Science.gov

Sample records for organic waste disposal

  1. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-07-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  3. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public. PMID:23741869

  4. Limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of organic solvent-contaminated wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.; Mitchell, J.K.; Mitchell, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing inorganic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical modeling. The basic theorem of this approach was that the land disposal wastes would be environmentally acceptable if subsurface attenuation reduced groundwater concentrations of organic compounds to concentrations that were less than health-based, water-quality criteria. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. Threshold masses based on time-dependent migration simulations were estimated for these compounds. The remaining 16 compounds, which consisted mainly of chlorinated hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons could not be safely landfilled without severe restrictions on the amounts disposed. These organic compounds were candidates to ban from land disposal.The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing organic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical mdoeling. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. The

  5. Limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of organic solvent-contaminated wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, W. R.; Griffin, R. A.; Mitchell, J. K.; Mitchell, R. A.

    1989-05-01

    The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing organic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical modeling. The basic theorem of this approach was that the land disposal of wastes would be environmentally acceptable if subsurface attenuation reduced groundwater concentrations of organic compounds to concentrations that were less than health-based, water-quality criteria. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. Threshold masses based on time-dependent migration simulations were estimated for these compounds. The remaining 16 compounds, which consisted mainly of chlorinated hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons could not be safely landfilled without severe restrictions on the amounts disposed. These organic compounds were candidates to ban from land disposal.

  6. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes. PMID:19039069

  7. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  8. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Hsu, John; Barber, L. B.

    2001-10-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community.

  9. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  10. Radium bearing waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-07-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach.

  11. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  13. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  16. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders M; Nedenskov, Jonas; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-05-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH(4)) emission from the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH(4) (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH(4) (27%) and nitrogen (N(2)) (71%), containing no CO(2). The results indicated that the gas composition in the shredder waste was governed by chemical reactions as well as microbial reactions. CH(4) mass balances from three individual waste cells showed that a significant part (between 15% and 67%) of the CH(4) generated in cell 1.3 and 2.2.2 was emitted through leachate collection wells, as a result of the relatively impermeable covers in place at these two cells preventing vertical migration of the gas. At cell 1.5.1, which is un-covered, the CH(4) emission through the leachate system was low due to the high gas permeability of the shredder waste. Instead the gas was emitted through the waste resulting in some hotspot observations on the shredder surface with higher emission rates. The remaining gas that was not emitted through surfaces or the leachate collection system could potentially be oxidized as the measured oxidation capacity exceeded the potential emission rate. The whole CH(4) emission from the disposal site was found to be 820 ± 202 kg CH(4)d(-1). The total emission rate through the leachate

  19. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  20. Nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain.

  1. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    SciTech Connect

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders M.; Nedenskov, Jonas; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2011-05-15

    AV Miljo is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH{sub 4}) emission from the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH{sub 4} (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH{sub 4} (27%) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) (71%), containing no CO{sub 2}. The results indicated that the gas composition in the shredder waste was governed by chemical reactions as well as microbial reactions. CH{sub 4} mass balances from three individual waste cells showed that a significant part (between 15% and 67%) of the CH{sub 4} generated in cell 1.3 and 2.2.2 was emitted through leachate collection wells, as a result of the relatively impermeable covers in place at these two cells preventing vertical migration of the gas. At cell 1.5.1, which is un-covered, the CH{sub 4} emission through the leachate system was low due to the high gas permeability of the shredder waste. Instead the gas was emitted through the waste resulting in some hotspot observations on the shredder surface with higher emission rates. The remaining gas that was not emitted through surfaces or the leachate collection system could potentially be oxidized as the measured oxidation capacity exceeded the potential emission rate. The whole CH{sub 4} emission from the disposal site was found to be 820 {+-} 202 kg CH{sub 4} d

  2. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  3. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  4. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  5. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  6. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waste disposal. 671.12 Section 671.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WASTE REGULATION..., laboratory culture of micro-organisms and plant pathogens, and introduced avian products must be removed...

  7. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waste disposal. 671.12 Section 671.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WASTE REGULATION..., laboratory culture of micro-organisms and plant pathogens, and introduced avian products must be removed...

  8. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  9. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  10. Ultimate disposal of scrubber wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Part of the initial concern with using the wet scrubbers on the hypergolic propellants was the subsequential disposal of the liquid wastes. To do this, consideration was given to all possible methods to reduce the volume of the wastes and stay within the guidelines established by the state and federal environmental protection agencies. One method that was proposed was the use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds to reduce the waste concentration in the effluent to less than EPA tolerable levels. This method was under consideration and even in use by private industry, municipal governments, and NASA for upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities to a tertiary system. The use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds appears to be a very cost-effective method for reduction and disposal of hypergolic propellants.

  11. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  12. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  13. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

  14. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  15. [Hospital and environment: waste disposal].

