names and relevant reasons that bring up consumers to buy specifically same branded products, (c) knowledge about the ingredients and how advertising effects purchasing decision, etc. Finally, efficiency increase in slow food consumption was proved with supercritical fluid technology to draw attention to the health of consumers with newer and functional healthy foods. PMID:26337983

  5. Marketing of human organs and tissues is justified and necessary.

    PubMed

    Kevorkian, J

    1989-01-01

    The bioethical guidelines now banning commerce in human body parts to be used for transplantation manifest unrealistic and arbitrary inflexibility which perpetuates and worsens the deficit in organ supply. Instead of relying on traditionally revered but now outmoded and even irrelevant bioethical maxims, formulators of the guidelines should have concentrated on a more meaningful situational adaptation to contemporary real-life circumstances. Many unexpectedly relevant and important nuances of concepts such as property, ownership, and altruism must now be taken into account. Hypothetical examples explore the morality of a universal ban by fiat and the associated problems of organ supply and demand, of cost and affordability, and of fair equity. It is difficult to justify purely altruistic organ donation today, when the health care professions and industries are frantically pursuing commercial profits. It is concluded that the ban should be scrapped in favor of a well-organized, open, and legally regulated commercial market for human organs and tissues. PMID:2495395

  6. Congestion Measures for Organized Markets in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-12-16

    Transmission lines deliver electricity that is generated at power plants to loads. When there is not sufficient transmission capacity to schedule or transport all desired electricity transfers, the transmission system is constrained, and the particular line, flowgate or interface is congested. While it is useful to measure congestion for several reasons—to identify where and how much congestion exists and how this changes over time, to determine whether or what to do about it, and to assess the effectiveness of actions taken—it is challenging to measure congestion in a meaningful and consistent way across markets or over time in the same market. This paper examines current public reporting of congestion measures for organized markets in the U.S., and what these measures can and cannot tell us about congestion across regions or over time in the same region.

  7. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new ‘learning organization’ and using effective internal marketing. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. Results A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a ‘learning organization’, internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Conclusion Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses. PMID:24708601

  8. Rice farming in Bali: organic production and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    All is not well with agriculture in Southeast Asia. The productivity gains of the Green Revolution have slowed and even reversed and environmental problems and shortages of water and land are evident. At the same time changing world markets are shifting the dynamics of national agricultural economies. But from the point of view of farmers themselves, it is their season-to-season economic survival that is at stake. Bali is in some ways typical of other agricultural areas in the region, but it is also a special case because of its distinctive economic and cultural environment dominated by tourism. In this environment, farmers are doubly marginalized. At the same time the island offers them unique market opportunities for premium and organic produce. This article examines the ways in which these opportunities have been approached and describes their varying degrees of success. It focuses especially on one project that has been successful in reducing production costs by conversion to organic production, but less so in marketing its produce. It argues finally for the need for integrated studies of the entire rice production/marketing complex, especially from the bottom-up point of view of farmers. PMID:21898940

  9. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    PubMed

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product. PMID:22397168

  10. The role of industry in bringing foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) to the market.

    PubMed

    Leathwood, P; MacLean, W; Uauy, R

    1999-12-01

    The process of bringing new food products from innovation to implementation requires a high level of interaction between researchers, marketers, and consumers. Researchers from industry and academia have the task of developing products that are not only efficacious, but also have a high probability of consumer acceptance. For most foods, industry must provide the most leadership in finding new product concepts, determining which products will have the widest markets, and in funding research and development. To accomplish these tasks, industry has forged partnerships with academic centers and scientists who excel in research and development, and continues to search for the best ways to communicate with consumers. For some FSMPs, other considerations, such as medical and nutritional needs (e.g., products for inborn errors of metabolism), might change the pattern of industry leadership. The following article explores the ways in which industry can facilitate the development and acceptance of beneficial and marketable food products. PMID:10723641

  11. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  12. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  13. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture. PMID:25221987

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATION AND ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHECKLIST AND PURCHASE OF MINI-MARKET BASKET FOOD (F09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for the administration and analysis of the food checklist and the purchase of mini-market basket food. This includes training the target individuals to fill out the food checklist and collecting the completed checklist; using...

  15. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products. PMID:26243938

  16. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362 (Mar. 29, 2010... Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,281 (2008...., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28,...

  17. How healthcare organizations use the Internet to market quality achievements.

    PubMed

    Revere, Lee; Robinson, Leroy

    2010-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment is having a strong bearing on the strategic marketing practices of hospitals. The Internet is a fairly new marketing tool, and it has the potential to dramatically influence healthcare consumers. This exploratory study investigates how hospitals use the Internet as a tool to market the quality of their services. Significant evidence exists that customers use the Internet to find information about potential healthcare providers, including information concerning quality. Data were collected from a random sample of 45 U.S. hospitals from the American Hospital Association database. The data included hospital affiliation, number of staffed beds, accreditation status, Joint Commission quality awards, and number of competing hospitals. The study's findings show that system-affiliated hospitals do not provide more, or less, quality information on their websites than do non-system-affiliated hospitals. The findings suggest that the amount of quality information provided on a hospital website is not dependent on hospital size. Research provides evidence that hospitals with more Joint Commission awards promote their quality accomplishments more so than their counterparts that earned fewer Joint Commission awards. The findings also suggest that the more competitors in a marketplace the more likely a hospital is to promote its quality as a potential differential advantage. The study's findings indicate that a necessary element of any hospital's competitive strategy should be to include the marketing of its quality on the organization's website. PMID:20210072

  18. Organization of bulk power markets: A concept paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.

    1995-12-01

    The electricity industry in the US today is at a crossroads. The restructuring debate going on in most regions has made it clear that the traditional model of vertically integrated firms serving defined franchise areas and regulated by state commissions may not be the pattern for the future. The demands of large customers seeking direct access to power markets, the entry of new participants, and proposed reforms of the regulatory process all signify a momentum for fundamental change in the organization of the industry. This paper addresses electricity restructuring from the perspective of bulk power markets. The authors focus attention on the organization of electricity trade and the various ways it has been and might be conducted. Their approach concentrates on conceptual models and empirical case studies, not on specific proposals made by particular utilities or commissions. They review literature in economics and power system engineering that is relevant to the major questions. The objective is to provide conceptual background to industry participants, e.g. utility staff, regulatory staff, new entrants, who are working on specific proposals. While they formulate many questions, they do not provide definitive answers on most issues. They attempt to put the industry restructuring dialogue in a neutral setting, translating the language of economists for engineers and vice versa. Towards this end they begin with a review of the basic economic institutions in the US bulk power markets and a summary of the engineering practices that dominate trade today.

  19. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. PMID:25881665

  20. Targeted Food Marketing to Youth: Engaging Professionals in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katras, Mary Jo; Kunkel, Kelly; Croymans, Sara R.; Routh, Brianna; Schroeder, Mary; Olson, Carrie Ann

    2014-01-01

    The use of technology provides unique ways to create an engaged online community of learning for professionals that can be integrated into existing and future Extension programming. The Targeted Food Marketing to Youth online professional development course uses strategies and tools to create and support an engaged online community.

  1. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen associated with severe disease in humans. We determined the prevalence, levels, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pulsotypes of L. monocytogenes in foodstuffs of common sale in three retail markets of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. The pathogen was isolate...

  2. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  3. Maps & Apps: Mobile Media Marketing Education for Food and Farm Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Julie; Leeds, Rob; Barrett, Eric

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing number of consumers using smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices to find and interact with local businesses, Ohio State University Extension developed a new curriculum aimed at improving market access for food and farm entrepreneurs. The literature review, curriculum framework, and lessons learned shared in this article…

  4. In Buyer's Market, Colleges Turn to Posh Dorms and Fast Food to Lure Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1989-01-01

    More and more colleges are building fancy residence halls and improving their grounds to stand out in an increasingly competitive market for freshmen. Colleges are also finding that they must upgrade their dining halls because students are going off campus for pizza and other fast food. (MLW)

  5. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  6. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  7. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  8. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  9. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  10. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Children’s net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  11. Alchemy in eden: entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880–1920.

    PubMed

    Lonier, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. In a manner akin to alchemy, the entrepreneurs behind these three firms recognized the inherent value of an agricultural Eden, then found ways to convert common, low-cost agricultural goods—oats, sugar, and cottonseed oil—into appealing, high-revenue branded food products. In the process, these ventures devised new demand-driven business models that exploited technology and communications advances, enabling them to tap a nascent consumer culture. Their pioneering efforts generated unprecedented profits, laid the foundation for iconic billion-dollar brands, and fundamentally changed how Americans make daily food choices. PMID:21114068

  12. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut. PMID:15508176

  13. Intake of bisphenol A from canned beverages and foods on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Apelbaum, Tali Zipora; Goeyens, Leo; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a contaminant which may be present in the coating of cans, was determined in 45 canned beverages and 21 canned food items from the Belgian market. Beverages had an average BPA concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, while canned foods had a higher average concentration of 40.3 ng/g. The amount of BPA present in food items was dependent on the type of can and sterilisation conditions rather than the type of food. For example, BPA was not detected in non-canned beverages (<0.02 ng/ml), while non-canned food items had a very low average concentration of 0.46 ng/g. Using detailed information from the Belgian food consumption survey, the BPA intake of adults through canned foods and beverages was estimated to be 1.05 µg/day or 0.015 µg/kg body weight/day (assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg). Intake assessments, based on urinary metabolite concentrations from the literature, resulted in slightly higher BPA intakes (range 0.028-0.059 µg/kg body weight/day). This suggests that sources other than canned foods and beverages contribute to BPA exposure in humans. PMID:20835936

  14. Obesity and fast food in urban markets: a new approach using geo-referenced micro data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants. PMID:22911977

  15. Are we indeed what we eat? Street food consumption in the Market Circle area of Takoradi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hiamey, Stephen Edem; Amuquandoh, Francis Eric; Boison, Grace Aba

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines street foods consumption in the Market Circle of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The data used for the study were obtained from individuals who were either purchasing or consuming street foods in the Market Circle in August of 2011. The results revealed that the average consumer makes use of street foods six times in a week and there was a penchant for carbohydrate based foods over other types of street foods. Reasons including cost saving, convenience and eating on credit were noted to underlie the consumption of street foods in the area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the high consumption of street foods in the Market Circle was for reasons other than nutrition and health. PMID:26341743

  16. Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence. PMID:22069808

  17. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  18. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children’s food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as “healthy” or “less-healthy”. Methods We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children′s television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word “child”. We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as “healthy” or “less-healthy” according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. Results We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as “less-healthy”. Conclusion In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic. PMID:24139325

  19. Explaining the present GM business strategy on the EU food market: the gatekeepers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Inghelbrecht, Linde; Dessein, Joost; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-25

    The use of genetically modified (GM) crops and their applications is partially suppressed in European Union (EU) agriculture, even if one would expect otherwise given their complementarity with the neoliberal and industrialised EU agricultural regime in place. By applying a qualitative content analysis, this paper analyses how food manufacturers and retailers (referred to as gatekeepers in the food industry) explain and defend the exclusion of GM-labelled food products on the EU market. The study design places emphasis on the role of perceptions in the strategic behaviour of gatekeepers and on the role of interaction in this regard, as we assume that the way in which gatekeepers perceive the 'rules of the game' for commercialising GM crop applications on the EU food market will be influenced by their interaction with other agribusiness actors. In a first stage, the analysis determines thematic congruence in the (types of) perceptions that explain an agribusiness actor's overall interpretation of the EU business environment for GM crop applications. This perceived 'structuring arena' (SA) for GM crop applications - as conceptualised within our framework - contains areas of either internal and external tensions, that have a compelling or non-committal influence on the agribusiness actor's interpretation. In a second stage, the analysis particularly defines how gatekeepers in the food industry perceive and experience the SA for GM crop applications on the EU market, and how these perceptual tensions subsequently influence their strategic behaviour for GM-labelled products on the EU market. Finally, we highlight how these perceptions and actions (or inaction) suppress the main changes in practice that are necessary to manage this wicked problem. PMID:25252022

  20. 76 FR 37817 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... levels, across the full length of the food-production chain, in order to reduce significantly the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That...

  1. Determinatıon of bisphenol a migrating from canned food and beverages in markets.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Köroğlu, Muaz; Özkan, Abdo

    2014-01-01

    The determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in foods and beverages sold in Turkish markets was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. In this research, foods packed in packages with an inner surface covered with plastic film, such as milk, fruit juice, cream, pudding and tuna samples were used. Furthermore, foods in glass jar and metal cans such as green peas, garniture, corn, tomato paste, pepper paste, pickles, mushroom and bean samples were also used. BPA concentrations were 21.86±0.80-1858.71±8.24μg kg(-1) for canned foodstuffs, 36.48±0.95-554.69±3.18μgkg(-1) for foods in paper box, "not detected" - 399.21±3.26μgkg(-1)for foods in glass jar. The change in the amount of bisphenol A in all of these food, based on expiration date, the amount of glucose and sodium chloride in it has been determined. We see that in these kind of food the amount of bisphenol A increases with an increase in the amount of glucose, NaCl and expiration date. PMID:24001816

  2. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  3. Strategic considerations for provider sponsored organizations entering the risk-bearing Medicare market.

    PubMed

    Treash, M; Thomson, K

    1997-01-01

    This article considers Michael Porter's five forces of industry competition as it relates to provider sponsored organizations and asks four important questions on marketing differentiation, quality, size of market, and product/service scope. PMID:10175719

  4. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  5. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  6. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality. PMID:24375441

  7. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: a phenomenological psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  8. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: A phenomenological psychological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  9. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  10. Food as pharma: marketing nutraceuticals to India’s rural poor

    PubMed Central

    Street, Alice

    2015-01-01

    This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies’ claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed and distributed in rural areas; and the concepts of health and well-being that are being promulgated through those marketing campaigns. Lastly, it asks what kinds of impact fast-moving nutraceuticals are likely to have on the lives of India’s rural poor. It concludes by questioning how smooth a transition to nutraceutical consumption Big Food marketing strategies can really facilitate and how readily low-income families seeking to feed their families and safeguard health will actually adopt concepts of wellness and internalise micro-nutrient associated risks. PMID:25866449

  11. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize. PMID:19602862

  12. Effects of market, e-marketing, and technology orientations on innovativeness and performance in Turkish health organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We test hypotheses that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables. PMID:27191549

  13. Effects of Market, E-Marketing, and Technology Orientations on Innovativeness and Performance in Turkish Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We hypothesize that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables. PMID:26674257

  14. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  15. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  16. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change. PMID:18976142

  17. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n = 306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

  18. Organ markets and human dignity: on selling your body and soul.

    PubMed

    Stempsey, W E

    2000-08-01

    This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant. PMID:12171077

  19. Why People Drink Shampoo? Food Imitating Products Are Fooling Brains and Endangering Consumers for Marketing Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release – e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers – and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  20. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  1. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  2. A “Queen of Hearts” trial of organ markets: why Scheper‐Hughes's objections to markets in human organs fail

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J S

    2007-01-01

    Nancy Scheper‐Hughes is one of the most prominent critics of markets in human organs. Unfortunately, Scheper‐Hughes rejects the view that markets should be used to solve the current (and chronic) shortage of transplant organs without engaging with the arguments in favour of them. Scheper‐Hughes's rejection of such markets is of especial concern, given her influence over their future, for she holds, among other positions, the status of an adviser to the World Health Organization (Geneva) on issues related to global transplantation. Given her influence, it is important that Scheper‐Hughes's moral condemnation of markets in human organs be subject to critical assessment. Such critical assessment, however, has not generally been forthcoming. A careful examination of Scheper‐Hughes's anti‐market stance shows that it is based on serious mischaracterisations of both the pro‐market position and the medical and economic realities that underlie it. In this paper, the author will expose and correct these mischaracterisations and, in so doing, show that her objections to markets in human organs are unfounded. PMID:17400616

  3. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace. PMID:19699433

  4. Volatile nitrosamines in foods and beverages: preliminary survey of the Italian market

    SciTech Connect

    Gavinelli, M.; Fanelli, R.; Bonfanti, M.; Davoli, E.; Airoldi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The question whether humans suffer from cancer as a result of exposure to N-nitroso compounds has not been yet answered. Food is one of the sources of human exposure to these compounds, and during the past decade considerable attention has in fact been paid to the identification and quantitative determination of N-nitroso compounds in food, volatile N-nitrosamines being those studied most extensively. Many studies have been made in different countries to establish the degree of contamination of foodstuffs typical for each country and to identify the efforts needed to remove or at least reduce their presence in the environment. So far, there are only a few reports of nitrosamines in Italian cheese and beers, but no extensive studies have been made in Italy. The authors present here a preliminary survey on volatile nitrosamine content in foods and beverages on the Italian market, including canned beef, pork, poultry, cured meat, milk products, domestic Italian canned wines and beers. A recently developed methods used for measuring nitrosamines in solid food matrices by simultaneous distillation-extraction followed by high resolution gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis (HRGC-TEA). Liquid food matrices and beverages were screened for nitrosamine content after column extraction and HRGC-TEA.

