Science.gov

Sample records for organic wastes

  1. PUREX Organic Waste Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2002-12-12

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate solidification/stabilization as an alternative treatment technology for the organic phase of the SRS spent PUREX waste using simulated waste, and to evaluate waste forms prepared with actual spent organic PUREX waste for regulatory classification.

  2. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  3. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-07

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents.

  4. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied.

  5. Hydrogenation of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.R.K.; Kawa, W.

    1980-02-01

    Eight organic solid wastes, six cellulosic and two noncellulosic, were hydrogenated batchwise with and without a catalyst. Conversions obtained range from 64 to 98 % of moisture- and ash-free (maf) raw material; oil yields, 10 to 59 %; and gaseous hydrocarbon yields, 7 to 16 %. Based on batch hydrogenation results, the oil production from large-scale hydrogenation of the wastes is projected to be 1.6 to 3.5 bbl/ton of maf raw material; the gaseous-hydrocarbon production, 2000 to 4100 standard cubic feet (scf). Activities of the two catalysts (SnCl/sub 2// and a combination of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/S) used in the hydrogenation of the wastes are discussed. Also discussed are the chemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the hydrogenation, potential market for the product oil, and possible improvement of the oil yield. Elemental compositions of the hydrogenation oils and types of hydrocarbons including oxygenated hydrocarbons found in the oils are presented. The energy equivalent of the organic solid wastes generated in the United States in 1973 is shown to be 27 % of the nation's total 1972 energy production.

  6. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics.

  7. Process and apparatus for recycling organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, J.A.; Perreault, I.

    1982-09-28

    This defines a process and an apparatus to treat wet organic wastes, such as manures, to protect the environment and to recycle the solid content in the form of a soil conditioner or fertilizer. This process and apparatus are made to remove the bad smell and to separate the solid content in a very dry form, adapted to be readily bagged. This process and apparatus are characterized by an efficient conveying and concurrent agitation of the organic wastes in an evaporation furnace and in combination with use of the combustion gases for heat exchange heating of the fluidizing content of the wet organic wastes.

  8. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, Dennis F.

    1997-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  9. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  10. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-09-02

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig.

  11. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  12. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate

  13. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. PMID:21530224

  14. Continuous hydrogen production from organic waste.

    PubMed

    Noike, T; Ko, I B; Yokoyama, S; Kohno, Y; Li, Y Y

    2005-01-01

    The antibiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei, on hydrogen production were investigated using glucose as the substrate for the batch experiments. The effects of lactic acid bacteria on hydrogen fermentation depended on pH and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing bacteria was prevented by keeping the pH over 5.0. Then, a continuous hydrogen production experiment was conducted by using bean curd manufacturing waste as an actual organic waste at pH 5.5 at 35 degrees C. The increase of the substrate concentration and the addition of nitrogen gave precedence to acetic and butyric acids production in the metabolic pathway and suppressed propionic acid production. As the result, continuous hydrogen production from municipal organic waste was enabled. PMID:16180421

  15. Anaerobic bioprocessing of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W; de Beer, D; Pena, M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P

    1996-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of dissolved, suspended and solid organics has rapidly evolved in the last decades but nevertheless still faces several scientific unknowns. In this review, some fundamentals of bacterial conversions and adhesion are addressed initially. It is argued in the light of ΔG-values of reactions, and in view of the minimum energy quantum per mol, that anaerobic syntrophs must have special survival strategies in order to support their existence: redistributing the available energy between the partners, reduced end-product fermentation reactions and special cell-to-cell physiological interactions. In terms of kinetics, it appears that both reaction rates and residual substrate thresholds are strongly related to minimum ΔG-values. These new fundamental insights open perspectives for efficient design and operation of anaerobic bioprocesses. Subsequently, an overview is given of the current anaerobic biotechnology. For treating wastewaters, a novel and high performance new system has been introduced during the last decade; the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system (UASB). This reactor concept requires anaerobic consortia to grow in a dense and eco-physiologically well-organized way. The microbial principles of such granular sludge growth are presented. Using a thermodynamic approach, the formation of different types of aggregates is explained. The application of this bioprocess in worldwide wastewater treatment is indicated. Due to the long retention times of the active biomass, the UASB is also suitable for the development of bacterial consortia capable of degrading xenobiotics. Operating granular sludge reactors at high upflow velocities (5-6 m/h) in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) systems enlarges the application field to very low strength wastewaters (chemical oxygen demand < 1 g/l) and psychrophilic temperatures (10°C). For the treatment of organic suspensions, there is currently a tendency to evolve from the conventional mesophilic

  16. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  17. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  18. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  19. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  20. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

  1. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    DOEpatents

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  2. STUDY OF THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF ORGANIC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical kinetic data describing the pyrolysis/gasification characteristics of organic waste (biomass) materials is needed for the design of improved conversion reactors. Unfortunately, little data is available in the literature on the pyrolysis kinetics of waste materials, and e...

  3. The Vitrification as Pathway for Long Life Organic Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Girold, C.; Lemort, F.; Pinet, O.

    2006-07-01

    Worldwide, several vitrification processes have been developed and are industrially exploited for the vitrification of high level waste, attesting the efficiency of this technique for fission product treatment and glassy materials for nuclear waste containment is the conditioning that receives the best acceptance. However, these processes operate a very high technology and strangely, for less radioactive waste such as long live intermediate level waste, this technology did not break through even when their final disposal scenario are very close (except mainly thermal consideration). This reflexion gives example for anyone to appreciate how the vitrification of organics intermediate level waste can be an excellent solution and even a competitive technical-economic answer with limited industrial risks. By 'vitrification of organics', we mean in this paper the incineration/vitrification of mixed organic and mineral waste; this results in gasification of organic matter and vitrification of the oxidized mineral fraction of the waste. Such processes can accommodate any ratio of mineral/organic from pure burnable waste to pure mineral sludges. Many advantages come with the vitrification of organics: Treatment of the organic matter, gas release avoided, existing suitable glass composition families, and volume reduction. The technological characteristics that should show a vitrification process for organic waste according to our experience in this field is detailed and examples of treatment with chlorinated waste or old bituminous drums reprocessing are given. (authors)

  4. Processing of different types of organic wastes through vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Alok

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, an effort has been made to utilize different types of organic wastes, i.e. kitchen waste, agro residue, institutional waste and cow dung through the process of vermicomposting. These organic wastes were collected separately, air dried, grinded and mixed in 4:1 ratio with cow dung (w/w). During the period of vermicomposting (75 days), different physico-chemical parameters were analyzed separately. During this process, pH, organic carbon, organic matter and C:N ratio of different organic waste mixtures showed a declining trend, however, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium contents showed increasing trend with the advancement of vermicomposting period. Besides, physico-chemical investigations of these wastes, estimation of earthworm population, biomass and number of cocoon produced during vermicomposting were also analyzed separately. It was found that earthworm population, biomass and cocoon production increased significantly as the duration of vermicomposting process increased upto 75 days. PMID:23029940

  5. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  6. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  7. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids.

  8. Organic Waste Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics Under Dryland Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic waste beneficial-use programs effectively recycle plant nutrients when applied at agronomic rates. Plant-nutrient availability, transport, and fate questions have arisen when organic wastes such as biosolids have been applied to dryland agroecosystems. What is the N-fertilizer equivalency ...

  9. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-07-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  10. Potential Impacts of Organic Wastes on Small Stream Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.; Burke, R. A.; Molinero, J.

    2005-05-01

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. The subwatersheds were chosen to reflect a range of land uses including forested, pasture, mixed, and developed. The SFBR watershed is heavily impacted by organic wastes, primarily from its large poultry industry, but also from its rapidly growing human population. The poultry litter is primarily disposed of by application to pastures. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship between mean DOC and mean DO and suggested that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), DOC, and the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide are impacted by organic wastes and/or nutrients from animal manure applied to the land and/or human wastes from wastewater treatment plants or septic tanks in these watersheds. Here we estimate the organic waste loads of these watersheds and evaluate the impact of organic wastes on stream DOC and alkalinity concentrations, electrical conductivity, sediment potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratios. All of these water quality parameters are significantly correlated with watershed waste loading. DOC is most strongly correlated with total watershed waste loading whereas conductivity, alkalinity, potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratio are most strongly correlated with watershed human waste loading. These results suggest that more direct inputs (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents, near-stream septic tanks) have a greater relative impact on stream water quality than more dispersed inputs (land applied poultry litter, septic tanks far from streams) in the SFBR watershed. Conductivity, which is generally elevated in organic wastes, is also significantly correlated with total watershed waste loading suggesting it may be a useful indicator of overall

  11. Environment, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Field Organization Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This directory was developed by the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) from an outgrowth of the Departments efforts to identify and establish the regulatory response lead persons in the Field Organizations. The directory was developed for intemal EH-231 use to identify both the DOE and DOE contractor Field Organizations in the Environment, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The Field Organization directory is divided into three substantive sections: (1) Environment; (2) Environmental Restoration; and (3) Waste Management which are organized to correspond to the management hierarchy at each Field Organization. The information provided includes the facility name and address, individual managers name, and telephone/fax numbers.

  12. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  13. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  14. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  15. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost. PMID:23947069

  16. Effects of biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, Gabriel; Cely, Paola; María Tarquis, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Méndez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid obtained by the thermal decomposition of organic matter under a limited supply of oxygen and at relatively low temperatures. Biochar can be prepared from the pyrolysis of different organic feedstocks, such as wood and biomass crops, agricultural by-products, different types of waste or paper industry waste materials . The pyrolysis procedure of waste, i.e. sewage sludge, has mainly two advantages, firstly, it removes pathogens from waste and, secondly, biochar can reduce the leaching of heavy metals present in raw sewage sludge. This trend of the use of waste material as feedstocks to the preparation of biochar is increasing in the last years due to industrial development and economic growth imply an increase in waste generation. The application of biochar may have positive effects on soil physical properties as water holding capacity and structure or on soil biological activity and soil quality. Also, biochar can be used to remove water pollutants and can be used in multiple ways in soil remediation due to its adsorption of pesticides or metals. Also, biochar contribute to carbon sequestration due to carbon stability of biochar materials. The objective of this presentation is to review the positive effects of the biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties.

  17. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Here we present estimates of the amounts of organic waste input to these wate...

  18. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for bioelectricity generation from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M Azizul; Omine, Kiyoshi; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakata, Yukio

    2013-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained a lot of attention recently as a mode of converting organic matter into electricity. In this study, a compost-based microbial fuel cell that generates bioelectricity by biodegradation of organic matter is developed. Grass cuttings, along with leaf mold, rice bran, oil cake (from mustard plants) and chicken droppings (waste from chickens) were used as organic waste. The electric properties of the MFC under anaerobic fermentation condition were investigated along with the influence of different types of membranes, the mixing of fly ash, and different types of electrode materials. It is observed that the maximum voltage was increased by mixing fly ash. Cellophane showed the highest value of voltage (around 350mV). Bamboo charcoal is good for anode material; however carbon fiber is better for the cathode material in terms of optimization of power generated. This developed MFC is a simple cell to generate electricity from organic waste. PMID:23962448

  19. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  20. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  1. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum. PMID:16011170

  2. Method for determination of methane potentials of solid organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Trine L.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Marca, Emilia; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Mosboek, Hans; Christensen, Thomas H

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of organic solid waste. Triplicate reactors with 10 grams of volatile solids were incubated at 55 deg. C with 400 ml of inoculum from a thermophilic biogas plant and the methane production was followed over a 50-day period by regular measurements of methane on a gas chromatograph. The procedure involves blanks as well as cellulose controls. Methane potentials have been measured for source-separated organic household waste and for individual waste materials. The procedure has been evaluated regarding practicality, workload, detection limit, repeatability and reproducibility as well as quality control procedures. For the source-separated organic household waste a methane potential of 495 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS was found. For fat and oil a lag-phase of several days was seen. The protein sample was clearly inhibited and the maximal methane potential was therefore not achieved. For paper bags, starch and glucose 63, 84 and 94% of the theoretical methane potential was achieved respectively. A detection limit of 72.5 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS was calculated from the results. This is acceptable, since the methane potential of the tested waste materials was in the range of 200-500 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS. The determination of methane potentials is a biological method subject to relatively large variation due to the use of non-standardized inoculum and waste heterogeneity. Therefore, procedures for addressing repeatability and reproducibility are suggested.