    PubMed

    Faure, P; Rizzo Padoin, N

    2003-11-01

    Like all production units, hospitals produce waste and are responsible for waste disposal. Hospital waste is particular due to the environmental risks involved, particularly concerning infection, effluents, and radionucleide contamination. Management plans are required to meet environmental, hygiene and regulatory obligations and to define reference waste products. The first step is to optimize waste sorting, with proper definition of the different categories, adequate containers (collection stations, color-coded sacks), waste circuits, intermediate then central storage areas, and finally transfer to an incineration unit. Volume and delay to elimination must be carefully controlled. Elimination of drugs and related products is a second aspect: packaging, perfusion pouches, tubing, radiopharmaceutic agents. These later products are managed with non-sealed sources whose elimination depends on the radioactive period, requiring selective sorting and specific holding areas while radioactivity declines. Elimination of urine and excreta containing anti-cancer drugs or intravesical drugs, particularly coming from protected rooms using radioactive iodine is another aspect. There is also a marginal flow of unused or expired drugs. For a health establishment, elimination of drugs is not included as part of waste disposal. This requires establishing a specific circuit with selective sorting and carefully applied safety regulations. Market orders for collecting and handling hospital wastes must be implemented in compliance with the rules of Public Health Tenders. PMID:14639187

  16. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  17. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  18. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-contaminated equipment and other items that are disposed of as waste, through the application of waste minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  19. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  20. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  1. High-level waste processing and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

  2. Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Joe W., Ed.

    Intended to be a source of information on the nature and significance of health effects related to chemical disposal, this document is the final report of the Executive Scientific Panel on Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals. The panel, which was organized by the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology…

  3. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  4. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  5. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Michael D.; Klapperick, Robert L.; Bell, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  6. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  7. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  8. Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

    2000-07-01

    Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

  9. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  10. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  2. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  3. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  4. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  5. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  6. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  7. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ``fair to good`` using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  9. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  10. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  11. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  12. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  13. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  14. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  15. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  16. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  17. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  18. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  19. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.89 Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including, but not limited to... disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in a designated disposal site in the permit area or a...

  20. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  1. System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

  2. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-07

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents.

  3. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were sorted and weighed, and potential waste reductions from recycling and substituting reusable items were calculated. Business paper, trash liners, diapers, custom surgical packs, paper gowns, plastic suction bottles, and egg-crate pads were among the 20 top items and were analyzed individually. Data from sorted trash documented potential waste reductions through recycling and substitution of 78, 41, and 18 tonnes per year (1 tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.1 tons) from administration, the operating room, and adult wards, respectively (total hospital waste was 939 tonnes per year). We offer specific measures to substantially reduce nonhazardous hospital waste through substitution, minimization, and recycling of select disposable products. Images PMID:1595242

  4. The influence of natural organic matter on radionuclide mobility under conditions relevant to cementitious disposal of radioactive wastes: A review of direct evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Bryan, Nick D.

    2013-06-01

    A concept for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes involves emplacement within a geological disposal facility, followed by backfilling of the facility with cement. When the closed facility is re-saturated with groundwater, this will create a high pH environment due to dissolution of the cement minerals. Dissolved organic matter (DOM; defined here as naturally occurring organic acids and humin) will be present in the groundwater at a concentration that reflects the host rock environment and the recharge source and pathway. Interactions between DOM and radionuclides may enhance transport away from the facility and are an important consideration in safety performance assessments. This review specifically focuses on studies of DOM-radionuclide interactions at the high pH range that is expected during a repository lifetime. Whilst the vast majority of available data cover binary (DOM-radionuclide) and batch ternary systems (mineral-radionuclide-DOM), this review also covers other potentially important areas, such as reversibility kinetics and redox processes that can be mediated by DOM.

  5. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  6. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 {times} 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 {times} 10{sup 18} Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 18}Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes.

  7. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  8. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it were not radioactive: (1) 0.05 microcurie...

  9. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  10. Composition and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds Near a Chemical and Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in an Arid Environment with a Thick Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. J.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Luo, W.

    2010-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) materials commonly occur together in mixed-waste disposal facilities. Volatile components of both waste types can be transported simultaneously away from the site through the unsaturated zone. Concentrations, variability, and transport of VOCs near mixed-waste-disposal facilities in arid environments remain poorly understood. In this study, plume-scale VOC composition of the deep and shallow unsaturated zone near such a facility in southwestern Nevada was observed over a 10-year period. Spatial and temporal variability of VOC concentrations were monitored, and vertical (upward) fluxes of VOCs through the unsaturated zone to the land surface were estimated. Vapor-phase samples were collected from two boreholes, each instrumented with 10-12 vapor-sampling ports at irregular intervals that extend the entire depth of the110-m unsaturated zone and are located 100 and 160 m away from the nearest LLRW trench. Also, an array of eight shallow (0.5- and 1.5-m depths) vapor-probe sets extending from 0-400 m from the LLRW facility was monitored. Chlorfluorocarbons (CFCs) constitute ~60 percent of total VOC mass, far more than any other compound or class. Chlorinated solvent chemicals (~29 percent) and gasoline-range hydrocarbons (~1 percent) also were detected in most sampling locations. Shallow and deep samples indicate VOC concentrations in the vapor plume are increasing with time and moving further off site. The highest total VOC concentration observed was about 47,000 ppbv. Vertical profiles of VOC concentrations implies a preferential lateral flow path at 20-40 m below land surface, and upward and downward diffusive fluxes away from the zone of peak concentrations. The coarse gravel in this depth interval appears to provide less resistance to vapor-phase transport than the finer-textured sediment layers above and below. VOC concentrations at 0.5 and 1.5 m below land surface and laboratory