  5. The role of appeals to tradition in origin food marketing. A survey among Polish consumers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    The frequency of the use of tradition in marketing is growing. Appealing to tradition reflects the need to have reference points, trust and stability. The perceived authenticity of a product is strongly connected with its origin, which is expressed by the factors of time (history), place (area), socialisation (local community) and naturalness (raw materials). The paper aims to examine consumer attitudes, preferences and behaviours regarding origin food in Poland. We carried out a survey in a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. According to our respondents, the characteristics differentiating origin food from conventional food include links with tradition as well as sensory and health properties. Referring to the typology proposed by van der Meulen, traditionality and territoriality are the most important characteristics of origin food. The perceived authenticity of origin products depends to the largest extent on such factors as: natural taste, product quality, sale in the region of origin and labelling. The most important determinants of origin food selection include: traditional recipe, taste, and product uniqueness. PMID:25916623

  6. 76 FR 3188 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Routing Fees for the NASDAQ Options Market January 12, 2011...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on January 6, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ''...

  7. 77 FR 8312 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... that on January 31, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the... Change The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC proposes to modify Chapter XV, entitled ``Option Fees,'' at Sec....

  8. 76 FR 78325 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... hereby given that on November 30, 2011. The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed... of the Proposed Rule Change The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC proposes to amend Rule 7056 entitled...

  9. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  10. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing. PMID:10532385

  11. A Summative Evaluation of a Food Safety Social Marketing Campaign "4-Day Throw-Away" Using Traditional and Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katie J.; Albrecht, Julie A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Weishaar, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses remain a common problem in the United States. Focus group results indicated that lack of knowledge and improper handling of leftovers were common among food preparers in families with young children. The USDA-recommended storage time for leftovers was used to develop and conduct a food safety social marketing campaign, "4…

  12. The Food and Agriculture Organization's Gridded Livestock of the World.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Timothy P; Franceschini, Gianluca; Wint, William

    2007-01-01

    Livestock sector planning, policy development and analysis are frequently hampered by the paucity of reliable and accessible information on the distribution, abundance and use of livestock. In an attempt to redress this shortfall, the Food and Agriculture Organization's Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA) has, in collaboration with the Environmental Research Group Oxford, developed the 'Gridded Livestock of the World' database which provide the first standardised global, sub-national resolution maps of the major agricultural livestock species. These are now freely available for download on the FAO website. The data are produced in Environmental Systems Research Institute grid format for cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens and other poultry. The map values are animal densities per square kilometre, at a resolution of 3 minutes of arc (approximately 5 km at the Equator), and are derived from official census and survey data. Reported statistics are then processed using a combination of suitability masking and spatial disaggregation by statistical modelling of livestock densities based on empirical relationships between livestock densities and environmental variables in similar agro-ecological zones. The spatial nature of these livestock data allows a wide array of applications. Livestock distribution data give an estimation of production; they evaluate impact (both of and on livestock) by applying a variety of rates; and they provide the denominator in prevalence and incidence estimates for epidemiological applications, and the host distributions for transmission models. PMID:20422554

  13. FRET Sensor for Erythrosine Dye Based on Organic Nanoparticles: Application to Analysis of Food Stuff.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2016-07-01

    fluorescent organic nanoprobe developed for the detection of erythrosine (ETS) food dye in aqueous medium based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET process between donor (nanoparticles) and acceptor (ETS dye) arises due to oppositely charge attraction through hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantitative determination of ETS dye in food stuff sample collected from local market. PMID:27246163

  14. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR... Rulemaking and Notice of Technical Conference (Supplemental Notice), 75 FR 47,499, 132 FERC ] 61,094 (issued... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets;...

  15. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362... opportunity for comment on issues related to the March 18, 2010 NOPR, 75 FR 15362 (March 29, 2010), regarding... Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC...

  16. 18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER... Electric Markets § 35.47 Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale...

  17. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food samples on the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Papanicolaou, Christina; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2004-11-01

    Food intake is the main source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds for humans. The results of a surveillance programme on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) in 77 food samples from the Greek market and producers are presented. The study included the analyses of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish, vegetable oil, eggs, fruit, vegetable and rice collected between August and December 2002. After extraction, extracts were cleaned up on a series of carbon column chromatography, silica gel, alumina chromatography, and then analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. All samples had a dioxin content far below the EC Regulation (2375/2001/EC) limits. PMID:15331268

  18. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  19. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics

    PubMed Central

    Riis, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's ‘thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in ‘tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering ‘right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  20. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010. PMID:27306078

  1. Bisphenol A (BPA) and its source in foods in Japanese markets.

    PubMed

    Sajiki, J; Miyamoto, F; Fukata, H; Mori, C; Yonekubo, J; Hayakawa, K

    2007-01-01

    The determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and/or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in foods sold in Japanese markets and in water leached from six epoxy resin cans with similar diameters was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (LC/ECD), LC-mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS) and LC-tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS/MS). BPA concentrations were 0-842 ng g(-1) for 48 canned foods, 0-14 ng g(-1) for 23 foods in plastic containers, and 0-1 ng g(-1) for 16 foods in paper containers. No BADGE was detected in three canned foods. There was no difference in leaching concentrations of BPA into glycine buffers at pHs 8 and 11, and water. The amounts of BPA leached into water from six epoxy resin cans held at 121 degrees C for 20 min were almost the same as the cans' contents and were much higher than the amounts leached from cans held at or below 80 degrees C for 60 min. The amount leached depended on the type of can, but not on the amount of BADGE leached from the cans. Considerably more BPA than BADGE leached to water from six cans. Two cans whose contents had high concentrations of BPA showed no BADGE leaching even at 121 degrees C, suggesting the different kinds of epoxy resin can linings from others. The results imply that the main source of human exposure to BPA is food from cans with linings that contain high percentages of BPA as an additive or an unforeseen contaminant. PMID:17164221

  2. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  3. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  4. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: Promoting Excess Food Donation to Nonprofit...

  5. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  6. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  7. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers’ markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, April B.; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants’ diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Methods: Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Results: Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Conclusion: Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance. PMID:27123431

  8. Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and adolescents in New Zealand: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    No, Elizabeth; Kelly, Bridget; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10-17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10-17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10-17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012-January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. 'Snack items' such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while 'vegetables and fruits' were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In

  9. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. PMID:24630940

  10. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  11. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D.; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L.; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I.; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R.; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J.

    2011-01-01

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21873184

  12. Changes in the volume, power and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Martin, Cherie L; Kent, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pre- and post-implementation in terms of volume of marketing, marketing techniques, and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television. Methods Data for 11 food categories for May 2006 and 2011 were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for two children's specialty channels in Toronto. A content analysis of food advertisements examining the volume and marketing techniques was undertaken. Nutritional information on each advertisement was collected and comparisons were made between 2006 and 2011. Results The volume of ads aired by Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) companies on children's specialty channels decreased by 24% between 2006 and 2011; however, children and teens were targeted significantly more, and spokes-characters and licensed characters were used more frequently in 2011 compared to 2006. The overall nutritional quality of CAI advertisements remains unchanged between 2006 and 2011. Conclusion There are clear weaknesses in the self-regulatory system in Canada. Food advertising needs to be regulated to protect the health of Canadian children. PMID:24975614

  13. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners. PMID:19581578

  14. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-07-21

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners. PMID:19581578

  15. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital. PMID:8039859

  16. Television food marketing to children revisited: the Federal Trade Commission has the constitutional and statutory authority to regulate.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The evidence reveals that young children are targeted by food and beverage advertisers but are unable to comprehend the commercial context and persuasive intent of marketing. Although the First Amendment protects commercial speech, it does not protect deceptive and misleading speech for profit. Marketing directed at children may fall into this category of unprotected speech. Further, children do not have the same First Amendment right to receive speech as adults. For the first time since the Federal Trade Commission's original attempt to regulate marketing to children in the 1970s (termed KidVid), the political, scientific, and legal climate coalesce to make the time well-suited to reevaluate the FTC's authority for action. This paper analyzes the constitutional authority for the FTC to regulate television food marketing directed at children as deceptive in light of the most robust public health evidence on the subject. PMID:20446988

  17. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios indicate traditional and market food intake in an indigenous circumpolar population.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Bersamin, Andrea; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Church, Rebecca S; Pasker, Renee L; Luick, Bret R; Mohatt, Gerald V; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    The transition of a society from traditional to market-based diets (termed the nutrition transition) has been associated with profound changes in culture and health. We are developing biomarkers to track the nutrition transition in the Yup'ik Eskimo population of Southwest Alaska based on naturally occurring variations in the relative abundances of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C values). Here, we provide three pieces of evidence toward the validation of these biomarkers. First, we analyzed the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of a comprehensive sample of Yup'ik foods. We found that δ(15)N values were elevated in fish and marine mammals and that δ(13)C values were elevated in market foods containing corn or sugar cane carbon. Second, we evaluated the associations between RBC δ(15)N and δ(13)C values and self-reported measures of traditional and market food intake (n = 230). RBC δ(15)N values were correlated with intake of fish and marine mammals (r = 0.52; P < 0.0001). RBC δ(13)C values were correlated with intake of market foods made from corn and sugar cane (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001) and total market food intake (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001). Finally, we assessed whether stable isotope ratios captured population-level patterns of traditional and market intake (n = 1003). Isotopic biomarkers of traditional and market intake were associated with age, community location, sex, and cultural identity. Self-report methods showed variations by age and cultural identity only. Thus, stable isotopes show potential as biomarkers for monitoring dietary change in indigenous circumpolar populations. PMID:22157543

  18. Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market. PMID:22745109

  19. Quantifying the linkages among soil health, organic farming, and food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming systems utilize organic amendments, diverse crop rotations and cover crops to promote soil fertility and enhance soil health. These practices increase biologically available forms of soil organic matter, and increase the activities of beneficial soil microbes and invertebrates. Physi...

  20. The Impact of Sector on School Organizations: Institutional and Market Logics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Quirke, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on new institutional and market theories, this article derives three hypotheses for the effects of markets on educational organizations: They (1) weaken formal structures, (2) reverse tendencies toward isomorphism, and (3) force schools to recouple and compete via performance indicators. These ideas are investigated with data on private…

  1. 78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... conference with further details regarding the agenda and organization of the technical conference, as well as.../registration/cap-markets-09-25-13-form.asp The technical conference will not be transcribed. However,...

  2. 78 FR 45521 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and... June 17, 2013,\\1\\ the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) staff will hold a...

  3. 78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and... June 17, 2013, and the Supplemental Notice issued on July 19, 2013, the Federal Energy...

  4. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  5. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  6. Measurement challenges of detecting enteric organisms in food and water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need for rapid, inexpensive assays which can identify food-and water-borne pathogenic bacteria. Ideally, these assays should consistently detect the presence of pathogens in samples (low false negative rate), while simultaneously not being “fooled” by detecting closely related n...

  7. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food. PMID:26386300

  8. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  9. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  10. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy. PMID:27085486

  11. Determining the content of lead and cadmium in infant food from the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the toxic metals in the baby fruit and vegetable desserts, juices and dinners available on the Polish market, and find that these products a less are safe for infants. The average daily intake of cadmium and lead found in one jar of dessert, one bottle of juice and one jar of baby dinner is, respectively, 0.20 μg (2% of PTDI) and 0.82 μg (2.2% of PTDI), 0.15 μg (2% of PTDI) and 4.86 μg (13.6% of PTDI), and 0.98 μg (10% of PTDI) and 2.36 μg (6.7% of PTDI). It was confirmed that all the examined baby food met the requirements regarding lead and cadmium contamination, and the obtained results were lower than the maximum acceptable level of the contamination with these metals. It may be assumed that fruit and vegetable products available on the Polish market are safe for infants. However, in some products, the levels of cadmium and lead were high. PMID:22229828

  12. Cardioprotective cryptides derived from fish and other food sources: generation, application, and future markets.

    PubMed

    Mora, Leticia; Hayes, Maria

    2015-02-11

    The primary function of dietary protein is to provide amino acids for protein synthesis. However, protein is also a source of latent bioactive peptides or cryptides with potential health benefits including the control and regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major, controllable risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is also implicated in the development of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and end-stage diabetes. Cryptides can act on various systems of the body including the circulatory, gastrointestinal (GI), nervous, skeletal, and respiratory systems. A number of studies carried out to date have examined the health benefits of food protein isolates and hydrolysates. This review provides an overview of existing blood pressure regulating peptides and products derived from fish and other protein sources and hydrolysates. It discusses the methods used currently to generate and identify cryptides from these sources and their application in food and pharmaceutical products. It also looks at the current market for protein-derived peptides and peptide-containing products, legislation governing their use, and the future development of research in this area. PMID:25597264

  13. Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1– 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel. PMID:24260281

  14. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food. PMID:25694688

  15. Organic farming: Impacts on soil, food, and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of responsible stewardship in managing soil is a central tenet of organic farming. Organic farmers believe that practices which stimulate biology and overall quality of soil enhance production of healthy and nutritious crops. Few involved in agriculture would argue this point. Neverth...

  16. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles.

    PubMed

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2015-09-16

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis. In a recent study, in which we investigated neglected exogenous routes of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union, we have isolated 15 L. monocytogenes strains in food products, which were imported from the Republic of Moldavia to Romania and illegally sold at a local market. The aim of this study was to characterize the subtype and virulence potential of these 15 L. monocytogenes strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that these L. monocytogenes strains belong to six different sequence types (ST2, ST8, ST9, ST20, ST121 and ST155). In addition, in vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 and macrophage-like THP1 cells showed a high strain variability regarding the invasion efficiency in Caco2 cells (0.98-2.78%) and the intracellular growth rate in both cell types. Both ST121 strains and the ST9 isolate were unable to invade Caco2 cells, and all ST155 strains showed no proliferation inside macrophages and revealed low cytotoxicity. Furthermore we performed sequence analysis of three main virulence factors: PrfA, internalin A (InlA) and listeriolysin O (LLO). The Romanian food isolates showed a high diversity in the InlA and LLO amino acid sequences, whereas the amino acid sequence of PrfA of all strains was identical. Overall, the amino acid sequences of PrfA, InlA and LLO were identical for strains belonging to the same ST. We detected in total 30 different amino acid substitutions, resulting in seven different InlA variants, two of which have not yet been described. The three strains, which were unable to invade Caco2 cells, harboured a premature stop codon resulting in truncated InlA. Furthermore, we detected four different amino acid substitutions in the LLO sequence, which are present in four variants. The number of LLO mutations correlates negatively with intracellular growth in Caco2 and THP1 cells and

  17. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors. PMID:18935879

  18. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations. PMID:27407182

  19. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Gimeno, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fast food consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fast food consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (β: 0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fast food consumption (β: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fast food and BMI weakened but remained significant (β: 0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fast food consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fast food. PMID:24623903

  20. Organ transplantation: is the best approach a legalized market or altruism?

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Allison

    2009-01-01

    More than 100,000 individuals are on the waiting list to receive a lifesaving transplant, but many of them will not receive the organ they need. Legislation has been passed to support organ donation--the current organ procurement system in the United States is governed by the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 1968 and the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984--but a shortage of donated organs remains. Potential solutions include a legalized organ market, expanded legislation, therapeutic cloning, and xenotransplantation. If no change occurs, the black market in organ procurement will continue to expand. A comprehensive approach consisting of both short-term (increased education and national paired-kidney exchange) and long-term solutions (expanded legislation to fund and promote therapeutic cloning) is presented in this essay. PMID:19681356

  1. 78 FR 62726 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...\\, and Rule 19b-4 \\2\\ thereunder, notice is hereby given that on October 2, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market... transfer from the NASDAQ Global or Global Select Market to the NASDAQ Capital Market. Finally,...

