Science.gov

Sample records for organic food production

  1. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  2. Careers in Organic Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  3. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture. PMID:25221987

  4. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  5. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Bokhorst, J G; Northolt, M D; van de Vijver, L P L; Broex, N J G; Mevius, D J; Meijs, J A C; Van der Roest, J

    2008-10-01

    Organic products were analysed for the presence of contaminants, microorganisms and antibiotic resistance and compared with those from conventional products. No differences were observed in the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in organic and conventional wheat, during both a dry period and a very wet period which promoted the production of these toxins. Nitrate levels in head lettuce produced organically in the open field were much lower than those in conventional products. In iceberg lettuce and head lettuce from the greenhouse, no differences were detected. Organically produced carrots contained higher nitrate levels than conventional products. Both organic and conventional products contained no residues of non-polar pesticides above the legal limits, although some were detected in conventional lettuce. Organic products contained no elevated levels of heavy metals. Salmonella was detected in 30% of pig faeces samples obtained from 30 organic farms, similar to the incidence at conventional farms. At farms that switched to organic production more then 6 years ago no Salmonella was detected, with the exception of one stable with young pigs recently purchased from another farm. No Salmonella was detected in faeces at the nine farms with organic broilers, and at one out of ten farms with laying hens. This is comparable with conventional farms where the incidence for Salmonella lies around 10%. Campylobacter was detected in faeces at all organic broiler farms, being much higher than at conventional farms. One of the most remarkable results was the fact that faeces from organic pigs and broilers showed a much lower incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, except for Campylobacter in broilers. It is concluded that the organic products investigated scored as equally well as conventional products with regard to food safety and at the same time show some promising features with respect to antibiotic resistance. PMID:18608495

  6. Alternative and Organic Beef Production: Food-Safety Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sales of organic beef is increasing yearly due to the perception of it being more nutritious, better for the environment, contains minimal levels of pesticides, is produced without growth hormones, is not genetically engineered, and is produced using improved animal welfare practices. Artisan, ...

  7. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

  8. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. PMID:24436145

  9. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  10. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. PMID:24593894

  11. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products. PMID:26243938

  12. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  13. [Current issues regarding organic food].

    PubMed

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T

    2005-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life. PMID:16610189

  14. Effect on Ca(OH)2 pretreatment to enhance biogas production of organic food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junoh, H.; Yip, CH; Kumaran, P.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment in optimizing COD solubilisation and methane production through anaerobic digestion process. Two different parameters, chemical concentration (40-190 mEq/L) and pretreatment time (1-6 hours) were used to pretreat food waste. A central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in obtaining the optimized condition for COD solubilisation. Result showed COD solubilisation was optimized at 166.98 mEq/L (equivalent to 6.1 g Ca(OH)2/L) for 1 hour. These conditions were applied through biomethane potential test with methane production of 864.19 mL/g VSdestructed and an increase of 20.0% as compared to untreated food waste.

  15. Organic watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  16. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  17. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  18. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  19. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  20. C.R.O.P. - Combined Regenerative Organic food Production: Employing the benefits of natural communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Gerhild; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Moeller, Ralf; Wasser, Kai; Tonat, Tim

    The reutilization of nutrients bound in organic wastes for food crop cultivation is a central topic of BLSS (Bioregenerative Life Support System) research. The conversion of organic wastes into inorganic compounds utilizable by plants proceeds stepwise and each step is carried out by specific microorganisms with varying environmental demands. In BLSS design different steps are often allocated to different treatment units. Each unit is inoculated with selected microbial cultures and provides optimal growth conditions for these. The compartmented set-up is also often used in public wastewater treatment. But as wastewaters usually carry their decomposers with them, specified inoculates are only applied in special cases. Due to the highly variable composition of wastewater, diverse communities of microorganisms are found in treatment plants enabling these to cope with the unpredictable substrate. Although in isolated space habitats, microorganisms necessary for degradation will also be present on wastes and in wastewaters, their diversity will be limited to those species introduced into the system until launch. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a stable microbial community in the waste processing system that is capable to degrade all kinds of wastes, including micropollutants like pharmaceutical residues, before launch. The C.R.O.P. project aims at combining the utilization of liquid and solid organic wastes with soilless plant cultivation. The envisioned waste processing system is a trickling filter designed to join all required functions in one compartment thus reducing size and weight. To achieve this, the filter medium provides habitats with differing conditions so that a diverse microbial community grows as biofilm on its surface. We assume that, once established, such a quasi-natural community makes the system multifunctional with regard to the substrates that can be degraded, and stable with regard to invasion of undesirable microorganisms. Our current

  1. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Formula What do can codes mean? Dates on Egg Cartons UPC or Bar Codes Storage Times Refrigerator ... primarily on perishable foods such as meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. "Closed" or "coded" dating might ...

  2. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  3. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  4. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  7. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  8. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  9. Physiology of food spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Roller, S

    1999-09-15

    A thorough understanding of the physiological responses of microorganisms to stresses imposed during food preservation is essential if novel combination systems based on mild food processing procedures are to be developed effectively. The influences of intrinsic characteristics as well as external factors such as water activity, temperature, preservatives, composition of the gaseous atmosphere, etc. on the stress response of microorganisms are discussed. The interaction of spoilage organisms with each other as well as with food pathogens and the ultimate consequences for food safety and quality are also explored in this review. PMID:10488850

  10. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  11. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. PMID:27497086

  12. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  13. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  14. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  15. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  16. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  17. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  18. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  19. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  20. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications. PMID:26432955

  1. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  2. Food Crystallization and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be either beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects th...

  3. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  4. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). PMID:26210142

  5. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  6. The Organic Foods System: Its Discursive Achievements and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, David M.; Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    Taking the emergence of the organic foods system as a case study, the authors aim to demonstrate both how the discursive richness of the organic foods system offers a challenge to the traditional operations of the market and how activity systems theory as understood in English studies can productively be tied to and enriched by theories of social…

  7. The economics of food production.

    PubMed

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact. PMID:8149829

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  9. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  10. Organizing for Better School Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the…

  11. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  12. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... organic food is one that is grown without: pesticides fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge ... the hot sun is cheaper but requires more pesticides and chemical fertilizers to grow. Cage-Free or ...