  11. Proposed HWIR alters waste treatment, disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.; Robinson, C.

    1996-04-01

    In what it has called its most important change to the hazardous waste rules since 1980, the Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule for process wastes that currently are regulated by the hazardous waste provisions in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, or RCRA Subtitle C. The rule addresses wastes that EPA has individually listed as hazardous, as well as wastes that are mixed with, derived from or contain listed hazardous wastes. The HWIR sets constituent-specific exit levels that would let low-risk process wastes escape the rigorous regulations of Subtitle C. EPA also proposes changes to RCRA`s land disposal restrictions so that some wastes that currently must be treated according to strict universal treatment standards may not have to be treated at all -- or could be treated in a less expensive manner -- before disposal. The proposed rule is important to virtually every company that is subject to RCRA`s hazardous waste regulations and raises many issues on which companies may want to comment.

  12. Future trends which will influence waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, A

    1978-01-01

    The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

  13. Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C

    1993-01-01

    Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

  14. Geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Brookins, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book addresses various topics related to the geochemistry of waste disposal: natural radioactivity, kinds of radioactive waste, details of possible disposal sites, low-level waste, uranium mill tailing, natural analogs, waste forms, and engineered barriers. Emphasis throughout is on the importance of natural analogs, the behavior of elements resembling those to be put in a waste repository as they occur in natural situations where the temperature, pressure, and movement of ground water are similar to those expected near a repository. The author is convinced that conclusions drawn from the study of analog elements are directly applicable to predictions about radionuclide behavior, and that the observed near-immobility of most of these elements in comparable geologic environments is good evidence that radioactive waste can be disposed of underground with negligible effects on the biosphere. Much of his own research has been in this area, and the best parts of the book are the descriptions of his work on trace elements in the salt minerals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico, on the movement of radionuclides and their daughter elements from the famous Precambrian reactor at Oklahoma in Gabon, and on the distribution of analog elements in rocks near the contacts of igneous intrusions.

  15. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs. PMID:18691865

  16. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  17. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  18. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  19. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  20. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  1. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  2. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  3. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  4. Waste-to-energy: Benefits beyond waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, M.A.; Kiser, J.V.L. )

    1995-01-01

    More than 125 waste-to-energy plants operate in North America, providing dependable waste disposal for thousands of communities. But the benefits of waste-to-energy plants go beyond getting rid of the garbage. Here's a look at some of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits that waste-to-energy projects have brought to their communities. The reasons vary considerably as to why communities have selected waste-to-energy as a part of their waste management systems. Common on the lists in many communities are a variety of benefits beyond dependable waste disposal. A look at experiences in four communities reveals environmental, economic, energy, and societal benefits that the projects provide to the communities they serve.

  5. LEGACY NONCONFORMANCE ISSUE IN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2002-12-16

    Beginning in 1968 waste from sectioning, sampling, and assaying of reactor fuels was sent to underground burial caissons in the 200-W Area of the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington. In 2002 a review of inventory records revealed that criticality safety storage limits had been exceeded. This prompted declaration of a Criticality Prevention Specification nonconformance. The corrective action illustrates the difficulties in demonstrating compliance to fissile material limits decades after waste disposal.

  6. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied.

  7. Space Station tethered waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, Charles C.

    1988-01-01

    The Shuttle Transportation System (STS) launches more payload to the Space Station than can be returned creating an accumulation of waste. Several methods of deorbiting the waste are compared including an OMV, solid rocket motors, and a tether system. The use of tethers is shown to offer the unique potential of having a net savings in STS launch requirement. Tether technology is being developed which can satisfy the deorbit requirements but additional effort is required in waste processing, packaging, and container design. The first step in developing this capability is already underway in the Small Expendable Deployer System program. A developmental flight test of a tether initiated recovery system is seen as the second step in the evolution of this capability.

  8. Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

  9. DISPOSAL OF FLUE-GAS-CLEANING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes current commercial and emerging technology for disposal of wastes from flue gas cleaning (FGC) systems for coal-fired power plants. Over 80 million metric tons/yr (dry) of coal ash and desulfurization solids are expected to be produced by the 1980's. Althoug...

  10. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  11. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  12. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  14. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  15. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  16. Managing previously disposed waste to today's standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in 1952 for controlled disposal of radioactive waste generated at the INEL. Between 1954 and 1970 waste characterized by long lived, alpha emitting radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Plant was also buried at this site. Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried waste has recently been detected. A Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established to manage cleanup of the buried waste. This program has four objectives: (1) determine contaminant sources, (2) determine extent of contamination, (3) mitigate migration, and (4) recommend an alternative for long term management of the waste. Activities designed to meet these objectives have been under way since the inception of the program. The regulatory environment governing these activities is evolving. Pursuant to permitting activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into a Consent Order Compliance Agreement (COCA) for cleanup of past practice disposal units at the INEL. Subsequent to identification of the RWMC as a release site, cleanup activities proceeded under dual regulatory coverage of RCRA and the Atomic Energy Act. DOE, EPA, and the State of Idaho are negotiating a RCRA/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interagency Agreement (IAG) for management of waste disposal sites at the INEL as a result of the November 1989 listing of the INEL on the National Priority List (NPL). Decision making for selection of cleanup technology will be conducted under the CERCLA process supplemented as required to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 figs.