  2. Organizing for Effective Marketing Communications in Higher Education: Restructuring for Your Competitive Edge in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Gene C.; Smith, Rick J.

    1999-01-01

    Suggestions for restructuring marketing efforts within colleges and universities stress the institution's primary profit center: student recruitment and retention. Techniques such as continuous quality improvement and implementation of a task force concept are recommended as a way of synergistically employing all the institution's assets and…

  3. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  4. 17 CFR 75.11 - Permitted organizing and offering, underwriting, and market making with respect to a covered fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offering, underwriting, and market making with respect to a covered fund. 75.11 Section 75.11 Commodity and... organizing and offering, underwriting, and market making with respect to a covered fund. (a) Organizing and... implementing regulations issued thereunder. (c) Underwriting and market making in ownership interests of...

  5. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  6. 7 CFR 226.13 - Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT..., each sponsoring organization must conduct reasonable edit checks on the day care homes' meal claims... and types of meals served each day to each enrolled child by name. The sponsoring organization...

  7. Food-Grade Organisms as Vaccine Biofactories and Oral Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Angulo, Carlos; Meza, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The use of food-grade organisms as recombinant vaccine expression hosts and delivery vehicles has been explored during the past 25 years, opening new avenues for vaccinology. Considering that oral immunization is a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and protection of mucosal tissues, the use of food-grade organisms can lead to highly advantageous vaccines in terms of costs, easy administration, and safety. The organisms currently used for this purpose are bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacillus), yeasts, algae, plants, and insect species. Herein, a comparative and updated scenario on the production of oral vaccines in food-grade organisms is provided and placed in perspective. The status of clinical evaluations and the adoption of this technology by the industry are highlighted. PMID:26708345

  8. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. PMID:24374910

  9. Foods from black market at EU border as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Bolocan, Andrei-Sorin; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rovira, Jordi; Hernández, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-09-16

    The illegal entrance of foods to EU through black markets at the EU borders can constitute a neglected route of dissemination of foodborne pathogens, and in particular of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have assessed the presence of MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border (the southeast part of Romania, on the border with Republic of Moldavia). We performed a search for MRSA among 200 food samples collected from 2012 to 2013. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 32 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 16 food samples (8%). One isolate detected in a pork lard sample was MRSA (0.5%). PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI revealed 12 genotypes among the 32 S. aureus isolates. The MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type 398, harbored SCCmec type V, tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes and was resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and cefazolin, besides all β-lactams. Among 31 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 29% were resistant to penicillin, 9.7% to tetracycline and 3.2% to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, in this study we report the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border: ST398-MRSA-V. These results confirm the potential role of food in the dissemination of MRSA lineages among population, and the potential role of illegally introduced food to EU in the prevalence and evolution of MRSA clones in the community. PMID:25442069

  10. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  11. Stability and Resilience as Organizing Constructs for Aquatic Food Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, E. A.

    2003-12-01

    The idea that physical, chemical, and biological systems tend to persist in stable configurations underlies much theoretical understanding of systems behavior. Systems analysis indicates that locally (as opposed to globally) stable configurations of systems may persist indefinitely. The existence of such locally stable configurations may to some extent explain the phenomenon of regime shifts and the irreversibility of some anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a stochastic environment merely being stable is not good enough. Resilience becomes important. Given a multitude of stable system configurations, a stochastic environment will tend to select for those configurations that are most resilient. The greater the variance associated with environmental noise, the greater the selection pressure. Application of the concept of maximum resilience to pelagic and mesopelagic food webs leads to predictions about system behavior that are in remarkable agreement with observations. The predictions underscore the role of temperature as a regulator of community behavior.

  12. Alternative and Organic Beef Production: Food-Safety Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sales of organic beef is increasing yearly due to the perception of it being more nutritious, better for the environment, contains minimal levels of pesticides, is produced without growth hormones, is not genetically engineered, and is produced using improved animal welfare practices. Artisan, ...

  13. Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a

  14. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  15. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. PMID:24436145

  16. Why do drug treatment organizations use contingent staffing arrangements? An analysis of market and social influences.

    PubMed

    Lemak, Christy Harris; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Roy, Jason

    2003-06-01

    Contingent staffing arrangements are defined as conditional and transitory work arrangements. In the drug abuse treatment sector, contingent staffing arrangements have the potential to improve treatment if they are used to increase access to needed services. Alternatively, such arrangements could interfere with the development of consistent, long-term client-staff relationships. Unfortunately, little is known about the consequences of or influences on contingent staff arrangements in this sector. The goal of this study is to examine the conditions under which outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations are more likely to use contingent staffing arrangements. Building on previous research on the social organization of health care structures and practices, we develop a conceptual model based in market economics and institutional perspectives to suggest that treatment organizations choose contingent arrangements in response to market conditions and uncertainty, institutional demands, and client needs. Using data from a nationally representative study conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1995, we find limited evidence that drug treatment units use contingent staff in response to market pressures. Labor market and demand uncertainty, however, are systematically associated with greater use of contingent staff. Study results suggest that expectations and norms from the institutional environment, particularly the organizational context of the treatment unit are strong predictors of the use of contingent staff. By considering both market and social influences of contingent staffing, we contribute to a growing body of research on how markets and institutions interact to influence organizational structures and practices in the health care system. PMID:12866389

  17. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products. PMID:25920234

  18. Shoppers' perceived embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Scott, Steffanie

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the concept of perceived embeddedness (PE) and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market. Based on a review of the prior literature, the study refines the conceptualization and measurement of PE as a second-order factor construct reflected in its three dimensions: perceived social embeddedness, perceived spatial embeddedness, and perceived natural embeddedness. The study also suggests that organic farmers' market shoppers' PE is positively related to the two measures of purchasing behavior: expenditure per visit and repurchase intention. In a sample of 492 organic farmers' market shoppers in Beijing municipality, China, the study find support for the second-order factor structure of PE and the theorized relationship between the shoppers' PE and their purchasing behavior. The study also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the findings. PMID:25128837

  19. Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Arvaniti, Fotini; Zampelas, Antonis

    2006-01-01

    Consumer concern over the quality and safety of conventional food has intensified in recent years, and primarily drives the increasing demand for organically grown food, which is perceived as healthier and safer. Relevant scientific evidence, however, is scarce, while anecdotal reports abound. Although there is an urgent need for information related to health benefits and/or hazards of food products of both origins, generalized conclusions remain tentative in the absence of adequate comparative data. Organic fruits and vegetables can be expected to contain fewer agrochemical residues than conventionally grown alternatives; yet, the significance of this difference is questionable, inasmuch as actual levels of contamination in both types of food are generally well below acceptable limits. Also, some leafy, root, and tuber organic vegetables appear to have lower nitrate content compared with conventional ones, but whether or not dietary nitrate indeed constitutes a threat to human health is a matter of debate. On the other hand, no differences can be identified for environmental contaminants (e.g. cadmium and other heavy metals), which are likely to be present in food from both origins. With respect to other food hazards, such as endogenous plant toxins, biological pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms, available evidence is extremely limited preventing generalized statements. Also, results for mycotoxin contamination in cereal crops are variable and inconclusive; hence, no clear picture emerges. It is difficult, therefore, to weigh the risks, but what should be made clear is that 'organic' does not automatically equal 'safe.' Additional studies in this area of research are warranted. At our present state of knowledge, other factors rather than safety aspects seem to speak in favor of organic food. PMID:16403682

  20. Bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic selenium in a laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.M.; Canfield, T.J.; La Point, T.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic organisms accumulated selenium (Se) from inorganic and organic Se species via aqueous and food-chain exposure routes. The authors measured aqueous and food-chain Se bioaccumulation from selenate, selenite, and seleno-L-methionine in a laboratory food chain of algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus). Selenium concentrations were monitored radiometrically with [sup 75]Se-labeled compounds. All three organisms concentrated Se more strongly from aqueous selenomethionine than from either inorganic Se species. Bioconcentration factors estimated from 1 [mu]g Se/L Se-methionine exposures were approximately 16,000 for algae, 200,000 for daphnids, and 5,000 for bluegills. Algae and daphnids concentrated Se more strongly from selenite than selenate whereas bluegills concentrated Se about equally from both inorganic species. Bioaccumulation of foodborne Se by daphnids and bluegills was similar in food chains dosed with different Se species. Daphnids and bluegills did not accumulate Se concentrations greater than those in their diet, except at very low dietary Se concentrations. Food-chain concentration factors (CFs) for daphnids decreased from near 1.0 to 0.5 with increases in algal Se concentrations, whereas CFs estimated from bluegill exposures averaged 0.5 over a range of foodborne Se concentrations. In exposures based on selenite, bluegills accumulated greater Se concentrations from food than from water.

  1. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

  2. Foodomics: A new tool to differentiate between organic and conventional foods.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2016-07-01

    The demand for organic food is increasing annually due to the growing consumer trend for more natural products that have simpler ingredient lists, involve less processing and are grown free of pesticides. However, there is still not enough nutritional evidence in favor of organic food consumption. Classical chemical analysis of macro- and micronutrients has demonstrated that organic crops are poorer in nitrogen, but clear evidence for other nutrients is lacking. Omics technologies forming part of the new discipline of foodomics have allowed the detection of possible nutritional differences between organic and conventional production, although many results remain controversial and contradictory. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the studies that use foodomics techniques as a tool to differentiate between organic and conventional production. PMID:26553784

  3. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications. PMID:22827164

  4. Food web magnificaton of persistent organic pollutants in poikilotherms and homeotherms.

    PubMed

    Hop, Haakon; Borgá, Katrine; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Kleivane, Lars; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-06-15

    Food web magnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was determined for the Barents Sea food web using 615N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels (TL). The food web investigated comprised zooplankton, ice fauna and fish (poikilotherms, TL 1.7-3.3), and seabirds and seals (homeotherms, TL 3.3-4.2), with zooplankton representing the lowest and glaucous gull the highest trophic level. Concentrations of lipophilic and persistent organochlorines were orders of magnitude higher in homeotherms than in poikilotherms. These compounds had significantly higher rates of increase per trophic level in homeotherms relative to poikilotherms, with the highest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) for cischlordane and p,p'-DDE. Some compounds, such as transnonachlor and HCB, had similar rates of increase throughout the food web, whereas compounds that are more readily eliminated (gamma-HCH) showed no relationship with trophic level. It is preferable to calculate FWMFs with regard to thermal groups, because the different energy requirements and biotransformation abilities between poikilotherms and homeotherms may give different rates of contaminant increase with trophic level. When biomagnification is compared between ecosystems, FWMFs are preferable to single predator-prey biomagnification factors. FWMFs represent a trophic level increase of contaminants that is average for the food chain rather than an increase for a specific predator-prey relationship. The Barents Sea FWMFs were generally comparable to those determined for marine food webs with similar food chain lengths in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:12099454

  5. A non-equilibrium model for predicting bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in aquatic food-webs

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H.; Lazar, R.; Haffner, G.D.; Whittle, D.M.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.

    1995-12-31

    A sub-model describing bioaccumulation and biomagnification in benthic invertebrates was incorporated into a steady-state food-web model (Gobas, 1993) was modified, to estimate concentrations of organic contaminants in aquatic organisms based on chemical concentrations in water and sediments. Model predictions were in good agreement with field data when applied to western Lake Erie. The improved ability of the model to simulate bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates, makes this model particularly useful for quantifying contaminant transfer in the benthic food-web.

  6. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    PubMed

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape? PMID:18374111

  7. Significant food interactions observed with a nifedipine modified-release formulation marketed in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Wonnemann, M; Schug, B; Schmücker, K; Brendel, E; van Zwieten, P A; Blume, H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of nifedipine bioavailability after single dose administration of Adalat OROS 30 (Reference) and Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 tablets (Test). Both modified release formulations are marketed in Member States of the European Union. Prior to the clinical study the in vitro dissolution characteristics were investigated. There was a significant pH dependency observed with the Test product but drug release with the Reference product was almost independent of the experimental conditions used. In the subsequent open, randomized, controlled, 4-way crossover study both pharmaceutical products were administered to 28 healthy male volunteers, either after fasting overnight or immediately after a high-fat American breakfast. Blood sampling was performed over 48 hours post-dose for the determination of pharmacokinetic profiles of nifedipine. Considerable differences were observed between the two formulations when administered to fasted subjects where maximum nifedipine plasma concentration (C(max)) were higher in the case of the Test formulation. Differences were even more pronounced after a high-fat American breakfast. Under these conditions a significant food interaction was detected in the case of Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 with a three-fold increase in the mean C(max) when compared to values obtained in fasting subjects. In contrast, food intake had no clinically relevant effect on bioavailability of nifedipine (rate and extent) in the case of Adalat OROS 30. The pharmacokinetic findings in this study were reflected in the adverse event pattern which indicated a potential tolerability problem in the case of Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30. The results confirm the relationship between the in vitro dissolution profile results and the effects of the drug in vivo. Dose dumping after intake of a high-fat meal could be shown. Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 is not bioequivalent to Adalat OROS 30 and produced highly variable

  8. Fairness Is an Emergent Self-Organized Property of the Free Market for Labor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2010-06-01

    The excessive compensation packages of CEOs of U.S. corporations in recent years have brought to the foreground the issue of fairness in economics. The conventional wisdom is that the free market for labor, which determines the pay packages, cares only about efficiency and not fairness. We present an alternative theory that shows that an ideal free market environment also promotes fairness, as an emergent property resulting from the self-organizing market dynamics. Even though an individual employee may care only about his or her salary and no one else's, the collective actions of all the employees, combined with the profit maximizing actions of all the companies, in a free market environment under budgetary constraints, lead towards a more fair allocation of wages, guided by Adam Smith's invisible hand of self-organization. By exploring deep connections with statistical thermodynamics, we show that entropy is the appropriate measure of fairness in a free market environment which is maximized at equilibrium to yield the lognormal distribution of salaries as the fairest inequality of pay in an organization under ideal conditions.

  9. Organic horticulture, compost, and season-extending tunnels: Food Safety and crop quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer demand for fresh, local, organic produce continues to increase in the U.S. and internationally. Consumers and growers often form direct market links that reinforce consumer confidence that produce contains no pesticide or agrichemical residues and is at its peak quality, flavor, and freshn...

  10. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions. PMID:21879100

  11. 77 FR 34453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Update the NASDAQ Options Market Message Traffic Mitigation Rule June... 19b-4 \\2\\ thereunder, notice is hereby given that, on May 29, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market...

  12. 78 FR 54336 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... August 16, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... would conform non-display MDS in Rule 7026(b) with non-display MDS on PSX, the equity market of...

  13. 78 FR 32495 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 15, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the... quotations only of accessible markets. The term ``System routing table'' refers to the proprietary...

  14. 76 FR 2742 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Pricing for NASDAQ Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market...

  15. 75 FR 57091 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center September 10... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on September 7, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  16. 75 FR 21069 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center April 16, 2010...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on April 13, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'')...

  17. 77 FR 1542 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center January 4, 2012...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'')...

  18. 76 FR 34786 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center June 8, 2011...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on May 25, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange''...

  19. 76 FR 44076 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... (November 3, 2010), 75 FR 69792 (November 15, 2010). In order to comply with the Market Access Rule, NES and... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend NASDAQ Stock Market Equities Trading Rules 4757 and 4758...

  20. 76 FR 55954 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center September 1... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on August 25, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the...

  1. 76 FR 48186 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center August 2, 2011...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on July 27, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange''...

  2. 75 FR 28082 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center May 11, 2010...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed...

  3. 75 FR 18932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center April 6, 2010...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'')...

  4. 75 FR 14227 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, Relating to the Elimination of a Market Maker Requirement for Each Option Series March 18, 2010. I. Introduction On January 14, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  5. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, To Adopt a New Market Maker Peg Order Available to Exchange Market Makers August 2, 2012. I. Introduction On...

  6. 77 FR 21132 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... is hereby given that on March 28, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange... Options Market (``NOM''), NASDAQ's facility for executing and routing standardized equity and...

  7. 76 FR 25384 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... hereby given that on April 28, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ''), filed with the Securities... ``Commission'') a proposal for The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') to amend Rule...