  3. Method for determination of methane potentials of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Trine L; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Marca, Emilia; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Mosbaek, Hans; Christensen, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of organic solid waste. Triplicate reactors with 10 grams of volatile solids were incubated at 55 degrees C with 400 ml of inoculum from a thermophilic biogas plant and the methane production was followed over a 50-day period by regular measurements of methane on a gas chromatograph. The procedure involves blanks as well as cellulose controls. Methane potentials have been measured for source-separated organic household waste and for individual waste materials. The procedure has been evaluated regarding practicality, workload, detection limit, repeatability and reproducibility as well as quality control procedures. For the source-separated organic household waste a methane potential of 495 ml CH4/g VS was found. For fat and oil a lag-phase of several days was seen. The protein sample was clearly inhibited and the maximal methane potential was therefore not achieved. For paper bags, starch and glucose 63, 84 and 94% of the theoretical methane potential was achieved respectively. A detection limit of 72.5 ml CH4/g VS was calculated from the results. This is acceptable, since the methane potential of the tested waste materials was in the range of 200-500 ml CH4/g VS. The determination of methane potentials is a biological method subject to relatively large variation due to the use of non-standardized inoculum and waste heterogeneity. Therefore, procedures for addressing repeatability and reproducibility are suggested. PMID:15081067

  4. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  5. Release of organic chelating agents from solidified decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.; Davis, M.S.; Milian, L.W.; Anderson, C.I.

    1986-07-01

    Data are presented on the release of organic complexing agents from solidified simulated decontamination resin wastes. The organic acids included were: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid, and formic acid. Additionally, samples were tested which contained the decontamination reagent LND-101A and a simulated resin waste expected with the LOMI (low-oxidation-state-metal ion) reagent. Ion-exchange resins equilibrated with the reagents were solidified in cement and vinyl ester-styrene. The release of the organic acids was measured using the standard procedure ANS 16.1, ''Measurements of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes.'' The data suggest that the release of the acids may follow a diffusion mechanism. Data are also presented which indicate that immersion in water can affect the compressive strength of solidified simulated decontamination resin wastes. Analytical methods are described which can be used to measure organic acids in waste form leachates. Ion chromatography proved to be the most versatile of the methods examined.

  6. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  7. Gasification characteristics of organic waste by molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Minami, Keishi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Recently, along with the growth in economic development, there has been a dramatic accompanying increase in the amount of sludge and organic waste. The disposal of such is a significant problem. Moreover, there is also an increased in the consumption of electricity along with economic growth. Although new energy development, such as fuel cells, has been promoted to solve the problem of power consumption, there has been little corresponding promotion relating to the disposal of sludge and organic waste. Generally, methane fermentation comprises the primary organic waste fuel used in gasification systems. However, the methane fermentation method takes a long time to obtain the fuel gas, and the quality of the obtained gas is unstable. On the other hand, gasification by molten salt is undesirable because the molten salt in the gasification gas corrodes the piping and turbine blades. Therefore, a gasification system is proposed by which the sludge and organic waste are gasified by molten salt. Moreover, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are needed to refill the MCFC electrolyte volatilized in the operation. Since the gasification gas is used as an MCFC fuel, MCFC electrolyte can be provided with the fuel gas. This paper elucidates the fundamental characteristics of sludge and organic waste gasification. A crucible filled with the molten salt comprising 62 Li 2CO 3/38 K 2CO 3, is installed in the reaction vessel, and can be set to an arbitrary temperature in a gas atmosphere. In this instance, the gasifying agent gas is CO 2. Sludge or the rice is supplied as organic waste into the molten salt, and is gasified. The chemical composition of the gasification gas is analyzed by a CO/CO 2 meter, a HC meter, and a SO x meter gas chromatography. As a result, although sludge can generate CO and H 2 near the chemical equilibrium value, all of the sulfur in the sludge is not fixed in the molten salt, because the sludge floats on the surface of the carbonate by the specific

  8. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank.

  9. Bioprocessing of organic gases in waste air

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, H.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural porous media (soils, compost, peat, wood bark chips) in biofilters effectively, safely, and inexpensively remove organic gases from air by adsorbing then and oxidizing them to CO{sub 2}. The sorption capacities of the media are low: their effectiveness is due to oxidation by the active microbial population which disposes the gas and continuously regenerates the sorption capacity. O-, N-, and S-containing organic gases generally oxidize rapidly and {>=}95% removal efficiency is routine. Aromatic and halogenated organic gases oxidize slowly and require correspondingly larger biofilter beds and reaction times to achieve high removal efficiencies. Installation costs of biofilters vary widely, operating costs are low because no fuel or oxidant is required, and no secondary pollution is created.

  10. Colleges Organize Campuswide Efforts to Recycle Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by soaring garbage-disposal costs and the closings of local landfills, colleges and universities are organizing campus wide recycling programs. The Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges will soon be adding the subject to its computerized list of information available to member colleges. (MLW)

  11. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ORGANIC WASTE USING SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCLUSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar detoxification is a process wherein sunlight is captured by a semiconductor particle in suspension to create electrons and holes that then diffuse to the particulate surface to effect the oxidation and reduction of toxic pollutants. Using solar energy to oxidize organic che...

  12. Modeling the economics of landfilling organic processing waste streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.

    2005-11-01

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid biological and organic waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for food and other bio-organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture. Landfilling, the traditional approach to waste remediation, however, should not be dismissed entirely. It does provide a baseline to which all other recycling and reprocessing options should be compared. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model designed to examine the economics of landfilling bio-organic processing waste streams. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm would benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

  13. Microwave separation of organic chemicals from mixed hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.A.; Albano, R.K.

    1992-08-01

    The feasibility of utilizing the differential heating characteristics of microwave energy (MW) to aid in the chemical extraction and separation process of hazardous organic compounds from mixed hazardous waste, was studied at the INEL. The long-term objective of this work was to identify a practical method of separating or enhancing the separation process of organic hazardous waste components from mixed waste using microwave (MW) frequency radiation. Methods using MW energy for calcination, solidification, and drying of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities is becoming more attractive. In order to study the effectiveness of MW heating, samples of several organic chemicals simulating those which may be found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL were exposed to MW energy. Vapor collection and analysis was performed as a function of time, signal frequency, and MW power throughout the process. Signal frequencies ranging from 900 MHz t 8000 MHz were used. Although the signal frequency bandwidth of the selectivity was quite broad, for the material tested an indication of the frequency dependence in the selectivity of MW heating was given. Greater efficiency in terms of energy used and time required was observed. The relatively large electromagnetic field intensities generated at the resonant frequencies which were supported by the cavity sample holder demonstrated the use of cavity resonance to aid in the process of differential heating.

  14. Microwave separation of organic chemicals from mixed hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.A.; Albano, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing the differential heating characteristics of microwave energy (MW) to aid in the chemical extraction and separation process of hazardous organic compounds from mixed hazardous waste, was studied at the INEL. The long-term objective of this work was to identify a practical method of separating or enhancing the separation process of organic hazardous waste components from mixed waste using microwave (MW) frequency radiation. Methods using MW energy for calcination, solidification, and drying of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities is becoming more attractive. In order to study the effectiveness of MW heating, samples of several organic chemicals simulating those which may be found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL were exposed to MW energy. Vapor collection and analysis was performed as a function of time, signal frequency, and MW power throughout the process. Signal frequencies ranging from 900 MHz t 8000 MHz were used. Although the signal frequency bandwidth of the selectivity was quite broad, for the material tested an indication of the frequency dependence in the selectivity of MW heating was given. Greater efficiency in terms of energy used and time required was observed. The relatively large electromagnetic field intensities generated at the resonant frequencies which were supported by the cavity sample holder demonstrated the use of cavity resonance to aid in the process of differential heating.

  15. Waste Separation Press (WSP): a mechanical pretreatment option for organic waste from source separation.

    PubMed

    Jank, Anna; Müller, Wolfgang; Schneider, Irene; Gerke, Frederic; Bockreis, Anke

    2015-05-01

    An efficient biological treatment of source separated organic waste from household kitchens and gardens (biowaste) requires an adequate upfront mechanical preparation which possibly includes a hand sorting for the separation of contaminants. In this work untreated biowaste from households and gardens and the screen overflow >60mm of the same waste were mechanically treated by a Waste Separation Press (WSP). The WSP separates the waste into a wet fraction for biological treatment and a fraction of dry contaminants for incineration. The results show that it is possible to replace a hand sorting of contaminants, the milling and a screening of organic waste before the biological treatment by using the WSP. A special focus was put on the contaminants separation. The separation of plastic film from the untreated biowaste was 67% and the separation rate of glass was about 92%. About 90% of the organics were transferred to the fraction for further biological treatment. When treating the screen overflow >60mm with the WSP 86% of the plastic film and 88% of the glass were transferred to the contaminants fraction. 32% of the organic was transferred to the contaminants fraction and thereby lost for a further biological treatment. Additionally it was calculated that national standards for glass contaminants in compost can be met when using the WSP to mechanically treat the total biowaste. The loss of biogas by transferring biodegradable organics to the contaminants fraction was about 11% when preparing the untreated biowaste with the WSP. PMID:25761398

  16. Release of organic reagents from solidified decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory has measured the release of organic reagents from solidified simulated decontamination wastes. The waste streams consisted of either mixed-bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins equilibrated with EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid or simulated LOMI decontamination reagent. These simulated resin wastes were solidified in either cement or vinyl ester-styrene. Samples were tested by a fixed interval leach procedure or according to the standard ANS 16.1 procedure. The leachability indices, which were calculated as prescribed in ANS 16.1, varied with leach period for some of the composites tested. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  17. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene production wastes. 268.38 Section 268.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND...

  18. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC WASTES TO UNLEADED, HIGH-OCTANE GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has demonstrated the marriage of two diverse technologies previously considered to be unrelated--the pyrolysis of organic wastes and the low-pressure polymerization of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to form polymer gasoline. This program comprised the development ...

  19. Editorial: Organic wastes in soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of Soil Biology and Biochemistry presents papers from the Second General Annual Conference of European Geosciences Union, Session SSS12 Recycling of Organic Wastes in Soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Issues, held at the Austria Center Vienna, 24-29 April 2005. Session SSS12...

  20. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  1. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ORGANIC WASTES USING SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, Jess P.

    2000-12-31

    It would be a major boon to have a visible light absorbing semiconductor catalytic material available, which is also photostable and non-toxic. Such a photocatalyst would make it possible to exploit sunlight as the sole energy source required for detoxification. To this end we have employed our expertise in nanocluster synthesis and processing to make and purify nanoparticles of MoS2. The band-gap and absorbance edges of these nanoparticles can be adjusted by particle size based upon the quantum confinement of the electron-hole pair. In a recent paper we demonstrated the use of these new photocatalysts to destroy phenol, and demonstrated a strong effect of size or band-gap on the rate of photo-oxidation.5 In this research we investigate the photooxidation kinetics and products formed for a standard material, Degussa P-25 TiO2, as compared to nanosize TiO2, SnO2, and MoS2. We examined the light intensity dependence for nanosize SnO2 compared to TiO2 (Degussa), and the effect o f size on photooxidation kinetics for both SnO2 and MoS2. We studied photooxidation in aqueous systems and, for the first time, a system consisting almost entirely of a polar organic, acetonitrile. Our primary objective was to develop an entirely new class of material: nanosize semiconductors with visible bandgaps and to engineer these material's properties to allow us to photooxidize toxic organic compounds in water on a reasonable time scale ({approx}8 hrs). A second objective was to study how certain material properties such as size, surface treatment, and material type affect the efficiency of the photocatalytic process as well as optimizing these features.

  2. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  3. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  4. Conversion of organic wastes to unleaded, high-octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, J.P.; Benham, C.B.; Smith, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    This project has demonstrated the marriage of two diverse technologies previously considered to be unrelated--the pyrolysis of organic wastes and the low-pressure polymerization of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to form polymer gasoline. This program comprised the development of a multistep chemical process to convert solid organic materials into a liquid hydrocarbon product consisting primarily of high-octane gasoline. This process selectively pyrolyzes organic wastes to form gases rich in reactive hydrocarbons such as ethylene and propylene. The pyrolysis gases are compressed and purified to result in three gaseous streams: carbon dioxide; by-product fuel gases (hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide); and reactive hydrocarbons. This last stream is further compressed and sent to the polymerization reactor where high-octane gasoline is formed.