  17. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  2. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  3. 49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waste collection and disposal. 228.327 Section 228... § 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a) General disposal requirements. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage in a camp must be removed in such a manner as to avoid creating...

  4. 49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waste collection and disposal. 228.327 Section 228... § 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a) General disposal requirements. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage in a camp must be removed in such a manner as to avoid creating...

  5. 49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waste collection and disposal. 228.327 Section 228... § 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a) General disposal requirements. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage in a camp must be removed in such a manner as to avoid creating...

  6. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface through the influence of capillary, viscous and buoyancy forces. Four experimental methods were employed. First, quantitative displacement experiments using short soil columns; second, add...

  7. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface through the influence of capillary, viscous and buoyancy forces. our experimental methods were employed. irst, quantitative displacement experiments using short soil columns; second, additio...

  8. PUREX Organic Waste Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2002-12-12

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate solidification/stabilization as an alternative treatment technology for the organic phase of the SRS spent PUREX waste using simulated waste, and to evaluate waste forms prepared with actual spent organic PUREX waste for regulatory classification.

  9. Safe handling and disposal of laboratory animal waste.

    PubMed

    Hill, D

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory animal handlers have a strict obligation to consider the safe handling and disposal of their animal waste streams. It is their responsibility to evaluate the hazards, assess the risks, and choose an appropriate strategy. Potential hazards include chemicals, such as commonly used sterilants and disinfectants; physical risks, such as heavy or repetitive lifting activities; hazardous micro-organisms or allergens; and radiologic agents. Furthermore, many animal studies involve compounds with unknown toxicity, which may require special precautions. Animal handlers must protect themselves by using appropriate engineering controls of work practice to minimize their exposure, adding the use of personal protective equipment when necessary. In addition, compliance with institutional waste handling procedures that meet federal, state, and local environmental requirements is essential to ensure the safe transport and disposal of animal waste streams. PMID:10329914

  10. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  11. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  12. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  13. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  14. The NUMO Strategy for HLW and TRU Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kitayama, K.; Oda, Y.

    2008-07-01

    Shortly after the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established, we initiated an open call to all municipalities, requesting volunteers to host a repository for vitrified HLW. The first volunteer applied for a preliminary literature survey phase last January but, unfortunately, it withdrew the application in April. This failure provided an invaluable lesson for both the relevant authorities and NUMO; subsequently the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan and associated organizations are examining a support plan to back up NUMO's open solicitation. On another front, a recent amendment of 'The Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act' also allocates specific 'TRU' waste for deep geological disposal, requiring a demonstration of safety to a similar level as that for HLW. To implement the radioactive waste disposal project, NUMO has developed a methodology appropriate to our specific boundary conditions - the NUMO Structured Approach. This takes into account, in particular, our need to balance competing goals, such as operational safety, post-closure safety and cost, during repository tailoring to specific sites. The most important challenge for NUMO is, however, to attract volunteers. We believe that our open and structured R and D program is critical to demonstrate technical competence which, in turn, enhances the credibility of our various public relations activities. (authors)

  15. Hazardous waste disposal and the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1990-01-01

    Negligent, unregulated hazardous waste management has resulted in real and potential threats to public health and safety. The federal government has responded with laws and regulations aimed at the producers of hazardous waste, including clinical laboratories. Clinical laboratory managers must understand how the requirements apply to their facilities and how to comply with them, or risk violating the law. The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) imposes controls on hazardous waste management through the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation (DOT) regulate these activities through 40 CFR and 49 CFR, respectively. 49 CFR specifies the characteristics of hazardous waste and lists more than 400 toxic chemicals, including several commonly used in clinical laboratories. Laboratories must conduct chemical inventories to determine if they should obtain an EPA identification number as a hazardous waste generator. Most clinical laboratories can operate satellite accumulation points and accumulate, store, transport, and dispose of waste in accordance with EPA and DOT regulations. Regulations pertaining to infectious waste, sure to affect many clinical laboratories, are being developed now by the EPA. The tracking system mandated by the federal government can be supplemented by state and local authorities and poses a significant regulatory challenge to clinical laboratory managers. PMID:10104718

  16. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  17. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  18. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  1. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  2. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  3. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  4. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  5. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks,...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, C; Juanga, J P; Visvanathan, C

    2007-12-01

    The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with the high fraction of organic waste and a common disposal of open dumping is the current scenario in many areas in Thailand. As a response to this problem, the country's Pollution Control Department (PCD) aims to reduce the MSW generation rate to less than 1 kg/capita/day, increase the collection efficiency, and improve the recovery of recyclables. For many years, more than 60% of the solid waste disposal system in Thailand has been carried out by open dumping. According to the survey conducted by this study, in 2004 there were 425 disposal sites (95 landfills; 330 open dumps) in Thailand and an estimated methane emission of 115.4 Gg/year was generated based on this practice. It has been estimated that the anticipated methane emission in Thailand will rise from 115.4 Gg/year to 118.5 Gg/year if the largest open dumpsites in provinces with no existing landfill are upgraded to sanitary landfill; and it will increase to 193.5 Gg/year if the existing sanitary landfill is upgraded to integrated waste management facilities. Moreover, Bangkok metropolitan have the highest methane emission (54.83 Gg/year) among all the regions in Thailand. The methane emission forecast of 339 Gg/year by 2020 (based on LandGEM methodology) provides a stimulus to create a comprehensive plan to capture and utilize methane as an energy source. PMID:17492361