  8. 75 FR 20415 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 26, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'') filed... on The Nasdaq Stock Market (a) No change. (b) Obligation to Make Public Disclosure (1) No change....

  9. 75 FR 3774 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 30, 2009, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange...,\\5\\ The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') is filing with the Securities...

  10. 77 FR 52375 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Eliminate Market Maker Pre-Opening Obligations on NOM August 23, 2012...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 10, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ''...

  11. 75 FR 22887 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...), 74 FR 39362 (August 6, 2009) (National Market System Plan Relating to Options Order Protection and... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...\\ notice is hereby given that, on April 20, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the...

  12. 77 FR 27105 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on April 30, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with... processing that NASDAQ provides to members that trade on the NASDAQ Market Center. Currently, Rule...

  13. 75 FR 64769 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 7, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ''), filed with the... electronically submit clearly erroneous reports with NASDAQ MarketWatch and to anonymously negotiate...

  14. 76 FR 25730 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... hereby given that on April 18, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'') filed with the Securities... to List on The Nasdaq Stock Market (a)-(h) No change (i) Reverse Mergers between a Private...

  15. 77 FR 76572 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., notice is hereby given that on December 12, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange... ``Options Pricing,'' governing pricing for NASDAQ members using the NASDAQ Options Market (``NOM''),...

  16. 78 FR 17272 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on March 1, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the...-exchange markets. Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61358 (January 14, 2010), 75 FR 3594 (January...

  17. 75 FR 6245 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center February 2, 2010...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on February 1, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or...

  18. 75 FR 61539 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center September 29... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  19. 76 FR 36950 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Anti-Internalization Functionality for Registered Market Makers on the NASDAQ Options Market June 17, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities...

  20. 78 FR 48744 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... strikes until the close of trading on the second business day prior to expiration in unusual market... close of trading on the second business day prior to a monthly expiration in unusual market conditions... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  1. 78 FR 21691 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...\\ and the commitment of capital. \\28\\ Firms, Non-NOM Market Makers and Broker-Dealers receive a $0.10..., Non-NOM Market Makers and Broker-Dealers from $0.47 to $0.48 per contract.\\23\\ Second, the Exchange... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  2. 76 FR 8791 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... 4, 2011), 76 FR 1653 (January 11, 2011) (SR-NYSE-2010-87). Second, NASDAQ is modifying the fee for... value to an exchange's market quality associated with higher levels of market activity, such as higher... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  3. 76 FR 77032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...) the shares of liquidity provided in all securities through one of its Market Participant...

  4. 75 FR 69489 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Release No. 61358 (January 14, 2010), 75 FR 3594 (January 21, 2010) (Concept Release on Equity Market... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  5. 75 FR 26225 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the ISO/RTO...

  6. 75 FR 29531 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... the April 27 Notice, the conference will provide a forum to consider issues related to...

  7. 75 FR 27330 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice of Agenda for Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice of Agenda for Technical Conference May 5, 2010. As announced in the Notice of Technical Conference issued on April 15, 2010, Commission staff will hold...

  8. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is issuing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) proposing an approach for compensating demand response resources in order to improve the competitiveness of organized wholesale energy markets and thus ensure just and reasonable wholesale rates. The Commission invites all interested persons to submit comments in response to the regulatory text proposed......

  9. 77 FR 66658 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... immediately effective basis.\\4\\ \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63784 (January 27, 2011), 76 FR... help the Commission process and review your comments more efficiently, please use only one method. The... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  10. 77 FR 52373 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...), 73 FR 69685 (November 19, 2008) (SR-BSE-2008-48). See also BX Rule 1013(a)(5). The process by which... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58927 (November 10, 2008), 73 FR 69685 (November 19, 2008) (SR-BSE-2008... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  11. 78 FR 21996 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of a Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Chapter V, Section 3 Subparagraph (d)(iv) Regarding Obvious Error or Catastrophic Error Review April 8, 2013....

  12. 75 FR 63732 - Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations, Designated Contract Markets, and Swap...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Organizations,'' 74 FR 18982 (April 27, 2009) (which defined ``public director''); 72 FR 6936 (Feb. 14, 2007... Release''); 71 FR 38740 (July 7, 2006) (which proposed acceptable practices for the DCM core principle... FR at 6937. a. DCOs In general, in the commodity futures and options markets, the DCM decides...

  13. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  14. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 µg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 µg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  15. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. PMID:26610287

  16. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  17. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL...

  18. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues remaining attached to equipment surfaces during poultry processing operations can potentially generate cross-contamination and thus increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. Current pre-operational sanitation monitoring mainly relies on human visual inspection, which is subje...

  19. 7 CFR 226.13 - Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT... and types of meals served each day to each enrolled child by name. The sponsoring organization shall... enrolled child in the day care home), or attendance lists (which show, by days or meals, the rate...

  20. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: INNOVATIONS IN ORGANIC MARKETING, TECHNOLOGY, AND RESEARCH - INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional research and education is needed to provide the U.S. organic agricultural sector with the tools necessary to meet growing consumer demand for organic products. The papers presented at the USDA Organic Agriculture Workshop, held on October 6-7, 2005, identified key obstacles and explored n...

  1. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings. PMID:25236206

  2. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  3. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. PMID:25063421

  4. Information, market government, and health policy: a study of health data organizations in the states.

    PubMed

    Overman, E S; Cahill, A G

    1994-01-01

    Information is essential to the success of market-oriented policies. Information on health care costs and quality is collected and distributed by state governments through health data organizations (HDOs) to enhance competition and lower costs in the medical industry and to improve consumer choice among medical alternatives. This article examines the information collected, produced, and distributed by state health data organizations in Colorado and Pennsylvania. Findings reveal that information was not the objective determinant of choice and competition as market-oriented policy designers had hoped. Nor did market-oriented bureaucracies produce and distribute data readily accessible for public choice. Instead, information produced and distributed by these HDOs was the result of political and bureaucratic exercises that conform much more to classic interest group policymaking and captured bureaucracies than to contemporary market-oriented government ideals. The findings underscore the extraordinary difficulties facing federal-level policy designers as they contemplate introducing market-oriented health care policies on the national level. PMID:10135356

  5. Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

    2006-01-01

    One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials. PMID:18681201

  6. National markets for organic waste-derived fertilizers and soil amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Pierzynski, G.M.; Pepperman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has seen enormous growth in the U.S. in the recycling of organic waste materials like sewage sludge, manures, yard waste, solid waste and various industrial wastes. This has been prompted by real or perceived shortages of landfill capacity, state and federal regulations favoring beneficial use of organic wastes, and public support for recycling. Use of fertilizers and soil amendments derived from these wastes has been stimulated by favorable supply-side economics, a shift to organic/sustainable agriculture, and water quality concerns that favor slow-release nutrient sources. This paper summarizes the properties and beneficial use attributes of the various wastes and their derived products, markets for these materials, and constraints/strategies for market penetration.

  7. The Meaning of ‘Dining’: The Social Organization of Food in Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Ruth; Armstrong, Pat; Daly, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the social organization of food provision in publicly funded and regulated long-term care facilities. Methods Observations were conducted, along with 90 interviews with residents, families, and health providers in two Southern Ontario sites using rapid site-switching ethnography within a feminist political economy framework as part of an international, interdisciplinary study investigating healthy ageing. Results Food is purchased within a daily $7.80/per resident allotment, limiting high quality choices, which is further problematized by privatization of food services. Funding restrictions also result in low staffing levels, creating tensions in aligning with other Ministry mandated tasks such as bathing, and documenting: competing demands often lead to rushed meals. Regulations, primarily set in response to scandals and to ensure appropriate measured nutrition, reinforce the problem. Further, regulations regarding set meal times result in lack of resident agency, which is compounded by fixed menu options and seating arrangements in one common dining room. Rather than being viewed as an important part of resident socialization, food is reduced to a medicalized task, organized within a climate of cost-containment. Implications Findings warrant Ministry financial support for additional staff and for food provision. Policy changes are also required to give primacy to this population’s quality of life. PMID:27088052

  8. Thinking Like a Whole Building: Whole Foods Market New Construction Summary, U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  9. Organic Nutrients and Contaminants In Subsistence Species of Alaska: Concentrations and Relationship To Food Preparation Method

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Whiting, Alex V.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wang, Xiaowa; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine nutrient and contaminant concentrations, document concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for select subsistence foods consumed by residents of Kotzebue, Alaska. Study design Eleven organic nutrients and 156 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. Methods Nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake criteria. POPs were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). Results Cooking, as well as absence/presence of skin during sheefish processing, altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations in seals and fish. Sheefish muscle and seal blubber were particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids and seal liver in vitamin A. Seal liver exceeded the recommended upper limit for vitamin A. POP contribution to TDIL was <25% in all tissues except blubber, in which 4 POPs were present at >25% TDIL. No POPs exceeded TDIL in a serving of any tissue studied. The most prominent concerns identified were levels of vitamin A in spotted seal liver and certain POPs in blubber, warranting consideration when determining how much and how often these foods should be consumed. Conclusions Preparation methods altering tissues from their raw state significantly affect nutrient and contaminant concentrations, thus direct evaluation of actual food items is highly recommended to determine risk-benefits ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide essential nutrients with very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage the consumption of traditional foods and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models to assess overall food safety and quality. PMID:19917188

  10. Data in support of the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples

    PubMed Central

    Alasaad, Noor; Alzubi, Hussein; Kader, Ahmad Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data. The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis. PMID:26958644

  11. Data in support of the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Noor; Alzubi, Hussein; Kader, Ahmad Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data. The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis. PMID:26958644

  12. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  13. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  14. Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

  15. Community-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844

  16. Self-organizing Ising model of artificial financial markets with small-world network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haijie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Anghui; Su, Guifeng; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    We study a self-organizing Ising-like model of artificial financial markets with underlying small-world (SW) network topology. The asset price dynamics results from the collective decisions of interacting agents which are located on a small-world complex network (the nodes symbolize the agents of a financial market). The model incorporates the effects of imitation, the impact of external news and private information. We also investigate the influence of different network topologies, from regular lattice to random graph, on the asset price dynamics by adjusting the probability of the rewiring procedure. We find that a specific combination of model parameters reproduce main stylized facts of real-world financial markets.

  17. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  18. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  19. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p < 0.001). In 2013, children watching GC had a higher relative risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p < 0.001). The proportion of broadcasting between NCFA/CFA and OFA food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p < 0.001). Conclusions Broadcasting of unhealthy TV food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  20. Self-Organized Criticality and Stock Market Dynamics: an Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bartolozzi; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas

    2004-05-01

    The Stock Market is a complex self-interacting system, characterized by an intermittent behavior. Periods of high activity alternate with periods of relative calm. In the present work we investigate empirically about the possibility that the market is in a self-organized critical state (SOC). A wavelet transform method is used in order to separate high activity periods, related to the avalanches of sandpile models, from quiescent. A statistical analysis of the filtered data show a power law behavior in the avalanche size, duration and laminar times. The memory process, implied by the power law distribution, of the laminar times is not consistent with classical conservative models for self-organized criticality. We argue that a ''near-SOC'' state or a time dependence in the driver, which may be chaotic, can explain this behavior.

  1. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis. PMID:20359265

  2. The food chain as a source of human exposure to organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although human exposure to environmentally released pollutants can occur via several pathways including, inhalation, ingestion of contaminated food items, infant consumption of mother's milk, and dermal absorption, of particular concern are potential exposures from ingesting contaminated food items, since the food chain has been shown to be a primary source of human exposure to a large class of organics, including DDT, TCDD, pentachlorophenol, benzo(a)pyrene, and most pesticides. For risk assessment purposes, an important objective in evaluating the environmental behavior and fate of various pollutants is predicting the major pathways and extent of human exposure. Many chemicals cycle in the environment with cross-media transfers occurring between air, water, soil, and biota. As a result of this cycling behavior and a chemical's presence in various environmental media, human exposure often results from multiple sources. We found that 50--80% of all chemicals released into the environment result in human exposure through multiple media. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a perspective on the food chain as a source of human exposure to organic chemicals chronically released into the environment. 121 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  4. Tackling pollution by organic farming is capable of increasing fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Aviñó, J P; Navarro, J J Fernández; Castro, V Vargas; Ripoll, I Ilzarbe; Sahuquillo, M J Márquez

    2016-06-01

    The global pollution stage is poisoning the biosphere and causing global temperatures to rise, necessitating a drastic change in the way man is dealing with nature. One change that may produce many beneficial effects on the biosphere and human health is the use of specific organic farming to produce food in a more integrated way in nature and to increase the capacity of man's own response. Despite many experts' opinion another way to deal with environmental contamination is possible: organic farming, which can increase man's ability to fortify foods. After more than 20 years working under this discipline, Bodegas Dagon is able to achieve the highest stilbenes concentrations (as resveratrol). Versus 14.3 mg/l, "Bodegas Dagón" wines contain resveratrol (HPLC and UV-spectroscopy) up to 1611.73 ± 72.66 mg/l, standing as world's potentially healthiest wine reported to date. PMID:26374929

  5. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  6. How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Els M; Angelini, Christine; Govers, Laura L; Christianen, Marjolijn J A; Altieri, Andrew H; van der Reijden, Karin J; Silliman, Brian R; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Geest, Matthijs; van Gils, Jan A; van der Veer, Henk W; Piersma, Theunis; de Ruiter, Peter C; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2016-03-16

    The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and West African tropical seagrass meadows. Results reveal that habitat-modifying species, through non-trophic facilitation rather than their trophic role, enhance species richness across multiple trophic levels, increase the number of interactions per species (link density), but decrease the realized fraction of all possible links within the food web (connectance). Compared to the trophic role of the most highly connected species, we found this non-trophic effects to be more important for species richness and of more or similar importance for link density and connectance. Our findings demonstrate that food webs can be fundamentally shaped by interactions outside the trophic network, yet intrinsic to the species participating in it. Better integration of non-trophic interactions in food web analyses may therefore strongly contribute to their explanatory and predictive capacity. PMID:26962135

  7. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products. PMID:24261938

  8. Evidence for the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon in a proglacial stream food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Hudson, J.H.; Bozeman, Maura; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.