  13. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    PubMed

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk. PMID:12822674

  14. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

  15. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  16. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  17. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. PMID:25913683

  18. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  19. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  20. Organic strawberry production manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern commercial organic strawberry production is a technical undertaking that encompasses many factors and poses many challenges. Growers must be aware of the compatibility of specific strawberry varieties with local climate, soil, plant pathogens, insect pests, and harvest schedules. Growers must...

  1. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products. PMID:27005492

  2. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  3. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  4. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  5. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  6. The Spaces and Ethics of Organic Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nick; Cloke, Paul; Barnett, Clive; Malpass, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Initial assessments of the potential for organic food systems have offered an optimistic interpretation of the progressive political and ethical characteristics involved. This positive gloss has prompted a stream of critique emphasising the need to explore the ambiguities and disconnections inherent therein. In this paper, we consider the case of…

  7. 76 FR 37817 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... levels, across the full length of the food-production chain, in order to reduce significantly the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That...

  8. [How to increase food production?].

    PubMed

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  9. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  10. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  11. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  12. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  13. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  14. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ingredients or food group(s))” must develop an organic production or handling system plan that is agreed to by... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and...

  15. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ingredients or food group(s))” must develop an organic production or handling system plan that is agreed to by... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and...

  16. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ingredients or food group(s))” must develop an organic production or handling system plan that is agreed to by... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and...

  17. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ingredients or food group(s))” must develop an organic production or handling system plan that is agreed to by... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and...

  18. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr−1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr−1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. PMID:27445108

  19. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr‑1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr‑1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  20. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. PMID:27445108

  1. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. PMID:20832437

  2. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  3. Nutrigenomics of taste - impact on food preferences and food production.

    PubMed

    El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Stewart, Lindsay; Khataan, Nora; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Kwong, Pauline; Ozsungur, Stephen; Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2007-01-01

    Food preferences are influenced by a number of factors such as personal experiences, cultural adaptations and perceived health benefits. Taste, however, is the most important determinant of how much a food is liked or disliked. Based on the response to bitter-tasting compounds such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), individuals can be classified as supertasters, tasters or nontasters. Sensitivity to bitter-tasting compounds is a genetic trait that has been recognized for more than 70 years. Genetic differences in bitter taste perception may account for individual differences in food preferences. Other factors such as age, sex and ethnicity may also modify the response to bitter-tasting compounds. There are several members of the TAS2R receptor gene family that encode taste receptors on the tongue, and genetic polymorphisms of TAS2R38 have been associated with marked differences in the perception of PTC and PROP. However, the association between TAS2R38 genotypes and aversion to bitter-tasting foods is not clear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in other taste receptor genes have recently been identified, but their role in bitter taste perception is not known. Establishing a genetic basis for food likes/dislikes may explain, in part, some of the inconsistencies among epidemiologic studies relating diet to risk of chronic diseases. Identifying populations with preferences for particular flavors or foods may lead to the development of novel food products targeted to specific genotypes or ethnic populations. PMID:17684414

  4. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

  5. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  6. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  7. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. PMID:26512860

  8. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality. PMID:24375441

  9. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  10. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  11. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  12. Climate change and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in the twenty-first century is to sustainably feed nine to ten billion people by 2050 while at the same time reducing environmental impact (e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity loss, land use change and loss of ecosystem services). To this end, food security must be delivered. According to the United Nations definition, 'food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. At the same time as delivering food security, we must also reduce the environmental impact of food production. Future climate change will make an impact upon food production. On the other hand, agriculture contributes up to about 30% of the anthropogenic GHG emissions that drive climate change. The aim of this review is to outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture, the mitigation measures available within agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and outlines the very significant challenge of feeding nine to ten billion people sustainably under a future climate, with reduced emissions of GHG. Each challenge is in itself enormous, requiring solutions that co-deliver on all aspects. We conclude that the status quo is not an option, and tinkering with the current production systems is unlikely to deliver the food and ecosystems services we need in the future; radical changes in production and consumption are likely to be required over the coming decades. PMID:23146244

  13. Soya--the medicine food product.

    PubMed

    Moţa, Maria; Gârgavu, Sigina; Popa, Simona; Schiopu, Simona; Panduru, N M; Moţa, E

    2007-01-01

    Soya, cultivated for more than 3000 years, is both a drug and a food product. It has numerous nutritional benefits, given by its content of isoflavones, essential amino acids, fibers, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The use of soy reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases: it has an antioxidant effect, reduces cholesterol levels and modulates the endothelial function; the soy foods, rich in isoflavones, reduce the risk of breast cancer; men with heredocolateral cancer antecedents or with minimal increase of prostate antigen must consider the consumption of soy and soy foods. Soy and soy foods play an important role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and controlling the pre- and postmenopausal symptoms; the soy ingestion has benefic metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and overweight. Taking into consideration the nutritional profile of soy, the nutritionists should encourage the population to consume more soy and soy foods. Nevertheless, long term studies are needed to discover a possible "dark side" of soy consumption. Among the most popular soy foods we mention: soymilk, soy cheese (tofu), soy meat (pie, salami, textured soy in granule form). Most of the products are soy flour derivatives, while tofu is obtained by curdling soymilk. PMID:17966452

  14. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  15. Food Production, Management, and Services Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This food production, management, and services curriculum guide provides information needed by teachers. It begins with a list of the competencies and subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the sub-elements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. Each chapter consists of teaching strategies. They…

  16. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  20. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  1. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  2. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  3. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  4. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  5. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  6. Temporal and spatial prediction of radiocaesium transfer to food products.