  10. Waste Management and Disposal for Artists and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babin, Angela; McCann, Michael

    Artists, art teachers, and students need to understand the problems associated with disposing of waste materials, some of which may be hazardous. The waste products of art projects, even if non-hazardous, also use up space in overloaded landfills. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets forth guidelines for disposing of hazardous wastes.…

  11. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials made under §§ 20.2002, 20.2003, 20.2004, 20.2005, 10 CFR part 61 and disposal by burial in soil, including... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials made under §§ 20.2002, 20.2003, 20.2004, 20.2005, 10 CFR part 61 and disposal by burial in soil, including... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108...

  13. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials made under §§ 20.2002, 20.2003, 20.2004, 20.2005, 10 CFR part 61 and disposal by burial in soil, including... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108...

  14. Challenges in disposing of anthrax waste.

    PubMed

    Lesperance, Ann M; Stein, Steve; Upton, Jaki F; Toomey, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration's (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist in the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material would require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussions was the identification of 3 primary topical areas that must be addressed: planning, unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues. PMID:21882972

  15. Waste disposal in hydraulically fractured earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, T.K.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described for disposing of solids waste material in an earth formation comprising the steps of: defining a formation zone of interest which has at least one layer of earth material which is relatively permeable to fluid flow and an adjacent layer of earth material which is relatively impermeable to fluid flow there through; injecting a slurry including particles of said solids waste into said zone of interest at a pressure sufficient to hydraulically fracture said zone of interest in such a way that a fracture is formed which intersects said layers of earths material; and continuing the injection of said slurry to deposit a filter cake of said particles in said fracture adjacent to said layer of relatively permeable material and to form a relatively unobstructed flow path through said zone of interest adjacent to said layer of material that is relatively impermeable to fluid flow.

  16. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  17. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  18. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  19. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  20. Stabilization of a mixed waste sludge for land disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, S.E.; Zander, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    A solidification and stabilization technique was developed for a chemically complex mixed waste sludge containing nitrate processing wastes, sewage sludge and electroplating wastewaters, among other wastes. The sludge is originally from a solar evaporation pond and has high concentrations of nitrate salts; cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations of concern; and low levels of organic constituents and alpha and beta emitters. Sulfide reduction of nitrate and precipitation of metallic species, followed by evaporation to dryness and solidification of the dry sludge in recycled high density polyethylene with added lime was determined to be a satisfactory preparation for land disposal in a mixed waste repository. The application of post-consumer polyethylene has the added benefit of utilizing another problem-causing waste product. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure was used to determine required treatment chemical dosages and treatment effectiveness. The waste complexity prohibited use of standard chemical equilibrium methods for prediction of reaction products during treatment. Waste characterization followed by determination of thermodynamic feasibility of oxidation and reduction products. These calculations were shown to be accurate in laboratory testing. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of...

  3. Municipal solid waste disposal in estuaries and coastal marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, K. A.; Klein, M. S.; Bazzolo, J. S.; Delaney, M. E.

    1980-12-01

    The existing situation with regards to municipal solid waste disposal in the coastal zone was assessed. Both the scientific literature and the regulatory community were surveyed to determine the state of knowledge of the impact of such disposal on the environment, past and present disposal techniques, and the attitudes of the regulatory community.

  4. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  5. Natural Radioactivity in Monitoring Waste Disposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meijer, R. J.; Limburg, J.; Venema, L. B.

    Monitoring large (underwater) surfaces, with strongly varying composition, requires a sampling density, exceeding the capabilities of standard techniques. These techniques involve sample collection and a number of treatments and measurements in laboratory; both steps are laborious, tedious and costly. This paper shows that a trailing detector system of natural γ-rays provides quantitative information on the dynamics at and around a waste disposal site. In this paper the technique is applied to monitor dumpsites of gold mines from an aircraft and the dispersal of dredge spoil from Rotterdam harbour dumped at the North Sea by vessel. The sea-floor monitoring has been conducted in detail, including the derivation of sediment composition and assessing by means of a mass-balance equation the transport directions and quantities in time.

  6. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  7. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008 Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912 Section 13.1912 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve § 13.1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604 Section 13.1604 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Lake Clark National Park and Preserve § 13.1604 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid...

  10. Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Pepper, D.W.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Waste salt solution, produced during processing of high-level nuclear waste, will be incorporated in a cement matrix for emplacement in an engineered disposal facility. Wasteform characteristics and disposal facility details will be presented along with results of a field test of wasteform contaminant release and of modeling studies to predict releases. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012 at 77 FR 14307 and invited interested parties... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005... not radioactive: (1) 0.05 microcurie (1.85 kBq), or less, of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram...

  13. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005... not radioactive: (1) 0.05 microcurie (1.85 kBq), or less, of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram...