    2015-01-01

    We used natural abundance δ13C, δ15N, and Δ14C to compare trophic linkages between potential carbon sources (leaf litter, epilithic biofilm, and particulate organic matter) and consumers (aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish) in a nonglacial stream and two reaches of the heavily glaciated Herbert River. We tested the hypothesis that proglacial stream food webs are sustained by organic carbon released from glacial ecosystems. Carbon sources and consumers in the nonglacial stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -30‰ to -25‰ for δ13C and from -14‰ to 53‰ for Δ14C reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial stream sites was highly Δ14C-depleted (-215‰ to 175‰) relative to the nonglacial stream consistent with the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon. IsoSource modeling showed that in upper Herbert River, macroinvertebrates (Δ14C = -171‰ to 22‰) and juvenile salmonids (Δ14C = −102‰ to 17‰) reflected a feeding history of both biofilm (~ 56%) and leaf litter (~ 40%). We estimate that in upper Herbert River on average 36% of the carbon incorporated into consumer biomass is derived from the glacier ecosystem. Thus, 14C-depleted glacial organic carbon was likely transferred to higher trophic levels through a feeding history of bacterial uptake of dissolved organic carbon and subsequent consumption of 14C-depleted biofilm by invertebrates and ultimately fish. Our findings show that the metazoan food web is sustained in part by glacial organic carbon such that future changes in glacial runoff could influence the stability and trophic structure of proglacial aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Effects of magnesium, chromium, iron and zinc from food supplements on selected aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Bosnir, Jasna; Puntarić, Dinko; Cvetković, Zelimira; Pollak, Lea; Barusić, Lidija; Klarić, Ivana; Miskulin, Maja; Puntarić, Ida; Puntarić, Eda; Milosević, Milan

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on selected aquatic organisms including freshwater algae Scenedesmus subspicatus and Raphidocelis subcapitata, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. Thirty different food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn were analyzed. Results were expressed as effective concentration 50 (EC50), i.e. growth inhibiting Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn (mg/L) concentration immobilizing 50% of treated organisms. Particular metal EC50 differed significantly (p < 0.001) among study organisms, as follows (in ascending order): Scenedesmus subspicatus EC50 Fe (median 46.9 mg/L) < Zn (59.8 mg/L) < Mg (73.0 mg/L) < Cr (88.1 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120) = 36.856; p < 0.001); Raphidocelis subcapitata EC50 Fe (median 44.9 mg/L) < Zn (52.6 mg/L) < Mg (62.2 mg/L) < Cr (76.8 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120) = 44.0936; p < 0.001); Daphnia magna EC50 Zn (median 59.4 mg/L) < Cr (79.2 mg/L) < Fe (80.8 mg/L) Mg (82.0 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120) = 39.2637; p < 0.001); and Lemna minor EC50 Zn (median 131.0 mg/L) < Fe (186.8 mg/L) < Mg (192.5 mg/L) < Cr (240.4 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120) = 58.6567; p < 0.001). Uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn exerts adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, legal provisions should regulate both the utilization and disposal of food supplements into the environment. PMID:24308244

  10. A survey of Fusarium toxins in cereal-based foods marketed in an area of southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, M; Suchy, S; Jara, H T; Drochner, W; Müller, H M

    1999-01-01

    A total of 237 commercially available samples of cereal-based foods including bread and related products, noodles, breakfast cereals, baby and infant foods, rice and other foods were randomly collected in southwest Germany during the first six months of 1998. The trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-,15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry following clean-up by a two stage solid-phase extraction. Detection limits ranged between 2 and 12 micrograms/kg. Based on all samples, the incidence of DON, HT-2, T-2, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, and NIV was at 71, 18, 4, 4, 4 and 2%, respectively; the average contents in positive samples were at 103, 16, 14, 17, 24 and 109 micrograms/kg, respectively. Fus-X was not detected in any sample. A lower (P < 0.05) DON content was found in baby and infant foods as well as in cookies and cakes compared to bread. Overall, based on the incidence and level of all six toxins, the degree of contamination was lowest in baby and infant foods. Foods produced from either white or whole grain flour did not differ (P > 0.05) with regard to the incidence and level of DON. In foods produced from cereals of organic production both the incidence and median content of DON was lower compared to conventional production. Zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in 20 selected samples, mostly baby and infant foods. These toxins were not present in excess of the detection limit in any sample. PMID:10872516

  11. The use of physicochemical methods to detect organic food soils on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, K A; Benson, P; Smith, L A; Verran, J

    2009-11-01

    Food processing surfaces fouled with organic material pose problems ranging from aesthetic appearance, equipment malfunction and product contamination. Despite the importance of organic soiling for subsequent product quality, little is known about the interaction between surfaces and organic soil components. A range of complex and defined food soils was applied to 304 stainless steel (SS) surfaces to determine the effect of type and concentration of soil on surface physicochemical parameters, viz surface hydrophobicity (DeltaG(iwi)), surface free energy (gamma(s)), Lifshitz van der Waals (gamma_LW(s)), Lewis acid base (gamma_AB(s)), electron acceptor (gamma_+(s) ) and electron donor (gamma_-(s) ) measurements. When compared to the control surface, changes in gamma_AB(s), gamma_+(s) and gamma_-(s) were indicative of surface soiling. However, soil composition and surface coverage were heterogeneous, resulting in complex data being generated from which trends could not be discerned. These results demonstrate that the retention of food soil produces changes in the physicochemical parameters of the surface that could be used to indicate the hygienic status of a surface. PMID:20183133

  12. Millennial-aged organic carbon subsidies to a modern river food web.

    PubMed

    Caraco, Nina; Bauer, James E; Cole, Jonathan J; Petsch, Steven; Raymond, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that highly aged material is a major component of organic matter transported by most rivers. However, few studies have used natural 14C to trace the potential entry of this aged material into modern river food webs. Here we use natural abundance 14C, 13C, and deuterium (2H) to trace the contribution of aged and contemporary organic matter to an important group of consumers, crustacean zooplankton, in a large temperate river (the Hudson River, New York, USA). Zooplankton were highly 14C depleted (mean delta14C = -240 per thousand) compared to modern primary production in the river or its watershed (delta14C = -60 per thousand to +50 per thousand). In order to account for the observed 14C depletion, zooplankton must be subsidized by highly aged particulate organic carbon. IsoSource modeling suggests that the range of the aged dietary subsidy is between approximately 57%, if the aged organic matter source was produced 3400 years ago, and approximately 21%, if the organic carbon used is > or = 50 000 years in age, including fossil material that is millions of years in age. The magnitude of this aged carbon subsidy to river zooplankton suggests that modern river food webs may in some cases be buffered from the limitations set by present-day primary production. PMID:20836460

  13. How Television Fast Food Marketing Aimed at Children Compares with Adult Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Bergamini, Elaina; Marijnissen, Jill; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Quick service restaurant (QSR) television advertisements for children’s meals were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies to assess whether self-regulatory pledges for food advertisements to children had been implemented. Methods All nationally televised advertisements for the top 25 US QSR restaurants from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010 were obtained and viewed to identify those advertising meals for children and these advertisements were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies. Content coding included visual and audio assessment of branding, toy premiums, movie tie-ins, and depictions of food. For image size comparisons, the diagonal length of the advertisement was compared with the diagonal length of salient food and drink images. Results Almost all of the 92 QSR children’s meal advertisements that aired during the study period were attributable to McDonald’s (70%) or Burger King (29%); 79% of 25,000 television placements aired on just four channels (Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, Disney XD, and Nicktoons). Visual branding was more common in children’s advertisements vs. adult advertisements, with food packaging present in 88% vs. 23%, and street view of the QSR restaurant present in 41% vs. 12%. Toy premiums or giveaways were present in 69% vs. 1%, and movie tie-ins present in 55% vs. 14% of children’s vs. adult advertisements. Median food image diagonal length was 20% of the advertisement diagonal for children’s and 45% for adult advertisements. The audio script for children’s advertisements emphasized giveaways and movie tie-ins whereas adult advertisements emphasized food taste, price and portion size. Conclusions Children’s QSR advertisements emphasized toy giveaways and movie tie-ins rather than food products. Self-regulatory pledges to focus on actual food products instead of toy premiums were not supported by this analysis. PMID:24015250

  14. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  15. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Bokhorst, J G; Northolt, M D; van de Vijver, L P L; Broex, N J G; Mevius, D J; Meijs, J A C; Van der Roest, J

    2008-10-01

    Organic products were analysed for the presence of contaminants, microorganisms and antibiotic resistance and compared with those from conventional products. No differences were observed in the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in organic and conventional wheat, during both a dry period and a very wet period which promoted the production of these toxins. Nitrate levels in head lettuce produced organically in the open field were much lower than those in conventional products. In iceberg lettuce and head lettuce from the greenhouse, no differences were detected. Organically produced carrots contained higher nitrate levels than conventional products. Both organic and conventional products contained no residues of non-polar pesticides above the legal limits, although some were detected in conventional lettuce. Organic products contained no elevated levels of heavy metals. Salmonella was detected in 30% of pig faeces samples obtained from 30 organic farms, similar to the incidence at conventional farms. At farms that switched to organic production more then 6 years ago no Salmonella was detected, with the exception of one stable with young pigs recently purchased from another farm. No Salmonella was detected in faeces at the nine farms with organic broilers, and at one out of ten farms with laying hens. This is comparable with conventional farms where the incidence for Salmonella lies around 10%. Campylobacter was detected in faeces at all organic broiler farms, being much higher than at conventional farms. One of the most remarkable results was the fact that faeces from organic pigs and broilers showed a much lower incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, except for Campylobacter in broilers. It is concluded that the organic products investigated scored as equally well as conventional products with regard to food safety and at the same time show some promising features with respect to antibiotic resistance. PMID:18608495

  16. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii. PMID:25704978

  17. Toxicity of selenium and other elements in food organisms to razorback sucker larvae.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A; Weston, L Ken; McDonald, Susan F

    2002-09-24

    Elevated selenium concentrations documented in water, sediment, and biota in irrigation drain water studies by U.S. Department of the Interior agencies and academia have raised concerns that selenium may be adversely affecting endangered fish in the upper Colorado River basin. The objective of the study was to determine the effects on endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from exposure to selenium and other trace elements in water and zooplankton collected from sites adjacent to the Colorado River near Grand Junction, CO. A 30-day study was initiated with 5-day-old larvae exposed in a 4 x 4 factor experiment with four food and four water treatments, and the biological endpoints measured were survival, growth, development, and whole-body residues of selenium. Mean selenium concentration in reference water (24-Road) was <0.7 microg/l, in reference food (brine shrimp) was 3.2 microg/g, at Horsethief was 1.6 microg/l in water and 6.0 microg/g in zooplankton, at Adobe Creek was 3.4 microg/l in water and 32 microg/g in zooplankton, and at Walter Walker was 13 microg/l in water and 52 microg/g in zooplankton. Although there were differences in concentrations of inorganic elements in water and biota among the three sites, selenium was apparently the only element elevated to concentrations of concern. Effects on survival were more prominent from dietary exposure compared to waterborne exposure. Selenium concentrations of >or=4.6 microg/g in food organisms adversely affected the survival of razorback sucker larvae. The onset of mortality in larvae exposed to food and water from Walter Walker seemed delayed compared to mortality in larvae exposed to food and water from Horsethief, which has been observed in two other studies. Elevated arsenic in one food source seemed to interact with selenium to reduce the toxic effects of selenium. PMID:12127741

  18. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  19. 78 FR 40223 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's... Notice. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for,...

  20. 78 FR 21655 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change... of an IPO. * * * * * II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and...

  1. Thraustochytrids, a neglected component of organic matter decomposition and food webs in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter in marine sediments is a critical step influencing oxygen and carbon fluxes. In addition to heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, osmoheterotrophic protists may contribute to this process, but the extent of their role as decomposers is still unknown. Among saprophytic protists, the thraustochytrids have been isolated from different habitats and substrates. Recently, they have been reported to be particularly abundant in marine sediments characterized by the presence of recalcitrant organic matter such as seagrass and mangrove detritus where they can reach biomass comparable to those of other protists and bacteria. In addition, their capacity to produce a wide spectrum of enzymes suggests a substantial role of thraustochytrids in sedimentary organic decomposition. Moreover, thraustochytrids may represent a food source for several benthic microorganisms and animals and may be involved in the upgrading of nutrient-poor organic detritus. This chapter presents an overview on studies of thraustochytrids in benthic ecosystems and discusses future prospectives and possible methods to quantify their role in benthic food webs. PMID:22222824

  2. Cognitive and behavioral assessment in dogs and pet food market applications.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Steven C

    2005-03-01

    A multi-disciplinary program was developed to assess the efficacy of antioxidant inclusion in a canine pet food on cognitive decline in aged beagles. A systematic approach to development of the food was used prior to beginning the cognitive studies. Comprehensive evaluation of antioxidant ingredients included assessments of commodities with naturally occurring antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants not commonly utilized, or at different concentrations than what was commonly utilized, in commercial pet foods. Studies were conducted to insure stability through processing, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, safety, and tests for potential antioxidant biological benefit by ex vivo tests. Testing of the antioxidant-fortified food in aged beagles slowed the rate of cognitive decline in aged dogs. In addition, environmental enrichment also slowed the rate of cognitive decline. Importantly, the combination of dietary antioxidants and environmental enrichment was synergistic and resulted in the least amount of cognitive decline over the 30-month study period. Finally, a clinical study showed that antioxidant fortified food improved age-related behavioral changes in older pet dogs at in-home situations. PMID:15795054

  3. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. PMID:22036836

  4. Precursors to overnutrition: the effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane' adults in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rosinger, Asher; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition transitions are characterized by shifts in diet and activity levels that lead to changes in weight and body fatness over a relatively short time. Research has linked these nutritional shifts to socio-economic factors, including wealth and income. However, few studies have examined household spending patterns on market foods among subsistence populations, which may reveal food access, choice, and indicate household nutritional environment. This paper examines the relation between household monetary expenditures on "market" foods and measures of body composition among Tsimane', a forager-horticulturalist indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic and anthropometric surveys were conducted for adults (n = 1199) 16 years or older in 563 households in 40 Tsimane' villages in 2008. Results indicate that overweight status (19% of men and 24% of women) is more common than obesity (1% of men and 4% of women). Sixty-one percent (61%) of households reported purchasing market foods during the previous week. Multiple linear and logistic regressions suggest that men living in households in the top third of monetary expenditures on market foods had significantly higher BMI (0.69 kg/m(2); p = 0.027), weight (1.80 kg; p = 0.048), percent body fat (1.06%; p = 0.025), and probability of being overweight/obese (Odds ratio = 1.83; p = 0.042) than men in households that reported not spending money on market foods in the previous week. We discuss the possibility that the division of labor may help explain the differences between men and women in this sample. This research suggests household expenditures on market foods may mediate the relation between wealth and body composition. PMID:23849279

  5. Typology of eaters based on conventional and organic food consumption: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Touvier, Mathilde; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary information was obtained using a 264-item, semi-quantitative, organic FFQ. To identify clusters of consumers, principal component analysis was applied on sixteen conventional and sixteen organic food groups followed by a clustering procedure. The following five clusters of consumers were identified: (1) a cluster characterised by low energy intake, low consumption of organic food and high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes; (2) a cluster of big eaters of conventional foods with high intakes of SFA and cholesterol; (3) a cluster with high consumption of organic food and relatively adequate nutritional diet quality; (4) a group with a high percentage of organic food consumers, 14 % of which were either vegetarians or vegans, who exhibited a high nutritional diet quality and a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of most vitamins except B12; and (5) a group of moderate organic food consumers with a particularly high intake of proteins and alcohol and a poor nutritional diet quality. These findings may have implications for future aetiological studies investigating the potential impact of organic food consumption. PMID:27311793

  6. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  7. Gnathostoma spinigerum in Live Asian Swamp Eels (Monopterus spp.) from Food Markets and Wild Populations, United States

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States. PMID:24661441

  8. A general method for selection of riboflavin-overproducing food grade micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Catherine M; Smid, Eddy J; Rutten, Ger; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Background This study describes a strategy to select and isolate spontaneous riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Leuconostoc (Lc.) mesenteroides and Propionibacterium (P.) freudenreichii. Results The toxic riboflavin analogue roseoflavin was used to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing variants of the food grade micro-organisms Lb. plantarum, Lc. mesenteroides and P. freudenreichii strains. The method was successfully employed for strains of all three species. The mutation(s) responsible for the observed overproduction of riboflavin were identified for isolates of two species. Conclusion Selection for spontaneous roseoflavin-resistant mutants was found to be a reliable method to obtain natural riboflavin-overproducing strains of a number of species commonly used in the food industry. This study presents a convenient method for deriving riboflavin-overproducing strains of bacterial starter cultures, which are currently used in the food industry, by a non-recombinant methodology. Use of such starter strains can be exploited to increase the vitamin content in certain food products. PMID:16848883

  9. Speciated non-methane organic compounds emissions from food cooking in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica, V.; Vega, E.; Chow, J.; Reyes, E.; Sánchez, G.; Arriaga, J.; Egami, R.; Watson, J.

    Non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions from different sorts of food preparation sites, were quantified for the first time in Mexico, in order to develop emission profiles for further application in the chemical mass balance receptor model (CMB). Restaurants using charcoal grills and LP gas stoves, "tortillerı´as", food frying places and rotisseries were sampled using SUMMA ® stainless-steel canisters to analyse NMOC by high-resolution gas chromatography. The results obtained show that profiles determined from food cooking processes have similarities to those found in LP gas combustion, which is the most common fuel in Mexico used for this purpose, although there were differences in the relative composition of propane and butane in both cases. This suggests that, the rates of combustion of propane and butane are different. It has also been detected that propene, a reactive olefin is produced during the combustion process. The obtained profiles of restaurants, rotisseries and fried food show an important contribution of two carbon compounds (ethane, ethylene and acetylene) that can be attributed to the complex process of grease and meat cooking. The presence of these compounds cannot be attributed to vehicular sources since the concentrations are higher than in ambient air. These were also determined from aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene and xylene in the combustion of vegetal charcoal. The measured concentrations indicate that NMOC emissions from cooking may become an important indoor source of NMOC under crowded conditions in closed places.