    PubMed

    Gillett, A G; Crout, N M; Absalom, J P; Wright, S M; Young, S D; Howard, B J; Barnett, C L; McGrath, S P; Beresford, N A; Voigt, G

    2001-09-01

    A recently developed semi-mechanistic temporal model is used to predict food product radiocaesium activity concentrations using soil characteristics available from spatial soil databases (exchangeable K, pH, percentage clay and percentage organic matter content). A raster database of soil characteristics, radiocaesium deposition, and crop production data has been developed for England and Wales and used to predict the spatial and temporal pattern of food product radiocaesium activity concentrations (Bq/kg). By combining these predictions with spatial data for agricultural production, an area's output of radiocaesium can also be estimated, we term this flux (Bq/year per unit area). Model predictions have been compared to observed data for radiocaesium contamination of cow milk in regions of England and Wales which received relatively high levels of fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl accident (Gwynedd and Cumbria). The model accounts for 56% and 80% of the observed variation in cow milk activity concentration for Gwynedd and Cumbria, respectively. Illustrative spatial results are presented and suggest that in terms of food product contamination areas in the North and West of England and Wales are those most vulnerable to radiocaesium deposition. When vulnerability is assessed using flux the spatial pattern is more complex and depends upon food product. PMID:11783852

  7. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services. Production. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    This teacher's guide contains 20 units of instruction for a course in production in the food production, management, and services area. Units of instruction are designed for use in more than one lesson or class period of instruction. Introductory materials include the following: a competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic…

  9. Analysis of sterol oxidation products in foods.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francesc; Bou, Ricard; Boatella, Josep; Codony, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The main aspects related to the analysis of sterol oxidation products (SOP) in foods are comprehensively reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the critical and controversial points of this analysis because these points affect crucial analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, selectivity, and sensitivity. The effect of sample preparation and the conditions of quantification by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography on these parameters are also reviewed. The results show that, in order to choose an adequate method to analyze SOP in a certain food, the analyst must consider its SOP concentration and matrix complexity. The term SOP includes both cholesterol oxidation products (COP) and phytosterol oxidation products (POP). The state of the art of COP and POP analysis is quite different; many more studies have dealt with the analysis of COP than of POP. However, most of the results presented here about COP analysis may be extrapolated to POP analysis because both groups of compounds show similar structures and characteristics. PMID:15164841

  10. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  11. Certified organic vegetable production for market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelines provide general provisions and processes for obtaining and maintaining organic certification, but did not specify best management practices for crop...

  12. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from <1-27,000 mg kg(-1). Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  13. Food and energy production: Conjunctive water planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorah, W. L.; Wright, K. R.

    1981-05-01

    Optimum oil production often requires secondary recovery techniques which utilize large amounts of water. Concurrent with the increased oil production is the need to provide new water diversions for increased food and fiber production. Oil production and agricultural lands are often located in the same region and compete for the same water. This paper presents one solution to this competition for a limited resource. A conjunctive water supply and treatment plan with synergistic benefits was developed to meet the energy-production water requirement (waterflooding) and the water needs for reclamation of the saline lands for food production (irrigation). A plan was devised whereby river water would be diverted onto the saline lands for treatment to remove suspended solids. The treatment process (removal of suspended sediments) at the same time would leach the soil of its dissolved solids (salts). The treated water, and the salts, would then be captured by an underground drainage system for delivery to the oil field for subsequent injection around the oil reservoir. This plan eliminated the need to construct a costly mechanical water treatment plant by using the wastewater (leachate) from the agricultural sector as an acceptable raw-water supply for the oil industry. Thus, expenses eliminated by virtue of the plan could be used to assist in a land reclamation program which otherwise might be economically impractical.

  14. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  15. Deoxynivalenol contents in foodstuffs of organical and conventional production.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, M; Müller, H-M; Drochner, W

    2003-03-01

    Samples of wheat flour, bread, noodles, rice, corn and corn based foods as well as oats and oats based foods of conventional and organical production were analysed for trichothecene toxins. In wheat flour, bread and noodels the median deoxynivalenol (DON) contents were lower in ecological than in conventional products with significant differences for what flour and bread. To estimate toxin uptake of the consumer a corrected mean of DON concentration was calculated, which was lower in wheat flour and bread for ecological than for conventional products. In noodles the corrected mean of organical products was higher than that of conventional ones. PMID:23604666

  16. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    SciTech Connect

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  17. Filamentous fungi for production of food additives and processing aids.

    PubMed

    Archer, David B; Connerton, Ian F; MacKenzie, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are metabolically versatile organisms with a very wide distribution in nature. They exist in association with other species, e.g. as lichens or mycorrhiza, as pathogens of animals and plants or as free-living species. Many are regarded as nature's primary degraders because they secrete a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes that degrade waste organic materials. Many species produce secondary metabolites such as polyketides or peptides and an increasing range of fungal species is exploited commercially as sources of enzymes and metabolites for food or pharmaceutical applications. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided a major opportunity to explore and further exploit fungi as sources of enzymes and metabolites. In this review chapter we focus on the use of fungi in the production of food additives but take a largely pre-genomic, albeit a mainly molecular, view of the topic. PMID:18253709

  18. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials (15 units) for use in training future food production workers. Covered in the first part of the guide are nutrition in food production and diet therapy. The second part of the guide deals with sanitation and safety in food production.…

  19. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  20. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  1. Organic Matter Balance: Managing for Soil Protection and Bioenergy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (organi...

  2. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  3. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. PMID:24121591

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  5. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  6. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  9. Foodomics: A new tool to differentiate between organic and conventional foods.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2016-07-01

    The demand for organic food is increasing annually due to the growing consumer trend for more natural products that have simpler ingredient lists, involve less processing and are grown free of pesticides. However, there is still not enough nutritional evidence in favor of organic food consumption. Classical chemical analysis of macro- and micronutrients has demonstrated that organic crops are poorer in nitrogen, but clear evidence for other nutrients is lacking. Omics technologies forming part of the new discipline of foodomics have allowed the detection of possible nutritional differences between organic and conventional production, although many results remain controversial and contradictory. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the studies that use foodomics techniques as a tool to differentiate between organic and conventional production. PMID:26553784

  10. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  11. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  12. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  13. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  14. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  15. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  16. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  17. Quality and utilization of food co-products and residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P.; Bao, G.; Broderick, C.; Fishman, M.; Liu, L.; Onwulata, C.