  14. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005... not radioactive: (1) 0.05 microcurie (1.85 kBq), or less, of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram...

  15. 10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005... not radioactive: (1) 0.05 microcurie (1.85 kBq), or less, of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram...

  16. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  17. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  18. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  19. The political science of radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don`t overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don`t forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn`t said in 1984? Nothing. {open_quotes}It`s deja vu all over again.{close_quotes}

  20. Waste management and the land disposal restriction storage prohibition

    SciTech Connect

    1992-05-01

    RCRA Sect. 3004(j) prohibits storage of wastes that have been prohibited from land disposal, unless that storage is for the purpose of accumulating sufficient quantities of hazardous wastes to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. This requirement was incorporated as part of the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) regulations. Under the LDR storage prohibition, facilities may only store restricted wastes in containers and tanks. As stated in the Third LDR rule, storage of prohibited waste is only allowed in non-land based storage units since land-based storage is a form of disposal. The EPA has recognized that generators and storers of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) may find it impossible to comply with storage prohibition in cases where no available treatment capacity exists. Additionally, under the current regulatory interpretation, there is no provision that would allow for storage of wastes for which treatment capacity and capability are not available, even where capacity is legitimately being developed. Under the LDR program, restricted wastes that are disposed of, or placed into storage before an LDR effective date, are not subject to the LDR requirements. However, if such wastes are removed from a storage or disposal site after the effective date, such wastes would be subject to LDR requirements. The purpose of this information brief is to clarify what waste management practices constitute removal from storage.

  1. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  2. Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H.

    2008-01-15

    The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed

  3. Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Cement-based waste form, saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C A; Dukes, M D

    1984-01-01

    A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Up from the beach: medical waste disposal rules!

    PubMed

    Francisco, C J

    1989-07-01

    The recent incidents of floating debris, garbage, wood, and medical waste on our nation's beaches have focused public attention on waste management problems. The handling and disposal of solid waste remains a major unresolved national dilemma. Increased use of disposables by all consumers, including the medical profession, and the increasing costs of solid waste disposal options have aggravated the solid waste situation. Medical waste found on beaches in the summer of 1988 could have been generated by a number of sources, including illegal dumping; sewer overflow; storm water runoff; illegal drug users; and inadequate handling of solid waste at landfills and coastal transfer facilities, which receive waste from doctors' offices, laboratories, and even legitimate home users of syringes. As officials from New Jersey have determined, the beach garbage is no mystery. It's coming from you and me. In response to the perceived medical waste disposal problem, various state and federal agencies have adopted rules to regulate and control the disposal of medical waste. This article outlines the more significant rules that apply to medical waste. PMID:2756492

  5. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-11-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  6. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  7. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    SciTech Connect

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  8. Chemical pretreatment of Savannah River Site nuclear waste for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Walker, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    This work describes two processes, Extended Sludge Processing and In-Tank Precipitation, which have been developed and demonstrated at full-scale to pretreat the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste for permanent disposal. These processes will be carried out in waste storage tanks which have been modified for chemical processing. These processes will concentrate the radioactivity into a small volume for vitrification. The bulk of the waste will be sufficiently decontaminated such that it can be disposed of as a low-level waste. The decontaminated waste will be incorporated into a cement wasteform in the Saltstone Facility.

  9. A primer for health care managers: data sanitization, equipment disposal, and electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Cathy M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, security regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act concerning data sanitization and the disposal of media containing stored electronic protected health information are discussed, and methods for effective sanitization and media disposal are presented. When disposing of electronic media, electronic waste-or e-waste-is produced. Electronic waste can harm human health and the environment. Responsible equipment disposal methods can minimize the impact of e-waste. Examples of how health care organizations can meet the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations while also behaving responsibly toward the environment are provided. Examples include the environmental stewardship activities of reduce, reuse, reeducate, recover, and recycle. PMID:21808180

  10. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. Solid waste disposal facilities or...

  11. Developments in management and technology of waste reduction and disposal.

    PubMed

    Rushbrook, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Scandals and public dangers from the mismanagement and poor disposal of hazardous wastes during the 1960s and 1970s awakened the modern-day environmental movement. Influential publications such as "Silent Spring" and high-profile disposal failures, for example, Love Canal and Lekkerkerk, focused attention on the use of chemicals in everyday life and the potential dangers from inappropriate disposal. This attention has not abated and developments, invariably increasing expectations and tightening requirements, continue to be implemented. Waste, as a surrogate for environmental improvement, is a topic where elected representatives and administrations continually want to do more. This article will chart the recent changes in hazardous waste management emanating from the European Union legislation, now being implemented in Member States across the continent. These developments widen the range of discarded materials regarded as "hazardous," prohibit the use of specific chemicals, prohibit the use of waste management options, shift the emphasis from risk-based treatment and disposal to inclusive lists, and incorporate waste producers into more stringent regulatory regimes. The impact of the changes is also intended to provide renewed impetus for waste reduction. Under an environmental control system where only certainty is tolerated, the opportunities for innovation within the industry and the waste treatment and disposal sector will be explored. A challenging analysis will be offered on the impact of this regulation-led approach to the nature and sustainability of hazardous waste treatment and disposal in the future. PMID:17119227