  5. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    SciTech Connect

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  6. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  7. Solid-phase fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Déléris, Stéphane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Dudal, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The production of solid organic waste (SOW) such as sewage sludge (SS) or municipal solid waste (MSW) has been continuously increasing in Europe since the beginning of the 1990'. Today, the European Union encourages the stabilization of these wastes using biologic processes such as anaerobic digestion and/or composting to produce bio-energy and organic fertilizers. However, the design and management of such biologic processes require knowledge about the quantity and quality of the organic matter (OM) contained in the SOW. The current methods to characterize SOW are tedious, time-consuming and often insufficiently informative. In this paper, we assess the potential of solid-phase fluorescence (SPF) spectroscopy to quickly provide a relevant characterization of SOW. First, we tested well known model compounds (tryptophan, bovine serum albumin, lignin and humic acid) and biologic matrix (Escherichia coli) in three dimensional solid-phase fluorescence (3D-SPF) spectroscopy. We recorded fluorescence spectra from proteinaceous samples but we could not record the fluorescence emitted by lignin and humic acid powders. For SOW samples, fluorescence spectra were successfully recorded for MSW and most of its sub-components (foods, cardboard) but impossible for SS, sludge compost (SC) and ligno-cellulosic wastes. Based on visual observations and additional assays, we concluded that the presence of highly light-absorptive chemical structures in such dark-colored samples was responsible for this limitation. For such samples, i.e. lignin, humic acid, SS, SC and ligno-cellulosic wastes, we show that laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy enables the acquisition of 2D fluorescence spectra. PMID:21696938

  8. The MODAR process for the destruction of hazardous organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Swallow, K.C.; Killilea, W.R.; Malinowski, K.C.; Staszak, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    The MODAR process for destruction of hazardous organic waste materials employs an oxidation reaction to convert organic compounds to CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and, when heteroatoms are present, inorganic compounds. The reaction is carried out in a flowing aqueous stream heated and pressurized above the critical point of water. Residence times of less than one minute are usually sufficient to reduce the concentrations of all organic compounds to levels below analytical detection limits. The pilot-scale MODAR unit is skid-mounted and transportable by truck. It measures 12.2 m x 2.6 m x 2.9 m and can process 190 liters of organic liquid or 1900 liters of a 10% organic in water solution per day. In-house testing with pure chemicals and mixtures of chemicals confirmed that the pilot-scale unit met or exceeded the destruction efficiencies achieved with a laboratory-scale unit. A pilot-scale field test, conducted on toxic waste material, demonstrated that the MODAR process could destroy organic compounds with greater than 99.99% efficiency.

  9. [Purification of complicated industrial organic waste gas by complex absorption].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Sheng; Cen, Chao-Ping; Tang, Zhi-Xiong; Fang, Ping; Chen, Zhi-Hang

    2011-12-01

    Complicated industrial organic waste gas with the characteristics of low concentration,high wind volume containing inorganic dust and oil was employed the research object by complex absorption. Complex absorption mechanism, process flow, purification equipment and engineering application were studied. Three different surfactants were prepared for the composite absorbent to purify exhaust gas loaded with toluene and butyl acetate, respectively. Results show that the low surface tension of the composite absorbent can improve the removal efficiency of toluene and butyl acetate. With the advantages of the water film, swirl plate and fill absorption device, efficient absorption equipment was developed for the treatment of complicated industrial organic waste gas. It is with superiorities of simple structure, small size, anti-jam and high mass transfer. Based on absorption technology, waste gas treatment process integrated with heating stripping, burning and anaerobic and other processes, so that emissions of waste gas and absorption solution could meet the discharge standards. The technology has been put into practice, such as manufacturing and spraying enterprises. PMID:22468539

  10. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  11. Methane fermentation process for utilization of organic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąc, M.; Ziemiński, K.

    2012-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable and sustainable energy carrier generated via anaerobic digestion of biomass. This fuel is derived from various biomass resources and depending on its origin it contains methane (40-75%), carbon dioxide (20-45%) and some other compounds. The aim of this paper is to present the current knowledge and prospects of using the methane fermentation process to dispose of various types of organic wastes as well as conditions and factors affecting the methane fermentation process.

  12. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46[degree]C, far below the 250 to 380[degree]C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  13. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  14. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  15. Control of organic substances in water and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.B.

    1983-04-01

    The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in waste waters, storm runoff, and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 priority pollutants that present probable hazard in the water resource. Of these 129 priority pollutants, 114 are organic. This document is comprised of 14 chapters, each prepared by a specialist. Chapter 1, Fundamental Considerations in the Removal of Organic Substances in Water is, in essence, an examination of a wide spectrum of physical-chemical principles that are being used, are under study, or may in the future be adapted for use in the separation of organic pollutants in waters.

  16. Waste for wastelands: Reclaiming taconite tailings basins with organic amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Eger, P.; Melchert, G.; Dewar, S.

    1999-07-01

    Taconite tailings basins cover 10,500 hectares in northern Minnesota. Since these tailings are primarily quartz and iron oxides, water quality has not been an issue, but establishing vegetation on the coarse fraction of the tailings has been a major problem. Reclamation rules require that (1) percent cover must equal 90% after three to five years (depending on slope and aspect), and (2) vegetation must e self-sustaining after ten years. Typical cover on coarse tailings, even after five years, has ranged from 40 to 60%. Despite repeated application of seed and fertilizer, less than 10% of he coarse tailings areas meet standards. Application of 10 to 90 mt/ha of various organic amendments, including: peat; yard waste compost; municipal solid waste compost; and paper processing waste; have been shown to dramatically affect vegetative success. Although plots that received 90 mt/ha of peat were the most successful in meeting the three-year standard, some of the plots with as little as 10 mt/ha of amendment produced 90% cover after five years. Application of 22.4 to 89.6 mt/ha of waste from paper manufacturing was also effective in meeting long-term reclamation standards. Data from these studies suggest that the application of 22.4 to 44.8 mt/ha of organic amendment will meet reclamation standards within five years, and will be no more costly than the industry's current unsuccessful practices, if the source of the amendment is within 100 km of the mining area. In the fall of 1997, the first full scale application of organic amendments was made.

  17. Incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes by underwater thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, M.; Lemont, F.; Baronnet, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes using an oxygen thermal plasma jet, submerged under water. The results presented here are focused on incineration of three different wastes: a mixture of tributylphosphate (TBP) and dodecane, a perfluoropolyether oil (PFPE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). To evaluate the plutonium behavior in used TBP/dodecane incineration, zirconium is used as a surrogate of plutonium; the method to enrich TBP/dodecane mixture in zirconium is detailed. Experimental set-up is described. During a trial run, CO2 and CO contents in the exhaust gas are continuously measured; samples, periodically taken from the solution, are analyzed by appropriate chemical methods: contents in total organic carbon (COT), phosphorus, fluoride and nitrates are measured. Condensed residues are characterized by RX diffraction and SEM with EDS. Process efficiency, during tests with a few L/h of separated or mixed wastes, is given by mineralization rate which is better than 99.9 % for feed rate up to 4 L/h. Trapping rate is also better than 99 % for phosphorous as for fluorine and chlorine. Those trials, with long duration, have shown that there is no corrosion problems, also the hydrogen chloride and fluoride have been neutralized by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate.

  18. Influence of organic wastes on the biology of epigeic earthworm, Perionyx excavatus during different seasons.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Pulikeshi M; Biradar, Vijaykumar A

    2015-09-01

    Epigeic earthworm, Perionyx excavatus were cultured on a variety of organic wastes amended with cattle manure in different seasons to know the influence of different organic waste-diets and seasonal environmental factors on life activities of epigeic earthworm, Perionyx excavatus. Results showed that growth and reproductive strategies of P. excavatus varied with different organic waste-diets and seasons. Growth, maturity and reproduction of worms in all waste-diets were significantly more during monsoon followed by winter and summer seasons. All agricultural and garden organic wastes served as a source of balanced diet for this worm during all three seasons. Further, mixed organic waste and soft (straw-based) wastes appeared more congenial for overall life activities of this worm than that of hard (pod-based) wastes (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). PMID:26521550

  19. Determination of total organic emissions from hazardous waste combustors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L D

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance currently under development for evaluation of permitting information from hazardous waste combustors requires a quantity referred to as "total organic carbon". The risk guidance does not define this term precisely, nor does it explain how it should be determined. This paper discusses basic principles of sampling and analysis of stack emissions for "total organics", best currently available technology, and the status of two ongoing projects designed to provide guidance and to improve analysis procedures. Determination of total organics from stack emissions is much more complicated than might be expected, and more published guidance is badly needed. The best scheme available for analysis of stack emissions for total organics to be used in material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determination of organics content in three boiling point ranges:  <100 °C, 100 °C-300 °C, and >300 °C. Total organic carbon is not a useful quantity, since it includes soot, polymeric material, and other nonextractable organic materials. Total organics has been found to be an imperfect but less misleading term. Various calculations can be made and conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the contents of the individual boiling point ranges, as determined by the recommended methodology. The analysis strategy is complicated and difficult, and it contains limitations and compromises. It does not, however, require exotic analysis instrumentation, nor is it very expensive. Each of these facets of the methodology is discussed in this paper, and a status report is provided on development of a guidance document and a research project intended to produce improved methods. PMID:21619231

  20. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year`s findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate.

  1. USE OF PORTABLE INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE MONITORING OF FUGITIVE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of evaluations and tests of currently available portable instrumentation used to monitor fugitive organic emissions generated by the transfer and storage of liquid wastes during the operation of hazardous waste incinerators. Relevant current methodologies...

  2. Towards waste free organic synthesis using nanostructured hybrid silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Ilharco, Laura M.; Pandarus, Valerica; Fidalgo, Alexandra; Béland, François; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-05-01

    As catalysis and organic synthesis come together again, the need for stable, selective and truly heterogeneous solid catalysts for clean and efficient synthetic organic chemistry has increased. Hybrid silica glasses obtained by the sol-gel nanochemistry approach can be successfully used for the waste-free synthesis of valued chemicals in various applications. This success derives from the deliberate chemical design of hybrid nanostructures capable of immobilizing and stabilizing organocatalytic species and unstable metal nanoparticles. The highly selective activity along with a broad scope and ease of application of these mesoporous materials to high-throughput reactions opens the route to faster, cleaner and more convenient processes for both small and large scale manufacturing of useful molecules.

  3. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  4. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling. PMID:26799709

  5. Project plan for resolution of the organic waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, J.E.

    1996-10-03

    A multi-year project plan for the Organic Safety Project has been developed with the objective of resolving the organic safety issues associated with the High Level Waste (HLW) in Hanford`s single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The objective of the Organic Safety Project is to ensure safe interim storage until retrieval for pretreatment and disposal operations begins, and to resolve the organic safety issues by September 2001. Since the initial identification of organics as a tank waste safety issue, progress has been made in understanding the specific aspects of organic waste combustibility, and in developing and implementing activities to resolve the organic safety issues.

  6. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.A.; Miron, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  7. Removal of floating organic in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 restart plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.R.; Hanson, C.

    1994-10-03

    The decision whether or not to remove the organic layer from Waste Tank 241-C-103 was deferred until May, 1995. The following restart plan was prepared for removal of the organic if the decision is to remove the organic from the waste tank 241-C-103.

  8. Organic waste amendments effect on zinc fraction of two soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, L.M.

    1999-10-01

    Organic soil amendments can ameliorate metal toxicity to plants by redistributing metals to less available fractions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic amendments on Zn distribution among soil fractions. Two soils were amended with five organic waste materials (some of which contained Zn) or commercial humic acid with and without 400 mg kg{sup {minus}1} Zn, incubated, and fractionated using a sequential extraction technique. Where no Zn was added most of the metals were in the residual fraction. Commercial compost, poultry litter, and industrial sewage sludge increased Zn in the exchangeable (EXC), organic (OM), and manganese oxide (MnOx) fractions due to Zn in the materials. Spent mushroom compost (SMC) redistributed Zn from the EXC fraction to the MnOx fraction for the coarse-textured soil. Where Zn was added, most of the metal was in the EXC and OM fractions. The SMC and humic acid lowered Zn in the EXC fraction and increased Zn in the other fractions. Effects of the organic materials on Zn in soil fractions were more evident for the sandy soil dominated by quartz in the clay than for the finer-textured soil dominated by kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. It was concluded that organic materials high in Zn can increase Zn in the EXC, OM, and MnOx fractions where the soil is not contaminated and others such as SMC and HA can lower the potential availability of Zn in contaminated soils by redistributing it from the EXC to less soluble fractions.

  9. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ronald J; Andraski, Brian J; Stonestrom, David A; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0-2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m yr. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere. PMID:22751077

  10. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Ramsey, W.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1999-09-28

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140 C to about 210 C for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  11. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  12. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  13. Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sedman, R.M.; Esparza, J.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators.

  14. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh. PMID:20870692

  15. Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

    1991-01-01

    Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators. PMID:1954928

  16. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  17. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the date... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste...

  18. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  19. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  20. National markets for organic waste-derived fertilizers and soil amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Pierzynski, G.M.; Pepperman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has seen enormous growth in the U.S. in the recycling of organic waste materials like sewage sludge, manures, yard waste, solid waste and various industrial wastes. This has been prompted by real or perceived shortages of landfill capacity, state and federal regulations favoring beneficial use of organic wastes, and public support for recycling. Use of fertilizers and soil amendments derived from these wastes has been stimulated by favorable supply-side economics, a shift to organic/sustainable agriculture, and water quality concerns that favor slow-release nutrient sources. This paper summarizes the properties and beneficial use attributes of the various wastes and their derived products, markets for these materials, and constraints/strategies for market penetration.