    2010-06-01

    Some agricultural industries generate large amounts of low value co-products/residues, including citrus peel, sugar beet pulp and whey protein from the production of orange juice, sugar and cheese commodities, respectively. National Program #306 of the USDA Agricultural Research Service aims to characterize and enhance quality and develop new processes and uses for value-added foods and bio-based products. In parallel projects, we applied scanning microscopies to examine the molecular organization of citrus pectin gels, covalent crosslinking to reduce debonding in sugar beet pulp-PLA composites and functional modification of whey protein through extrusion in order to evaluate new methods of processing and formulating new products. Also, qualitative attributes of fresh produce that could potentially guide germ line development and crop management were explored through fluorescence imaging: synthesis and accumulation of oleoresin in habanero peppers suggest a complicated mechanism of secretion that differs from the classical scheme. Integrated imaging appears to offer significant structural insights to help understand practical properties and features of important food co-products/residues.

  18. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, ‘next-generation’ sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  19. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, 'next-generation' sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  20. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain. PMID:22795621

  1. Rice disease management under organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in organic rice production has increased because of the increased market demand for organic rice. Texas organic rice acreage has constantly increased over the last decade, reaching 32,000 acres in 2012. Texas is now the leading state in organic rice production in the U.S. Organic rice is p...

  2. USDA/ARS Organic Production Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For much of its history, USDA/ARS had little to do with research on organic agriculture, however research in organic systems has made considerable gains at the agency over the past decade. In the 1980's and 1990's, as the organic food industry was taking off, ARS researchers who wanted to serve orga...

  3. The Food and Agriculture Organization's Gridded Livestock of the World.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Timothy P; Franceschini, Gianluca; Wint, William

    2007-01-01

    Livestock sector planning, policy development and analysis are frequently hampered by the paucity of reliable and accessible information on the distribution, abundance and use of livestock. In an attempt to redress this shortfall, the Food and Agriculture Organization's Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA) has, in collaboration with the Environmental Research Group Oxford, developed the 'Gridded Livestock of the World' database which provide the first standardised global, sub-national resolution maps of the major agricultural livestock species. These are now freely available for download on the FAO website. The data are produced in Environmental Systems Research Institute grid format for cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens and other poultry. The map values are animal densities per square kilometre, at a resolution of 3 minutes of arc (approximately 5 km at the Equator), and are derived from official census and survey data. Reported statistics are then processed using a combination of suitability masking and spatial disaggregation by statistical modelling of livestock densities based on empirical relationships between livestock densities and environmental variables in similar agro-ecological zones. The spatial nature of these livestock data allows a wide array of applications. Livestock distribution data give an estimation of production; they evaluate impact (both of and on livestock) by applying a variety of rates; and they provide the denominator in prevalence and incidence estimates for epidemiological applications, and the host distributions for transmission models. PMID:20422554

  4. 78 FR 44574 - Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  5. 76 FR 55928 - Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  6. 77 FR 47652 - Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  7. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed. PMID:26748037

  8. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. PMID:22504401

  9. Food-Grade Organisms as Vaccine Biofactories and Oral Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Angulo, Carlos; Meza, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The use of food-grade organisms as recombinant vaccine expression hosts and delivery vehicles has been explored during the past 25 years, opening new avenues for vaccinology. Considering that oral immunization is a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and protection of mucosal tissues, the use of food-grade organisms can lead to highly advantageous vaccines in terms of costs, easy administration, and safety. The organisms currently used for this purpose are bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacillus), yeasts, algae, plants, and insect species. Herein, a comparative and updated scenario on the production of oral vaccines in food-grade organisms is provided and placed in perspective. The status of clinical evaluations and the adoption of this technology by the industry are highlighted. PMID:26708345

  10. Food Production and Antimicrobial Resistance – The Next 100 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of food is complex and ensuring the safety of food for human consumption provides serious challenges. Since 1996 the U.S. has conducted surveillance on food borne and commensal antimicrobial resistance bacteria through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bac...

  11. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  12. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  13. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

  18. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health. PMID:21477631

  19. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  20. Organic tomato transplant production and supplemental fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing healthy transplants for organic production systems is an essential step in the process of maximizing crop yields. All components entering into the organic crop production system must be approved for organic use, including the seed, soil media, and fertilizer used in transplant production....

  1. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  2. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes. PMID:26231503

  3. Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Stewart; Lyons, Kristen; Lawrence, Geoffrey; Grice, Janet

    2004-10-01

    Path analysis of attitudinal, motivational, demographic and behavioural factors influencing food choice among Australian consumers who had consumed at least some organic food in the preceding 12 months showed that concern with the naturalness of food and the sensory and emotional experience of eating were the major determinants of increasing levels of organic consumption. Increasing consumption was also related to other 'green consumption' behaviours such as recycling and to lower levels of concern with convenience in the purchase and preparation of food. Most of these factors were, in turn, strongly affected by gender and the level of responsibility taken by respondents for food provisioning within their households, a responsibility dominated by women. Education had a slightly negative effect on the levels of concern for sensory and emotional appeal due to lower levels of education among women. Income, age, political and ecological values and willingness to pay a premium for safe and environmentally friendly foods all had extremely minor effects. PMID:15458800

  4. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  5. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  6. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  7. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  8. Papago Food Production and Nutrition Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Cynthia

    The Project was begun in 1979 by the Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation to help bring about changes leading to improvements in the food and nutrition conditions, and overall health, of Papago people living on the reservation. Goals of the Project were to initiate a comprehensive and integrated approach to food and nutrition problems…

  9. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  10. Problems of toxicants in marine food products

    PubMed Central

    Bagnis, R.; Berglund, F.; Elias, P. S.; van Esch, G. J.; Halstead, B. W.; Kojima, Kohei