  10. A nutribusiness strategy for processing and marketing animal-source foods for children.

    PubMed

    Mills, Edward W; Seetharaman, Koushik; Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional benefits of animal source foods in the diets of children in developing countries indicate a need to increase the availability of such foods to young children. A nutribusiness strategy based on a dried meat and starch product could be used to increase children's access to such foods. The "Chiparoo" was developed at The Pennsylvania State University with this objective in mind. Plant-based and meat ingredients of the Chiparoo are chosen based on regional availability and cultural acceptability. Chiparoo processing procedures, including solar drying, are designed to ensure product safety and to provide product properties that allow them to be eaten as a snack or crumbled into a weaning porridge. Continued work is needed to develop formulation and processing variations that accommodate the needs of cultures around the world. PMID:17374690

  11. Assimilation of aged organic carbon in a glacial river food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Bozeman, M.; Hudson, J.; Arimitsu, M.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying the key sources of organic carbon supporting fish and invertebrate consumers is fundamental to our understanding of stream ecosystems. Recent laboratory bioassays highlight that aged organic carbon from glacier environments is highly bioavailable to stream bacteria relative to carbon originating from ice-free areas. However, there is little evidence suggesting that this aged, bioavailable organic carbon is also a key basal carbon source for stream metazoa. We used natural abundance of Δ14C, δ13C, and δ15N to determine if fish and invertebrate consumers are subsidized by aged organic carbon in a glacial river in southeast Alaska. We collected biofilm, leaf litter, three different species of macroinvertebrates, and resident juvenile salmonids from a reference stream and two sites (one site is directly downstream of the glacial outflow and one site is upstream of the tidal estuary) on the heavily glaciated Herbert River. Key producers, fish, and invertebrate consumers in the reference stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -26 to -30‰ for δ13C and from -12 to 53‰ for Δ14C, reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial sites was highly Δ14C depleted (-203 to -215‰) relative to the reference site. Although biofilm may consist of both bacteria and benthic algae utilizing carbon depleted in Δ14C, δ13C values for biofilm (-24.1‰), dissolved inorganic carbon (-5.9‰), and dissolved organic carbon (-24.0‰) suggest that biofilm consist of bacteria sustained in part by glacier-derived, aged organic carbon. Invertebrate consumers (mean Δ14C of -80.5, mean δ13C of -26.5) and fish (mean Δ14C of -63.3, mean δ13C of -25.7) in the two glacial sites had carbon isotope values similar to biofilm. These results similarly show that aged organic carbon is incorporated into the metazoan food web. Overall, our findings indicate that continued watershed deglaciation and

  12. 78 FR 6842 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Establish a New Optional Wireless Connectivity for Colocated Clients January 25, 2013. On October 10, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  13. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    PubMed

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective. PMID:14753321

  14. 77 FR 40926 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

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  15. 75 FR 16224 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Delay the Application of NASDAQ Rule 4611(d) March 24, 2010. Pursuant...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 17, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  16. 76 FR 4145 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Delay the Application of NASDAQ Rule 4611(d) January 14, 2011. Pursuant...\\ notice is hereby given that on January 6, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  17. 75 FR 5821 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Clarify Nasdaq Rule 7023 January 25, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b... hereby given that on January 21, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'') filed with the...

  18. 76 FR 67006 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Amending the By- Laws of The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. October 21, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on October 11, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or...

  19. 76 FR 43364 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Rule 7027 of the NASDAQ Pricing Schedule July 14, 2011. Pursuant...\\ notice is hereby given that, on July 1, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  20. 76 FR 61129 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Options Market September...

  1. 75 FR 43591 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding a Clerical Change to Nasdaq Rules July 14, 2010. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the...

  2. 78 FR 27466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend NASDAQ Rule 4763 May 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... given that on April 24, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with...

  3. 76 FR 50521 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Release No. 64696 (June 17, 2011), 76 FR 36950 (June 23, 2011) (SR-NASDAQ-2011-083). 2. Statutory Basis... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding a Clerical Change to NASDAQ Options Market Rules August 9,...

  4. 77 FR 58199 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Delete NASDAQ Rule 7032 September 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... given that on September 12, 2012, the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange''), filed...

  5. 76 FR 2178 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center January 5, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  6. 76 FR 61122 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Establish an Acceptable Trade Range for Quotes and Orders Entered on The NASDAQ Options Market September 27, 2011. I. Introduction On August...

  7. 78 FR 15086 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... is hereby given that on February 21, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange... which was experienced on May 6, 2010. Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64547 (May 25, 2011), 76...

  8. 78 FR 11711 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on February 1, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or... 31, 2012. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 57579 (March 28, 2008), 73 FR 18587 (April 4,...

  9. 78 FR 62761 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on October 4, 2013 The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC....\\5\\ \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 70036 (July 25, 2013), 78 FR 45993 (July 30, 2013)...

  10. 78 FR 9972 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... is hereby given that on January 30, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange... MPIDs if: \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68209 (November 9, 2012), 77 FR 69519 (November...

  11. 78 FR 60977 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... hereby given that, on September 26, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange''), filed...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62886 (September 10, 2010), 75 FR 56613 (September 16, 2010)....

  12. 75 FR 47651 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change... Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... (June 18, 2010), 75 FR 36460 (``Notice''). In its proposal, NASDAQ described real-time analytical...

  13. 76 FR 37872 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on June 20, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ'') filed with the... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64311 (April 20, 2011), 76 FR 23349 (April 26, 2011). This is...

  14. 77 FR 22015 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on April 2, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or... extended through June 30, 2012. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 57579 (March 28, 2008), 73...

  15. 78 FR 6386 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on January 18, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the... contract side. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68025 (October 10, 2012), 77 FR 63398 (October...

  16. 75 FR 3776 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... is hereby given that on January 5, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ...-cash compensation. \\4\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-59987 (May 27, 2009), 74 FR 106 (June...

  17. 75 FR 3777 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... is hereby given that on January 5, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NASDAQ...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 59987 (May 27, 2009), 74 FR 106 (June 4, 2009)...

  18. 78 FR 6379 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... January 10, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... (March 31, 2009), 74 FR 15552 (April 6, 2009) (SR-NASDAQ- 2009-018) (notice of filing and...

  19. 78 FR 49578 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 5, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or... with proprietary traders. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68905 (February 12, 2013), 78...

  20. 78 FR 24282 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... contract side. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68025 (October 10, 2012), 77 FR 63398 (October 16... proposal creates a burden on intra-market competition because the Exchange is applying the same Routing... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  1. 77 FR 67409 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Reflect Changes to Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA'') November 5, 2012...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on October 22, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...

  2. 75 FR 38858 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Establish a Free Trial Period for the Use of Correlix, Inc. Data Latency Products in the NASDAQ Market...

  3. 78 FR 69512 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 67347 (July 3, 2012), 77 FR 40763, 40769-40680 (July 10, 2012) (SR-NYSE-2011-55... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on November 1, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market...

  4. Food safety in free-range and organic livestock systems: risk management and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, A; Meerburg, B G; Bos, A P

    2009-12-01

    Animal production systems that offer outdoor access to the animals have become increasingly popular in the Western world due to the growing general discontent of consumers with conventional bioindustrial farming practices. These open production systems offer improved animal welfare but may create new problems for animal health, resulting in increased food safety risks from bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections or environmental contaminants. Examples of these new problems include increased Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs and high dioxin levels in eggs from free-range hens. In this review, the relation between positive and negative points of free-range and organic livestock production systems is discussed with reference to production in The Netherlands. We investigated how proponents of more animal welfare friendly systems deal with potential negative issues in public and whether any risk communication is used. Generally, we found that the existence of a dilemma is disputed or avoided in communication with the consumer. This avoidance could be detrimental for public trust in alternative animal production systems, should problems occur. To prevent future problems, it will be necessary to communicate about the relevant types and sources of the food safety risks to the consumers. The responsibility for protecting food safety should be properly divided among the various parties involved: producers, processors, governments, nongovernmental organizations, and consumers. PMID:20003752

  5. Electricity generation from food wastes and characteristics of organic matters in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xiaoyue; Li, Lipin; Su, Xinying

    2016-04-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated as an alternative way to recover electricity from canteen based food waste. Characteristics of the organics in food waste before and after the MFC treatment were analyzed to investigate how the organic matters were biodegraded and transformed during the MFC treatment. A maximum power density of 5.6W/m(3) and an average output voltage of 0.51V were obtained. During the MFC operation, the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions. Additionally, aromatic compounds in the hydrophilic fraction were more preferentially removed than non-aromatic compounds. The MFC could easily remove the tryptophan protein-like substances in all fractions and aromatic proteins in hydrophilic and hydrophobic neutral fractions. Additionally, the hydrophobic amide-1 proteins and aliphatic components were readily hydrolyzed and biodegraded in the MFC. These findings may facilitate the pretreatment and posttreatment choices for MFC system fed with food waste. PMID:26820923

  6. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues. PMID:23581670

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  8. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  9. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  10. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food. PMID:23936098

  11. Microbiological quality & incidence of organisms of public health importance in food & water in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Ram, S; Khurana, S; Khurana, S B; Vadehra, D V; Sharma, S; Chhina, R S

    1996-05-01

    Bacteriological analysis of 713 samples of various types of foods and related articles and potable water samples from different places in Ludhiana, Punjab was carried out. The highest counts ranging from 2.5 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(8) organisms/g were observed in raw vegetables and fruits, followed by 3 x 10(6)-9.8 x 10(7)/ml, 8.3 x 10(4)-8.9 x 10(7)/g and 1 x 10(3)-6.7 x 10(7)/g in fruit juice, milk and its products, and salty/non milk snacks respectively. Fresh chapati, dal, rice, cooked vegetables and karhi etc., showed no microbial contamination. However, samples of these articles from road side cafes gave counts up to 1 x 10(7) organism/g. The most probable number of coliforms and Escherichia coli/100 ml of water ranged from < 1 to > 1100. Although 1332 isolates of 16 types of organisms of public health significance were obtained those of proven enteropathogenicity were enterotoxigenic Esch. coli (55), Esch. coli O157 (3), enteropathogenic Esch. coli (1), enterotoxigenic Klebsiella (23), Streptococcus faecalis (152), Bacillus cereus (133), Staphylococcus aureus (125), Aeromonas spp (47), Salmonella spp (10), Shigella spp (4) and Yersinia enterocolitica (2). Poor quality of potable water and widespread occurrence of enteropathogens in food consumed by the common man in Ludhiana was evident. PMID:8707360

  12. Marketing strategies of hospital service organizations in Nigeria: a study of selected privately owned hospitals in Port Harcourt.

    PubMed

    Okwandu, Gabriel A

    2002-01-01

    This study was centered on the identification of the marketing strategies of hospitals and the factors that militate against their effective adoption and implementation. A total of 80 hospitals in Port Harcourt responded to a structured questionnaire administered on them. It was found, among other things, that many hospital organizations apply marketing strategies, and that hospitals that adopt effective marketing strategies perform better than those that do not. Some of the factors militating against the effective adoption and implementation of marketing strategies include lack of planning, lack of top management support, and non-utilization of all the promotional mix elements. PMID:12569994

  13. Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to children of market women in Nigeria: implications for control of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Iroegbu, C U; Ene-Obong, H N; Uwaegbute, A C; Amazigo, U V

    2000-12-01

    Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to 2 groups of children aged < or = years was evaluated by estimating bacterial cell count. One group consisted of those taken to market and the other of those left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. Bacterial counts (geometric mean) ranged from 5.02 +/- 1.82 to 8.70 +/- 1.0 log10 cfu per g or mL of food, and from 1.15 +/- 1.67 to 6.53 +/- 0.81 log10 cfu per g or 100 mL of water. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in counts between types of food and between meals (breakfast and lunch). Bacterial contamination increased significantly with storage time, and was, in all circumstances except the water samples, significantly higher in foods given to children left at home. Reheated leftover foods also had significantly higher bacterial load than the freshly-cooked food. Coliform count varied significantly with source of drinking water. Poor hygiene standard (inferred from bacterial contamination) was generally observed among mothers weaning < or = 2-year-old children, while they were engaged in trading activities in the market, thus exposing their children to high risk of diarrhoea. Hygiene was significantly poorer in weaning of children left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. This implies that, in spite of their trading activities in the market, mothers still take better care of their babies than the older siblings or house-helps who may be inexperienced. These mothers may need education on childcare and food hygiene to suit to their trading activities, for example, during their monthly meetings. There is also a need to establish ORT (oral rehydration therapy) corners in the markets as part of the municipal services. This can be used not only for efficient and quick management of diarrhoea in the market but also for reinforcing hygiene education. PMID:11262769

  14. Legal action against health claims on foods and beverages marketed to youth.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Edwards, Danielle M; Rodman, Sarah O; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children raises numerous health concerns. One pathway to reduce childhood obesity is by decreasing energy intake through the ingestion of fewer calories. Yet, food and beverage manufacturers often promote energy-dense items for children via varied health claims. Deceptive health claims are prohibited, and may be addressed through litigation or governmental regulatory efforts. While the amount of legal action against these potentially deceptive claims has increased, no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This article, which analyzes litigation and governmental regulatory activities, considers key factors that may influence decisions to take legal action against potentially deceptive health claims on foods and beverages, including scientific support, forum selection, selection of plaintiffs, and potential public health impact. PMID:25602904

  15. Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children's dietary intake and preference: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Sadeghirad, B; Duhaney, T; Motaghipisheh, S; Campbell, N R C; Johnston, B C

    2016-10-01

    Marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt are suggested to contribute to poor dietary behaviours in children and diet-related diseases later in life. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials aimed to assess the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on dietary intake (grams or kilocalories) and dietary preference (preference score or percentage of participants who selected specific foods/beverages) among children 2 to 18 years of age. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up to January 2015 for terms related to advertising, unhealthy foods or beverages among children. Randomized trials that assessed the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing compared with non-dietary advertisement or no advertisement in children were considered eligible. Two authors independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes of interest and assessed risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence using grade methodology. Meta-analysis was conducted separately for dietary intake and preference using a random-effects model. We identified 29 eligible studies, of which 17 studies were included for meta-analysis of dietary preference and nine for meta-analysis of dietary intake. Almost half of the studies were at high risk of bias. Our meta-analysis showed that in children exposed to unhealthy dietary marketing, dietary intake significantly increased (mean difference [MD] = 30.4 kcal, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9 to 57.9, and MD = 4.8 g, 95%CI 0.8 to 8.8) during or shortly after exposure to advertisements. Similarly, children exposed to the unhealthy dietary marketing had a higher risk of selecting the advertised foods or beverages (relative risk = 1.1, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.2; P = 0.052). The evidence indicates that unhealthy food and beverage marketing increases dietary intake (moderate quality evidence) and preference (moderate to low quality evidence) for energy-dense, low-nutrition food

  16. Selenium content in selected foods from the Greek market and estimation of the daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Eleni C; Pappas, Athanasios C; Surai, Peter F

    2006-12-15

    The total selenium content of foods purchased from the North West part of Greece was determined using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of this study were within the range from other countries. The overall mean average of selenium concentration of the foods examined, in decreasing order, was found in sesame seeds (783.1 ng g(-1)), fish (246 ng g(-1)), legumes (162.5 ng g(-1)), eggs (123 ng g(-1)), bread (91.9 ng g(-1)), meat (71.7 ng g(-1)), cheese (69.8 ng g(-1)), yoghurt (23.6 ng g(-1)), nuts (19.6 ng g(-1)), milk (15.4 ng g(-1)), vegetables (6.5 ng g(-1)) and fruits (3.4 ng g(-1)). Considering the average daily individual consumption of these foods by Greeks, the average daily dietary intake of selenium supplied by this source is 39.3 microg per capita. PMID:16959300

  17. Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  18. Interrelationships among zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in food, feces, and organs of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, K; Iwao, S

    1978-01-01

    Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in 20 samples of food collected over a period of 20 days, 221 samples of feces collected over a period of 5 days from 19 males, 17 females, and 11 children and 85 samples each of renal cortex and liver from autopsied human cadavers in order to investigate the relationships among the four metals and among the various martices. In food the highest correlation was observed between copper and zinc (0.34). In feces the highest correlation was also between copper and zinc (0.45). In the highest correlation between cadmium and zinc (0.33), but that in the renal cortex was between copper and cadmium (0.52). These findings suggest that the relationships among the concentrations of the four metals in food and feces are almost equal to each other, but differ greatly from the concentrations in human organs due to the differing metabolic actions of the metals once they are absorbed into the body. In addition, it was observed that zinc and cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex increase with age, but copper and lead concentrations do not show much variation with age. PMID:720297

  19. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  20. Acting discursively: the development of UK organic food and farming policy networks.