  1. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    PubMed

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed. PMID:26676540

  2. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55°C for more than 60 days, with continuous monitoring of the cumulative CH4 generation. Results showed that samples of mixed waste and shredder waste had similar BMP results, which was in the range of 5.4-9.1 kg CH4/ton waste (wet weight) on average. As a calculated consequence, their degradable organic carbon content (DOCC) was in the range of 0.44-0.70% of total weight (wet waste). Numeric values of both parameters were much lower than values of traditional municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as default numeric values in current FOD models. The sludge waste and temporarily stored combustible waste showed BMP values of 51.8-69.6 and 106.6-117.3 kg CH4/ton waste on average, respectively, and DOCC values of 3.84-5.12% and 7.96-8.74% of total weight. The same category of waste from different Danish landfills did not show significant variation. This research studied the BMP of Danish low-organic waste for the first time, which is important and valuable for using current FOD LFG generation models to estimate realistic CH4 emissions from modern landfills receiving low-organic waste. PMID:25106120

  3. Changes in bacterial and archaeal communities in anaerobic digesters treating different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo; Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Park, Ki Young

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial communities in anaerobic batch digesters treating different representative organic sources (sewage sludge, food waste, septage). Among the digesters, the anaerobic digester of food waste had the highest methanogen density, producing a peak value methane yield of 813.2mLCH4/gVS. In all the digesters, acetoclastic Methanosarcinales and hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales were the most dominant methanogen groups, but their proportion among the methanogens varied depending on the organic sources. The bacteria community in the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste and septage was distinctly different from that found in the AD of sewage sludge (primary sludge and waste activated sludge). Shifts in both bacterial and archaeal community structures could be related to differences in chemical properties, production, and accumulation of intermediates digested from organic wastes having different characteristics. These findings could prove useful in optimizing the microbial community to enhance AD process treating organic wastes. PMID:26184789

  4. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  5. Numerical analysis of particulate organic waste diffusion in an aquaculture area of Gokasho Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junbo; Kitazawa, Daisuke

    2015-04-15

    Particulate organic waste, originating from fish cultured in cages, often brings about negative effects on the structure of bottom sediments. These effects result in deterioration of the aquatic environment. In the present study, a three-dimensional numerical model was coupled with developed submodels of fish cage drag and aquaculture waste diffusion to simulate the hydrodynamic environment and distribution of particulate organic waste. Numerical simulation results showed that fish cages exerted an influence on both the velocity and direction of water current; the reduction of water current velocity was a maximum of approximately 38%. The contribution of fish fecal matter was dominant during winter (ca. 80%), whereas waste fish feed was the main source in other seasons. The distribution of organic waste near the sea bottom indicated that organic waste not only loaded mainly on the sea floor just beneath the fish cages but also diffused towards the coastlines. PMID:25727448

  6. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  7. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Lewis, Patricia R.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components.

  8. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

    1999-07-06

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs.

  9. Organized and optimized composting of agro-waste some important considerations and approaches.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load. Emission of gases from land- fills poses yet another environmental challenge. Today, composting offers a promising solution to disposal of agro-waste with minimum harmful impact on environment. Need of the hour is to carry out composting in an organized and controlled manner to derive maximum benefits with minimum undesirable effects and researchers are attempting to compost agro-wastes with these objectives in mind. PMID:25464715

  10. Organized and optimized composting of agro-waste some important considerations and approaches.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load. Emission of gases from land- fills poses yet another environmental challenge. Today, composting offers a promising solution to disposal of agro-waste with minimum harmful impact on environment. Need of the hour is to carry out composting in an organized and controlled manner to derive maximum benefits with minimum undesirable effects and researchers are attempting to compost agro-wastes with these objectives in mind. PMID:25508346

  11. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  12. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public. PMID:23741869

  13. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Hsu, John; Barber, L. B.

    2001-10-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community.

  14. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  15. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  16. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K.; Bryson, S.; Eldredge, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  18. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  19. Use of oily waste organics as amendment to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.E.; Taboada, M.A.; Rodriguez, D.; Caso, O.; Portal, R.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of oily waste organics (OWO) from petroleum wells used as amendment in soils of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) was studied. The soil in Tierra del Fuego is dominated by a xeric heath community of very little forage value for sheep. In a pot experiment, applying OWO as a band 2 cm below the soil surface decreased water evaporation, increased the soil temperature by 15%, and decreased the growth of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) by 29% with respect to the control. In another pot experiment, OWO was mixed with soil, fertilized with N and P, and incubated for 0, 18, 39, and 75 days at 4 and 30 C. Incubation increased the population of nitrifier bacteria in soil only when OWO was applied at 0 or 10%; at 20% nitrifier bacteria were depressed. Fertilization increased the growth of orchard grass and overcame any depressive effect of OWO on shoot yield. In a third experiment, the percentage of germination of orchard seeds was not affected by adding up to 40% of OWO, although the addition of OWO depressed root elongation rate. In a field experiment, adding OWO between rows of potato plants increased soil water content and total potato yield.

  20. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    PubMed

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. PMID:25445259

  1. Transition metal catalysts for the ambient temperature destruction of organic wastes using peroxydisulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, G B

    1998-08-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-12-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  3. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

    2003-02-25

    To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

  4. Resolving the safety issue for radioactive waste tanks with high organic content

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Crippen, M.D.; Turner, D.A. ); Gerber, M.A. )

    1993-02-01

    An overview of the Waste Tank Safety Organic Program is provided. The overview discusses the history of the wastes containing high concentrations of organics, existing safety criteria associated with those tanks, and details of thermodynamic studies by Westinghouse Hanford Company bounding potential reactivity. The program to be discussed contains the elements of the collection and analysis of tank historical information; reevaluation of organic tank-listing criteria; the performance of detailed studies on simulated waste; completion of waste characterization for each affected tank; and, as part of issue closure, the preparation of short-term and long-term safety and risk assessments based on results from characterization and the waste simulant studies. This document reports on a number of simplified thermodynamic calculations that were performed to ascertain combustion limits for simple surrogates of organic materials in a nitrate-nitrite containing alkaline waste. For expected waste species, the results of these calculations indicate that the range of reactivity encompasses energies that vary only by a factor of three over the range of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) (a fuel rich solvent) to sodium oxalate (a degradation product resulting from in situ organic complexant destruction in Hanford Site wastes).

  5. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L.; Skriba, M.C.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics` perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM`93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  6. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L. . Denver Environmental Services); Skriba, M.C. ); Wade, J.F. )

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  7. Monitoring Volatile Organic Tank Waste Using Cermet Microsensors

    SciTech Connect

    Edward G. Gatliff, Ph.D.; Laura R. Skubal, Ph.D.; Michael C. Vogt, Ph.D.

    2006-03-13

    Presently, very few inexpensive technologies exist in the marketplace that can determine the contents of tank waste or monitor the chemistry of tank constituents in near-real time. The research addressed this problem by developing and assessing ceramic-metallic based microsensors for determining the constituents of a liquid organic storage tank by examining the gases in the headspace of the tank. Overall, the WBO and YSZ sensors responded well to the chemicals in this study. Responses to various concentrations were distinguishable visually. This is a clear indication that pattern recognition tools will be effective in resolving the constituents and concentrations. In tests, such as the test with acetophenone, one sensor, the WBO sensor is not extremely effective. However, the other sensor, the YSZ sensor, is effective in resolving the concentrations. This supports the need to use an array of sensors, as one sensor may be reactive to a compound while another may not. In the course of this research, several interesting phenomena surfaced. New sensors, that were fabricated but not used in a contaminant gas, seemed to function more effectively and predictably if a ?conditioning? step was imposed upon them prior to use in square wave voltammetry. A conditioning step consists of running cyclic voltammetry prior to running square wave voltammetry. This step tends to ?cleanse? the sensor surface by providing a full -1.0 V to +1.0V sweep and both oxidizing and reducing compounds on the sensor surface. [Note: squarewave voltammetry will simply oxidize or reduce compounds ? it will not induce both reactions.] This sweep is essential for recovery between samples.

  8. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  9. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

  10. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste. PMID:25453319

  11. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  12. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  13. MECHANISMS AND KINETICS OF ORGANIC AGING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMEDIATES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to characterize significant chemical degradation pathways of organic chemicals in nuclear waste storage and treatment streams. The effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is closely coordinated with a Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory...

  14. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC HALIDE IN WATER AND WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various methods for the determination of total organic halides (TOX) in groundwater and in waste oil samples have been evaluated. Of three inorganic halide species generation approaches and three inorganic halide determinative techniques evaluated for groundwater analyses, one co...

  15. EVALUATION USING AN ORGANOPHILIC CLAY TO CHEMICALLY STABILIZE WASTE CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modified clay (organophilic) was utilized to evaluate the potential for chemically stabilizing a waste containing organic compounds. hemical bonding between the binder and the contaminants was indicated. eachate testing also indicated strong binding. Copy available at NTIS as ...

  16. COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGY OF LABORATORY ORGANISMS FOR ASSESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae, daphnia, earthworms, microbes, mixed sewage and plants; wheat 'Stephens', lettu...

  17. Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporation of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H.H.

    2001-03-28

    The purposes of this work were to: (1) develop preliminary operating data such as expected concentration endpoints for flow sheet development and evaporator design, and (2) examine the regulatory off-gas emission impacts from the evaporation of relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 Envelope C waste simulant containing 14 volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide organic compounds potentially present in actual Hanford RPP waste.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging for onsite transfer of B Plant organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-10-07

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the use of a 17,500-L (4,623-gal) tank manufactured by Brenner Tank, Incorporated, to transport up to 16,221 L (4,285 gal) of radioactive organic liquid waste. The waste will be transported from the organic loading pad to a storage pad. Both pads are within the B Plant complex, but approximately 4 mi apart.

  19. Dissipation pathways of organic pollutants during the composting of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Barriuso, Enrique; Houot, Sabine

    2012-04-01

    The organic pollutants (OPs) present in compostable organic residues can be recovered in the final composts leading to environmental impacts related to their use in agriculture. However, the composting process may contribute to their partial dissipation that is classically evaluated through the concentration decrease in extractable OPs, without identification of the responsible mechanisms as mineralization or stabilization of OP as non-extractable residues (NER) or bound residues. The dissipation of four (14)C-labeled OPs (fluoranthene; 4-n-nonylphenol, NP; sodium linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate, LAS; glyphosate) was assessed during composting of sewage sludge and green waste. The dissipation of LAS largely resulted from its mineralization (51% of initial LAS), whereas mineralization was intermediate for NP (29%) and glyphosate (24%), and negligible for fluoranthene. The NER pathway mostly concerned NP and glyphosate, with 45% and 37% of the recovered (14)C being found as NER at the end of composting, respectively. In the final composts, the proportions of water soluble residues of OPs considered as readily available were <11% of recovered (14)C-OPs. However, most fluoranthene remained solvent extractable (72%) and potentially available, whereas only 18% of glyphosate and less than 7% of both NP and LAS remained solvent extractable in the final compost. PMID:22209253

  20. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. PMID:26254676

  1. Evaluating greenhouse gas impacts of organic waste management options using life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dung; Shan, Jilei; Iacoboni, Mario; Maguin, Stephen R

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to divert organics away from landfills are viewed by many as an important measure to significantly reduce the climate change impacts of municipal solid waste management. However, the actual greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of organics diversion from landfills have yet to be thoroughly evaluated and whether such a diversion provides significant environmental benefits in terms of GHG impacts must be answered. This study, using California-specific information, aimed to analyse the GHG impacts of organics diversion through a life-cycle assessment (LCA). This LCA considered all aspects of organics management including transportation, materials handling, GHG emissions, landfill gas capture/utilization, energy impacts, and carbon sequestration. The LCA study evaluated overall GHG impacts of landfilling, and alternative management options such as composting and anaerobic digestion for diverted organic waste. The LCA analysis resulted in net GHG reductions of 0.093, 0.048, 0.065 and 0.073 tonnes carbon equivalent per tonne organic waste for landfilling, windrow composting, aerated static pile composting, and anaerobic digestion, respectively. This study confirms that all three options for organics management result in net reductions of GHG emissions, but it also shows that organics landfilling, when well-managed, generates greater GHG reductions. The LCA provides scientific insight with regards to the environmental impacts of organics management options, which should be considered in decision and policy-making. The study also highlights the importance of how site and case-specific conditions influence project outcomes when considering organic waste management options. PMID:22588112

  2. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work.

  3. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System.

  4. Organic tanks safety program, FY97 waste aging studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Sharma, A.K.; Hogan, M.O.; Lilga, M.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    To model tank waste aging and interpret tank waste speciation results, the authors began measuring the reactivity of organic complexants and related compounds towards radiation-induced oxidation reactions. Because of the high efficiency of scavenging of the primary radicals of water radiolysis by nitrate and nitrite ion, the major radiolytically-generated radicals in these solutions, and in Hanford tank wastes, are NO{sub 2}, NO and O{sup {minus}}. Prior to this effort, little quantitative information existed for the reactions of these radicals with organic compounds such as those that were used in Hanford processes. Therefore, modeling of actual waste aging, or even simulated waste aging, was not feasible without measuring reactivities and determining reaction paths. The authors have made the first rate measurements of complexant aging and determined some of their degradation products.