    1970-01-01

    The expansion of marine fisheries into tropical waters, which is now occurring, will increase the risks of widespread poisonings because of the abundance of biotoxins in warm-water organisms. However, toxic marine organisms are not only a health hazard but also a possible source of new pharmaceutical products. A classification of marine intoxicants is given in this paper with special reference to the oral biotoxins which will be of primary concern in the expansion of warm-water fisheries. The biotoxins are both invertebrate (e.g., molluscs, arthropods) and vertebrate (mostly fishes) in origin. Biotoxications of vertebrate origin may be caused by the muscles, the gonads or the blood of certain fishes or by special poison glands not equipped with traumagenic devices. (Venomous fishes, having poison glands and traumagenic spines, etc., are of no direct concern as oral intoxicants.) The ichthyosarcotoxic fishes, in which the flesh is poisonous, appear to constitute the most significant health hazard. A list of fishes reported as causing ciguatera poisoning (one of the most serious and widespread forms of ichthyosarcotoxism) is included in this paper. PMID:4908418

  11. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    PubMed

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

  12. Bisphenol a in canned food products from canadian markets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana

    2010-06-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction followed by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food products. This method was used to analyze 78 canned food products for BPA. Concentrations of BPA in canned food products differed considerably among food types, but all were below the specific migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg set by the European Commission Directive for BPA in food or food simulants. Canned tuna products had the highest BPA concentrations in general, with mean and maximum values of 137 and 534 ng/g, respectively. BPA concentrations in the condensed soup products were considerably higher than those in the ready-to-serve soup products, with mean and maximum values of 105 and 189 ng/g, respectively, for the condensed soups and 15 and 34 ng/g, respectively, for the ready-to-serve soups. BPA concentrations in canned vegetable products were relatively low; about 60% of the products had BPA concentrations of less than 10 ng/g. Canned tomato paste products had lower BPA concentrations than did canned pure tomato products. The mean and maximum BPA concentrations were 1.1 and 2.1 ng/g, respectively, for tomato paste products and 9.3 and 23 ng/g, respectively, for the pure tomato products. PMID:20537264

  13. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  14. Human anisakiasis transmitted by marine food products.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, T L; Kayes, S G; Fukumura, T

    1991-01-01

    Seafood-transmitted parasitic diseases represent an emerging area of interest to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Human infections with marine parasites are generally the result of ingesting uncooked seafood products. Over 50 species of helminthic parasites are known to infect humans worldwide. Recently, the number of infections with one of these helminths, the juvenile stage of the marine nematode, Anisakis simplex, has increased in the United States. Raw fish dishes such as lomi lomi salmon and sashimi are known to transmit the parasite to unsuspecting citizens and the most frequently implicated fish in the transmission of this zoonotic disease is the Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). The risk of infection from fishes caught in Hawaiian waters is slight; however, a juvenile Anisakis simplex infected one patient from either locally caught aku or ahi. We report 4 new cases, which brings the total number of known cases in Hawaii to 7. Five of the 7 cases were diagnosed and treated by means of an endoscope and biopsy forceps. Serological profiles are presented in several of these cases. One case represents the first known instance of reinfection; the initial infection occurred 2 years prior. The second infection gave an opportunity to compare the human response to a challenge infection and to investigate the validity of the "double hit" theory. Increased awareness by physicians to the clinical features of this disease is warranted. The zoonotic disease, anisakiasis, should be considered in patients presenting with intense abdominal pain, if these patients admit they have recently eaten raw or undercooked seafoods. PMID:2022472

  15. Determination of aspartame and its major decomposition products in foods.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic procedure already evaluated in a preceding study for the analysis of acesulfam-K is also suitable for the determination of the intense sweetener aspartame in tabletop sweetener, candy, fruit beverage, fruit pulp, soft drink, yogurt, cream, cheese, and chocolate preparations. The method also allows the determination of aspartame's major decomposition products: diketopiperazine, aspartyl-phenylalanine, and phenylalanine. Samples are extracted or diluted with water and filtered. Complex matrixes are centrifuged or clarified with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract is analyzed on a reversed-phase muBondapak C18 column using 0.0125M KH2PO4 (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile ([85 + 15] or [98 + 2]) as mobile phase. Detection is performed by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Recoveries ranged from 96.1 to 105.0%. Decomposition of the sweetener was observed in most food samples. However, the total aspartame values (measured aspartame + breakdown products) were within -10% and +5% of the declared levels. The repeatabilities and the repeatability coefficients of variation were, respectively, 1.00 mg/100 g and 1.34% for products containing less than 45 mg/100 g aspartame and 4.11 mg/100 g and 0.91% for other products. The technique is precise and sensitive. It enables the detection of many food additives or natural constituents, such as other intense sweeteners, organic acids, and alkaloids, in the same run without interfering with aspartame or its decomposition products. The method is consequently suitable for quality control or monitoring. PMID:8471853

  16. Food production and the energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D; Hurd, L E; Bellotti, A C; Forster, M J; Oka, I N; Sholes, O D; Whitman, R J

    1973-11-01

    The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant

  17. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  18. [Assessment of mutagenic danger of food products].

    PubMed

    Maganova, N B

    2004-01-01

    Mutagenic effect of different food additions, hormonal stimulators of growth of agricultural animals, new foodstuffs and fodder, obtained in special conditions was studies in the experiments on mice. Mutagenic effect of plant-transformed lead also was studied. The results obtained showed the mutagenic effect of hormonal substance--metandrostenolone and nutritive stain on the basis of asostain red chlortriasin. The majority of studied food additions, new foodstuffs and fodder did not induce mutagenic effect in the used experimental conditions. PMID:15049156

  19. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  20. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  1. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  2. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  3. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  4. Effect of seeding rate on organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for organic rice (Oryza sativa L.) has incentivized producer conversion from conventional to organically-managed rice production in the U.S. Little is known on the impacts of seeding rate on organic rice production. A completely randomized factorial design with four replications was...