  12. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  13. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  14. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  15. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  16. Congress Examines Nuclear Waste Disposal Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    During an 8 February U.S. congressional hearing to examine how to move forward on dealing with spent nuclear fuel and to review other recommendations of the recently released final report of the White House-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), Yucca Mountain was the 65,000-ton gorilla in the room. BRC's charge was to conduct a comprehensive review of policies to manage the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new strategy for dealing with the 65,000 tons of spent nuclear fuel currently stored at 75 sites around the country and the 2000 tons of new spent fuel being produced each year. However, BRC specifically did not evaluate Yucca Mountain. A 26 January letter from BRC to U.S. secretary of energy Steven Chu states, "You directed that the Commission was not to serve as a siting body. Accordingly, we have not evaluated Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or disposal of high-level waste nor have we taken a position on the administration's request to withdraw the Yucca Mountain license application."

  17. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, Dennis F.

    1997-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  18. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  19. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-09-02

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig.

  20. Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

    Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

  1. Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

    Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

  2. Immobilization and geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Tait, J C

    1984-08-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is developing methods for the safe disposal of both used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste. The disposal strategy is based on interim storage of the used fuel, immobilization of either used fuel or recycle waste, and disposal, deep in a stable geological formation in the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept proposes a multibarrier system to inhibit the release of the radioactive waste from the disposal vault. The principal components of the multibarrier system are (i) the waste form in which the radionuclides are immobilized, (ii) engineered barriers including high integrity containers, buffers and backfills designed to retard the movement of groundwaters in the disposal vault, and (iii) the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation itself. The research programs to investigate this concept are discussed briefly. Several different waste forms are being developed for the immobilization of high-level fuel recycle waste, including glass, glass-ceramics and crystalline materials. Dissolution of these materials in groundwater is the only likely scenario that could lead to radionuclide release. The factors that influence the aqueous dissolution behaviour of these materials are reviewed. PMID:6488089

  3. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    PubMed

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-01

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem. PMID:18829290

  5. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-15

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  6. METHODOLOGY TO INVENTORY, CLASSIFY, AND PRIORITIZE UNCONTROLLED WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive method to inventory uncontrolled waste disposal sites integrates all available historic, engineering, geologic, land use, water supply, and public agency or private company records in order to develop a complete and accurate site profile. Detailed information on s...

  7. A quality control program for waste disposal vault closure

    SciTech Connect

    Benny, H.L.

    1994-07-01

    This paper provides a review of the quality control program employed for closure for a radioactive waste disposal vault at Hanford Washington. The major elements of the program are discussed, as well as the testing results and lessons learned.

  8. Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-11-18

    Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

  9. HANDBOOK FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AT WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is directed toward technical personnel in federal, state, regional, and municipal agencies involved in the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites, industrial surface impoundments, and municipal, industrial, and combined landfills. It contains a summary of the flo...

  10. Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1980-01-01

    The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

  11. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is

  12. QUANTIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL DISPOSAL METHODS FOR INDUSTRIALLY GENERATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Related Industries; 30, Rubbe...

  13. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ESTUARIES AND COASTAL MARSHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a survey of the existing situation with regards to municipal solid waste disposal in the coastal zone. Both the scientific literature and the regulatory community were surveyed to determine the state-of-knowledge of the impact of such disposal on the environment, p...

  14. Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

  15. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  16. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... products containing additives which can produce harmful emissions or releases; (vi) All other plastic wastes except low density polyethylene containers (such as bags for storing wastes) provided...

  17. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... products containing additives which can produce harmful emissions or releases; (vi) All other plastic wastes except low density polyethylene containers (such as bags for storing wastes) provided...

  18. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... products containing additives which can produce harmful emissions or releases; (vi) All other plastic wastes except low density polyethylene containers (such as bags for storing wastes) provided...

  19. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Decision document for function 4.2.4 dispose waste

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-09-23

    This report formally documents the planning assumptions for Function 4.2.4, Dispose Waste, to provide a basis for lower level Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Disposal Program decisions and analyses. The TWRS Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS 1996) and a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for closure of operable units will provide the ultimate Records of Decision for the TWRS strategy at this level. However, in the interim, this decision document provides a formal basis for the TWRS Dispose Waste planning assumptions. Function 4.2.4 addresses the disposition of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW), the disposition of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and closure of the tank farm operable units.

  1. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  2. Disposal concepts and characteristics of existing and potential low-waste repositories - 9076

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Peter J; Zarling, John C

    2009-01-01

    The closure of the Barnwell low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility to non-Atlantic Compact users poses significant problems for organizations seeking to remove waste material from public circulation. Beta-gamma sources such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in particular create problems because in 36 states no path forward exists for disposal. Furthermore, several other countries are considering disposition of sealed sources in a variety of facilities. Like much of the United States, many of these countries currently have no means of disposal. Consequently, there is a greater tendency for sources to be misplaced or stored in insufficient facilities, resulting in an increased likelihood of unwitting exposure of nearby people to radioactive materials. This paper provides an overview of the various disposal concepts that have been employed or attempted in the United States. From these concepts, a general overview of characteristics necessary for long-term disposal is synthesized.