  5. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  6. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand. PMID:23849753

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes spread on land: Towards a proposal of a suitable test battery.

    PubMed

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Chabot, Laure; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    The land spreading of organic wastes in agriculture is a common practice in Europe, under the regulation of the Directive 86/278/EEC. One of the objectives of this Directive is to prevent harmful effects of organic wastes on soil, plants and animals. Despite this regulatory framework, there is still a lack of harmonized ecotoxicological test strategy to assess the environmental hazard of such wastes. The aim of this study was to provide a first step towards the a priori ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes before their land use. For that purpose, nine different organic wastes were assessed using direct (i.e. terrestrial tests) and indirect (i.e. tests on water eluates) approaches, for a total of thirteen endpoints. Then, multivariate analyzes were used to discriminate the most relevant test strategy, among the application rates and bioassays used. From our results, a draft of test strategy was proposed, using terrestrial bioassays (i.e. earthworms and plants) and a concentration range between one and ten times the recommended application rates of organic wastes. PMID:25485958

  8. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources. PMID:26983809

  9. Modeling the economics of blending organic processing waste streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into va...

  10. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  11. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION PROCESSES UNDER THE NEW EPA DRAFT RISK BURN GUIDANCE: MEASUREMENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurement issues relating to the characterization of organic emissions from hazardous waste incineration processes under EPA's new risk burn guidance. The recently published draft quidance recommends that hazardous waste combustion facilities complete a mass...

  13. Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible

  14. Limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of organic solvent-contaminated wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.; Mitchell, J.K.; Mitchell, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing inorganic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical modeling. The basic theorem of this approach was that the land disposal wastes would be environmentally acceptable if subsurface attenuation reduced groundwater concentrations of organic compounds to concentrations that were less than health-based, water-quality criteria. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. Threshold masses based on time-dependent migration simulations were estimated for these compounds. The remaining 16 compounds, which consisted mainly of chlorinated hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons could not be safely landfilled without severe restrictions on the amounts disposed. These organic compounds were candidates to ban from land disposal.The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing organic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical mdoeling. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. The

  15. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting. PMID:25595291

  16. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  17. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of "Total Organics" from stack emissions is much more complicated am might be expected, and more published guidance is needed badly. he best scheme available for analysis of "Total Organics" of stack emissions for material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determ...

  18. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  19. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  20. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  1. Optical and spectroscopic studies on tannery wastes as a possible source of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Nashy, El-Shahat H A; Al-Ashkar, Emad; Moez, A Abdel

    2012-02-01

    Tanning industry produces a large quantity of solid wastes which contain hide proteins in the form of protein shavings containing chromium salts. The chromium wastes are the main concern from an environmental stand point of view, because chrome wastes posses a significant disposal problem. The present work is devoted to investigate the possibility of utilizing these wastes as a source of organic semi-conductors as an alternative method instead of the conventional ones. The chemical characterization of these wastes was determined. In addition, the Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR spectroscopic analysis and optical parameters were also carried out for chromated samples. The study showed that the chromated samples had suitable absorbance and transmittance in the wavelength range (500-850 nm). Presence of chromium salt in the collagen samples increases the absorbance which improves the optical properties of the studied samples and leads to decrease the optical energy gap. The obtained optical energy gap gives an impression that the environmentally hazardous chrome shavings wastes can be utilized as a possible source of natural organic semiconductors with direct and indirect energy gap. This work opens the door to use some hazardous wastes in the manufacture of electronic devices such as IR-detectors, solar cells and also as solar cell windows. PMID:22070992

  2. Influences of adding easily degradable organic waste on the minimization and humification of organic matter during straw composting.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yi N; Chen, Jin H; Wang, Lei; Li, Fan; Fu, Xiao H; Le, Yi Q

    2013-01-01

    To find a better composting process with low greenhouse gas emission and high humus production, the effect of adding kitchen waste on reduction and humification of organic matter during straw composting was studied. Three processes were compared, consisting of different ratios of straw and kitchen waste (1:2, 1:1, and 2:1). At four time points over a 62-d incubation, the reduction and humification of compost was evaluated by measuring the total mass, carbon content, and humic material content of the compost. Treatment 1 (straw/kitchen waste ratio of 1:2) reduced the total mass of compost the most. Treatment 2 (straw/kitchen waste ratio of 1:1) reduced the total carbon content the most, reflecting the highest emission of greenhouse gas. Treatment 3 produced the most humic acid material and released the lowest amount of carbon. Hence, from the point of view of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing stable organic matter such as humus and humic acid during composting, treatment #3 was optimal. The three treatments resulted in significant differences in microbial biomass and enzyme activity during composting. The highest amount of active microbial biomass was associated with the largest reduction in compost mass (treatment 1). Higher proportions of straw (treatments 2 and 3), which contains more lignin, were associated with greater β-glycosidase activity, which may generate more humus that can improve soil quality. Dehydrogenase activity seemed to be the most important microbial factor in organic carbon catabolism or humification. PMID:23431976

  3. Organic tanks safety program waste aging studies. Final report, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive byproducts and contaminated process chemicals that are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of saltcakes, metal oxide sludges, and aqueous brine solutions. Tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes might be at risk for fuel-nitrate combustion accidents. This project started in fiscal year 1993 to provide information on the chemical fate of stored organic wastes. While historical records had identified the organic compounds originally purchased and potentially present in wastes, aging experiments were needed to identify the probable degradation products and evaluate the current hazard. The determination of the rates and pathways of degradation have facilitated prediction of how the hazard changes with time and altered storage conditions. Also, the work with aged simulated waste contributed to the development of analytical methods for characterizing actual wastes. Finally, the results for simulants provide a baseline for comparing and interpreting tank characterization data.

  4. MUTAGENISTIC TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES FROM REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIC CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general applicability of the Ames test for screening wastewater samples was investigated. Application of the Ames test to raw and treated wastewaters from representative organic chemical industries involved the investigation of several problems: (1) the feasibility of using t...

  5. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N. Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco

    2008-01-01

    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed. PMID:17512716

  7. Regulatory Off-Gas Analysis from the Evaporation of Hanford Simulated Waste Spiked with Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B. Jr.

    2003-10-23

    After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate and off-gas streams with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI ESP model is constrained by available literature data.

  8. Regulatory off-gas analysis from the evaporation of Hanford simulated waste spiked with organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi H; Calloway, T Bond; Ferrara, Daro M; Choi, Alexander S; White, Thomas L; Gibson, Luther V; Burdette, Mark A

    2004-10-01

    After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, the remaining low-activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation before being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile, and pesticide compounds and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River National Laboratory. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods. Volatile and light semi-volatile organic compounds (<220 degrees C BP, >1 mm Hg vapor pressure) in the waste simulant were found to largely exit through the condenser vent, while heavier semi-volatiles and pesticides generally remain in the evaporator concentrate. An OLI Environmental Simulation Program (licensed by OLI Systems, Inc.) evaporator model successfully predicted operating conditions and the experimental distribution of the fed target organics exiting in the concentrate, condensate, and off-gas streams, with the exception of a few semi-volatile and pesticide compounds. Comparison with Henry's Law predictions suggests the OLI Environmental Simulation Program model is constrained by available literature data. PMID:15540577

  9. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. PMID:27281225

  10. Biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity as crucial components of biorefinery of organic wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Munoz-Paez, Karla M; Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí F

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a sustainable form of energy as it can be produced from organic waste through fermentation processes involving dark fermentation and photofermentation. Very often biohydrogen is included as a part of biorefinery approaches, which reclaim organic wastes that are abundant sources of renewable and low cost substrate that can be efficiently fermented by microorganisms. The aim of this work was to critically assess selected bioenergy alternatives from organic solid waste, such as biohydrogen and bioelectricity, to evaluate their relative advantages and disadvantages in the context of biorefineries, and finally to indicate the trends for future research and development. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products, which means: energy, materials, chemicals, food and feed. Dark fermentation of organic wastes could be the beach-head of complete biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could significantly influence the future of solid waste management. Series systems show a better efficiency than one-stage process regarding substrate conversion to hydrogen and bioenergy. The dark fermentation also produces fermented by-products (fatty acids and solvents), so there is an opportunity for further combining with other processes that yield more bioenergy. Photoheterotrophic fermentation is one of them: photosynthetic heterotrophs, such as non-sulfur purple bacteria, can thrive on the simple organic substances produced in dark fermentation and light, to give more H2. Effluents from photoheterotrophic fermentation and digestates can be processed in microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production and methanogenic digestion for methane generation, thus integrating a diverse block of bioenergies. Several digestates from bioenergies could be used for bioproducts generation, such as cellulolytic enzymes and saccharification processes, leading to ethanol fermentation (another bioenergy), thus completing

  11. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  12. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  13. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste.

  14. Organic wastes to enhance phyto-treatment of diesel-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Agamuthu, P

    2013-11-01

    Toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are major contributors to environmental contamination and pose major health risks to human population. In this work, Dracaena reflexa and Podocarpus polystachyus were investigated for their potential to remove hydrocarbons from 2.5% and 1% diesel fuel-contaminated soil amended individually with 5% organic wastes (tea leaf, soy cake and potato skin) for a period of 270 days. Loss of 90% and 99% oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil with soy cake amendment, respectively, compared with 52% and 62% in unamended soil with D. reflexa at the end of 270 days. Similarly, 84% and 91% oil loss was recorded for P. polystachyus amended with organic wastes in 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Diesel fuel disappeared more rapidly in the soil amendment with SC than in other organic waste supplementation. It was evident that plants did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil, while the number of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was rhizodegradation. The kinetic model result indicated a high rate of degradation in soil amendment with SC at 1% with D. reflexa compared with other treatments. Thus, a positive relationship was observed between diesel hydrocarbon degradation with plant biomass production. Dracaena reflexa with organic wastes amendment has a greater potential of restoring hydrocarbon-contaminated soil compared to P. polystachyus plant. PMID:24025373

  15. Low-Temperature, Vacuum-Aided Thermal Desorption Studies on a Simulated Organic Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect

    R. K. Farnsworth; D. R. Peterman; Gary L. Anderson; T. G. Garn

    2002-12-01

    This report describes an initial set of small scale lab tests conducted on surrogate waste materials to investigate mass release behavior of volatile organics (VOC’s) from a solidified liquid organic sludge matrix under vacuumaided, low-temperature thermal desorption conditions. Low temperature thermal desorption is being considered as a potential processing technology alternative to incineration, to remove gas generation limitations affecting the transportation of transuranic (TRU) contaminated organic sludge wastes to a designated off-site repository (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The lab-scale tests provide initial exploratory level information on temperature profiles and rates of volatile organic desorption for a range of initial VOC/oil liquid mixture concentrations in a calcium silicate matrix, under low temperature heating and vacuum boundary conditions that are representative of potentially desirable “in-drum desorption” conditions. The results of these tests indicate that reduced operating pressures have a potential for significantly enhancing the rate of thermal desorption experienced from a liquid organic/oil solidified “sludge” waste. Furthermore, the results indicate that in-drum thermal desorption can be performed on organic sludge wastes, at reduced pressures, while maintaining an operating temperature sufficiently low to prevent destruction of the waste drum packaging materials (confinement) surrounding the waste. The results also indicate that VOC release behavior/rates in the vacuum thermal desorption process cannot be represented by a simple liquid-liquid mass-diffusion model, since overall mass release rates observed are generally two orders of magnitude greater than predicted by simple liquid-liquid mass diffusion. This is partially attributed to the effects of the transient temperature profiles within the sludge during heat up; however, the primary cause is thought to be micro boiling of the volatile organics within the

  16. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T L; Svärd, A; Angelidaki, I; Schmidt, J E; Jansen, J; Christensen, T H

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials. PMID:14531442

  17. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. PMID:26821599

  18. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes. PMID:19039069

  19. Biotreatment of hazardous organic wastes using rotating biological contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuz, R.Y. )

    1991-08-01

    Treatment of several toxic organic compounds in Rotating Biological Contractor (RBC) units was examined in this study. The following compounds were included: 2-Chlorophenol; 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; pentachlorophenol; 2-nitrophenol; diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate.

  20. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ORGANIC WASTES ON SMALL STREAM WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship betwe...

  1. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wang, Francis T.; Hickman, Robert G.; Lewis, Patricia R.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required.

  2. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

    1996-05-14

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

  3. Unlocking the resource potential of organic waste: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Greben, Harma A; Oelofse, Suzan H H

    2009-10-01

    In many countries, especially on the Asian continent, waste is considered a valuable renewable energy resource. At present 40% of waste generated in South Africa comprises organic material which, when digested supplies biogas. The biogas produced can either be used as it is, or it can be delivered as electricity using gas turbines. The electricity generated can be added to the national grid. In light of the increased demand for energy in South Africa, alternative sources of energy are required. When taking the examples of the Asian countries, where anaerobic digestion of waste is applied in rural areas to produce energy for cooking and lighting, it can be hypothesized that this technology could be transferred especially to the rural areas of South Africa. Small-scale anaerobic digestion is presently being implemented by a private company in Ivory Park, South Africa, illustrating that anaerobic digestion in South Africa may be a means of unlocking the energy potential of organic waste. This paper evaluates the requirements for an enabling governance environment to unlock the full potential of organic waste as renewable energy resource. PMID:19470534

  4. Comparative evaluation of anaerobic digestion for sewage sludge and various organic wastes with simple modeling.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Tsumori, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes, such as kitchen garbage, food waste, and agricultural waste, at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. Substrate characteristics and the anaerobic digestion performance of sewage sludge and various organic wastes were compared using experiments and modeling. Co-digestion improved the value of digested sewage sludge as a fertilizer. The relationship between total and soluble elemental concentrations was correlated with the periodic table: most Na and K (alkali metals) were soluble, and around 20-40% of Mg and around 10-20% of Ca (alkaline earth metals) were soluble. The ratio of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand of organic wastes was 65-90%. The methane conversion ratio and methane production rate under mesophilic conditions were evaluated using a simplified mathematical model. There was reasonably close agreement between the model simulations and the experimental results in terms of methane production and nitrogen concentration. These results provide valuable information and indicate that the model can be used as a pre-evaluation tool to facilitate the introduction of co-digestion at WWTPs. PMID:26031329

  5. Evaluation of americium-241 toxicity influence on the microbial growth of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Padua Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de; Keiko Isiki, Vera Lucia; Miyamoto, Hissae; Sayuri Takara, Aline; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Bellini, Maria Helena; Cardoso Pedroso de Lima, Luis Filipe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since the licenses for using radioactive sources in radioactive lightning rods were lifted by the Brazilian national nuclear authority, in 1989, the radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 20 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission. This situation causes concern, due to, first, the possibility of the rods being disposed as domestic waste, and second, the americium, the most commonly employed radionuclide, is classified as a high-toxicity element. In the present study, Am-241 migration experiments were performed by a lysimeter system, in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Besides the risk evaluation, it is important to know the mechanism of the Am-241 release or retention in waste as well as its influence in the waste decomposition processes. Many factors are involved, but microorganisms present in the waste play an important role in its degradation, which control the physical and chemical processes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Am-241 influence on the microbial population by counting number of cells in lysimeters leachate. Preliminary results suggest that americium may influence significantly the bacteria growth in organic waste, evidenced by culture under aerobiosis and an-aerobiosis and the antimicrobial resistance test. (authors)

  6. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders; Bhander, Gurbakhash S; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-04-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization. PMID:21169006

  7. [Influence of goethite on anaerobic fermentation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu-Lu; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Wang, Jin

    2014-05-01

    Effects of goethite on the anaerobic fermentation process of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, including the biogas production and characteristics of leachate, were investigated in the anaerobic digesters constructed by PVC. The results showed that the addition of goethite promoted hydrolysis and acidogenesis efficiency of solid wastes and gas production rate. The total gas volume was 163.4 L,which increased by 20% compared to the blank. The intermediate products of Fe2+ , NH+4 -N, NO-3 -N, COD and organic acids in the leachate were analyzed. Results showed that the addition of goethite reduced the system ORP to - 124 mV which could improve the activity of the anaerobic microorganism. Addition of goethite could also promote the utilization of organic acids which decreased the inhibition effects of organic acids on the anaerobic microorganism. PMID:25055697

  8. Experimental demonstrations of organic Rankine cycle waste heat rejection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Timothy J.; Lacey, P. Douglas

    Two phase fluid management is an important factor in the successful design of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion systems for space applications. The evolution of the heat rejection system approach from a jet condenser, through a rotary jet condenser, to a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) with a surface condenser has been described in a previous paper. Some of the test programs that were used to prove the validity of the selected approach are described.

  9. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Santos, Teresa; Palma, Patrícia; Sengo, Joana; Morais, Marie-Christine; Cunha-Queda, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Nine different samples of sewage sludges, composts and other representative organic wastes, with potential interest to be used as agricultural soil amendments, were characterized: municipal sewage sludge (SS1 and SS2), agro industrial sludge (AIS), municipal slaughterhouse sludge (MSS), mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC), agricultural wastes compost (AWC), compost produced from agricultural wastes and sewage sludge (AWSSC), pig slurry digestate (PSD) and paper mill wastes (PMW). The characterization was made considering their: (i) physicochemical parameters, (ii) total and bioavailable heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg), (iii) organic contaminants, (iv) pathogenic microorganisms and (v) stability and phytotoxicity indicators. All the sludges, municipal or other, comply with the requirements of the legislation regarding the possibility of their application to agricultural soil (with the exception of SS2, due to its pathogenic microorganisms content), with a content of organic matter and nutrients that make them interesting to be applied to soil. The composts presented, in general, some constraints regarding their application to soil, and their impairment was due to the existence of heavy metal concentrations exceeding the proposed limit of the draft European legislation. As a consequence, with the exception of AWSSC, most compost samples were not able to meet these quality criteria, which are more conservative for compost than for sewage sludge. From the results, the composting of sewage sludge is recommended as a way to turn a less stabilized waste into a material that is no longer classified as a waste and, judging by the results of this work, with lower heavy metal content than the other composted materials, and without sanitation problems. PMID:25708406

  10. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible. PMID:20952443

  11. Method for removing and decolorizing aqueous waste effluents containing dissolved or dispersed organic matter

    DOEpatents

    Case, F.N.; Ketchen, E.E.

    1975-10-14

    A method is provided for treating organic waste material dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous effluent, which comprises contacting the effluent with an inert particulate carbonaceous sorbent at an oxygen pressure up to 2000 psi, irradiating the resultant mixture with high energy radiation until a decolorized liquid is produced, and then separating the decolorized liquid.

  12. INFLUENCE OF AN ORGANIC WASTE USED AS SOIL AMENDMENT ON TRIAZINE HERBICIDE SORPTION AND AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we have studied the influence of an organic waste generated in the olive oil mill process, used as soil amendment, on atrazine and terbuthylazine sorption and availability in soil. The soils studied were two sandy soils with different origin, Spain and Minnesota and the effect of soil a...

  13. Final Report. Conversion of Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilizing Hermetic Organic Rankine Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2005-04-20

    The design of waste heat recovery using the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine is updated. Advances in power electronics with lower cost enable the use of a single shaft, high-speed generator eliminating wear items and allowing hermetic sealing of the working fluid. This allows maintenance free operation and a compact configuration that lowers cost, enabling new market opportunities.

  14. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  15. TOXICITY REDUCTION TEST TO ASSIST IN PREDICTING LAND TREATABILITY OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migration of toxic organics contained in the water soluble fraction (WSF) of land applied hazardous wastes poses the most serious threat to ground-water resources. A toxicity reduction (TR) test system is being proposed that will serve to determine if, and to what extent, attenua...

  16. PROGRESS REPORT. MECHANISMS AND KINETICS OF ORGANIC AGING IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective is to develop predictive models of organic degradation in high-level wastes (HLW). We make this information available to facility operators on the Hanford Site to support decision-making processes regarding safety, retrieval, and treatment issues. Emphasis is placed...

  17. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of < 30 can be applied as a nitrogen source in EFB co-composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process. PMID:24527651

  18. Limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of organic solvent-contaminated wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, W. R.; Griffin, R. A.; Mitchell, J. K.; Mitchell, R. A.

    1989-05-01

    The limitations and feasibility of the land disposal of solid wastes containing organic solvents and refrigerants (chlorinated fluorocarbons) were investigated by evaluating the attenuation capacity of a hypothetical waste-disposal site by numerical modeling. The basic theorem of this approach was that the land disposal of wastes would be environmentally acceptable if subsurface attenuation reduced groundwater concentrations of organic compounds to concentrations that were less than health-based, water-quality criteria. Computer simulations indicated that the predicted concentrations of 13 of 33 organic compounds in groundwater would be less than their health-based criteria. Hence, solid wastes containing these compounds could be safely disposed at the site. The attenuation capacity of the site was insufficient to reduce concentrations of four compounds to safe levels without limiting the amount of mass available to leach into groundwater. Threshold masses based on time-dependent migration simulations were estimated for these compounds. The remaining 16 compounds, which consisted mainly of chlorinated hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons could not be safely landfilled without severe restrictions on the amounts disposed. These organic compounds were candidates to ban from land disposal.

  19. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This is particularly true for developing ...

  20. GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

  1. OBTAINING IMPROVED PRODUCTS FROM THE ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has investigated several processes for the conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) to a powder. The study concentrated on two types of processes: (1) conversion of MSW to a powdered carbon char by low-temperature pyrolysis, and (2) embrittle...

  2. TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HALOGENATED ORGANIC CONTAINING WASTES. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The halogenated organics technical resource document (TRD) is one of a series of five TRDs that are being prepared by the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory. It provides information that can be used by environmental regulatory agencies and others as a source of techn...

  3. HAZARDOUS GAS PRODUCTION BY ALPHA PARTICLES IN SOLID ORGANIC TRANSURANIC WASTE MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to use fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the t...

  4. Organizing. MAS-108. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This module is part of a set of management and supervisor training (MAST) materials developed by the Department of Energy for the Waste Isolation Division. Its stated purpose is to enable trainees to organize work activities efficiently and effectively. The first section of the module is an introduction that includes a terminal objective and…

  5. Measured and simulated nitrogen fluxes after field application of food-processing and municipal organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Parnaudeau, V; Génermont, S; Hénault, C; Farrugia, A; Robert, P; Nicolardot, B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess N fluxes (mineralization, volatilization, denitrification, leaching) caused by spreading various organic wastes from food-processing industries during a field experiment, and (ii) to identify the main factors affecting N transformation processes after field spreading. Experimental treatments including the spreading of six types of waste and a control soil were set up in August 2000 and studied for 22 mo under bare soil conditions. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, and nitrogen mineralization were measured in experimental devices and extrapolated to field conditions or computed in calculation models. The ammonia emissions varied from 80 to 580 g kg(-1) NH4+-N applied, representing 0 to 90 g N kg(-1) total N applied. Under these meteorologically favorable conditions (dry and warm weather), waste pH was the main factor affecting volatilization rates. Cumulated N2O-N fluxes were estimated at 2 to 5 g kg(-1) total N applied, which was quite low due to the low soil water content during the experimental period; water-filled pore space (WFPS) was confirmed as the main factor affecting N2O fluxes. Nitrogen mineralization from wastes represented 126 to 723 g N kg(-1) organic N added from the incorporation date to 14 May 2001 and was not related to the organic C to organic N ratio of wastes. Nitrogen lost by leaching during the equivalent period ranged from 30 to 890 g kg(-1) total N applied. The highest values were obtained for wastes having the highest inorganic N content and mineralization rates. PMID:19141817

  6. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from mechanical selection: biological stabilization and recovery options.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Russo, Lara; Farina, Anna; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Although current trends address towards prevention strategies, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste is greatly produced, especially in high-income contexts. Its recovery-oriented collection is a common practice, but a relevant portion of the biodegradable waste is not source selected. Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT) are the most common option to sort and stabilize the biodegradable matter ending in residual waste stream. Following the changes of the framework around waste management, this paper aimed at analyzing the quality of the mechanically selected organic waste produced in MBT plants, in order to discuss its recovery options. The material performance was obtained by its composition as well as by its main chemical and physical parameters; biological stability was also assessed by both aerobic and anaerobic methods. On this basis, the effectiveness of an aerobic biostabilization process was assessed at pilot scale. After 21 days of treatment, results proved that the biomass had reached an acceptable biostabilization level, with a potential Dynamic Respirometric Index (DRIP) value lower than the limit required for its use as daily or final landfill cover material. However, the final stabilization level was seen to be influenced by scaling factors and the 21 days of treatment turned to be not so adequate when applied in the existing full-scale facility. PMID:26377969

  7. Homogeneously catalyzed oxidation for the destruction of aqueous organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, D.D.; Horbath, J.S.; Abraham, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Several organic species, specifically atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid, and biphenyl, were converted to CO{sub 2} and other non-harmful gases through oxidation catalyzed by inorganic acid. Nearly complete conversion was obtained through homogeneous liquid-phase oxidation with ammonium nitrate. The kinetics of reaction have been investigated and indicate parallel oxidation and thermal degradation of the oxidant. This results in a maximum conversion at an intermediate temperature. Increasing oxidant concentration accelerates the rate of conversion and shifts the location of the optimum temperature. Reaction at varying acid concentration revealed that conversion increased with an approximately linear relationship as the pH of the solution was increased. Conversion was increased to greater than 99% through the addition of small amounts of transition metal salts demonstrating the suitability of a treatment process based on this technology for wastestreams containing small quantities of heavy metals.