  5. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  6. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  7. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  8. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  9. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  10. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. PMID:23794245

  11. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  12. Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Arvaniti, Fotini; Zampelas, Antonis

    2006-01-01

    Consumer concern over the quality and safety of conventional food has intensified in recent years, and primarily drives the increasing demand for organically grown food, which is perceived as healthier and safer. Relevant scientific evidence, however, is scarce, while anecdotal reports abound. Although there is an urgent need for information related to health benefits and/or hazards of food products of both origins, generalized conclusions remain tentative in the absence of adequate comparative data. Organic fruits and vegetables can be expected to contain fewer agrochemical residues than conventionally grown alternatives; yet, the significance of this difference is questionable, inasmuch as actual levels of contamination in both types of food are generally well below acceptable limits. Also, some leafy, root, and tuber organic vegetables appear to have lower nitrate content compared with conventional ones, but whether or not dietary nitrate indeed constitutes a threat to human health is a matter of debate. On the other hand, no differences can be identified for environmental contaminants (e.g. cadmium and other heavy metals), which are likely to be present in food from both origins. With respect to other food hazards, such as endogenous plant toxins, biological pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms, available evidence is extremely limited preventing generalized statements. Also, results for mycotoxin contamination in cereal crops are variable and inconclusive; hence, no clear picture emerges. It is difficult, therefore, to weigh the risks, but what should be made clear is that 'organic' does not automatically equal 'safe.' Additional studies in this area of research are warranted. At our present state of knowledge, other factors rather than safety aspects seem to speak in favor of organic food. PMID:16403682

  13. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. PMID:26187831

  14. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  15. Arsenic speciation in humans and food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Benramdane, L; Bressolle, F; Vallon, J J

    1999-09-01

    Although acute intoxication has become rare, arsenic (As) is still a dangerous pollution agent for industrial workers and people living in the vicinity of emission sources. In humans, only inorganic As is toxic; organic forms present in large amounts in the environment are nontoxic. It is therefore important to be able to differentiate one group from the other using appropriate speciation methods. The authors review the present knowledge of the distribution of As in humans and food products. The three steps of the speciation methods (sample preparation, species separation, and detection) are described. For liquid samples, a clean-up step (C18 cartridge extraction, dilution, or freezing) is necessary to eliminate proteins and salts from the matrix. For solid organic samples, the first step consists of the digestion of tissues followed by solvent extraction sometimes coupled with a C18 extraction. The separation of As species is accomplished by different high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods (ion-exchange, ion-pairing, and micellar liquid chromatography). The detection methods are compatible with HPLC and are able to detect As species in the microgram-per-liter range. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry is more frequently used, but suffers from interference by organic solvents in the mobile phases. Atomic absorption spectrometry methods give sensitivities of the same order. ICP-mass spectrometry has the advantage of specificity and can be 100- to 1000-fold more sensitive than previous methods. PMID:10497786

  16. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of

  17. Food Production, Management, and Services. Fast Foods. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are designed for a course in food production, management, and services for fast foods. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 15 references; and a…

  18. A new food ingredient for adding soluble oat beta-glucan health benefits to food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new oat food ingredient, containing 20% to 30% soluble beta-glucan, was obtained from oat bran by using natural treatments of heat and shear processing. The product is useful for reducing calories in foods while simultaneously adding health promoting benefits from its beta-glucan. It was evaluat...

  19. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare. PMID:21574465

  20. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  1. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis. PMID:20359265

  2. Organic farming: Impacts on soil, food, and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of responsible stewardship in managing soil is a central tenet of organic farming. Organic farmers believe that practices which stimulate biology and overall quality of soil enhance production of healthy and nutritious crops. Few involved in agriculture would argue this point. Neverth...

  3. [Ecological and food safety considerations about products of vegetable origin].

    PubMed

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Díaz, R V

    1994-12-01

    Media have paid much attention in recent years to emerging microbiological problems in foods of plant origin. The potential for contamination of fruits and vegetables is high because of the wide variety of conditions to which produce is exposed during growth, harvest, processing and distribution. These considerations acquire great significance in the current scenario of the new processing techniques that offer attributes of convenience and fresh-likeness in response to changes in consumption patterns and increased demand of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Thus, reliance on low temperature storage and on improved packaging materials/techniques have increased. Even if produce had not been considered a major vector for foodborne diseases, technologies that extend shelf-life by decreasing the rate of product deterioration might increase the risks associated with pathogenic microorganisms, especially of psychotropic nature, by allowing sufficient time for their growth when retarding the development of competitive spoilage organisms. Processing steps that modify the food microenvironment open new possibilities to support pathogens that, for ecological reason, would have never been naturally present in produce. Ecological and safety aspects related to fruits and vegetables as well as foodborne disease outbreaks traceable to produce and reportedly due to Salmonella and Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni are reviewed. PMID:8984963

  4. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  5. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  6. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. PMID:27046434

  7. Closing data gaps for LCA of food products: estimating the energy demand of food processing.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Neus; Stoessel, Franziska; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-21

    Food is one of the most energy and CO2-intensive consumer goods. While environmental data on primary agricultural products are increasingly becoming available, there are large data gaps concerning food processing. Bridging these gaps is important; for example, the food industry can use such data to optimize processes from an environmental perspective, and retailers may use this information for purchasing decisions. Producers and retailers can then market sustainable products and deliver the information demanded by governments and consumers. Finally, consumers are increasingly interested in the environmental information of foods in order to lower their consumption impacts. This study provides estimation tools for the energy demand of a representative set of food process unit operations such as dehydration, evaporation, or pasteurization. These operations are used to manufacture a variety of foods and can be combined, according to the product recipe, to quantify the heat and electricity demand during processing. In combination with inventory data on the production of the primary ingredients, this toolbox will be a basis to perform life cycle assessment studies of a large number of processed food products and to provide decision support to the stakeholders. Furthermore, a case study is performed to illustrate the application of the tools. PMID:24344613

  8. Electromagnetic radiation properties of foods and agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenin, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this book, the author examines the effects of the various regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum on foods and agricultural products. Among the regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum covered are high-energy beta and neutron particles, gamma-rays and X-rays, to lower-energy visible, near infrared, infrared, microwave and low-energy radiowaves and electric currents. Dr. Mohsenin applies these electromagnetic phenomena to food products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, dairy products, meat and processed foods. Contents: Some Basic Concepts of Electromagnetic Radiation. Basic Instruments for Measurement of Optical Properties. Applications of Radiation in the Visible Spectrum. Color and its Measurement. Sorting for Color and Appearance. Near-Infrared and Infrared Radiation Applications. Applications of High-Energy Radiation. Related Concepts of Microwaves, Radiowaves, and Electric Currents. Measurement of Electrical Properties of Foods and Agricultural Products. Applications of Electrical Properties. Appendix, Cited References. Subject Index.