  3. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  4. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  5. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  6. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  7. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  8. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  9. Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Carlyle J.

    1998-06-01

    Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

  10. The University of Georgia Chemical Waste Disposal Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreesen, David W.; Pohlman, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university-wide program directed at reducing the improper storage and disposal of toxic chemical wastes from laboratories. Specific information is included on the implementation of a waste pick-up service, safety equipment, materials and methods for packaging, and costs of the program. (CS)

  11. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  12. Methods to enhance compost practices as an alternative to waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckey, H.T.; Hudak, P.F.

    1998-12-31

    Creating practices that are ecologically friendly, economically profitable, and ethically sound is a concept that is slowly beginning to unfold in modern society. In developing such practices, the authors challenge long-lived human behavior patterns and environmental management practices. In this paper, they trace the history of human waste production, describe problems associated with such waste, and explore regional coping mechanisms. Composting projects in north central Texas demonstrate new methods for waste disposal. The authors studied projects conducted by municipalities, schools, agricultural organizations, and individual households. These efforts were examined within the context of regional and statewide solid waste plans. They conclude that: (1) regional composting in north central Texas will substantially reduce the waste stream entering landfills; (2) public education is paramount to establishing alternative waste disposal practices; and (3) new practices for compost will catalyze widespread and efficient production.

  13. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  14. Disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.

    1996-12-31

    Bedded and domal salt deposits occur in many states. If salt deposits are thick enough, salt caverns can be formed through solution mining. These caverns are created either incidentally as a result of salt recovery or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or disposing of wastes. This paper evaluates the legality, feasibility, and suitability of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns.

  15. Procedures for RIA I-125 waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, J.U.; Shepard, E.S.; Ball, J.M.; Colomb, K.D.

    1982-04-01

    I-125 can be effectively removed from coated tubes and plastic beads used as solid-phase separators by a 50% household bleach solution. This technique enables the user to dispose of these separators into common trash.

  16. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  17. INEEL special case waste storage and disposal alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, L.A.; Bishop, C.W.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1997-07-01

    Special case waste is historically defined as radioactive waste that does not have a path forward or fit into current Department of Energy management plans for final treatment or disposal. The objectives of this report, relative to special case waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, are to (a) identify its current storage locations, conditions, and configuration; (b) review and verify the currently reported inventory; (c) segregate the inventory into manageable categories; (d) identify the portion that has a path forward or is managed under other major programs/projects; (e) identify options for reconfiguring and separating the disposable portions; (f) determine if the special case waste needs to be consolidated into a single storage location; and (g) identify a preferred facility for storage. This report also provides an inventory of stored sealed sources that are potentially greater than Class C or special case waste based on Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Site-Specific Waste Acceptance Criteria.

  18. River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission Technical Baseline Summary Description

    SciTech Connect

    DOVALLE, O.R.

    1999-12-29

    This document is one of the several documents prepared by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp. to support the U. S. Department of Energy's Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission at Hanford. The Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval; waste feed, delivery, storage, and disposal of immobilized waste; and closure of the tank farms.

  19. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  20. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  1. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  2. Sharps management and the disposal of clinical waste.

    PubMed

    Blenkharn, J Ian

    Dangerous errors in clinical waste management continue to occur and inappropriate items find their way into clinical waste sacks that are not designed to hold sharp or heavy items, or fluids. Although great attention is given to the safe use of sharps, needles still find their way into waste sacks instead of a sharps bin. Sharps injuries among ancillary and support staff, and waste handlers working in the disposal sector, can occur at a rate greater than for health-care staff. Blood and body fluid exposures from carelessly packaged clinical waste are similarly common, with almost 100% of waste handlers having blood splashes on their clothing within four hours of starting a shift. Blood splashes are also common on the outside surfaces of sharps bins and on the frames supporting clinical waste sacks. Using forensic techniques, blood residues invisible to the naked eye can be detected on all surfaces of most sharps bins and on the bench top, walls and floor where the bins were positioned. Care is required when disposing of clinical waste, to protect and maintain the immediate environment from contamination, and to ensure the safety of those who come into contact with waste as it passes along the disposal chain. PMID:19633596

  3. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  4. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  5. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section....

  6. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section....

  7. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section....

  8. Environmental management of quarries as waste disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Sadek, S; Chahine, W

    2001-04-01

    Problems associated with the disposal of municipal solid waste have become a source of public concern worldwide as awareness of potential adverse environmental impacts and health threats from solid waste has increased. Communities are concerned about the generation and management of solid waste to the extent of refusing to allow new disposal facilities near their homes, often after witnessing the legacy of existing facilities. Under these conditions, the development of national policies for the management of solid waste becomes highly political, all while requiring appropriate technical solutions that ensure environmental protection and proper management plans that support an acceptable solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. In some locations, the conversion of old quarries into well-engineered and controlled landfills appears as a promising solution to a continuously increasing problem, at least for many decades to come. This paper describes the environmental impacts associated with solid waste disposal in a converted quarry site and the mitigation measures that can be adopted to alleviate potential adverse impacts. Environmental management and monitoring plans are also discussed in the context of ensuring adequate environmental protection during and after the conversion process. PMID:11289451

  9. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion.

  10. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...