  8. Development in Waste Volume Reduction Technologies for Highly Contaminated Organic Radioactive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    AKAI, Yoshie; OHMURA, Hisao; FUJIE, Makoto; MONIWA, Shinobu; SEKI, Shuji; YOTSUYANAGI, Tadasu; EBATA, Masaaki; TAKAGI, Junichi

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, there is highly contaminated organic radioactive waste such as ion exchange resins for water purification in nuclear power plants. In the future, it is desired that this waste be decomposed to reduce the volume and to become stable. Toshiba has developed a waste treatment system using supercritical water. Furthermore, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin has been examined. By this new system, it is possible to reduce the volume of ion exchange resin waste. First, supercritical water was applied to the decomposition of ion exchange resin. The supercritical water whose temperature and pressure exceed 647 K and 22 MPa is an excellent solvent for organic compound decomposition, since oxygen and organic compounds can exist in a single homogeneous fluid phase. Organic compounds can be rapidly and completely decomposed using supercritical water. Almost all the reactants can be kept in the water during organic compound decomposition. Therefore, applying supercritical water to treat organic radioactive waste is an attractive proposition. Actual plant-size apparatus was constructed with a treatment capacity of 1 kg of ion exchange resin per hour. The test revealed that more than 99.9% of the ion exchange resin was decomposed at 723 K and 30 MPa. By this system, ion exchange resin decomposes rapidly and completely, and the volume of ion exchange resin waste can be largely reduced. Secondly, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin is described. The new demineralization system consists of a filter and a demineralization cell. A metal mesh filter is adopted to remove crud, and the demineralization cell removes ionic impurities. In this system, it is important whether demineralization can take place at high temperature. Thus, this report describes the test results of the new demineralization process. This demineralization cell consists of an anode, a cathode, and a membrane made of inorganic material. The

  9. Compositions of volatile organic compounds emitted from melted virgin and waste plastic pellets.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Ni, Yueyong; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2009-03-01

    To characterize potential air pollution issues related to recycling facilities of waste plastics, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from melted virgin and waste plastics pellets were analyzed. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to melt virgin and waste plastic pellets under various temperatures (150, 200, and 250 degrees C) and atmospheres (air and nitrogen [N2]). In the study presented here, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and the recycled waste plastic pellets were used. The VOCs generated from each plastic pellets were collected by Tenax/Carboxen adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). The result showed the higher temperatures generated larger amounts of total VOCs (TVOCs). The VOCs emitted from the virgin plastic pellets likely originated from polymer degradation. Smaller TVOC emissions were observed in N2 atmosphere than in air atmosphere. In particular, larger amounts of the oxygenated compounds, which are generally hazardous and malodorous, were detected in air than in N2. In addition to the compounds originating from polymer degradation, the compounds originating from the plastic additives were also detected from LDPE and PS. Furthermore, various species of VOCs likely originating from contaminant inseparate polyvinyl chloride (PVC), food residues, cleaning agents, degreasers, and so on were detected from the waste plastic. Thus, melting waste plastics, as is conducted in recycling facilities, might generate larger amounts of potentially toxic compounds than producing virgin plastics. PMID:19320266

  10. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Yang; Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  11. Inorganic, Radioisotopic, and Organic Analysis of 241-AP-101 Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, S.K.; Bredt, P.R.; Campbell, J.A.; Farmer, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hoopes, F.V.; Lumetta, G.J.; Mong, G.M.; Ratner, R.T.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Steele, M.J.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.; Wagner, J.J.

    2000-10-17

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids.

  12. Natural Gas Residual Fluids: Sources, Endpoints, and Organic Chemical Composition after Centralized Waste Treatment in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Getzinger, Gordon J; O'Connor, Megan P; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Drollette, Brian D; Karatum, Osman; Deshusses, Marc A; Ferguson, P Lee; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2015-07-21

    Volumes of natural gas extraction-derived wastewaters have increased sharply over the past decade, but the ultimate fate of those waste streams is poorly characterized. Here, we sought to (a) quantify natural gas residual fluid sources and endpoints to bound the scope of potential waste stream impacts and (b) describe the organic pollutants discharged to surface waters following treatment, a route of likely ecological exposure. Our findings indicate that centralized waste treatment facilities (CWTF) received 9.5% (8.5 × 10(8) L) of natural gas residual fluids in 2013, with some facilities discharging all effluent to surface waters. In dry months, discharged water volumes were on the order of the receiving body flows for some plants, indicating that surface waters can become waste-dominated in summer. As disclosed organic compounds used in high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) vary greatly in physicochemical properties, we deployed a suite of analytical techniques to characterize CWTF effluents, covering 90.5% of disclosed compounds. Results revealed that, of nearly 1000 disclosed organic compounds used in HVHF, only petroleum distillates and alcohol polyethoxylates were present. Few analytes targeted by regulatory agencies (e.g., benzene or toluene) were observed, highlighting the need for expanded and improved monitoring efforts at CWTFs. PMID:26147419

  13. Organic waste composting at the Semple Street Co-op. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments in the development of a vermiculture room are described. The purpose of the project is to develop an earthworm composting system for processing organic (food) wastes. The composting room in its completed form consists of an insulated room with exterior access, a utility tub, a grinder and racks to accommodate earthworm pans. As of now, the earthworms are being fed regularly, and are increasing in numbers. The responsibility of finding and scheduling volunteers for feeding has come under the wing of the regular co-op volunteer coordinator and has been institutionalized into the co-op's operations. The present population of earthworms is approximately 10,000, a sufficient number to process one day's organic waste, one day a week. It will require no more than 60,000 earthworms to compost all of the organic waste at the current level of waste generation. At a distribution of 1000 to 2000 worms per pan, it is estimated that the project will operate in its full capacity with between 30 and 60 pans.

  14. Assessment of the Regenerative Potential of Organic Waste Streams in Lagos Mega-City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opejin, Adenike Kafayat

    There is never a better time for this study than now when Nigeria as a country is going through the worst time in power supply. In Lagos city about 12,000 tons of waste is generated daily, and is expected to increase as the city adds more population. The management of these waste has generated great concern among professionals, academia and government agencies. This study examined the regenerative management of organic waste, which accounts for about 45% of the total waste generated in Lagos. To do this, two management scenarios were developed: landfill methane to electricity and compost; and analyzed using data collected during field work and from government reports. While it is understood that landfilling waste is the least sustainable option, this study argued that it could be a viable method for developing countries. Using U.S EPA LandGEM and the IPCC model, estimates of capturable landfill methane gas was derived for three landfills studied. Furthermore, a 35-year projection of waste and landfill methane was done for three newly proposed landfills. Assumptions were made that these new landfills will be sanitary. It was established that an average of 919,480,928m3 methane gas could be captured to generate an average of 9,687,176 MW of electricity annually. This makes it a significant source of power supply to a city that suffers from incessant power outages. Analysis of composting organics in Lagos was also done using descriptive method. Although, it could be argued that composting is the most regenerative way of managing organics, but it has some problems associated with it. Earthcare Compost Company processes an average of 600 tons of organics on a daily basis. The fraction of waste processed is infinitesimal compared to the rate of waste generated. One major issue identified in this study as an obstacle to extensive use of this method is the marketability of compost. The study therefore suggests that government should focus on getting the best out of the

  15. [Comprehensive evaluation of improving effects of different organic wastes on a newly reclaimed cultivated land].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu-tong; Kong, Zhang-liang; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2016-02-01

    There are many problems such as low soil organic matter, available nutrients and microbial activity, compaction, and poor tillage properties for a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and the establishment of a fast, effective measure for improving soil fertility quality is of importance to enhance the quality and production performance of the newly cultivated land. A field experiment was carried out to observe the effect of organic wastes on soil fertility of a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and compared the differences of different types of urban organic wastes. The field experiment included nine treatments, i.e., pig manure, chicken manure, rice straw, vegetable harvest residue, urban sludge, biogas residue, manure+rice straw compost, garbage compost and control without organic fertilizer at annual application rate of 30 t . hm-2, and ran for three consecutive years. The results showed that the application of each type of the eight organic wastes had obvious effects on improving soil fertility. Among them, pig manure, chicken manure, pig manure+rice straw compost, rice straw and biogas residue were the most effective to enhance the carbon pool management index of soil. The addition of pig manure+rice straw compost and biogas residue had the best effect on increasing the soil water stable aggregates and decreasing soil bulk density. Sewage sludge, pig manure+rice straw compost and garbage compost could enhance soil water holding capacity. Pig manure, chicken manure and pig manure+rice straw compost had most obvious effect on increasing soil available nutrients. All kinds of organic wastes increased the number of soil microorganisms and the activity of enzymes. There were some risk of soil heavy metals pollution.for the long-term application of sludge, garbage compost and manure. However, the impact of short-term application of the wastes on soil environmental quality was not obvious. Overall, effects of organic wastes on soil fertility decreased in the order of pig

  16. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  17. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

  18. Production of an innovative fertilizer from organic waste: process monitoring by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Dall'Ara, Alice; Garcia Izquierdo, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The European directive 2008/98/CE establishes a legal framework for the treatment of waste within the Community. It aims at protecting the environment and human health through the prevention of the harmful effects of waste generation and waste management. In order to better protect the environment, the Member States should adopt measures for the treatment of their waste according to a hierarchy as outlined: prevention, preparing for reuse, recycling, energy recovery, disposal. In this context, the European project LIFE12 ENV/IT/000356 "RESAFE" is addressed to produce and utilize a new class of fertilizers characterized by reduced salinity in order to substitute chemical and mineral fertilizers through a technological route based on Urban Organic Waste (UOW), Farm Organic Residues (FOR), Bio-Chars (BC) and Vegetable Active Principles (VAP) processing. Following this approach, it will be possible for farmers and urban waste managers to reduce costs and to obtain environmental and economic incomes. Furthermore, environmental impacts will be also reduced contributing to decrease the greenhouse emissions from landfills and from the production of mineral fertilizers. In this paper, specific innovative sensing architectures, based on Hyper-Spectral Imaging (HSI) devices working in the near infrared (NIR) range, and related detection architectures, is presented and discussed in order to define and apply smart detection engines to follow the transformations of the complex material, resulting from UOW, FOR, BC and VAP based recipes during the different stages of the fertilizer production process. Results show as the fertilizer production process can be monitored adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  19. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R.

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  1. Treatment plan for aqueous/organic/decontamination wastes under the Oak Ridge Reservation FFCA Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, P.M.; Benson, C.E.; Gilbert, V.P.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which seeks to facilitate the treatment of low-level mixed wastes currently stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in violation of the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The FFCA establishes schedules for DOE to identify treatment for wastes, referred to as Appendix B wastes, that current have no identified or existing capacity for treatment. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DDT&E) program was established to provide the support necessary to identify treatment methods for mixed was meeting the Appendix B criteria. The Program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs for major categories of the Appendix B wastes based on the waste characteristics and possible treatment technologies. The Aqueous, Organic, and Decontamination (A/O/D) project team was established to identify pretreatment options for aqueous and organic wastes which will render the waste acceptable for treatment in existing waste treatment facilities and to identify the processes to decontaminate heterogeneous debris waste. In addition, the project must also address the treatment of secondary waste generated by other DDT&E projects. This report details the activities to be performed under the A/O/D Project in support of the identification, selection, and evaluation of treatment processes. The goals of this plan are (1) to determine the major aqueous and organic waste streams requiring treatment, (2) to determine the treatment steps necessary to make the aqueous and organic waste acceptable for treatment in existing treatment facilities on the ORR or off-site, and (3) to determine the processes necessary to decontaminate heterogeneous wastes that are considered debris.