  9. Medical foods: products for the management of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L; Baggott, Joseph E

    2006-11-01

    Medical foods are a specific category of therapeutic agents created under the Orphan Drug Act of 1988, which separated medical foods from drugs for regulatory purposes. Products in this category share the requirements that they are intended for the nutritional management of a specific disease, are used under the guidance of a physician, and contain ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). An example of medical foods are formulations intended to manage patients with inborn errors in amino acid metabolism. Newer medical foods are designed to manage hyperhomocysteinemia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammatory conditions, cancer cachexia, and other diseases. PMID:17131945

  10. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. PMID:26606886

  11. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  12. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed. PMID:25624252

  13. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. PMID:26645658

  14. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity. PMID:24734775

  15. Rice disease research in organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has increased significantly in the U. S. with 35,000 acres currently under production. Texas organic rice acreage has been increasing steadily over the last 10 years with acreage in 2009 reaching 16,000, accounting for approximately 10% of the total Texas rice acreage. Contro...

  16. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Federal Register of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 48990), we made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and Updates to Food Product Categories; Availability AGENCY:...

  17. Introduction: Mass production for beneficial organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous organisms that are beneficial to humans and the environment. Some of these organisms can be cultured on a large scale. However, certain key aspects in production technology and maximization of cost efficiency are lacking for many organisms. The purpose of this book is to assemb...

  18. CONSIDERATIONS OF ORGANIC COTTON PRODUCTION AND GINNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 5,000-8,000 bales of organic cotton are currently produced in the U.S. with approximately 115,000 bales being produced worldwide that are certified "organic." Although small compared to the overall crop (less than 0.1 percent), the production of organic cotton has been increasing rece...

  19. The potential of lactic acid bacteria for the production of safe and wholesome food.

    PubMed

    Hammes, W P; Tichaczek, P S

    1994-03-01

    By tradition lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in the production of fermented foods. These constitute one quarter of our diet and are characterized by a safe history, certain beneficial health effects, and an extended shelf life when compared with raw materials. The various fermenting substrates are habitats for specific LAB that differ in their metabolic potential. The health effects exerted by LAB are the following: 1. Production of lactic acid and minor amounts of acetic and formic acid. These cause: a drop in pH and thereby growth inhibition of food spoiling or poisoning bacteria; killing of certain pathogens; detoxification by degradation of noxious compounds of plant origin (usually in combination with plant-derived enzymatic activities). 2. Production of antimicrobial compounds (e.g. bacteriocins, H2O2, fatty acids). 3. Probiotic effects as live organisms in food. The wholesomeness of LAB can also be extended to fields outside human nutrition, as they may act as probiotics in animal production or as plant protectives in agriculture and thus contribute to healthy raw materials for food production. Modern concepts or perspectives of the application of LAB include the following: 1. Selection of the best adapted and safely performing LAB strains. 2. Selection of strains with probiotic effects. 3. Selection of strains with health-promoting effects (e.g. production of vitamins or essential amino acids, anti-tumour activity). 4. Selection of strains with food protective activities (inhibiting spoilage or food pathogens). These strains can be added to food or used as starters in food fermentations. They may be found as wild-type organisms or can be obtained by genetic engineering.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8178575

  20. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  1. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  2. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  3. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consumers to higher trophic levels. The reduction or potential elimination of food chain organism... aquatic organisms in the food web. 230.31 Section 230.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic...

  4. Food safety in free-range and organic livestock systems: risk management and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, A; Meerburg, B G; Bos, A P

    2009-12-01

    Animal production systems that offer outdoor access to the animals have become increasingly popular in the Western world due to the growing general discontent of consumers with conventional bioindustrial farming practices. These open production systems offer improved animal welfare but may create new problems for animal health, resulting in increased food safety risks from bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections or environmental contaminants. Examples of these new problems include increased Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs and high dioxin levels in eggs from free-range hens. In this review, the relation between positive and negative points of free-range and organic livestock production systems is discussed with reference to production in The Netherlands. We investigated how proponents of more animal welfare friendly systems deal with potential negative issues in public and whether any risk communication is used. Generally, we found that the existence of a dilemma is disputed or avoided in communication with the consumer. This avoidance could be detrimental for public trust in alternative animal production systems, should problems occur. To prevent future problems, it will be necessary to communicate about the relevant types and sources of the food safety risks to the consumers. The responsibility for protecting food safety should be properly divided among the various parties involved: producers, processors, governments, nongovernmental organizations, and consumers. PMID:20003752

  5. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations. PMID:27357041

  6. Mass fragmentographic determination of polymethylbiphenyl in foods contaminated with petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, K.

    1981-06-01

    Biphenyl has been used for a long time as a fungistat to prevent decay of fresh citrus fruits. Since petroleum oils contain polymethylbiphenyl (PMBP), foods contaminated with petroleum products from various sources will also contain it. We have previously reported an analytical method for polymethylnaphthalene (PMN) and polymethylphenanthrene (PMP) which could be quite useful as a fingerprinting identification to indicate petroleum contamination of marine organisms. The objectives of this study were to determine PMN and PMP to confirm the petroleum contamination of foods and also to describe a procedure for determining PMBP in several foods by means of mass fragmentography (MF).