    PubMed

    TOMLINSON, Isobel Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the early evolution of UK organic food and farming policy networks and locates this empirical focus in a theoretical context concerned with understanding the contemporary policy-making process. While policy networks have emerged as a widely acknowledged empirical manifestation of governance, debate continues as to the concept's explanatory utility and usefulness in situations of network and policy transformation since, historically, policy networks have been applied to "static" circumstances. Recognizing this criticism, and in drawing on an interpretivist perspective, this paper sees policy networks as enacted by individual actors whose beliefs and actions construct the nature of the network. It seeks to make links between the characteristics of the policy network and the policy outcomes through the identification of discursively constructed "storylines" that form a tool for consensus building in networks. This study analyses the functioning of the organic policy networks through the discursive actions of policy-network actors. PMID:21290818

  1. Organic carbon cycling in abyssal benthic food chains: numerical simulations of bioenhancement by sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.

    1998-05-01

    The hypothetical bioenhancement of the endemic benthic biota on an oligotrophic abyssal plain by organic carbon has been investigated with mathematical simulation experiments. First, the responses of the biomass and respiration to seasonal variations in the rain of organic carbon (POC) have been simulated in a simplified benthic assemblage (sediment organic carbon, sediment-dwelling heterotrophs (bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna and detritus feeding megafauna) and predatory megafauna), with no added organic matter. These calculations were based on measured standing stocks and respiration in the central North Pacific (5.8 km depth, 31°N Lat.×159°W Long.). The dynamic relationships in this natural "oligotrophic" food chain were then subjected to added inputs of organic carbon presumed to be in sewage sludge. Two examples are presented: a modest but continuous input of organic carbon (100 mg C m -2 d -1) and a year-long pulse of the same intensity. The continuous input forced the biomass and community respiration to steadily increase until they reached steady state in 15 years at values similar to those found on a typical continental shelf. The pulse exhibited the same pattern, but biomass and respiration returned to levels found under natural oligotrophic conditions several years after cessation of intensified carbon loading. The responses of the sediment community to added organic matter were validated using information from a deep-ocean sewage disposal site (DWD106) off the coast of New Jersey. The models are also used to illustrate an approach for estimating possible transfers of potentially toxic contaminants, such as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAHs), in lipid-rich eggs. In the future it will be necessary to validate model results with deep-ocean in situ experiments.

  2. Spatial organization of food webs along habitat gradients at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on Axial Volcano, Northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Christian; Kim Juniper, S.; Limén, Helene

    2006-04-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are characterized by steep spatial gradients and high temporal variability in habitat conditions. This leads to the organization of species distribution along spatial habitat gradients, which may constrain food resource utilization and food web structure. We conducted a stable-isotope-based study to test the hypothesis that food resource utilization is constrained by spatial habitat variability at diffuse hydrothermal vents on Axial Volcano, Northeast Pacific. Our study included the ten most biomass-prominent species and considered the temporal change in food web structure at recently created vent sites during three consecutive years. We related species average stable isotopic composition to their position between the center and the periphery of vent sites, using previously published data. Species spread widely along the δ13C axis, and showed a small variability in δ15N. This indicates that most species partition food resources between isotopically different carbon sources, and that they are not organized along predator-prey trophic chains. Particulate organic matter (POM) stable isotopic composition from a concomitant study corresponds to the signature of the expected diet for most organisms. Species average δ13C was significantly correlated to their relative position between the center and the periphery of vent sites. We relate this spatial variability in species isotopic composition to variability in the isotopic signature of both dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and POM. This spatial isotopic signal of consumers reveals the spatial structuring of food (POM) production and its consumption by the fauna. Accrual of species during the development of diffuse sites increased the inter-specific spread in δ13C, but did not increase the range in δ15N. Our results show that the spatial organization of species distribution results in a fragmented food web where species partition POM food resources according to their position in space

  3. Detection and Enumeration of Fecal Indicator Organisms in Frozen Sea Foods12

    PubMed Central

    Raj, H.; Wiebe, W. J.; Liston, J.

    1961-01-01

    Consistently high recoveries of enterococci as compared to the low numbers of coliforms obtained from the same samples of frozen sea foods are indirect evidence that enterococci are better indicators of contamination in such foods. The use of azide dextrose broth, modified by the incorporation of bromthymol blue, and of ethyl violet azide broth as presumptive and confirmation tests, respectively, were found to be highly specific for the detection and enumeration of enterococci in these samples. Tetrazolium agar medium, when used as a third step after the confirmation test, provides a reliable differentiation of Streplococcus faecalis types from other group D streptococci. A simple procedure is described for further identification of S. faecalis varieties and other enterococcal species. Incidence of biotypes within certain species is noted and relationships of these subgroups to the organisms described by other workers is discussed. The striking resistance of all group D streptococci to dihydrostreptomycin and polymyxin B seems to offer promise for evolving a new selective medium for these organisms. PMID:13739209

  4. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Evenset, A; Hallanger, I G; Tessmann, M; Warner, N; Ruus, A; Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Christensen, G; Renaud, P E

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ(15)N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ(15)N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. PMID:26519572

  5. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  6. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  7. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject. PMID:15504704

  8. Near-infrared imaging system for detecting small organic foreign substances in foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hiroto; Genta, Tsuneaki; Ishii, Yuya; Ishiyama, Takeshi; Arai, Shinichi; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Contamination of foodstuffs with foreign substances is a serious problem because it often has negative effects on consumer health. However, detection of small organic substances in foods can be difficult because they are undetectable with traditional inspection apparatus. In this work, we developed new equipment that can detect small organic contaminant substances in food at high speed using a near-infrared (NIR) imaging technique. The absorption spectra of various foods were measured, and the spectra showed low absorbance at wavelengths from 600 nm to 1150 nm. Based on the observable wavelength range of a CMOS camera, which has a high dynamic range, superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with a wavelength of 830 nm were selected as light sources. We arranged 40 SLDs on a flat panel and placed a diffusion panel over them. As a result, uniformly distributed light with an intensity of 0.26 mW/cm2 illuminated an area of 6.0 cm × 6.0 cm. Insects (3 mm wide) and hairs (0.1 mm in diameter) were embedded in stacked ham slices and in chocolate, with a total thickness of 5 mm in each case, and the transmission images were observed. Both insects and hairs were clearly observed as dark shadows with high contrast. We also compensated the images by using software developed in this study to eliminate low spatial frequency components in the images and improve the sharpness and contrast. As a result, the foreign substances were more clearly distinguished in the 5-mm-thick ham.

  9. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  10. It is pleasant and heavy: convergence of visual contents in tobacco, alcohol and food marketing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2016-09-01

    The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. PMID:26069295

  11. 78 FR 59391 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... approved by the Commission in Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66013 (December 20, 2011) 76 FR 80992... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule...

  12. 77 FR 65596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ..., 2011) 76 FR 80992 (December 27, 2011) (SR-NASDAQ-2011-146) are a function of technology and program... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule....C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms...

  13. 76 FR 27134 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64054 (March 8, 2011), 76 FR 14111 (March 15, 2011) (SR-NASDAQ-2011-036... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate....78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of...

  14. 78 FR 3060 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC Notice; of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC Notice; of Filing and Immediate.... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 57579 (March 28, 2008), 73 FR 18587 (April 4, 2008)...

  15. 78 FR 16898 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... Nos. 57579 (March 28, 2008), 73 FR 18587 (April 4, 2008) (SR-NASDAQ-2008-026) (notice of filing...

  16. 78 FR 41455 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... 28, 2008), 73 FR 18587 (April 4, 2008) (SR-NASDAQ-2008-026) (notice of filing and...

  17. 77 FR 25216 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... OMX PHLX LLC (``PHLX'').\\5\\ \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65180 (August 22, 2011), 76 FR... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of...

  18. Biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in Great Slave Lake food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; Muir, D.; Lockhart, L.

    1994-12-31

    Great Slave Lake is a large, subarctic lake which receives the majority of its water from the Slave, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers watershed. Increased development in the southern region of the watershed may provide a significant source of organic contaminants to the lake in addition to contaminants entering the lake via direct atmospheric deposition. Here the authors report the results of a study comparing organic contaminant concentrations in lake trout, burbot, and whitefish collected near the Slave River outflow and in a region of Great Slave Lake which is believed to be minimally affected by the Slave River. They also use stable isotope analyses to infer spatial differences in fish feeding habits between the two regions of the lake and to investigate how food habits may affect organic contaminant biomagnification. Finally, the authors compare their Great Slave Lake data with studies conducted from other regions of the Arctic and subarctic. This allows them to infer how the Slave River inflow may affect organic contaminant concentrations and biomagnification in the Great Slave Lake ecosystem.

  19. 78 FR 46963 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Food and Agriculture Organization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... European Union). Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO's efforts--to make sure people have..., improved livelihoods, and food security. This unit: 1. Provides independent scientific advice on food... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the Food and...

  20. Pesticide residues in market foods in Shaanxi Province of China in 2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zhilun; Zhang, Yibei; Wang, Jiang; Guo, Rong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pesticide residues in market vegetables in Shaanxi Province of China. The concentrations of 33 pesticides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) in 285 samples. Ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were found in concentrations ranging from 0.004 to 0.257 mg/kg. The mean levels of omethoate, phorate, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, ethoprophos in vegetables exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowed by the Ministry of Health, of China. Other detectable OP pesticide residues levels were below their MRLs. Dicofol were detectable in green pepper and chives samples. Five pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) were detectable in vegetable samples respectively. The results provide useful information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in China, and point to the need for urgent action to control the excessive use of some chemicals. PMID:23411338

  1. Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational week 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. We used linear binomial regression with frequent versus rare use of organic food as outcome variable and characteristics of the respondent as independent variables. The outcome variable was derived from self-reported frequency of organic food use in six main food groups (milk/dairy, bread/cereal, eggs, vegetables, fruit and meat). Results Organic eggs and vegetables were the food items which were most frequently reported to be used "often" or "mostly". The proportion of women reporting frequent intake of organic food was 9.1% (n = 5754). This group included more women in the lower (<25 years) and higher (>40 years) age-groups, with normal or low body mass index, who were vegetarians, exercised regularly (3+times weekly), consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes during pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all, except alcohol: p=0.044). Further, participants with frequent organic consumption included more women in the lower (≤12 years) or higher (17 years +) category of educational attainment, women who were students or had a partner being a student, who belonged to the lowest household income group (both respondent and her partner earned <300 000 NOK), who entered the study 2005-2007, and who lived in an urban area (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The socio-economic characteristics of pregnant Norwegian women with frequent organic consumption did not unambiguously follow those typically associated with better health, such as higher levels of education and income. Rather, lower household income, and both lowest and

  2. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. PMID:24593894

  3. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    PubMed

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development. PMID:26980116

  4. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  5. New Ways of Working and Organization: Alternative Agrifood Movements and Agrifood Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable growth of alternative agrifood movements--organics, fair trade, localism, Slow Food, farmers' markets, community-supported agriculture, food security, food safety, food sovereignty, anti-genetically modified organisms, animal welfare, and others--and their attraction to younger academic scholars offer a unique opportunity to explore…

  6. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  7. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: importance of food sources.

    PubMed

    Cresson, P; Fabri, M C; Bouchoucha, M; Brach Papa, C; Chavanon, F; Jadaud, A; Knoery, J; Miralles, F; Cossa, D

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30±0.61 to 7.13±7.09 μg g(-1) dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends. PMID:25129158

  8. Survival and persistence of Campylobacter and Salmonella species under various organic loads on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Sheldon, Brian W; Smith, Katie S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2003-09-01

    Although many cases of Campylobacter and Salmonella enteritis have been attributed to the undercooking of poultry and other foods, cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods via food contact surfaces and worker contact has also been identified as a significant risk factor. Cross-contamination may be particularly important in relation to the high prevalence of contamination in raw poultry products and other foods and the low infectious doses that have been reported for Campylobacter species. Lag phase and decimal reduction times (D-values at 27 degrees C [81 degrees F] and 60 to 62% relative humidity) were determined for Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella species (five-strain pools) suspended in either a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution or Trypticase soy broth (TSB) and then inoculated (0.1-ml drop per surface) on 5-cm2 samples of Formica laminate (F), glazed ceramic tile (CT), 304 polished stainless steel (SS), and 100% cotton dishcloth (D). Triplicate samples were collected from each contact surface periodically, and the populations of surviving organisms were enumerated on Campy Cefex and brain heart infusion agars for C. jejuni and Salmonella species, respectively. Lag time and rate of inactivation were influenced by organism type, contact surface, and suspending medium. Initial mean lag times ranging from 60 to 190 min were followed by log-linear (r2 > 0.94) decreases in cell populations that varied across contact surfaces. D-values of 12.5, 19.1, 24.1, and 29.7 min and of 23.7, 10.5, 12.7, and 13.9 min were calculated for C. jejuni suspended in PBS and TSB and then spotted on D, F, SS, and CT surfaces, respectively. The times required to produce a 3-log reduction in population with PBS and TSB ranged from 102 (D) to 247 (F) min and from 112 (CT) to 167 (F) min, respectively. C. jejuni cells suspended in the nutritionally enriched medium (TSB) and spotted on the hard surfaces were inactivated about 1.4 times as fast as cells suspended in PBS. For

  9. Evaluation of the microbiological quality of conventional and organic leafy greens at the time of purchase from retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida; Gomaa, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This is a pioneer study in Egypt that provides some assessment of the microbiological quality of conventional and organic leafy green vegetables that constitute an essential component of the Egyptians' daily diet. A total of 380 samples of unpackaged whole conventional and 84 packaged whole organic leafy greens were collected from retail markets in Alexandria, and analyzed for total aerobic mesophilic count (AMC) and total E. coli count (ECC) using the standard spread plate method. Mean AMC values for organic samples were statistically less (p < 0.05) than those of the corresponding conventional samples. Conventional radish and organic parsley samples had the highest AMC of 7.17 and 7.68 log CFU/g respectively, while conventional green cabbage and organic basil had the lowest AMC of 3.63 and 3.23 log CFU/g respectively. The presence of E. coli in 100% of the studied leafy greens was indicative of potential fecal contamination, in view of open and unhygienic environmental and unsanitary handling conditions, as leafy green items are available for sale by street-vendors. Unsatisfactory AMC and ECC levels encountered in the studied samples, warrant future investigations to determine the potential prevalence of foodborne pathogens, and to identify sources of dominating microorganisms, which could make a contribution to the field of food safety PMID:25115119

  10. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  11. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  12. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    PubMed Central

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  13. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed. PMID:25624252

  14. Respiratory function in female workers occupationally exposed to organic dusts in food processing industries.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegović, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J; Ivanković, D; Heimer, S

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory consequences of work in food processing industry were studied in 764 female workers exposed to organic dusts associated with the processing of green and roasted coffee, tea, spices, dried fruits, cocoa and flour. A group of 387 female workers not exposed to respiratory irritants served as controls for the prevalence of acute (during work shift) and chronic respiratory symptoms. A greater prevalence of all acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was consistently found among exposed workers than among control workers. The highest prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded for chronic cough (40%), followed by acute symptoms of dry cough (58.7%). The difference in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms between the exposed and control workers was in general significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Mean acute reductions of lung function over the work shift were recorded in all of the studied groups; the mean across-shift decrease as a percentage of preshift values was particularly marked in FEF25 (-26.7%), FEF50 (-21.6%), followed by FEV1 (-9.9%) and FVC (-3.7%). The preshift (baseline) values of ventilatory capacity were decreased in comparison to the predicted ones, and were lowest for FEF50 and FEF25. This finding indicated an effect of organic dust on small airways. Our analysis suggested that both dust exposure and smoking history contributed independently to these respiratory findings. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions for FEF50 and FEF25 in a subgroup of the examined workers. Our data suggested the female workers employed in food processing industry to be at risk of developing both acute and chronic respiratory symptoms as well as ventilatory capacity impairment as the result of occupational exposures. PMID:11379483

  15. Health and dietary traits of organic food consumers: results from the NutriNet-Santé study.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-28

    The dietary and health traits of organic food (OF) consumers have not been comprehensively described. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with OF consumption. Data were collected from 54 283 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort using self-administered web-based questionnaires. Occasional organic food consumers and regular organic food consumers (ROFC) were compared with non-organic food consumers (NOFC) using logistical regression providing an OR and 95 % CI. Adherence to the French food-based guidelines and interactions between nutritional knowledge and OF consumption in adherence to dietary guidelines were investigated. Medical history was also assessed in relation to OF consumption. Compared with NOFC, ROFC were more likely to be vegetarian (OR 9·93; 95 % CI 7·42, 13·29 in women; OR 13·07; CI 7·00, 24·41 in men) and were less likely to be aware of nutritional guidelines regarding meat consumption (OR 0·37; CI 0·34, 0·40 in women; OR 0·41; CI 0·36, 0·47 in men). Compared with NOFC, ROFC had a lower risk of type II diabetes, hypertension and CVD; however, this effect was only significant for men. In contrast, organic consumers were more likely to report food allergies. Consuming OF appeared to affect the relationship between nutritional knowledge and adequate intake of meat/poultry/seafood/eggs and starchy food among both sexes. Our study provides new insights into the diet- and health-related behaviours of OF consumers in a large sample of participants residing in France. This should be taken into account in future studies investigating relationships between health and OF consumption. PMID:26429066

  16. SkQ1 treatment and food restriction — two ways to retard an aging program of organisms

    PubMed Central

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 and food restriction are compared. In both cases there is a remarkable increase in the median lifespan of organisms belonging to many different taxonomic ranks. Essentially, both SkQ1 treatment and restriction in food intake retard development of numerous adverse traits of senescence. This relationship could be predicted assuming that SkQ1 and food restriction inhibit the execution of an aging program. It is hypothesized that food restriction is perceived by organisms as a signal of starvation, which can be catastrophic for the population. Under these conditions, the organism switches off an aging program that is favorable for evolvability of the species but counterproductive for the individual. Unfortunately, food restriction is accompanied by some other effects, e.g., constant anxiety and attempts to scan as large a space as possible looking for food. Such side effects seem to be absent in the case of inhibition of the aging program by SkQ1. PMID:22170754

  17. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS. PMID:26928212

  18. Possible role of organic peroxides in the detection of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Yan, Zhu

    1993-07-01

    In order to determine the level of organic peroxides induced by autooxidation, random sampling of pork has been performed with ˜ 300 analytical data. The organic peroxide content in unirradiated pork has been estimated as (5.4±3.0)X10 -5mol.kg -1. The dependence of yield of peroxide in pork, minced meat and braised chicken on absorbed dose has been investigated. For killing trichinae 0.5˜1 kGy is used, the quantity of peroxide in pork will be 2X10 -4mol.kg -1 (or 4X10 -4 mol.kg -1 for 1 kGy), which is 3.7˜7.4 times greater than the background. If 3 kGy is used to eliminate Samonella, the quantity of peroxides in pork will be 1.3X10 -3mol.kg -1., which approaches 24 times greater than the average value of background. When minced meat was irradiated in the presence of air, a chain reaction takes place with G (organic peroxides) value 30.2. Radiation processing dose of braised chicken for shelf-life extension is ˜ 9kGy, organic peroxide content in braised chicken fat is 32.5X10 -4mol.kg -1, which is about 14.7 times greater than average value (2.2X10 -4mol.kg -1) in unirradiated one. Applying peroxide method to qualitatively detect the irradiated food containing fat is satisfactory. Recombining with measuring ESR signal of irradiated bone will cause the method of detection more accurate and perfect.

  19. Measured and simulated nitrogen fluxes after field application of food-processing and municipal organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Parnaudeau, V; Génermont, S; Hénault, C; Farrugia, A; Robert, P; Nicolardot, B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess N fluxes (mineralization, volatilization, denitrification, leaching) caused by spreading various organic wastes from food-processing industries during a field experiment, and (ii) to identify the main factors affecting N transformation processes after field spreading. Experimental treatments including the spreading of six types of waste and a control soil were set up in August 2000 and studied for 22 mo under bare soil conditions. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, and nitrogen mineralization were measured in experimental devices and extrapolated to field conditions or computed in calculation models. The ammonia emissions varied from 80 to 580 g kg(-1) NH4+-N applied, representing 0 to 90 g N kg(-1) total N applied. Under these meteorologically favorable conditions (dry and warm weather), waste pH was the main factor affecting volatilization rates. Cumulated N2O-N fluxes were estimated at 2 to 5 g kg(-1) total N applied, which was quite low due to the low soil water content during the experimental period; water-filled pore space (WFPS) was confirmed as the main factor affecting N2O fluxes. Nitrogen mineralization from wastes represented 126 to 723 g N kg(-1) organic N added from the incorporation date to 14 May 2001 and was not related to the organic C to organic N ratio of wastes. Nitrogen lost by leaching during the equivalent period ranged from 30 to 890 g kg(-1) total N applied. The highest values were obtained for wastes having the highest inorganic N content and mineralization rates. PMID:19141817

  20. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin

    2010-04-01

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces. High-power blue LEDs with a spectral output at 410 nm were used as the excitation source for a line-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. Common chicken residue samples including fat, blood, and feces from ceca, colon, duodenum, and small intestine were prepared on stainless steel sheets. Fluorescence emission images were acquired from 120 samples (20 for each type of residue) in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm. LED-induced fluorescence characteristics of the tested samples were determined. PCA (principal component analysis) was performed to analyze fluorescence spectral data. Two SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy) models were developed to differentiate organic residues and stainless steel samples. Classification accuracies using 2-class ('stainless steel' and 'organic residue') and 4-class ('stainless steel', 'fat', 'blood', and 'feces') SIMCA models were 100% and 97.5%, respectively. An optimal single-band and a band-pair that are promising for rapid residue detection were identified by correlation analysis. The single-band approach using the selected wavelength of 666 nm could generate false negative errors for chicken blood inspection. Two-band ratio images using 503 and 666 nm (F503/F666) have great potential for detecting various chicken residues on stainless steel surfaces. This wavelength pair can be adopted for developing a LED-based hand-held fluorescence imaging device for inspecting poultry processing equipment surfaces.

  1. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  2. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  3. Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Helgason, Lisa Bjørnsdatter; Arukwe, Augustine; Wolkers, Hans; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Harju, Mikael; Berg, Vidar; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed for 44 d to cod liver oil containing a typical mixture of contaminants. Following exposure, food intake was reduced for a one-week period in a subgroup of the chicks. Polyclorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, as well as a wide range of hydroxy, methyl sulfone, and methoxy compounds were measured in liver, brain, and plasma samples. Additionally, phase I biotransformation enzyme activities and phase I and II messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were investigated in the liver, brain, or both. Both contaminant exposure and reduced food intake had an increasing effect on the concentrations of HOCs and their metabolites. The HOC exposure and reduced food intake also led to increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) activity, whereas mRNA expression of the biotransformation enzymes increased only following the reduced food intake. Tissue distribution of HOCs and their metabolites was not affected by either contaminant exposure or reduced food intake. In conclusion, the results indicate that biotransformation capacity and formation of HOC metabolites increase during reduced food intake. This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced food intake increases the susceptibility of Arctic animals to the effects of lipophilic HOCs. PMID:23060285

  4. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  5. Use of market share data to select food products for an occurrence survey on flavourings in eight EU countries within the FACET project.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Hearty, Aine; Connolly, Aileen; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Dietary exposure assessment to flavourings presents a challenge due to the very large number of food products in which they may be present and the lack of knowledge of their actual presence. Industry claims to be adding more than 2800 different chemically defined flavourings in the European Union (EU). Within the Flavours, Additives and Food Contact Material Exposure Task (FACET) EU project, an occurrence survey was performed to explore the possible use of the information that can be collected from the labels to reduce the uncertainty in exposure assessment. An ad hoc procedure based on the use of market share data of food and drinks was developed for the selection of products to be collected. A database of information retrieved from the food labels of branded products from large and small companies was created. Such information may be used to populate some databases of the software developed within the FACET project to assess total dietary exposure to flavourings. PMID:23617633

  6. Engaging youth in food activism in New York City: lessons learned from a youth organization, health department, and university partnership.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emma; Bylander, Kim; Cho, Milyoung; Maybank, Aletha; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-10-01

    Research indicates that insufficient emphasis on community collaboration and partnership can thwart innovative community-driven work on the social determinants of health by local health departments. Appreciating the importance of enhancing community participation, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) helped lead the development of the Health Equity Project (HEP), an intervention aimed at increasing the capacity of urban youth to identify and take action to reduce food-related health disparities. DOHMH partnered with the City University of New York School of Public Health and several local youth organizations to design and implement the intervention. HEP was conducted with 373 young people in 17 cohorts at 14 unique sites: six in Brooklyn, six in the Bronx, and two in Harlem. Partnered youth organizations hosted three stages of work: interactive workshops on neighborhood health disparities, food environments, and health outcomes; food-focused research projects conducted by youth; and small-scale action projects designed to change local food environments. Through these activities, HEP appears to have been successful in introducing youth to the social, economic, and political factors that shape food environments and to the influence of food on health outcomes. The intervention was also somewhat successful in providing youth with community-based participatory research skills and engaging them in documenting and then acting to change their neighborhood food environments. In the short term, we are unable to assess how successful HEP has been in building young leaders who will continue to engage in this kind of activism, but we suspect that more extended interactions would be needed to achieve this more ambitious goal. Experiences at these sites suggest that youth organizations with a demonstrated capacity to engage youth in community service or activism and a commitment to improving food or other health-promoting community resources make the

  7. The "natural" aversion: the FDA's reluctance to define a leading food-industry marketing claim, and the pressing need for a workable rule.

    PubMed

    Farris, April L

    2010-01-01

    As of 2009, the "natural foods" industry has become a 22.3 billion dollar giant and "all-natural" is the second-leading marketing claim for all new food products. Even in such a flourishing market, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has never defined the term "natural" through rulemaking. FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have instead created separate, non-identical policy statements governing the use of the term "natural," and FDA has abandoned efforts to define "natural" through rulemaking in the face of more pressing priorities. In absence of any governing federal standard, consumer advocacy groups and warring food industries have attempted to define "natural" to fit their preferences through high-stakes litigation of state law claims, leaving courts free to apply diverging standards without the expertise of FDA. Recent case law from federal district courts and the Supreme Court leaves little hope that FDA's current policy statement will preempt state law causes of action. To prevent a potential patchwork of definitions varying by state, and to create a legitimate standard resting on informed scientific expertise rather than consumer whims, FDA should engage in rulemaking to define the term "natural." This paper concludes by sketching potential formulations for such a rule based on FDA's previous successful rule-making ventures and standards used by natural foods retailers. PMID:24475548

  8. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Melissa A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-seven honey samples from different floral sources and geographical locations were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of seven food spoilage organisms (Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Geotrichum candidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Penicillium expansum, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and five foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) using an overlay inhibition assay. They were also tested for specific activity against S. aureus 9144 and B. stearothermophilus using the equivalent percent phenol test--a well diffusion assay corresponding to a dilute phenol standard curve. Honey inhibited bacterial growth due to high sugar concentration (reduced water activity), hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in the honey. Some antibacterial activity was due to other unidentified components. The ability of honey to inhibit the growth of microorganisms varies widely, and could not be attributed to a specific floral source or demographic region produced in this study. Antibacterially active samples in this study included Montana buckwheat, tarweed, manuka, melaleuca, and saw palmetto. Furthermore, the bacteria were not uniformly affected by honey. Varying sensitivities to the antimicrobial properties were observed with four strains of S. aureus thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey samples. Mold growth was not inhibited by any of the honeys tested. B. stearothermophilus, a heat-resistant spoilage bacteria, was shown to be highly sensitive to honey in both the overlay and well diffusion assays; other sensitive bacteria included A. faecalis and L. acidophilus. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity was observed in both assays; the highest instance was observed in the specific activity assay against B. stearothermophilus. Further research could indicate whether

  9. Organic matter flow in the food web at a temperate heath under multifactorial climate change.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Louise C; Konestabo, Heidi S; Maraldo, Kristine; Holmstrup, Martin; Ambus, Per; Beier, Claus; Michelsen, Anders

    2011-06-15

    The rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, increasing temperature and changed patterns of precipitation currently expose terrestrial ecosystems to altered environmental conditions. This may affect belowground nutrient cycling through its intimate relationship with the belowground decomposers. Three climate change factors (elevated CO(2), increased temperature and drought) were investigated in a full factorial field experiment at a temperate heathland location. The combined effect of biotic and abiotic factors on nitrogen and carbon flows was traced in plant root → litter → microbe → detritivore/omnivore → predator food-web for one year after amendment with (15)N(13)C(2)-glycine. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurement of (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C in soil extracts and functional ecosystem compartments revealed that the recovery of (15)N sometimes decreased through the chain of consumption, with the largest amount of bioactive (15)N label pool accumulated in the microbial biomass. The elevated CO(2) concentration at the site for 2 years increased the biomass, the (15)N enrichment and the (15)N recovery in detritivores. This suggests that detritivore consumption was controlled by both the availability of the microbial biomass, a likely major food source, and the climatic factors. Furthermore, the natural abundance δ(13)C of enchytraeids was significantly altered in CO(2)-fumigated plots, showing that even small changes in δ(13)C-CO(2) can be used to detect transfer of carbon from primary producers to detritivores. We conclude that, in the short term, the climate change treatments affected soil organism activity, possibly with labile carbohydrate production controlling the microbial and detritivore biomass, with potential consequences for the decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling. Hence, there appears to be a strong coupling of responses in carbon and nitrogen cycling at this temperate heath. PMID:21594921

  10. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  11. Migration of odorous compounds from adhesives used in market samples of food packaging materials by chromatography olfactometry and mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS).

    PubMed

    Vera, Paula; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-02-15

    Adhesives are commonly used in the manufacture of multilayer food packaging materials. Although they are not in direct contact with the packed food, their compounds may migrate from the adhesive through the substrates to the food. The aim of this work is to determine the migrant concentration in order to evaluate the possible human risk and also to determine if this migration could affect the organoleptic properties of packed food. For this purpose, a total of 12 market samples of multilayer materials (laminates) for packaging dry food (tomatoes, cakes, cookies, breadcrumbs, flour or salt) or fresh food (pizza and pastry) produced with 5 different adhesives were analysed by GC-O-MS. A total of 25 different compounds from adhesives were detected in these laminates. Seventy-six percentage of these compounds migrated into a dry food simulant (Tenax®). Furthermore, compounds with concentrations below the MS detection limit were detected by sniffers with a high modified frequency (MF%). Acetic acid, butyric acid and cyclohexanol with vinegar, cheese and camphor odours were the most abundant compounds. All migration data were below the specific migration limits (SML) and threshold toxicological concern (TTC) recommended values according to the Cramer classification. PMID:24128473

  12. Race and Racelessness in CMO Marketing: Exploring Charter Management Organizations' Racial Construction and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    As schools face growing competitive pressures, researchers have investigated the increasing reliance on marketing and its implications for various racial and socioeconomic groups. Although research has expanded our knowledge of marketing's gatekeeping qualities, it has less often considered the manner in which school marketing efforts contribute…

  13. 76 FR 34783 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend Rule 7034 Regarding Certain Co-Location Installation Fees June 8, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1)...

  14. 78 FR 3945 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees for Certain Co-Location Services January 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  15. 78 FR 39383 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... facility. See Exchange Act Release No. 68735 (Jan. 25, 2013); 78 FR 6842 (Jan. 31, 2013) (order approving... approved by the Commission in Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66013 (December 20, 2011) 76 FR 80992... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  16. 77 FR 64167 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change With Respect to INAV Pegged Orders for ETFs October 12, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'')...

  17. The Characteristics of the School Organization and the Constraints on Market Ideology in Education: An Institutional View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    The paper raises theoretical insights against central premises underlying the policy of parental choice and educational market from the standpoint of the institutional theory of organization. It discusses how the institutional theory may explain the barriers to diversity, responsiveness, and improvement, all of which are assumed to be driven by…

  18. 78 FR 7831 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend NASDAQ Rule 4756 and Rule 4763 Regarding Modification of Previously Entered Orders January 29,...

  19. 75 FR 9982 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt a Round Lot Holder Initial Listing Requirement for Listing of Warrants on the Nasdaq Global and...

  20. 76 FR 51076 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Clearly Erroneous Rule in Light of Changes to the Single Stock Trading Pause Process August 11,...