  2. Emission of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the aerobic decomposition of orange wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming

    2015-07-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted from orange wastes during aerobic decomposition were investigated in a laboratory-controlled incubator for a period of two months. Emission of total OVOCs (TOVOCs) from orange wastes reached 1714 mg/dry kg (330 mg/wet kg). Ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were the most abundant OVOC species with shares of 26.9%, 24.8%, 20.3%, 13.9%, 2.8% and 2.5%, respectively, in the TOVOCs released. The emission fluxes of the above top five OVOCs were quite trivial in the beginning but increased sharply to form one "peak emission window" with maximums at days 1-8 until leveling off after 10 days. This type of "peak emission window" was synchronized with the CO2 fluxes and incubation temperature of the orange wastes, indicating that released OVOCs were mainly derived from secondary metabolites of orange substrates through biotic processes rather than abiotic processes or primary volatilization of the inherent pool in oranges. Acetaldehyde instead had emission fluxes decreasing sharply from its initial maximum to nearly zero in about four days, suggesting that it was inherent rather than secondarily formed. For TOVOCs or all OVOC species except 2-butanone and acetone, over 80% of their emissions occurred during the first week, implying that organic wastes might give off a considerable amount of OVOCs during the early disposal period under aerobic conditions. PMID:26141879

  3. Investigation of potentially toxic heavy metals in different organic wastes used to fertilize market garden crops.

    PubMed

    Tella, M; Doelsch, E; Letourmy, P; Chataing, S; Cuoq, F; Bravin, M N; Saint Macary, H

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of using organic waste as fertilizer and soil amendment should be assessed together with the environmental impacts due to the possible presence of heavy metals (HMs). This study involved analysing major element and HM contents in raw and size-fractionated organic wastes (17 sewage sludges and composts) from developed and developing countries. The overall HM concentration pattern showed an asymmetric distribution due to the presence of some wastes with extremely high concentrations. HM concentrations were correlated with the size of cities or farms where the wastes had been produced, and HM were differentiated with respect to their origins (geogenic: Cr-Ni; anthropogenic agricultural and urban: Cu-Zn; anthropogenic urban: Cd-Pb). Size fractionation highlighted Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb accumulation in fine size fractions, while Cr and Ni were accumulated in the coarsest. HM associations with major elements revealed inorganic (Al, Fe, etc.) bearing phases for Cr and Ni, and sulfur or phosphorus species for Cd, Cu Pb and Zn. PMID:22975024

  4. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Musgrave, B.C.; Drake, R.N.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  5. Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and assessment of compost maturity.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sneh; Dhull, S K; Kapoor, K K

    2005-09-01

    Changes in organic C, total N, C:N ratio, activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease, and microbial population were determined during composting of different organic wastes such as mixture of sugarcane trash and cattle dung, press mud, poultry waste and water hyacinth biomass. There were losses of N in poultry waste and water hyacinth with the effect an initial increase in C:N ratio was observed which decreased later on due to decomposition. The activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease were maximum between 30 and 60 days of composting in various wastes. Similar trend was observed with respect to mesophilic bacterial and fungal population. Various quality parameters like C:N ratio, water soluble C (WSC), CO(2) evolution and level of humic substances were compared after 90 day composting. There was statistically significant correlation between C:N ratio and CO(2) evolution, WSC and humic substances. Significant correlation between CO(2) evolved and level of humic substances was also observed. The study shows that no single parameter can be taken as an index of compost maturity. However, C:N ratio and CO(2) evolved from finished compost can be taken as the most reliable indices of compost maturity. PMID:15978991

  6. Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: Part 2, nitrogen dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Guardia, A. de; Mallard, P.; Teglia, C.; Marin, A.; Le Pape, C.; Launay, M.; Benoist, J.C.; Petiot, C.

    2010-03-15

    This paper aimed to compare household waste, separated pig solids, food waste, pig slaughterhouse sludge and green algae regarding processes ruling nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three composting simulations were performed in parallel in three similar reactors (300 L), each one under a constant aeration rate. The aeration flows applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the compost were characterized through the measurements of their contents in dry matter, total carbon, Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate. Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate were measured in leachates and in condensates too. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions were monitored in continue. The cumulated emissions in ammonia and in nitrous oxide were given for each waste and at each aeration rate. The paper focused on process of ammonification and on transformations and transfer of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The parameters of nitrous oxide emissions were not investigated. The removal rate of total Kjeldahl nitrogen was shown being closely tied to the ammonification rate. Ammonification was modelled thanks to the calculation of the ratio of biodegradable carbon to organic nitrogen content of the biodegradable fraction. The wastes were shown to differ significantly regarding their ammonification ability. Nitrogen balances were calculated by subtracting nitrogen losses from nitrogen removed from material. Defaults in nitrogen balances were assumed to correspond to conversion of nitrate even nitrite into molecular nitrogen and then to the previous conversion by nitrification of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The pool of total ammoniacal nitrogen, i.e. total ammoniacal nitrogen initially contained in waste plus total ammoniacal nitrogen released by ammonification, was calculated for each experiment. Then, this pool was used as the referring amount in the calculation of the rates of accumulation, stripping and

  7. Possible interactions between recirculated landfill leachate and the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SOFMSW) is a product of the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). SOFMSW is considered a 'grey' compost and the presence of pollutants (particularly heavy metals) and residual glass and plastic normally prevents agricultural use, making landfills the typical final destination for SOFMSW. Recirculation of leachate in landfills can be a cost-effective management option, but the long-term sustainability of such a practice must be verified. Column tests were carried out to examine the effect of SOFMSW on leachate recirculation. The results indicate that organic matter may be biologically degraded and metals (copper and zinc) are effectively entrapped through a combination of physical (adsorption), biological (bacterial sulfate reduction), and chemical (precipitation of metal sulfides) processes, while other chemicals (i.e. ammonia nitrogen and chloride) are essentially unaffected by filtration through SOFMSW. PMID:22351654

  8. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  9. A closed loop for municipal organic solid waste by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Walde, Janette; Pümpel, Thomas; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Insam, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of producing lactic acid from municipal organic solid waste different pH values (4-7) and temperatures (37°C and 55°C) were tested. For the evaluation of fermentation conditions the chemical, physical, and microbial characters were monitored over a period of 7days. Quantitative real time PCR, PCR-DGGE, and next generation sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene library were applied to identify the key players of the lactic acid production and their association. Lactobacillus acidophilus and its closest relatives were found to be efficient lactic acid producers (>300mM) under most suitable fermentation conditions tested in this study: 37°C with either uncontrolled pH or at a pH of 5. These data provide the first step in the realization of the idea "reuse, reduce, and recycle" of municipal organic solid waste. PMID:25459815

  10. Characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and methane production: A review.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a viable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. Biogas production mainly depends on the type and amount of organic macromolecules. Based on results from different authors analysing OFMSW from different cities, this paper presents the importance of knowing the OFMSW composition to understand how anaerobic digestion can be used to produce methane. This analysis describes and discusses physical, chemical and bromatological characteristics of OFMSW reported by several authors from different countries and cities and their relationship to methane production. The main conclusion is that the differences are country and not city dependant. Cultural habits and OFMSW management systems do not allow a generalisation but the individual analysis for specific cities allow understanding the general characteristics for a better methane production. Not only are the OFMSW characteristics important but also the conditions under which the methane production tests were performed. PMID:27236403

  11. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. PMID:26856446

  12. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and elemental analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, S.M.; Chen, C.R.; Xu, Z.H.; Nelson, P.N.; Boyd, S.E.; Meszaros, I.; Chan, K.Y.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state {sup 13}C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes.

  13. Comparative lysimeters studies for landfill leachate characterization and settlement variation in partly sorted municipal solid waste and fully sorted organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S; Narulkar, S M

    2010-04-01

    About three-quarters of the countries and territories around the world use crude 'open dumping' method of disposal for municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the easiest and cheapest method of removing waste from the immediate environment but it creates serious environmental problems like groundwater contamination and air pollution. Land-filling is considered to be the most cost-effective method for solid waste disposal in developing countries if adequate sites are available. Bioreactor landfill is a promising biotechnological option for faster stabilization of municipal solid waste. The bioreactor landfill provides control and process optimization, primarily through the addition ofleachate or other liquid amendments. In the present study, Lysimeter experiments were carried out for the comparison of leachate characterization and settlement variation of "MSW except recyclable and domestic hazardous wastes" and "organic waste" to know the bioreactor feasibility in Indian context, because in India organic content of the solid waste is more due to consumption of unprocessed food items. Three Lysimeters under different operational conditions have been experimented for leachate characterization and settlement variation of the wastes. The results indicate the faster decay of pollutants in bioreactor in comparison to open dumps. The trend indicating the decay of pollutants elements in the produced leachate is encouraging. PMID:21114117

  14. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  15. Under-utilisation of organic wastes during brownfield regeneration to community woodland: tackling the barriers.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Francis E; Doick, Kieron J; Atkinson, Gail E; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams. PMID:24293070

  16. Disposition of Mixed Waste Organics at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.M.; Coriz, F.; Schreiber, S.B.; Balkey, S.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six organic solution items totaling 37 L had been stored in the Plutonium Facility vault at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, some for up to 18 years. They were residues from analytical analyses of radioactive solutions. All items had a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defined hazardous waste combined with special nuclear materials (SNM) and were stored as a mixed waste in a vault room pending disposition. Seventeen items had plutonium concentrations above established discard limits for organics. Due to their age, the containers were not suitable for long-term storage because a container failure would contaminate the vault area and personnel. Therefore, an aqueous-based flowsheet was developed to remove the plutonium so that the items could be discarded. The procedure was a wash with either sodium fluoride and/or potassium hydroxide solution followed by absorbing the discardable organic residues on vermiculite. When this approach did not work permission was obtained to discard the items as a transuranic (TRU) mixed waste without further treatment. The remaining nine solution items were consolidated into two items, repackaged, and stored for future disposition. The overall effort required approximately four months to disposition all the items. This report details the administrative and regulatory requirements that had to be addressed, the results of processing, and the current status of the items.

  17. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  18. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  19. Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; de los Ángeles Romero Aguilar, María; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

  20. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; Romero Aguilar, María de los Ángeles; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160–180–200 °C, 3.5–5.0–6.5 bar and 2–3–4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

  1. Reactive transport modelling of organic complexing agents in cement stabilized low and intermediate level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schenck, Henrik; Källström, Klas

    The Swedish final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR 1) is located at Forsmark in Sweden. It holds low and intermediate-level operational waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants, as well as industrial, research-related, and medical waste. A variety of low molecular weight organic compounds are present in the waste or in its matrix. Such compounds can also be formed by chemical degradation of organic macromolecules. These organics can ligate to metal atoms forming stable complexes and also adsorb to the surface of cement, thereby influencing the net release of radionuclides from the repository. This motivates the study of the concentration distribution of complexing agents in the repository as a function of time. The following paper reports the results of mass transport modelling, describing the transport of complexing agents through the cementitous matrix in the rock vault for intermediate-level waste in the SFR 1 repository. Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and isosaccharinate (ISA) have been investigated, where the former is considered to be non-sorbing and non-reacting, while the latter is produced from cellulose degradation and adsorbs strongly to cement. The 3D model considers advection, diffusion, and sorption of solvated species in cement pore water over a time period of 20,000 years. The model accounts for the spatial distribution of the flow field in the repository structure and also considers changing groundwater flow during the investigated time period. It is found that 99% of the NTA is removed after approximately 4000 years, while 90% of the ISA is retained in the rock vault after 20,000 years. The maximum pore water concentration of ISA is found to be 8.6 mol/m3 after approximately 2300 years, based on the degradation of the deposited amounts of cellulose. Over the investigated time scale, the ligands retained in the repository can redistribute across several waste compartments where the organic compounds were not originally deposited. In

  2. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Leong, Siew Yoong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Tan, Chew Khun

    2016-01-01

    Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52±0.02 and 0.23±0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04±0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production. PMID:25872864

  3. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A. Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is unnecessary. A test program was conducted to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative.

  4. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  5. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  6. Speciation of organic carbon in Hanford waste storage tanks: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is the first in a series to report on speciation of organic carbon in Hanford waste storage tanks. The comparison of the existing total organic carbon with oxalate and limited analyses of other organic species (acetate, formate, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons [NPH]) are reported. All of the data have been previously reported by the Grout and Characterization programs; the information includes all of the publicly available data through October 1996. Oxalate data were reported for 33 tanks, TOC data were reported for 82 tanks, and both oxalate and TOC data were available for 27 tanks. Of these 27 tanks, seven were found to have greater than 80% of the TOC identified as oxalate: 241-BY-104, 241-BY-105, 241-BY-106, 241-BY-110, 241-S-109, and 241-SX-108. Eighty percent accountability has been tentatively established as a minimum goal of the Organic Safety Program for speciation of TOC. Accountability of TOC through speciation will allow more accurate estimate of the potential energy content of the wastes as currently stored. Of the remaining 19 tanks, seven had between 40 and 80% of the TOC identified as oxalate, and eleven had less than 35% of the TOC identified. Of these, only five tanks had segment results that were greater than 1% TOC, and none was above 2%. Since the cur-rent safety criterion outlined in the Safety Analysis is 4.5% TOC, it may be determined that the further analyses of these tank wastes are not necessary. If additional analyses are deemed necessary, minimal work may be required, possibly limited to ion chromatography (IC), ion pair chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Additional speciation work is planned for this fiscal year in both the Organic Tanks Safety and Characterization programs. The Characterization program reports acetate and formate data in addition to the oxalate data for all the tank cores it processes.

  7. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. PMID:24331033

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION PROCESSES UNDER THE NEW EPA DRAFT RISK BURN GUIDANCE: MEASUREMENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's recently published draft Risk Burn Guidance recommends that hazardous waste combustion facilities complete a mass balance of the total organics (TOs) that may be emitted from the combustor. TOs, consisting of three distinct fractions (volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile...

  9. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  10. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T V

    2009-04-01

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks. PMID:19081239