  7. Potential and attainable food production and food security in different regions

    PubMed Central

    Vries, F. W. T. Penning de; Rabbinge, R.; Groot, J. J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growing prosperity in the South is accompanied by human diets that will claim more natural resources per capita. This reality, combined with growing populations, may raise the global demand for food crops two- to four-fold within two generations. Considering the large volume of natural resources and potential crop yields, it seems that this demand can be met smoothly. However, this is a fallacy for the following reasons. (i) Geographic regions differ widely in their potential food security: policy choices for agricultural use of natural resources are limited in Asia. For example, to ensure national self-sufficiency and food security, most of the suitable land (China) and nearly all of the surface water (India) are needed. Degradation restricts options further. (ii) The attainable level of agricultural production depends also on socio-economic conditions. Extensive poverty keeps the attainable food production too low to achieve food security, even when the yield gap is wide, as in Africa. (iii) Bio-energy, non-food crops and nature compete with food crops for natural resources. Global and regional food security are attainable, but only with major efforts. Strategies to achieve alternative aims will be discussed.

  8. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    EPA Science Inventory

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  9. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference. PMID:25123207

  10. Relationships between expected, online and remembered enjoyment for food products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear. PMID:24275669

  11. Review and appraisal of concept of sustainable food production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brklacich, Michael; Bryant, Christopher R.; Smit, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Environmental degradation, competition for resources, increasing food demands, and the integration of agriculture into the international economy threaten the sustainability of many food production systems. Despite these concerns, the concept of sustainable food production systems remains unclear, and recent attempts to appraise sustainability have been hampered by conceptual inconsistencies and the absence of workable definitions. Six perspectives are shown to underpin the concept. Environmental accounting identifies biophysical limits for agriculture. Sustained yield refers to output levels that can be maintained continuously. Carrying capacity defines maximum population levels that can be supported in perpetuity. Production unit viability refers to the capacity of primary producers to remain in agriculture. Product supply and security focuses on the adequacy of food supplies. Equity is concerned with the spatial and temporal distribution of products dervied from resource use. Many studies into sustainable agriculture cover more than one of these perspectives, indicating the concept is complex and embraces issues relating to the biophysical, social, and economic environments. Clarification of the concept would facilitate the development of frameworks and analytical systems for appraising the sustainability of food production systems.

  12. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  13. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  14. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  15. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  16. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  17. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  18. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut. PMID:15508176

  19. Biological production of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Jianping; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Maness, Pin-Ching; Seibert, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Strains of cyanobacteria that produce high levels of alpha ketoglutarate (AKG) and pyruvate are disclosed herein. Methods of culturing these cyanobacteria to produce AKG or pyruvate and recover AKG or pyruvate from the culture are also described herein. Nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides that function as ethylene-forming enzymes and their use in the production of ethylene are further disclosed herein. These nucleic acids may be expressed in hosts such as cyanobacteria, which in turn may be cultured to produce ethylene.

  20. Pecan production under a "Food Systems" paradigm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in pecan production technologies and strategies over the last century have been impressive. This progress has been driven as a consequence of societal evolution and its associated forces. This article briefly reviews the evolution of the U.S. pecan industry within the context of basic hus...

  1. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. PMID:26827618

  2. Typology of eaters based on conventional and organic food consumption: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Touvier, Mathilde; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary information was obtained using a 264-item, semi-quantitative, organic FFQ. To identify clusters of consumers, principal component analysis was applied on sixteen conventional and sixteen organic food groups followed by a clustering procedure. The following five clusters of consumers were identified: (1) a cluster characterised by low energy intake, low consumption of organic food and high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes; (2) a cluster of big eaters of conventional foods with high intakes of SFA and cholesterol; (3) a cluster with high consumption of organic food and relatively adequate nutritional diet quality; (4) a group with a high percentage of organic food consumers, 14 % of which were either vegetarians or vegans, who exhibited a high nutritional diet quality and a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of most vitamins except B12; and (5) a group of moderate organic food consumers with a particularly high intake of proteins and alcohol and a poor nutritional diet quality. These findings may have implications for future aetiological studies investigating the potential impact of organic food consumption. PMID:27311793

  3. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... described in Food and Drug Administration regulation, 21 CFR 179.26; and (g) Sewage sludge. ... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...

  4. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... described in Food and Drug Administration regulation, 21 CFR 179.26; and (g) Sewage sludge. ... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...

  5. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... described in Food and Drug Administration regulation, 21 CFR 179.26; and (g) Sewage sludge. ... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...

  6. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... described in Food and Drug Administration regulation, 21 CFR 179.26; and (g) Sewage sludge. ... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...

  7. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201 Section 205.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  8. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-01-01

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain. PMID:25862323

  9. Qualitative determination of carbon black in food products.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Bermudez, E; Belai, N; Harp, B Petigara; Yakes, B J; Barrows, J N

    2012-01-01

    Carbon black (C.I. 77266) is an insoluble pigment produced by the partial combustion of hydrocarbons. The pigment is known by several synonyms, including vegetable carbon, lamp black and carbon ash, that correspond to the raw materials and methods used for its production. Vegetable carbon (E153) is permitted for use in colouring food in the European Union. The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has not approved the use of any type of carbon black for colouring food, although the agency batch certifies the pigment as D&C Black No. 2 for use in colouring certain cosmetics. Since carbon black (as vegetable carbon) may be present in food products offered for import into the United States, the USFDA's district laboratories need a qualitative analytical method for determining its presence. We have developed an extraction method for this purpose. A sample is broken down and dissolved with nitric acid. The resulting solution is filtered and treated with hydrochloric acid to dissolve any black iron oxide also present as a colour additive. A black residue remaining on the filter paper indicates the presence of carbon black in the food. We confirmed the presence of carbon black in residues from several standards and food products using Raman spectroscopy. The limit of detection for this method is 0.0001%. PMID:22035229

  10. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons